Science.gov

Sample records for oil based lubricants

  1. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  2. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid 'tribofilms', which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant's anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm. PMID:27488799

  3. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid ‘tribofilms’, which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant’s anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon–carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  4. Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Sevim Z; Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu

    2008-10-01

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, or total loss applications. This threat to the environment can be avoided by either preventing undesirable losses, reclaiming and recycling mineral oil lubricants, or using environmentally friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment friendly lubricants. Lubricants based on vegetable oils display excellent tribological properties, high viscosity indices, and flash points. To compete with mineral-oil-based lubricants, some of their inherent disadvantages, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature stability, must be corrected. One way to address these problems is chemical modification of vegetable oils at the sites of unsaturation. After a one-step chemical modification, the chemically modified soybean oil derivatives were studied for thermo-oxidative stability using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and a thin-film micro-oxidation test, low-temperature fluid properties using pour-point measurements, and friction-wear properties using four-ball and ball-on-disk configurations. The lubricants formulated with chemically modified soybean oil derivatives exhibit superior low-temperature flow properties, improved thermo-oxidative stability, and better friction and wear properties. The chemically modified soybean oil derivatives having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation have potential in the formulation of industrial lubricants. PMID:18783238

  5. Environmentally friendly lubricating oil candidate.

    PubMed

    Ozgülsün, A; Karaosmanoğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic lubricating oils based on renewable sources, excluding petroleum, have a great importance among all of the lubricating oil alternatives that are included in the research field about clean and environmentally friendly lubricating oil technologies. One of the environmentally friendly lubricating oils is a vegetable oil-based product. In this study, the esterification product of oleic acid with a fraction of molasses fusel oil as a lubricating oil candidate was determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard tests. The results indicate that the ester product can be used as an environmental friendly lubricating oil or lubricating oil additive. PMID:10399269

  6. Soybean oil-based lubricants: a search for synergistic antioxidants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils can contribute towards the goal of energy independence and security due to their naturally renewable resource. They are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, superior viscosity-temperature characteristic...

  7. Lubricant base oil and wax processing. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes. It furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

  8. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  9. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  10. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-05-04

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  11. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  12. Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

    Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

  13. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  14. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  15. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  16. Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil-based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil (PSO)-based lubricants have been investigated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method. It was found that PSO samples have lower oxidative stability than their precursor, soybean oil. The main reason for the...

  17. High-temperature lubricants and oils. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the chemical composition and properties of high temperature lubricants, oils, and hydraulic fluids. The testing and uses of these lubricants are discussed. The performance of solid, liquid and dry lubricants are evaluated. Also discussed are self-lubricating materials used in bearings and coatings. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

  19. Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

  20. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  1. Tribological properties of few-layer graphene oxide sheets as oil-based lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a lubricant largely depends on the additives it involves. However, currently used additives cause severe pollution if they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) consists of only C, H and O and thus is considered to be environmentally friendly. So the tribological properties of the few-layer GO sheet as an additive in hydrocarbon base oil are investigated systematically. It is found that, with the addition of GO sheets, both the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear are decreased and the working temperature range of the lubricant is expanded in the positive direction. Moreover, GO sheets has better performance under higher sliding speed and the optimized concentration of GO sheets is determined to be 0.5wt%. After rubbing, GO is detected on the wear scars through Raman spectroscopy. And it is believed that, during the rubbing, GO sheets adhere to the sliding surfaces, behaving like protective films and preventing the sliding surfaces from contacting with each other directly. This paper proves that the GO sheet is an effective lubricant additive, illuminates the lubrication mechanism, and provides some critical parameters for the practical application of GO sheets in lubrication.

  2. Succinimide lubricating oil dispersant

    SciTech Connect

    Wisotsky, M.J.; Bloch, R.; Brownwell, D.W.; Chen, F.J.; Gutierrez, A.

    1987-08-11

    A lubricating oil composition is described exhibiting improved dispersancy in both gasoline and diesel engines comprising a major amount of lubricating oil and 0.5 to 10 weight percent of a dispersant, the dispersant being prepared in a sequential process comprising the steps of: (a) in a first step reacting an oil-soluble polyolefin succinic anhydride, the olefin being a C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ olefin and an alkylene polyamine of the formula H/sub 2/N(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/(NH(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/)/sub m/sup -// NH/sub 2/ wherein n is 2 or 3 and m is 0 to 10, in a molar ratio of about 1.0 to 2.2 moles of polyolefin succinic anhydride per mole of polyamine, and (b) reacting the product of step (a) with dicarboxylic acid anhydride selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride in sufficient molar proportions to provide a total mole ratio of about 2,3 to 3.0 moles of anhydride compounds per mole of polyamine.

  3. Impact of an oil-based lubricant on the effectiveness of the sterilization processes .

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2008-01-01

    Surgical instruments, including hinged instruments, were inoculated with test microorganisms (ie, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, approximately 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units [cfu]; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, approximately 3 x 10(6) cfu; Escherichia coli, approximately 2 x 10(5) cfu; vancomycin-resistant enterococci, 1 x 10(5) cfu; Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, 2 x 10(5) cfu or more; or Bacillus atrophaeus spores, 9 x 10(4) cfu or more), coated with an oil-based lubricant (hydraulic fluid), subjected to a sterilization process, and then samples from the instruments were cultured. We found that the oil-based lubricant did not alter the effectiveness of the sterilization process because high numbers of clinically relevant bacteria and standard test spores (which are relatively resistant to the sterilization process) were inactivated. PMID:18171191

  4. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  5. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  6. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  7. Lubricant Properties of Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent a small section of the market today, but recent legislation in both the United States and Europe could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character unlike petroleum oil based products. In order to understand th...

  8. New Method to Produce an Industrial Lubrication Fluid from Vegetable Oil-based Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The projected demand for industrial and automotive lubricants in the U.S. is ~2.6 billion gallons by 2017, where bio-based lubricants will play an increasing role, from a share of 0.6% today to a possible 1.2% by 2017. This is accompanied by the expected price increase to >$7.00/gallon which will g...

  9. Solvent dewaxing of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-04-09

    This paper describes improvement in a process for producing a dewaxed lubricating oil from a wax-bearing mineral oil by the steps comprising; mixing the oil with a dewaxing solvent thereby forming an oil-solvent mixture, chilling the oil-solvent mixture to a dewaxing temperature thereby crystallizing the wax and forming an oil-solvent crystalline wax mixture, separating the oil-solvent-crystalline wax mixture to form a dewaxed oil-solvent mixture and crystalline wax, steam stripping the dewaxed oil-solvent mixture at a temperature of 300{degrees}F to 600{degrees}F and pressure of 1 atm to 3 atm, to yield a solvent free dewaxed oil.

  10. Acute, subchronic, and developmental toxicological properties of lubricating oil base stocks.

    PubMed

    Dalbey, Walden E; McKee, Richard H; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky; Biles, Robert W; Murray, Jay; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Lubricating oil base stocks (LOBs) are substances used in the manufacture of finished lubricants and greases. They are produced from residue remaining after atmospheric distillation of crude oil that is subsequently fractionated by vacuum distillation and additional refining steps. Initial LOB streams that have been produced by vacuum distillation but not further refined may contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and may present carcinogenic hazards. In modern refineries, LOBs are further refined by multistep processes including solvent extraction and/or hydrogen treatment to reduce the levels of PACs and other undesirable constituents. Thus, mildly (insufficiently) refined LOBs are potentially more hazardous than more severely (sufficiently) refined LOBs. This article discusses the evaluation of LOBs using statistical models based on content of PACs; these models indicate that insufficiently refined LOBs (potentially carcinogenic LOBs) can also produce systemic and developmental effects with repeated dermal exposure. Experimental data were also obtained in ten 13-week dermal studies in rats, eight 4-week dermal studies in rabbits, and seven dermal developmental toxicity studies with sufficiently refined LOBs (noncarcinogenic and commonly marketed) in which no observed adverse effect levels for systemic toxicity and developmental toxicity were 1000 to 2000 mg/kg/d with dermal exposures, typically the highest dose tested. Results in both oral and inhalation developmental toxicity studies were similar. This absence of toxicologically relevant findings was consistent with lower PAC content of sufficiently refined LOBs. Based on data on reproductive organs with repeated dosing and parameters in developmental toxicity studies, sufficiently refined LOBs are likely to have little, if any, effect on reproductive parameters. PMID:24567344

  11. Evaluation of PS 212 Coatings Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions with an Ester-based Oil to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Loomis, William R.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    High friction and wear of turbine engine components occur during high temperature excursions above the oxidation threshold of the liquid lubricant. This paper reports on research to study the use of a high temperature self lubricating coating, PS 212 for back-up lubrication in the event of failure of the liquid lubricant. Pin on disk tests were performed under dry and boundary-lubricated conditions at disk temperatures up to 300 C. The liquid lubricant was a formulated polyol ester qualified under MIL L-23699. At test temperatures above the oil's thermal degradation level, the use of PS 212 reduced wear, providing a back-up lubricant effect.

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  17. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308....308 Lubricating oil and test fuel. (a) Lubricating oil. (1) Use the engine lubricating oil which meets... specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (2) For two-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture...

  18. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308....308 Lubricating oil and test fuel. (a) Lubricating oil. (1) Use the engine lubricating oil which meets... specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (2) For two-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture...

  19. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  20. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines. PMID:14555432

  1. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  2. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  3. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  4. Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

  5. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, John P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  6. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  7. Screening of natural oil basestocks for lubricant applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural oils offer significant advantages, such as resource renewability, biodegradability, and performance properties, compared to petroleum-based products. Their amphiphilic character makes them excellent lubricant candidates. The wide use of vegetable oils is restricted due to low thermo-oxidativ...

  8. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  12. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 90.308... Equipment Provisions § 90.308 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the...

  13. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 90.308... Equipment Provisions § 90.308 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the...

  14. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  15. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  16. Tribological characteristic enhancement effects by polymer thickened oil in lubricated sliding contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Jamari, Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer thickened oils are the most preferred materials for modern lubrication applications due to their high shear. The present paper explores a lubrication mechanism in sliding contact lubricated with polymer thickened oil considering cavitation. Investigations are carried out by using a numerical method based on commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamic) software ANSYS for fluid flow phenomenon (Fluent) to assess the tribological characteristic (i.e. hydrodynamic pressure distribution) of lubricated sliding contact. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model for cavitation is adopted in this simulation to predict the extent of the full film region. The polymer thickened oil is characterized as non-Newtonian power-law fluid. The simulation results show that the cavitation lead lower pressure profile compared to that without cavitation. In addition, it is concluded that the characteristic of the lubrication performance with polymer thickened oil is strongly dependent on the Power-law index of lubricant.

  17. Vegetable oil based grease formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns have brought forward vegetable oils as alternatives to more expensive synthetic lubricant base oils and less environmental friendly petroleum base stocks, in moderate operating conditions. Vegetable oils are becoming an obvious choice for potential replacement of petroleum ba...

  18. Batch Production of Trimetylolpropane Ester from Palm Oil as Lubricant Base Stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubaidah Sulaiman, Siti; Luqman Chuah, A.; Fakhru`L-Razi, A.

    A batch process for the ransesterification of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) to TMP ester was investigated in a mini pilot reactor. The process was equipped with a high vacuum pump. The experimental studies explored effects of vacuum pressure, temperature, molar ratio, catalyst amount and agitator speed on the overall conversion. Five liters of TMP esters containing 83 to 87 w/w % triesterss (TE) were successfully synthesized after 2 h of reaction time Application of vacuum pump enhanced conversion of TE (w/w %) for the process. High catalyst amount resulted in higher conversion of TE (w/w %) but increased in solid content of the product. This has reduced the product yield due to inefficient separation by gravity settling.

  19. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR USE AS INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a lot of interest in using vegetable oils (particularly soybean oil) as renewable raw materials for new industrial products including lubricants. This emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing co...

  20. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308 Section 91.308 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.308 Lubricating oil and test fuel....

  1. Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

  2. Choline for neutralizing naphthenic acid in fuel and lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, D.G.; Roof, G.L.

    1986-07-15

    A method is described of neutralizing at least a portion of the naphthenic acids present in fuel and lubricating oils which contain naphthenic acids which comprises treating these oils with a neutralizing amount of choline.

  3. Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.

    1978-01-01

    The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

  4. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  5. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  6. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  7. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  8. Thermoreversible gel lubricants through universal supramolecular assembly of a nonionic surfactant in a variety of base lubricating liquids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiangliang; Fan, Mingjin; Li, Dongmei; Song, Zenghong; Cai, Meirong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-09-24

    The present paper investigates a new type of thermoreversible gel lubricant obtained by supramolecular assembly of low-molecular-weight organic gelator (LMWG) in different base oils. The LMWG is a nonionic surfactant with polar headgroup and hydrophobic tail that can self-assemble through collective noncovalent intermolecular interactions (H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction) to form fibrous structures and trap base oils (mineral oils, synthetic oils, and water) in the as-formed cavities. The gel lubricants are fully thermoreversible upon heating-up and cooling down and exhibit thixotropic characteristics. This makes them semisolid lubricants, but they behave like oils. The tribological test results disclosed that the LMWG could also effectively reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs compared with base oils without gelator. It is expected that when being used in oil-lubricated components, such as gear, rolling bearing, and so on, gel lubricant may effectively avoid base oil leak and evaporation loss and so is a benefit to operation and lubrication failure for a long time. PMID:25111146

  9. Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  11. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  12. Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of the engines and compressors. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  13. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  14. Catalytic process for manufacture of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Gorring, R.L.; La, P.R.

    1981-09-29

    A method is disclosed for converting an asphalt-free heavy hydrocarbon oil to high V.I. low pour point lube base stock and naphtha. The heavy oil is first catalytically dewaxed with a catalyst such as ni-zsm-5 and the dewaxed oil is then hydrocracked, or hydroconverted with a large pore zeolite catalyst such as dealuminized Y or zsm-20 associated with palladium. The V.I. is controlled by the severity of the hydroconversion step.

  15. Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

  16. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  17. Surfactant effects on bio-based emulsions used as lubrication fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful formulation of a lubricating emulsion requires carefully balancing the mixture of base oil, water and a plethora of additives. The factors that affect the performance of lubrication emulsions range from the macroscopic stability to the microscopic surface properties of the base oil. ...

  18. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

  19. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time. PMID:21361948

  20. Rise of Air Bubbles in Aircraft Lubricating Oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.

    1950-01-01

    Lubricating and antifoaming additives in aircraft lubricating oils may impede the escape of small bubbles from the oil by forming shells of liquid with a quasi-solid or gel structure around the bubbles. The rates of rise of small air bubbles, up to 2 millimeters in diameter, were measured at room temperature in an undoped oil, in the same oil containing foam inhibitors, and in an oil containing lubricating additives. The apparent diameter of the air bubbles was measured visually through an ocular micrometer on a traveling telescope. The bubbles in the undoped oil obeyed Stokes' Law, the rate of rise being proportional to the square of the apparent diameter and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the oil. The bubbles in the oils containing lubricating additives or foam inhibitors rose more slowly than the rate predicted by Stokes 1 Law from the apparent diameter, and the rate of rise decreased as the length of path the bubbles traveled increased. A method is derived to calculate the thickness of the liquid shell which would have to move with the bubbles in the doped oils to account for the abnoi'I!l8.lly slow velocity. The maximum thickness of this shell, calculated from the velocities observed, was equal to the bubble radius.

  1. Lubricating oil analysis for wear monitoring. January 1984-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 84-Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis of lubricating oils to determine and monitor the wear of mechanical equipment. The purpose of the analysis is to predict failure before it occurs in order to undertake corrective maintenance. Considerable attention is given to specific programs implemented by the military services. Various detectors and analytical methods are included, as well as their utilization in oil analyses. (Contains 164 citations with title list and subject index.)

  2. Current Uses of Vegetable Oil in the Surfactant, Fuel, and Lubrication Industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New developments in the surfactant, bio-diesel, and lubricant industries are discussed in a review with 46 references on the recent use of vegetable oil for non-food applications. Highlighted in the surfactant section, is the development of a glycerol and vegetable oil based surfactant which disp...

  3. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  4. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  5. Interactions between sealing materials and lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Winkenbach, R.; Von Arndt, E.M.; Mindermann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasingly higher application demands, engine and transmission manufactures are today using lubrication oils with more and more additives. The result is that seal materials are being damaged when exposed to such conditions and such additives. This paper shows the effects of basic oils with, and without, additives on elastomeric materials such as NBR, ACM, MVQ and FPM.

  6. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  7. Base Oils from Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  8. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  9. Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

  10. Development of an instrumentation system for measurement of degradation of lubricating oil using optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, S.; Bordoloi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an instrumentation system to measure the degradation in lubricating oil using a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) sensor probe and a temperature probe. The sensor system consists of (i) a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) as optical sensor along with a laser source and a LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) as detector (ii) a temperature sensor (iii) a ATmega microcontroller based data acquisition system and (iv) a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The BTBMOF sensor and the temperature sensor are used to provide the measure of refractive index (RI) and the temperature of a lubricating oil sample. A microcontroller based instrumentation system with trained ANN algorithm has been developed to determine the degradation of the lubricating oil sample by sampling the readings of the optical fiber sensor, and the temperature sensor.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  13. [Monitoring Water in Lubricating Oil with Min-Infrared LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang-wu; Tian, Hong-xiang; Ming, Ting-feng; Yang, Kun

    2015-06-01

    A method that could be used to quantify the water concentration in ship machinery lubricating oil based on Mid-infrared LED is discussed. A Mid-infrared LED with peak emission wavelength of 2 840 nm and FWHM of 400 nm is used as the light source, the emitting light is partly absorbed by the oil sample, the remaining is received by the infrared detector. The percentage of water is determined according to the absorbance. In the experiment, a optical configuration including the transmission, absorbing and receiving of infrared light is designed, calcium fluoride wafer is used as the window, a hard metal coil with circular section is selected as the washer to get the fixed thickness of oil film accurately, a photoelectric diode with detection wavelength of 2 500-4 800 nm and response time of 10-20 ns is used as the detector of light intensity. Matching with this, a system of signal preamplifier, microcontroller-based data acquisition, storage and communication is developed. Absorbance data of six oil samples with different water mass concentration: 0, 0.062 5%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375% and 0.5% is acquired through experiment. Fitting the data by the method of least squares, a linear equation in terms of absorbance and water concentration is obtained, and the determination coefficient is 0.996. Finally, in order to test the accuracy of this measurement method, using oil sample with water concentration of 0.317 5% to validate the equation, measuring the absorbance by the experimental device, the water content is calculated through the linear equation, the results show that the relative error is 2.7% between the percentage calculated and the real sample, indicating that this method can accurately measure the water concentration in the oil. PMID:26601352

  14. Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.; Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J.

    1992-02-01

    The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

  15. Physical properties study on partially bio-based lubricant blends: Thermally modified soybean oil with popular commercial esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An initial evaluation of several oils, including: soybean oil (SBO), high oleic SBO, and thermally modified SBO, compared their acid values and viscosities over 28 days stored at 85 deg C. As expected, the acid values and viscosities increased and the high oleic oil demonstrated a smaller effect. ...

  16. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jincan; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; van der Heide, Emile

    2014-10-01

    Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphosphoramidate (DBOP), 6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-ol calcium salt (ODOC) and 2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane (DOB) to generate boundary films on stainless steel AISI 316 and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Experimental results show lower friction values for the emulsions in combination with CoCrMo compared to AISI 316. The different performance of the additives is related to the composition of the adsorption and reaction film on the interacting surfaces, which was shown to be dependent on the active elements and molecular structure of the additives. The friction profile of the emulsions indicates that the emulsion appears to be broken during the rubbing process, then the additives adsorb onto the metal surface to form protecting boundary layers. The XPS analysis shows that for boundary lubrication conditions, the additive molecules in the emulsion first adsorb on the metal surface after the droplet is broken, and then decompose and react with the metal surface during the rubbing process to form stable lubricating films on the rubbed surfaces.

  17. 39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  19. Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

    2012-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality. PMID:22248297

  20. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  1. Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

  2. Effect of metallic-coating properties on the tribology of coated and oil-lubricated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-09-01

    Friction and wear behavior was determined for zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (Ag, Au, and Nb) deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Although the use of soft Ag and Au coatings as solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic oil significantly reduced the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250[degrees]C, these films had poor durability. In contrast, the Nb coating was more durable (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) than were the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated zirconia was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  3. Palm oil derived trimethylolpropane triesters synthetic lubricants and usage in industrial metalworking fluid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Teck-Sin; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Choong, Thomas S Y; Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah; Syam, Azhari M

    2015-01-01

    Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance. PMID:25748374

  4. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  5. Lubricants and functional fluids from lesquerella oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family that is native to the desert of the southwestern United States. The interest in this crop is due to the high level of hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in the oil. The seed contains 33% oil, 23% protein, and 15% gums. The...

  6. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction. PMID:27265613

  7. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  8. The integrated petroleum, oil lubricants data system for the military

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, E.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes a proposed system of a comprehensive database that identifies the correct petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) required to operate, maintain, and sustain all army equipment. The POL products identified by the system for each item ofequipment will represent the optimum POL basic load components. Equivalent alternative products wil be identified to account for possible shortages of the recommended materials, and compatibility data for host nation support agreements will also be available.

  9. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  10. Lubricating oil containing dispersant VII and pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Liu, C.S.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a functionalized polymer capable of use as an additive in lubricating oils. The process comprises first units, derived from first monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated carbon-to-carbon double bond; and second units, derived from a different second monomer, a dicarboxylic acid anhydride containing an ethylenically unsaturated carbon-to-carbon double bond; and the polymer bearing, bonded to the dicarboxylic-acid-derived moiety, functionalizing groups derived from: a primary or secondary functionalizing amine R/sup 7//sub 2/(NR/sup 9/)/sub ..cap alpha../NR/sup 8//sub 2/ where R/sup 7/ is alkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl hydrocarbon, R/sup 8/ is hydrogen or selected from the same group as in R/sup 7/, R/sup 9/ is alkylene, aralkylene, cycloalkylene, alkarylene, or arylene, and a is 0.20. The amine is bonded to the polymer through a nitrogen atom of the amine group; and, a functionalizing Mannich base is formed by reacting a phenol containing an active hydrogen atom, an aldehyde and a primary or secondary polyamine. The Mannich base is bonded to the polymer through a nitrogen atom of the amine group.

  11. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  12. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  13. Nanotechnology in action: overbased nanodetergents as lubricant oil additives.

    PubMed

    Hudson, L K; Eastoe, J; Dowding, P J

    2006-11-16

    The synthesis and study of oil-soluble metal carbonate colloids are of interest in the area of lubricant additives. These surfactant-stabilised nanoparticles are important components in marine and automotive engine oils. Recently introduced, environmentally driven legislation has focused on lowering of gaseous emissions by placing limits on the levels of phosphorous sulphur and ash allowed in engine oil systems. These chemical limits, coupled with improved engine performance and extended oil drainage intervals, have lead to renewed interest in the production of stable, efficient nanodetergent systems. To date, this has resulted in modification of existing surfactant structures and development of new generations of surfactants. This review covers the current state of research in the area of nanodetergents. PMID:16860284

  14. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke mopeds operated with synthetic lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke (2-S) mopeds operated with ester-based, fully synthetic lubricating oil. Exhaust particulate matter (PM) from ten 2-S, 50 cm3 mopeds belonging to three different levels of emission legislation (EURO-0, EURO-1 and EURO-2) was collected during the sampling phase of the ECE 47 driving cycle through which each mopeds was driven on a dynamometer bench. Filters containing PM were extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor and analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. The contribution of unburned lubricating oil to the PM was ascertained and quantified by exploiting characteristic ions in its mass spectrum. The experimental results show that unburned lubricating oil accounted for a significant fraction (4.7-38.7%) of the PM emitted from 2-S mopeds. Emission rates of particulate unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes from non-catalyst EURO-0 mopeds were 15.4-56.2 mg km(-1) and 1-2 mg km(-1), respectively. These emission rates were reduced of 75% and 88%, respectively, for catalyst-equipped EURO-1 mopeds. The results of the tests carried out on two EURO-2 mopeds of different technology were contrasting. A EURO-2 moped with carburettor and secondary air injection exhibited a clear reduction of 95% and 88% for unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes emission rates with respect to the average values observed for EURO-1 mopeds. On the other hand, the second EURO-2 moped, equipped with catalyst and direct injection, had unburned lubricating oil emission rates roughly in the range of EURO-0 mopeds while particulate n-alkanes were emitted at rates comparable with typical values observed for catalyst EURO-1 mopeds. PMID:19244644

  15. Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.

    PubMed

    Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

    2014-08-13

    After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. PMID:25046076

  16. High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

  17. Lubricating oil dominates primary organic aerosol emissions from motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Gentner, Drew R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Chan, Arthur W H; Ruehl, Christopher; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Wilson, Kevin R; Harley, Robert A; Goldstein, Allen H

    2014-04-01

    Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic aerosol (POA), which is a mixture of a large number of organic compounds that have not been comprehensively characterized. In this work, we apply a recently developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry approach utilizing "soft" vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to achieve unprecedented chemical characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA was characterized by number of carbon atoms (NC), number of double bond equivalents (NDBE) and degree of molecular branching. Vehicular POA was observed to predominantly contain cycloalkanes with one or more rings and one or more branched alkyl side chains (≥80%) with low abundances of n-alkanes and aromatics (<5%), similar to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring structures are most likely dominated by cyclohexane and cyclopentane rings and not larger cycloalkanes. High molecular weight combustion byproducts, that is, alkenes, oxygenates, and aromatics, were not present in significant amounts. The observed carbon number and chemical composition of motor vehicle POA was consistent with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional smaller contribution from unburned diesel fuel and a negligible contribution from unburned gasoline. PMID:24621254

  18. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  19. A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2002-01-01

    Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

  20. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  1. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  2. Lubricating oil compositions containing poly(oxyalkylene) aminoether carbamates as dispersing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Plavac, F.

    1988-03-01

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition comprising a major portion of oil of lubrication viscosity, and a minor amount of poly(oxyalkylene) aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl carbamate having a molecular weight of about 500 to 10,000; wherein the poly(oxyalkylene) moiety of the carbamate is comprised of oxyalkylene units selected from C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ oxyalkylene units which a sufficient number are branched-chain oxyalkylene units to render the carbamates soluble in lubricating oil; and the aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl moiety of the carbamate being derived from a diaminoether having from 2 to 60 carbon atoms.

  3. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. PMID:23618159

  4. Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency system and as a primary lubrication system. [for helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication system was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through system with auxiliary air cooling is an effective primary lubrication system at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Amine Functionalized Vegetable Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of the lubricants and additives currently used are petroleum based that are toxic to the environment, making it increasingly difficult for safe and easy disposal. There has been an increasing demand for green lubricants and lubricant additives in recent years due to concerns about thei...

  6. Research on the Injection Performance of a Novel Lubricating Device Based on Piezoelectric Micro-Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun-kao; Chen, Wei-shan; Ye, Le; Zhang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve the problem of lubrication failure in bearing systems, a novel lubricating device which can achieve drop-on-demand lubrication is proposed based on piezoelectric micro-jet technology. The injection performance of the novel piezoelectric micro-jet lubricating device are analyzed in this paper. The influences of the fluid-structure interaction to the working frequency are studied by comparing the results of tests with simulations. A method used to forecast the working frequency of the micro-jet is proved to be available. A velocity inlet boundary model at the nozzle is derived under the assumption that the lubricating oil cannot be pressed. Combined with this model, the influences of density, dynamic viscosity and surface tension of the lubricating oil on the injection performance are discussed according to the simulation results. An experiment on the injection performance of the micro-jet for ejecting lubricating oil with different dilution ratios is performed. The recommended excitations are given for ejecting lubricating oil with different properties by analyzing the results.

  7. Research on the Injection Performance of a Novel Lubricating Device Based on Piezoelectric Micro-Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun-kao; Chen, Wei-shan; Ye, Le; Zhang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of lubrication failure in bearing systems, a novel lubricating device which can achieve drop-on-demand lubrication is proposed based on piezoelectric micro-jet technology. The injection performance of the novel piezoelectric micro-jet lubricating device are analyzed in this paper. The influences of the fluid-structure interaction to the working frequency are studied by comparing the results of tests with simulations. A method used to forecast the working frequency of the micro-jet is proved to be available. A velocity inlet boundary model at the nozzle is derived under the assumption that the lubricating oil cannot be pressed. Combined with this model, the influences of density, dynamic viscosity and surface tension of the lubricating oil on the injection performance are discussed according to the simulation results. An experiment on the injection performance of the micro-jet for ejecting lubricating oil with different dilution ratios is performed. The recommended excitations are given for ejecting lubricating oil with different properties by analyzing the results.

  8. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  9. WASTE LUBRICATING OIL DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND: POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE TO COASTAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that approximately 35 percent changed their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular method of disposal reported by the respondents was putting the oil in the garbage ...

  10. Observations of Spacecraft Bearing Lubricant Redistribution Based on Thermal Conductance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, Yoshimi R.; Frantz, Peter P.; Hilton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The performance and life of precision ball bearings are critically dependent on maintaining a quantity of oil at the ball/race interface that is sufficient to support a robust protective film. In space applications, where parched conditions are intentionally the norm, harsh operating conditions can displace the small reserves of oil, resulting in reduced film thickness and premature wear. In the past, these effects have proven difficult to model or to measure experimentally. This paper describes a study addressing this challenge, where bearing thermal conductance measurements are employed to infer changes in lubricant quantity at the critical rolling interfaces. In the first part of the paper, we explain how the lubricant's presence and its quantity impacts bearing thermal conductance measurements. For a stationary bearing, we show that conductance is directly related to the lubricant quantity in the ball/race contacts. Hence, aspects of bearing performance related to oil quantity can be understood and insights improved with thermal conductance data. For a moving bearing, a different mechanism of heat transfer dominates and is dependent on lubricant film thickness on the ball. In the second part of the report, we discuss lubricant quantity observations based on bearing thermal conductance measurements. Lubricant quantity, and thus bearing thermal conductance, depends on various initial and operating conditions and is impacted further by the run-in process. A significant effect of maximum run-in speed was also observed, with less oil remaining after obtaining higher speeds. Finally, we show that some of the lubricant that is displaced between the ball and race during run-in operation can be recovered during rest, and we measure the rate of recovery for one example.

  11. Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

  12. STRUCTURE INDUCED THERMO-OXIDATIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIO-BASED SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental awareness has led to new generation of lubricants and fluids based on renewable resources that are nontoxic and eco-friendly. These fluids are potential replacements for mineral oil in various agricultural, marine, forestry and industrial equipment and therefore prevent polluting the ...

  13. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-03-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50. PMID:26730677

  14. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

  15. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  16. Effect of temperature on lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is an important parameter affecting the performance of lubricant ingredients. It affects such important tribological characteristics as viscosity, film thickness, adsorption, desorption, friction, and wear. Temperature also promotes oxidation, polymerization, and degradation which nega...

  17. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  18. Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  19. Pipe flow of pumping wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianjun; Liu, Guoming; Cheng, Weimin; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wet shotcrete can reduce dust and improve supporting strength, however, safe and efficient pipage is a key technical part of wet shotcrete process. The paper studied the pipe flow law of wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer by build the experimental pumping circuit of wet shotcrete that can carry out a number of full-scale pumping tests. The experimental results show there was a linear relationship between pressure loss and flow rate. Combined with the Buckingham rheological equation, the computing equations of the yield shear stress and plastic viscosity were deduced through linear regression. A simple analytical method allowing for a rough estimation of the pumping pressure was proposed and used when considering the lubrication layer of wet shotcrete in pipes. In addition, two kinds of particulate distributive models were established along the time axial to analyze the formation of lubrication layer which is related with particles migration. By computational fluid dynamics simulation, the lubrication layer thickness of different mix proportions was estimated. A new method for measuring the thickness of lubrication layer was proposed to verify it by binarization processing. Finally, according to the comparative analysis of experiments, simulation and computed value, it can be seen that the lubrication layer plays a key role in the process of wet shotcrete flow and with the increase of lubrication layer thickness pipe pressure declines gradually. PMID:27386389

  20. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  1. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  2. Lubrication handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    Information on lubricants from government reports, military specifications, qualified parts lists, and suppliers of commercial lubricants has been consolidated in one source. Handbook includes data on chemical and physical properties of solid, bonded solid, and liquid lubricants; dispersions and composites; and greases, oils, and hydraulic fluids.

  3. The search for higher lubricant stability properties in modified vegetable oil derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this decade, great interest has been stirred up toward the use of renewable resources as industrial fuels, such as bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. Bio-lubricants are also playing a more prominent role and becoming competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. The main draw here is that we can, from y...

  4. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  5. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Sandro; Mohr, Martin; Grob, Koni; Neukom, Hans Peter

    In this study we determined particle-bound paraffins in the exhaust of six light-duty diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus, and the paraffin analysis was performed using two-dimensional normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The different molecular mass of lubricant and diesel paraffins facilitated the distinction between diesel and lubricant contribution to the emission. Although all vehicles were certified according to the same emission class, there were considerable variations between vehicles. The study showed that under cold-start conditions the organic mass fraction ranged from 10% to 30% with respect to particle mass and the paraffins from 30% to 60% with respect to the organic mass. With cold engine, falling ambient temperature increased the emission of unburned diesel fuel, whereas that from unburned lubricating oil was less affected. Under warm-start conditions, the ambient temperature had less impact on the emission of paraffins. The emissions were also affected by the operating conditions of the engine: driving cycles with higher mean load tend towards higher emissions of lubricant. The operating conditions also affected the distribution of paraffins: the emission of light paraffins seemed to be lower with higher load in the driving cycle. With an urban and a highway cycle, roughly 40% and 80% w/w, respectively, of unburned paraffins were contributed by the lubricant. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lubricating oil showed lubricant to be a sink for PAHs. As lubricant significantly contributes to the organic emission, as shown in this study, it can be assumed that it is also a significant source of PAH emissions.

  6. Graphite in lubrication. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning graphite and graphite fluoride as solid lubricants for applications requiring dry lubricants or in conjunction with oils or greases to improve lubrication. Fiber graphite is discussed in the manufacture of composite materials with self-lubricating properties. Graphite as a filler in various bearing materials is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 113 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125μm multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a λ= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  10. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  11. Liquid cryogenic lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1970-01-01

    Fluorinated polyethers are suitable lubricants for rolling-element bearings in cryogenic systems. Lubrication effectiveness is comparable to that of super-refined mineral oil lubricants operating at room temperature.

  12. Aviation Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

    Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

  13. Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

  14. NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  16. Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

  17. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  18. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshui, Chen; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO3, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO3 were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO3 as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO3 were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO3 nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO3 in rapeseed oil were attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species of B2O3, CeO2 and Fe2O3, and the adsorbates of SA/CeBO3 and rapeseed oil, on the tribo-surfaces.

  19. The detection of lubricating oil viscosity changes in gearbox transmission systems driven by sensorless variable speed drives using electrical supply parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusaad, S.; Brethee, K.; Assaeh, M.; Zhang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    Lubrication oil plays a decisive role to maintain a reliable and efficient operation of gear transmissions. Many offline methods have been developed to monitor the quality of lubricating oils. This work focus on developing a novel online method to diagnose oil degradation based on the measurements from power supply system to the gearbox. Experimental studies based on an 10kW industrial gearbox fed by a sensorless variable speed drive (VSD) shows that measurable changes in both static power and dynamic behaviour are different with lube oils tested. Therefore, it is feasible to use the static power feature to indicate viscosity changes at low and moderate operating speeds. In the meantime, the dynamic feature can separate viscosity changes for all different tested cases.

  20. On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lijuan; Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Gilon, Nicole; Zeng, Heping; Yu, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined.

  1. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  2. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. PMID:24875837

  3. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  4. Waste lubricating oil removal in a batch reactor by mixed bacterial consortium: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Munna; Guchhait, Sugata; Biswas, Dipa; Datta, Sriparna

    2015-11-01

    The growth kinetics and biodegradation of two waste lubricating oil samples including waste engine oil (WEO) and waste transformer oil (WTO) were studied using pure isolates and mixed culture of Ochrobactrum sp. C1 and Bacillus sp. K1. The mixed culture significantly influenced degradation efficiency of the pure isolates through bioaugmentation process. In particular, the mixed culture was capable of growing on various n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and was able to tolerate unusually high concentrations of waste lubricants (WEO-86.0 g/L and WTO-81.5 g/L). The initial concentration of waste lubricating oils has been varied in the range of 1-10 % (v/v). Under this experimental range, the bacterial growth has been observed to follow Haldane-type kinetics characterizing the presence of substrate inhibition. Haldane model was used to fit the exponential growth data and the following kinetic parameters were obtained: μ max = 0.078 h(-1), K S = 23.101 g/L, K i = 43.844 g/L for WEO; and μ max = 0.044 h(-1), K S = 10.662 g/L, K i = 58.310 g/L for WTO. The values of intrinsic kinetic parameters, like specific growth rate μ max, half saturation constant, K S, inhibition constant, K i and the maximum substrate concentration, S max and growth yield coefficient Y x/s , have been determined using each model hydrocarbon and their mixture as limiting substrate. Relative changes in the values of the kinetic parameters have been correlated to the number of carbon atoms present in n-alkanes. The metabolites from degradation of model hydrocarbon compounds have been identified by GC-MS to elucidate the possible pathway of waste lubricating oil degradation process. PMID:26271337

  5. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  6. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  7. Amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid and lubricating oil composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Nebzydoski, J.W.; Patmore, E.L.

    1981-08-11

    An amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid represented by the formula: 3-(HOOC-R''''-CO-NH-)-1,2,4-triazole. R'''-NH-R''' in which R'''' is an alkylene radical having from 2 to 24 carbon atoms and R''' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms at least one R''' being a hydrocarbyl radical and a lubricating oil composition containing same is provided.

  8. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  9. Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

  10. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  11. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  12. The dynamics and stability of lubricating oil films during droplet transport by electrowetting in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Kleinert, Jairus; Srinivasan, Vijay; Rival, Arnaud; Delattre, Cyril; Velev, Orlin D.; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2015-01-01

    The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break. PMID:26045729

  13. The dynamics and stability of lubricating oil films during droplet transport by electrowetting in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Jairus; Srinivasan, Vijay; Rival, Arnaud; Delattre, Cyril; Velev, Orlin D; Pamula, Vamsee K

    2015-05-01

    The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break. PMID:26045729

  14. Recycling of the used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Duarte, C.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Sato, I. M.

    2007-11-01

    The recycling process of the used mineral oils has been gaining a very important gap in the context of environmental protection. Among mineral oils from petroleum, the lubricating oils are not entirely consumed during their use; therefore, it is necessary to apply a treatment for recuperation seeking their reuse. Moreover, the environmental legislation of countries does not allow their discard in any type of soils, rivers, lakes, oceans or sewerage systems. The conventional treatment has shown certain difficulties in the recuperation process for used oils. The ionizing radiation process is renowned in the industrial effluents treatments due to its high efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds and in the removal of metals by the action of OH rad , rad H and e aq radicals. In this work, used automotive lubricating oil was treated by the ionizing radiation process for metal removal and degradation of organic compounds. The samples were irradiated with 100 and 200 kGy irradiation doses. Determination of the elements Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Nb, Cd, Sn, Ba, Bi and Pb, before and after the irradiation, was done by X-ray fluorescence technique and the organic profile was obtained by infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Biobased lubricants and functional products from Cuphea oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (Lythraceae) is an annual plant that produces a small seed rich in saturated medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAGs). With the need for higher seed yields, oil content, and less seed shattering, Oregon State University began developing promising cuphea crosses. Cuphea PSR23 is a hybrid between C...

  16. Low temperature rheological studies of hydrocarbon base lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Venerus, D.C.; Klaus, E.E.; Duda, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study is designed to evaluate the rheological properties of samples of waxy mineral oil, a wax-free hydrocarbon solvent, wax-free polymer-thickened oils and fully formulated lubricants containing wax and polymer in hydrocarbon solvents. A mechanical spectrometer (cone and plate rotational viscometer) and the mini rotary viscometer were used in these studies. The cooling rate and cold soak times were computer programmed using a mechanical system. A compromise system using a cooling rate of 0.56/sup 0/C/min and a cold soak time of one hour was used in order to produce data in a reasonable time. These values were chosen from the information gained on wax crystal growth and equilibration from the low temperature dewaxing studies conducted at this laboratory.

  17. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  18. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  19. Diesel lubricant composition containing 5-amino-triazole-succinic anhydride reaction product

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.

    1981-03-17

    A diesel crankcase lubricant is described. It contains a lubricating oil base and the reaction product of a hydrocarbyl succinic anhydride. The hydrocarbyl radical has from 12 to 30 carbon atoms and 5-amino-triazole.

  20. Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

  1. Particle size independent spectrometric determination of wear metals in aircraft lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.R.; Saba, C.S.; Rhine, W.E.; Eisentraut, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    A method for the particle size independent determination of Ni, Fe, Mg, Cu, Al, Sn, Mo, and Ti in synthetic ester lubricating oils by spectrometric analysis is presented. Partial dissolution of Cr, Si, Pb, and Ag also occurs. Used ester lubricating oils as well as samples prepared with -325 mesh (44 ..mu..m) or -200 mesh (74 ..mu..m) metal powders were reacted with a small amount of hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia at 65/sup 0/C for 45 min with ultrasonic agitation. The reacted mixture was then diluted with a methyl isobutyl ketone and isopropyl alcohol mixture and analyzed spectrometrically. The recoveries for metal powder suspensions of Ni, Fe, Mg, Cu, Al, Sn, Mo, and Ti ranged from 97 to 103% and the relative standard deviation ranged from 4 to 10%. In addition to the metal powder suspensions, over 200 aircraft oil samples were analyzed. The method is much faster and more convenient than previously reported particle size independent methods using ashing techniques.

  2. Lubricants and Their Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betton, C. I.

    Environmental considerations have increased in importance in the last two decades and lubricants are part of that. The REACH Regulations apply to the components of lubricants. About 50% of a lubricant can be reclaimed using refining processes ranging from acid/clay treatment through to distillation/hydrogenation to produce up to Gp. II quality re-refined base oils. The major possible contaminants are the PAHs, which are effectively removed by optimised distillation/hydrogenation, metals, remnants of VI improvers, water and untreated acids. Sulphur contents of these base oils must be viewed differently from those of virgin mineral base oils. Certain PAHs are recognised carcinogens and pose a health and safety risk and must be controlled. The use of re-refined base oils is driven by the concept of 'sustainability', to minimise pollution and maximise the use of resources.

  3. Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics and Space Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wal, Randy L. Vander

    2007-01-01

    The tribology program at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is investigating carbon based nano-particles for their potential in advanced concept lubrication products. Service conditions range from high temperature atmospheric to low temperature vacuum. Some of the lubricants and surface coatings of tribological significance that we have evaluated include neat nano-particles, both grown in-situ and as bulk material deposited on the substrate, and nano-particles dispersed in oils which are all highly substrate interactive. We discuss results of testing these systems in a spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) and a unidirectional pin-on-disc (PoD) tribometer. A nano-onions/Krytox mixture evaluated as a lubricant for angular contact bearings in air caused a marked lowering of the coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.04 to 0.05) for the mixture with an eight-fold improvement in lifetime over that of the Krytox alone. In vacuum, no effect was observed from the nano-onions. Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) and graphitized MWNT were tested under sliding friction in both air and vacuum. The MWNT which were grown in-situ oriented normal to the sliding surface exhibited low CoF (0.04) and long wear lives. Bulk MWNT also generate low CoF (0.01 to 0.04, vacuum; and 0.06, air) and long wear life (>1 million orbits, vacuum; and >3.5 million, air). Dispersed graphitized MWNT were superior to MWNT and both were superior to aligned MWNT indicating that orientation is not an issue for solid lubrication. Single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) were modified by cutting into shorter segments and by fluorination. All SWNTs exhibited low CoF in air, with good wear lives. The SWNT with slight fluorination yielded an ultra-low CoF of 0.002 although the best wear life was attributed to the nascent SWNT.

  4. Biobased, environmentally friendly lubricants for processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil based lubricants have excellent lubricity, biodegradability, good viscosity temperature characteristics and low evaporation loss, but poor thermos-oxidative stability and cold flow properties. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidative and cold flow behavior of...

  5. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft. PMID:10701290

  6. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

  7. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  8. Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2007-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

  9. Forging processes: Lubrication. January 1970-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning lubricants used in the forging industries to reduce tool wear and help prevent buildup formation on tools. Methods developed to select and evaluate forging lubricants for both safety and effectiveness are described. Low-pollution level, water-based synthetic lubricants, and non-corrosive, graphite-free lubricants are described. Mathematical modelling and finite element analyses used to determine lubricant dosage and distribution are included. (Contains 189 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  10. Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes

    SciTech Connect

    De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

    1983-10-01

    A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  11. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  12. Lubrication with solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

  13. THE USE AND FATE OF LUBRICANTS, OILS, GREASES, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the use and fate of lubricants, oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids in the iron and steel industry. Data from nine integrated steel plants and two consultants with extensive steel industry experience were used to: develop correlatio...

  14. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  15. Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

    1986-04-08

    A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

  16. International Conference on Solid Lubrication, 3rd, Denver, CO, August 7-10, 1984, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The present conference on solid lubrication technologies gives attention to such topics as graphite films and graphite motor oils, a wear equation for solid film lubricants, a built-in SEM friction tester, cupric oxide solid lubricant for copper, intercalated dichalcogenide solid lubricants, and the in situ formation of solid lubricating films from mineral oil and ester base lubricants. Also discussed are bonded solid film lubricants, motor brush wear test results, solid lubricant performance contributions to friction linings, the self-lubricating property of Fe-Mo-S alloys in vacuum, the friction of solvent-cast polymeric films, tribological processes in sliding polymer interfaces, and the application of ethyl cellulose to the cold pressure working of ferrous metals. A closing section gives attention to sputtered and ion-plated coatings.

  17. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST) from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v) was degraded on Day 20 (71.5). Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes. PMID:26295402

  18. Variable resistance constant tension and lubrication device. [using oil-saturated leather wiper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A variable resistance device is described which includes a cylindrical housing having elongated resistance wires. A movable arm having a supporting block carried on the outer end is rotatably carried by the cylindrical housing. An arcuate steel spring member is pivotally supported by the movable arm. A leather wiper member is carried adjacent to one end of the spring steel member, and an electrically conductive surface is carried adjacent to the other end. The supporting block maintains the spring steel member in compression so that a constant pressure is applied to the conductive end of the spring steel member and the leather wiper. The leather wiper is saturated with a lubricating oil for maintaining the resistance wire clean as the movable arm is manipulated.

  19. Estolides: Bioderived synthetic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the estolide technology developed by NCAUR scientists is given in this book chapter. The goal was to synthesize a class of new lubricant compounds that would have better physical properties than normal vegetable oil. Estolides were developed, characterized, and tested in wide range of...

  20. Mechanically Tunable Slippery Behavior on Soft Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Anisotropic Wrinkles Infused with Lubricating Fluid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pritam Kumar; Pant, Reeta; Nagarajan, Arun Kumar; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-06-14

    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces using one-dimensional (anisotropic) elastic wrinkles. Such wrinkles show tunable topography (amplitude) on the application of mechanical strain. Following Nepenthes pitcher plants, lubricating fluid infused solid surfaces show excellent slippery behavior for test liquid drops. Therefore, combining the above two, that is, infusing suitable lubricating fluid on elastic wrinkles, would enable us to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces. Completely stretched (flat) wrinkles have uniform coating of lubricating fluid, whereas completely relaxed (full amplitude) wrinkles have most of the lubricating oil in the wrinkle grooves. Therefore, water drops on completely stretched surface show excellent slippery behavior, whereas on completely relaxed surface they show reduced slippery behavior. Therefore, continuous variation of wrinkle stretching provides reversibly tunable slippery behavior on such a system. Because the wrinkles are one-dimensional, they show anisotropic tunability of slippery behavior depending upon whether test liquid drops slip parallel or perpendicular to the wrinkles. PMID:27221199

  1. High-Efficient Production of Boron Nitride Nanosheets via an Optimized Ball Milling Process for Lubrication in Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hait, Samik K.; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  2. The investigation of different particle size magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) nanoparticles on the lubrication behavior of paraffin oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyani; Jaiswal, V.; Rastogi, R. B.; Kumar, D.

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) (ZMO) nanoparticles of 23 nm particle size have been synthesized by auto-combustion method. The variation in particle size of these nanoparticles has been performed by their further calcination at 800 and 1000 °C for 2 h and the corresponding calcined particles are designated as ZMO-1 and ZMO-2, respectively. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder-XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and transmission electron microscope. The effect of particle size on the antiwear lubrication behavior of paraffin base oil has been investigated on four-ball lubricant tester. The tribological tests of these nanoparticles as antiwear additives have been studied at an optimized concentration (0.5 %w/v) by varying load for 30 min test duration and by varying the test durations at 392 N load. Various tribological parameters such as mean wear scar diameter, friction coefficient (µ), mean wear volume, running-in and steady-state wear rates show that these nanoparticles act as efficient antiwear additives and possess high load-carrying ability. From these tribological tests it has been observed that the lubrication behavior of studied nanoparticles is strongly size-dependent. The best tribological behavior is shown by nanoparticles of the smallest size, ZMO. Being sulfur, halogen and phosphorous free, ZMO nanoparticles have potential to be used as low SAPS lubricant additives. The SEM and atomic force microscopy analysis of the worn surfaces lubricated with ZMO nanoparticles at 392 N applied load for 60 min test duration show drastic decrease in surface roughness. The values of surface roughness of different additives are in good agreement with their observed tribological behavior.

  3. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants. PMID:25766933

  4. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ogali, Regina E; Osuji, Leo C; Ayodele, Olufemi

    2007-12-01

    Static tests were employed to assess the acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of spent automotive lubricating oil (of mixed SAE grades) on Clarias gariepinus, a freshwater fish commonly cultured in Nigeria. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the WSF were found to decrease as a function of exposure time from 690+/-21 (after 24 h) to 513+/-58 mg/l (after 96 h). The characteristics of the WSF such as mean acidity (pH 6.6), turbidity (40 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS; 40 mg/l) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) dissolved-oxygen (DO) values (1.44 mg/l) were not compliant with existing standards set for discharged effluents. The solubility of the detected straight-chain aliphatics ranked as C14>C16>C32>C18>C28; that of the simple aromatics was ortho-xylene>para-xylene; and that of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was acenaphthylene>9H-fluorene>naphthalene>anthracene>phenanthrene>chrysene>benzo[k]fluoranthene>benzo[a]pyrene>benzo[b]fluoranthene, most of which being serious carcinogens. These oil constituents and the overall physico-chemical properties of the WSF are expected to act synergistically on the test organism (C. gariepinus), eliciting the quantal responses observed. The toxicity of the WSF points to the base constituent, oxidative degradation, and mechano-chemical reactions associated with aged crankcase oils. These oils, therefore, should definitely no longer be disposed into water streams or landscape, not even at sub-lethal concentrations, because of the inherent toxicity of their soluble fractions and the associated danger of bioaccumulation. PMID:18081085

  5. Tribological Properties of WC-Reinforced Ni-Based Coatings Under Different Lubricating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhu, Lufa; Zhou, Zhiming; Liu, Gang; Liu, Eryong; Zeng, Zhixiang; Wu, Xuedong

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the tribological properties of aluminum alloy cylinders and cylinder bore walls, WC-reinforced Ni-WC coatings were deposited on an aluminum substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying. The composition and microstructure of Ni-WC coatings with different WC contents were investigated and the tribological properties were tested under oil lubrication, lean oil lubrication and dry friction. The results showed that Ni-WC coatings consisted of a lamellar structure. Friction and wear testing results demonstrated that Ni-WC coatings had much better tribological performance than gray cast iron under different lubricating conditions. These Ni-WC composite coatings exhibited excellent mechanical properties and tribological properties due to the strengthening effect of the WC phase.

  6. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pentaerythritol Hexanoate: Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Refrigerant-Lubricant Oil System.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Taisuke; Ishii, Eiji; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2015-09-17

    We have investigated the solubility and the solvation structure between a refrigerant (carbon dioxide, CO2) and a lubricant oil (pentaerythritol hexanoate, PEC6) by molecular dynamics simulations. First, to investigate the solubility, we calculated the vapor-liquid equilibrium pressure. The chemical potential of the liquid phase and the gas phase were calculated, and the equilibrium state was obtained from the crossing point of these chemical potentials. The equilibrium pressures agreed well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures and mole fractions of CO2. Second, the solvation structure was also investigated on a molecular scale. We found the following characteristics. First, the tails of the lubricant oil are relatively rigid inside the ester groups but flexible beyond. Second, CO2 molecules barely enter the lubricant core as delimited by the ester groups. Third, the double-bonded oxygen atoms of the ester groups are good sorption sites for CO2. Fourth, only a few CO2 molecules are attached to more than one carbonyl oxygen simultaneously. Finally, there is also significant unspecific sorption of CO2 in the alkane tail region. These results indicate that increasing the size of the rigid lubricant core would probably decrease the solubility, whereas increasing the number of polar groups would increase it. PMID:26287696

  7. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%. PMID:25679531

  8. High Temperature Tribological Properties of Modified Nano-diamond Additive in Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. F.; Qiao, Y. L.; Song, W.; Ma, S. N.; Hu, C. H.

    The high temperature tribological properties of surface-modified nano-diamond in colza oil were tested with SRV machine, and wear surface morphology was observed by using three dimension profiler. The results show that the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester possesses excellent anti-wear and friction reducing properties as lubricating oil additive. The friction coefficients of the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester are lower than those of nano-daimond and the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester when the temperature is lower than 200 °C, and its friction coefficients are very similar to nano-diamond's when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, but are better than that of the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester. The wear volume of the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester is far-forth lower than that of nano-daimond and the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester after the continuously heating test, and the wear volume decrease 60% than nano-diamond's.

  9. Lubrication of Nitinol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

  10. Valorization of lubricant-based wastewater for bacterial neutral lipids production: Growth-linked biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Pedro D M P; Lima, Filipa; Alves, Maria Madalena; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-09-15

    Lipids produced by microorganisms are currently of great interest as raw material for either biofuels or oleochemicals production. Significant biosynthesis of neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG) and wax esters (WE) are thought to be limited to a few strains. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), key players in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ecosystems, are among this group of strains. Hydrocarbon rich wastewaters have been overlooked concerning their potential as raw material for microbial lipids production. In this study, lubricant-based wastewater was fed, as sole carbon source, to two HCB representative wild strains: Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630. Neutral lipid production was observed with both strains cultivated under uncontrolled conditions of pH and dissolved oxygen. A. borkumensis SK2 was further investigated in a pH- and OD-controlled fermenter. Different phases were assessed separately in terms of lipids production and alkanes removal. The maximum TAG production rate occurred during stationary phase (4 mg-TAG/L h). The maximum production rate of WE-like compounds was 15 mg/L h, and was observed during exponential growth phase. Hydrocarbons removal was 97% of the gas chromatography (GC) resolved straight-chain alkanes. The maximum removal rate was observed during exponential growth phase (6 mg-alkanes/L h). This investigation proposes a novel approach for the management of lubricant waste oil, aiming at its conversion into valuable lipids. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated under low salt (0.3%) and saline (3.3%) conditions, and presents clues for its technological development, since growth associated oil production opens the possibility for establishing continuous fermentation processes. PMID:27244293

  11. Elastohydrodynamic properties of blends of plant-based and petroleum-based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based oils are mostly triglycerides but can also be esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are renewable and biodegradable materials, and display certain lubrication characteristics that are superior to petroleum-based products. However, for some applications, plant-based ...

  12. Preparation of high thermal stability polysulfone microcapsules containing lubricant oil and its tribological properties of epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Qing; Li, Meiling; Cui, Yexiang; Zhu, Yanji; Wang, Baohui; Wang, Huaiyuan

    2016-05-01

    Polysulfone (PSF) microcapsules containing lubricant oil have been successfully prepared using solvent evaporation method. The results show that lubricant oil was successfully encapsulated and the encapsulation capacity of about 56.0 wt.% was achieved. The uniform microcapsules have nearly spherical shape and quite smooth outer surface. The mean diameter is approximately 156 and 169 μm by using different dispersant solutions. The wall material is porous in structure with wall thickness of about 20 μm. The initial decomposition temperature of PSF is 480 °C. It is higher than traditional poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) and poly(melamine-formaldehyde) (PMF) wall materials with 245 °C and 260 °C initial decomposition temperature, respectively. High thermal stability of PSF microcapsules can be considered as additives in high temperature resistant polymer materials. The frictional coefficient and wear rate of epoxy composites decreased significantly by incorporating microcapsules containing lubricant oil into epoxy. When the concentration of microcapsules was 25 wt.%, the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate were reduced by 2.3 and 18.3 times, respectively, as compared to the neat epoxy. PMID:27066695

  13. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  14. Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1988-01-01

    A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

  15. Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2014-12-10

    Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations. PMID:25416127

  16. Optofluidic multi-measurement system for the online monitoring of lubricant oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Tom; Callewaert, Manly; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; De Malsche, Wim; Grazia Mignani, Anna; Thienpont, Hugo; Ottevaere, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    We show a detection system that simultaneously allows absorbance (ABS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and scattering detection excited by two different laser sources at 405 nm and 450 nm. The heart of the system consists of a mass manufacturable polymer optofluidic chip. The chip is mounted in an optical detection assembly that aligns the chip to the rest of the system, seals the chip from leakage, fixes the position and connects the channels to the rest of the fluidic system. The fluidics exhibit a reduced susceptibility to perturbations caused by air bubbles, this is accomplished by making use of a serpentine channel layout. For coumarin 480, detection limits of 100 nM and 10 pM are observed for ABS and LIF respectively. An effective detection range of 4000 down to 1 nephelometric turbidity units is shown for the detection of scattered light. The viscous behaviour of the sample is analysed by a secondary FFT processing step of which the result is further processed by multivariate data analysis. This allows the identification of samples and prediction of their quality parameters. We apply this system for the monitoring of lubricant oil, demonstrating its ability to compete with spectroscopic detection techniques. The low-cost approach and multi-measurement architecture shown in this paper pave the way for miniaturized on-line monitoring of liquids in an industrial environment.

  17. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles. PMID:22369074

  18. High-temperature bearing lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1968-01-01

    Synthetic paraffinic oil lubricates ball bearings at temperatures in the 600 degrees F range. The lubricant contains antiwear and antifoam additives, is thermally stable in the high temperature range, but requires protection from oxygen.

  19. Boundary friction in liquid and dry film biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm-based raw materials such as fats, seed oils, starches, proteins, and gums can be subjected to various degrees of processing to make them suitable for use in lubrication. The resulting biobased ingredients are then blended with each other and/or with synthetic ingredients to formulate lubricant...

  20. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  1. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  2. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  3. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  4. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

  5. Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2009-07-01

    The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

  6. Oil film thickness measurement and analysis for an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Scott D.

    1986-01-01

    The capacitance method is used to estimate the oil film thickness in the Hertzian contact zone of an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. The parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime is characterized by a transient film thickness and basic speed ratio (ball spin rate over combined race speed) and the formation of a friction polymer. The experimental apparatus tests 40 mm 108 H ball bearings in the counter rotating race mode at loads of 200 and 300 lb, a film parameter of 1.6 and nominal inner and outer race speeds of 38 and 26 rps, respectively. Experimental results are presented for the capacitance, thickness, and conductance of the oil film as functions of elapsed time and for the basic speed ratios as a function of elapsed time, load, and amount of lubricant applied to the test bearing. Results indicate that a friction polymer formed from the initial lubricant has an effect on the capacitance and basic speed ratio measurements.

  7. Experimental and analytical determination of gear tooth temperatures with oil jet lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Gear tooth average and instantaneous surface temperatures were measured with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope, while operating at arious speeds, loads and oil jet pressures. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface temperatures at all test conditions, increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface temperatures of gear teeth. A gear tooth temperature analysis was conducted by a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input and oil jet impingment depth with estimated heat transfer coefficients based on the experimental data. It is concluded that oil jet pressures required for adequate cooling at high load and speed conditions must be high enough to get full penetration depth of the teeth.

  8. Economic incentives for hazardous-waste management: Deposit-refunded systems and used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Economic incentives have been widely advocated for controlling environmental externalities. There has been increasing interest in devising such incentives to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. It is demonstrated that since firms comply with existing disposal rules, there is no efficiency basis for additional incentives. In contrast, incentives may be appropriate for firms that do not comply with existing rules. A range of regulatory instruments is compared, including taxes on inputs and waste generation, and subsidies for safe disposal and waste minimization. Each instrument has undesirable properties. Waste-end taxes encourage illegal disposal; safe-disposal subsides stimulate waste generation; and waste-minimization subsidies cannot be effectively targeted. The economic incentive instrument proposed is a combination of input taxes and safe-disposal subsidies, sometime manifest in the deposit-refund system. This instrument is efficiency-enhancing under plausible real-world conditions. The theoretical results are applied to the case of used lubricating oil, a large-volume waste stream that has vexed regulators for many years. An empirical model is developed that enables the simulation of prices, quantities, and net social benefits resulting from the establishment of a tax-subsidy or deposit-refund system. This model accounts for variations in: price-responsiveness; residual external damage from disposal; ex ante rates of regulatory compliance; and the level of transactions costs implied by the program. The instrument offers positive net social benefits, but only under a narrow range of conditions. The model is modified to apply to a generic hazardous waste problem that emphasizes illegal dumping. The existence of positive net social benefits depends on differences in risk across disposal options, the ex ante level of regulatory compliance, and the magnitude of unit transactions costs.

  9. The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.; Walton, J.F. )

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant. Unlike previous work in this field, this approach is based on the postulate of the quasi-hydrodynamic nature of powder lubrication. This postulate is deduced from past observation and present verification that there are a number of basic features of powder flow in narrow interfaces that have the characteristic behavior of fluid film lubrication. In addition to corroborating the basic mechanism of powder lubrication, the conceptual and experimental work performed in this program provides guidelines for selection of the proper geometries, materials, and powders suitable for this tribological process. The present investigation describes the fundamentals of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication and defines the rationale underlying the design of the test facility. The performance and the results of the experimental program present conclusions reached regarding design requirements as well as the formulation of a proper model of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication.

  10. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  11. The Wear Behavior of Brush-Plated Ni-W-Co/SiC Composite Layer with Oil Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Liu, Wenjin

    The wear behavior of brush-plating a Ni-W-Co/SiC composite layer on 1045 steel with oil lubrication is investigated. The composite layer is determined by OM, XRD and TEM. The worn surface of the plated layer is observed with SEM and laser profile analysis. The composition and average size of worn debris are analyzed by means of ferrograph and fluid spectrum. The results show that the brush-plated composite layer with added SiC particles reveals high wear resistance compared to the Ni-W-Co brush-plated layer.

  12. Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. I: For Jet Velocity Less than or Equal to Gear Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or less than pitch line velocity. The analysis includes the case for the oil jet offset from the pitch point in the direction of the pinion and where the oil jet is inclined to intersect the common pitch point. Equations were developed for the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the pinion or gear and the optimum oil jet velocity to obtain the maximum impingement depth.

  13. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two

  14. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  15. Study on Antiwear and Repairing Performances about Mass of Nano-copper Lubricating Additives to 45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Yin, Y. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Wang, W. Y.; Zhao, K. K.

    Nano-copper usually serve for lubricating additives in tribology field. The antiwear and reducing friction performances both basic lubrication oil and basic lubrication oil with nano-copper in different mass were tested by friction wear test machine. The morphologies and the main elements of worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that nano-copper could improve tribology performances of basic lubrication oil. Comparing with base lubrication oil, the mass is 0.15% of nano-copper, the friction coefficient and the worn trace width can be reduced 34% and 32% respectively. Nano-copper can form self-repairing film in lubrication oil which availably separates the friction materials in friction process. Therefore, nano-copper has wonderful antiwear, reducing friction and self-repairing performances. And the function mechanism of Cu nanoparticles is studied in the paper.

  16. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  17. Determination of iodine value of lubricating oils by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarpal, A.S.; Kapur, G.S.; Mukherjee, S.

    1995-03-01

    A direct, quick and non-destructive method for estimating the iodine value of fats, fatty oils and their blends in mineral oils has been developed based on {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The method involves the determination of unsaturation content of the samples by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The iodine value of the sample is directly proportional to the unsaturated proton or carbon content. The value of the proportionality constant is independent of the nature of the fats and their blends in mineral oils for the limited samples studied. The iodine value determined by this method also includes the contribution from additives containing unsaturation. Saturated ingredients in the sample do not contribute to the iodine value as is the case with the standard IP-84 method. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Truhan, Jr., John J

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  19. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  20. Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

  1. The determination of wear metals in used lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using sulphanilic acid as ashing agent.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, E J; Lori, J A; Thomas, S A

    1997-11-01

    A simple and reliable ashing procedure is proposed for the preparation of used lubricating oil samples for the determination of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, chromium and nickel by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sulphanilic acid was added to oil samples and the mixture coked and the coke ashed at 550 degrees C. The solutions of the ash were analysed by flame AAS for the metals. The release of calcium, zinc, iron and chromium was improved by the addition of sulphanilic acid to samples. The relative standard deviations of metal concentration results in the initial oil samples were 1.5% for Ca (1500 mg l(-1) level), 0.3% for Mg (100 mg l(-1) level), 3.1% for Zn (1500 mg l(-1) level), 0.7% for Fe (500 mg l(-1) level), 0.02% for Cr (50 mg l(-1) level) and 0.002% for Ni (10 mg l(-1) level). The optimum sample size for efficient metal release was 20 g while the optimum sulphanilic acid to oil ratio was 0.05 g per gram of oil for Zn and Cr and 0.10 g for Ca and Fe. Results obtained by this procedure were highly reproducible and comparable with those obtained for the same samples using standard procedures. PMID:18966959

  2. Estolides: A developing and versatile lubricant base stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides a general overview of estolide technology and compares the four major types of estolides: synthetic estolides from unsaturated fatty acids, natural estolides from hydroxy oils, synthetic estolides from hydroxy oils, and synthetic estolides from hydroxy fatty acids. The syntheti...

  3. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  4. Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, P. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

  5. Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

  6. The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt% NiCr binder, 20 wt% Cr2O3 hardener, and 10 wt% each Ag, and BaF2/CaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc foil bearing. The test load was 10 KPa (1.5 psi) and the bearings were run under start/stop cyclic conditions. The data show good wear performance of the bearing, especially at temperatures above 25 deg. C. Bearing friction was moderate (micron approx. or equal to 0.4) over the entire temperature range. Based upon the results obtained, the PS304 coating has promise for high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

  7. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  8. Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

  9. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  10. A Novel Methodology for the Synthesis of Acyloxy Castor Polyol Esters: Low Pour Point Lubricant Base Stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Mahesh, Goli; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil, a non-edible oil containing hydroxyl fatty acid, ricinoleic acid (89.3 %) was chemically modified employing a two step procedure. The first step involved acylation (C(2)-C(6) alkanoic anhydrides) of -OH functionality employing a green catalyst, Kieselguhr-G and solvent free medium. The catalyst after reaction was filtered and reused several times without loss in activity. The second step is esterification of acylated castor fatty acids with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE) to obtain 16 novel base stocks. The base stocks when evaluated for different lubricant properties have shown very low pour points (-30 to -45°C) and broad viscosity ranges 20.27 cSt to 370.73 cSt, higher viscosity indices (144-171), good thermal and oxidative stabilities, and high weld load capacities suitable for multi-range industrial applications such as hydraulic fluids, metal working fluids, gear oil, forging and aviation applications. The study revealed that acylated branched mono- and polyol esters rich in monounsaturation is desirable for developing low pour point base stocks. PMID:26582154

  11. PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, H; Shepherd, DET; Dearn, KD

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec® cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 – 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine. PMID:22670159

  12. Influence of steel type on the propensity for tribochemical wear in boundary lubrication with a wind turbine gear oil

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ryan D.; Doll, Gary L.; Hager, C H; Howe, Jane Y

    2010-01-01

    Tribochemical wear may occur at the interface between a surface and a lubricant as a result of chemical and mechanical interactions in a tribological contact. Understanding the onset of tribochemical wear damage on component surfaces requires the use of high resolution techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, two steel types, case carburized AISI 3310 and through-hardened AISI 52100, were wear tested using a ball-on-disk rolling/sliding contact tribometer in fully formulated commercial wind turbine gearbox oil under boundary lubrication conditions with 10% slip. With the exception of steel type, all other test conditions were held constant. Conventional tribofilm analysis in the wear tracks was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and no significant composition differences were detected in the tribofilms for the different steel disk types. However, TEM analysis revealed significant tribochemical wear differences between the two steel types at multiple length scales, from the near-surface material microstructure (depth < 500 nm) to the tribofilm nanostructure. Nanometer-scale interfacial cracking and surface particle detachment was observed for the AISI 52100 case, whereas the tribofilm/substrate interface was abrupt and undamaged for the AISI 3310 case. Differences in tribofilm structure, including the location and orientation of MoS{sub 2} single sheet inclusions, were observed as a function of steel type as well. It is suggested that the tribochemical wear modes observed in these experiments may be origins of macroscopic surface-initiated damage such as micropitting in bearings and gears.

  13. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Sáfrán, G.; Tietema, R.; Doerwald, D.

    2016-03-01

    A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo-W-C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo-W-C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and 'in situ' formed metal sulphides (WS2 and MoS2, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  14. Synthetic lubricants. January 1981-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 81-Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties, manufacture and testing of synthetic lubricants. Physical properties, high-temperature synthetic oils, synthetic crudes, antioxidants, reclamation, chromatographic identification methods, carcinogenicity testing and performance evaluations are discussed. Military and civilian applications are included. (Contains 147 citations with title list and subject index.)

  15. Synthetic lubricants. February 1983-December 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for February 1983-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning properties, manufacture, and testing of synthetic lubricants. Physical properties, high-temperature synthetic oils, synthetic crudes, antioxidants, reclamation, chromatographic identification methods, carcinogenicity testing and performance evaluations are discussed. Military and civilian applications are included. (This updated bibliography contains 97 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. Mechanics of a gaseous film barrier to lubricant wetting of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prahl, J. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two analytical models, one based on simple hydrodynamic lubrication and the other on soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication, are presented and compared to delineate the dominant physical parameters that govern the mechanics of a gaseous film between a small droplet of lubricant and the outer race of a ball bearing. Both models are based on the balance of gravity forces, air drag forces, and air film lubrication forces and incorporate a drag coefficient C sub D and a lubrication coefficient C sub L to be determined from experiment. The soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model considers the effects of droplet deformation and solid-surface geometry; the simpler hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) model assumes that the droplet remains essentially spherical. The droplet's angular position depended primarily on the ratio of gas inertia to droplet gravity forces and on the gas Reynolds number and weakly on the ratio of droplet gravity forces to surface tension forces (Bond number) and geometric ratios for the soft EHL. An experimental configuration in which an oil droplet is supported by an air film on the rotating outer race of a ball bearing within a pressure-controlled chamber produced measurements of droplet angular position as a function of outer-race velocity droplet size and type, and chamber pressure.

  17. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  18. Metalworking corrosion inhibition/drawing lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, H.F.; Wantling, S.J.

    1980-05-06

    A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

  19. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of our environment as a result of the very slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewa...

  20. Joint lubrication.

    PubMed

    McCutchen, C W

    1983-01-01

    The fine-pored, easily compressed articular cartilage provides animal joints with self-pressurized hydrostatic (weeping) lubrication. The solid skeletons of the cartilages press against each other, but so lightly that their rubbing is lubricated successfully by synovial fluid--a boundary lubricant too weak to lubricate ordinary bearings. PMID:6317095

  1. One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

  2. Estolides: biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides were originally developed as a cost effective derivative from vegetable oil sources to overcome the problems associated with standard vegetable oils as lubricants. Classic estolides are formed by the formation of a carbocation at the site of unsaturation that can undergo nucleophilic addi...

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of wear metals in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, W. E.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Used oils from several aircraft at NASA's Langley Research Center were analyzed over a three year period using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic emission spectrometry. The results of both analyses are presented and comparisons are made. Fe and Cu data for oil from four internal combustion engines are provided and XRF and atomic emission spectrometry measurements were found to be in perfect agreement. However, distributions were found in the case of oil from a jet aircraft engine whereby the latter method gave values for total iron concentration in the oil and did not distinguish between suspended particles and oil additives. XRF does not have these particle-size limitations; moreover, it is a faster process. It is concluded that XRF is the preferred method in the construction of a man-portable oil wear analysis instrument.

  4. Lubrication for high and extreme pressures. (latest citations from FLUIDEX data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning types and applications of extreme pressure (EP) lubricants. The citations examine properties of EP lubricants, additives, and performance studies of various lubricants including changes to properties and additives resulting from extreme pressures. Some abstracts pertain to the sealing of lubricants and hydraulic fluids under extreme pressure conditions. Other citations include machine parts in performance analyses, and examine lubrication failures. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. In-situ, On-demand Lubrication System for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2002-01-01

    Many of today's spacecraft have long mission lifetimes. Whatever the lubrication method selected, the initial lubricant charge is required to last the entire mission. Fluid lubricant losses are mainly due to evaporation, tribo-degradation, and oil creep out of the tribological regions. In the past, several techniques were developed to maintain the appropriate amount of oil in the system. They were based on oil reservoirs (cartridges, impregnated porous parts), barrier films, and labyrinth seals. Nevertheless, all these systems have had limited success or have not established a proven record for space missions. The system reported here provides to the ball-race contact fresh lubricant in-situ and on demand. The lubricant is stored in a porous cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing. The oil is released by heating the cartridge to eject oil, taking advantage of the greater thermal expansion of the oil compared to the porous network. The heating may be activated by torque increases that signal the depletion of oil in the contact. The low surface tension of the oil compared to the ball bearing material is utilized and the close proximity of the cartridge to the moving balls allows the lubricant to reach the ball-race contacts. This oil resupply system can be used to avoid a mechanism failure or reduce torque to an acceptable level and extend the life of the component.

  6. Molecular dynamics study on the mechanism of AFM-based nanoscratching process with water-layer lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiaqi; Zhao, Jinsheng; Dong, Zeguang; Liu, Pinkuan

    2015-08-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) based direct nanoscratching has been thoroughly studied but the mechanism of nanoscratching with water-layer lubrication is yet to be well understood. In current study, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to evaluate the effects of the water-layer lubrication on the AFM-based nanoscratching process on monocrystalline copper. Comparisons of workpiece deformation, scratching forces, and friction coefficients are made between the water-lubricated and dry scratching under various thickness of water layer, scratching depth and scratching velocity. Simulation results reveal that the water layer has positive impact on the surface quality and significant influence on the scratching forces (normal forces and tangential forces). The friction coefficients of the tip in water-lubricated nanoscratching are significantly bigger than those in the dry process. Our simulation results shed lights on a promising AFM-based nanofabrication method, which can assist to get nanoscale surface morphologies with higher quality than traditional approaches.

  7. Determination of metallo-organic and particulate wear metals in lubricating oils associated with hybrid ceramic bearings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Robin Ann

    It is possible to increase both the performance and operating environment of jet engines by using hybrid ceramic bearings. Our laboratory is concerned with investigating lubricating fluids for wear metals associated with silicon nitride ball bearings and steel raceways. Silicon nitride is characterized by low weight, low thermal expansion, high strength, and corrosion resistance. These attributes result in longer engine lifetimes than when metallic ball bearings are used. Before the routine use of ceramic ball bearings can be realized, the wear mechanisms of the materials should be thoroughly understood. One important variable in determining wear degradation is the concentration of metal present in the lubricating oils used with the bearings. A complete method for analyzing used lubricating oils for wear metal content must accurately determine all metal forms present. Oil samples pose problems for routine analysis due to complex organic matrices. Nebulizing these types of samples into an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer introduces many problems including clogging of the sample cone with carbon and increasing interferences. In addition, other techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry are particle size dependent. They are unable to analyze particles greater than 10 mum in size. This dissertation describes a method of analyzing lubricating oils for both metallo-organic and particulate species by ICP-MS. Microwave digestion of the oil samples eliminates the need for elaborate sample introduction schemes as well as the use of a modified carrier gas. Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Y have been determined in both aqueous and organic media. Metallo-organic solutions of these metals were successfully digested, nebulized into the ICP, and the singly charged ions measured by mass spectrometry. Metal particulates in oil matrices have also been quantitatively determined by the above method. Linear analytical curves were

  8. Novel aliphatic lipid-based diesters for use in lubricant formulations: Structure property investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunanan, Latchmi Cindy

    Structure-property relationships are increasingly valued for the identification of specifically engineered materials with properties optimized for targeted application(s). In this work, linear and branched diesters for use in lubricant formulations are prepared from lipid-based oleochemicals and their structure-property relationships reported. It is shown that the branched diesters possess exceptional physical property profiles, including suppression of crystallization, and are superior alternatives for use in lubricant formulations. For the linear aliphatic diesters, both high and low temperature properties were predictable functions of total chain length, and both were differently influenced by the fatty acid versus diol chain length. Symmetry did not influence either, although thermal stability decreased and thermal transition temperatures increased with increasing saturation. All of the linear diesters demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviour. Viscosity was also predictable as a function of total chain length; any microstructural features due to structural effects were superseded by mass effects.

  9. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  10. 76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... adding fuels and oils to type certificates as engine, aircraft, or auxiliary power unit (APU) operating... adding fuels and oils as engine, aircraft, or APU operating limitations. These established methods..., aircraft, or APU operating limitations in lieu of the methods described in the AC. However, the EPD...

  11. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

  12. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    PubMed

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source. PMID:23490355

  13. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  14. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of

  15. Environmental liability and life-cycle management of used lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2008-12-30

    Used oil handling, as a business, requires an extensive understanding by management that environmental liabilities exist through its supply chain. Findings from a review of the legal requirements of operating a used oil handling business were: understanding the transfer of ownership of used petroleum hydrocarbons is critical to any such business and how this is documented; used oil handlers are responsible for providing training to their staff, including site personnel and any third party waste contractors, and for communicating best practice procedures relating to the management of used petroleum hydrocarbons to all those individuals and organisations involved in business relationships that the used oil handling companies have; used oil handlers should audit the performance of any third party contractors that it engages to conduct work on behalf of its customers. Hypothetical situations of a company planning to enter the used oil handling market are described in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes it handles to illustrate the range of potential liabilities. Companies proposing to establish a used oil handling business should ensure that they provide accurate advice to its employees, its customer's employees and to its third party contractors, all of which may be responsible for handling used petroleum hydrocarbons as part of the service it intends to provide, and that it has a well documented system addressing how environmental issues are managed. PMID:18423855

  16. Study on a Miniature Mixed-gases Joule-Thomson Cooler Driven by an Oil-lubricated Mini-compressor for 120 K Temperature Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Yan, B.; Zou, X.; Zhuang, X. R.; Hu, Q. G.

    In this paper, a miniature J-T cooler using multicomponent mixtures was developed and tested, in which an oil-lubricated mini-compressor was used. Experimental tests on the performance of the miniature J-T cooler were carried out with two kinds of recuperative heat exchangers. One is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and the other is a plate-fin type recuperative heat exchanger with whereas a micro-channel configuration fabricated by the wire-electrode cutting method. The former one gave a no-load minimum temperature of 140 K, while the later one showsbetter performance. No-load minimum temperature of 110 K and about 4 W cooling capacity at 118 K were achieved with the plate-fin micro J-T cooler. Such miniature J-T coolers driven by oil-lubricated mini-compressors show good prospects in many applications.

  17. Fabrication and Wear Behavior Analysis on AlCrFeNi High Entropy Alloy Coating Under Dry Sliding and Oil Lubrication Test Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yipin; Wang, Shouren; Sun, Bin; Wang, Yan; Qiao, Yang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, AlCrFeNi high entropy alloy coating was fabricated on the surface of Q235 steel using hot pressing sintering process. The coating has the controlled thickness size and excellent mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD and hardness testing method were used to study the morphology, phase structure and hardness of high entropy alloys coating. The lattice distortion plays a significant role in increasing the hardness. Coating formation mechanism caused by the element diffusion under the hot pressing effect is also discussed in the paper. Simultaneously, the dry sliding and oil lubrication wear tests, wear morphology observation and wear mechanism discussion were completed. As the result shows, AlCrFeNi high entropy alloys coating exhibits superior wear resistance either at dry sliding or oil lubrication tests owing to its hard high entropy solid solution structure.

  18. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  19. Determination of lubricant selection based on elastohydrodynamic film thickness and traction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, T. A.; Kannel, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The project was conducted to aid in the development of an elastohydrodynamic specification for military lubricants. Experiments were conducted with a rolling disk apparatus designed to simulate a bearing or gear type contact. Measurements included lubricant film thickness, lubricant breakdown and traction for a range of loads, speeds, temperatures, and surface roughnesses. Several lubricants were used in the investigations including a traction fluid, two synthetic paraffinic lubricants and several lubricants conforming to MIL-L 7808 and 23699 specifications. Recommendations regarding an EHD specification are included.

  20. Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

  1. Lubricant Rheology in Concentrated Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, B. O.

    1984-01-01

    Lubricant behavior in highly stressed situtations shows that a Newtonian model for lubricant rheology is insufficient for explanation of traction behavior. The oil film build up is predicted by using a Newtonian lubricant model except at high slide to roll ratios and at very high loads, where the nonNewtonian behavior starts to be important already outside the Hertzian contact area. Static and dynamic experiments are reported. In static experiments the pressure is applied to the lubricant more than a million times longer than in an EHD contact. Depending on the pressure-temperature history of the experiment the lubricant will become a crystallized or amorphous solid at high pressures. In dynamic experiments, the oil is in an amorphous solid state. Depending on the viscosity, time scale, elasticity of the oil and the bearing surfaces, the oil film pressure, shear strain rate and the type of lubricant, different properties of the oil are important for prediction of shear stresses in the oil. The different proposed models for the lubricant, which describe it to a Newtonian liquid, an elastic liquid, a plastic liquid and an elastic-plastic solid.

  2. Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

    2014-03-01

    Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has

  3. Manufacture of refrigeration oils

    SciTech Connect

    Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1981-12-08

    Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

  4. Mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A.; Gentle, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    The causes for breakdown in the lubricant film of mineral oils are discussed. It is stated that the critical point is caused by desorption of the naturally occurring surface active agent and can be described by thermodynamic analysis. The effect of different metals in lubrication is surveyed. The problem of breakdown in elastohydrodynamic lubrication is treated phenomenologically by studying traction. The topics considered are classical and non-Newtonian explanations, anomalous film thickness and viscosity effects, surface roughness contributions, and solidification of the lubricant. Reasons for the apparent granular traction characteristics are examined.

  5. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  6. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhard, R.R.; Yaffe, R.

    1980-10-07

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprises a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester, a polyhydroxy anthraquninone, an alkylamine salt of 3-amino-triazole-dodecenylsuccinamic acid, 2-hydroxylpropyl-n, n-dibutyldithiocarbamate, and an alkyl amine salt of a methyl acid phosphate.

  7. KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

  8. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application. PMID:26951794

  9. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application. PMID:26951794

  10. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application.

  11. Sporting Good Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sun Coast Chemicals was originally contracted by Lockheed Martin Space Operations to formulate a spray lubricant free of environmental drawbacks for the Mobile Launch Platform used to haul the Space Shuttle from the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building to a launch pad. From this work, Sun Coast introduced Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. Based on the original lubricant work, two more products have also been introduced. First, the X-1R Super Gun Cleaner and Lubricant protects guns from rust and corrosion caused by environmental conditions. Second, the X-1R Tackle Pack, endorsed by both fresh and saltwater guides and certain reel manufacturers, penetrates, cleans, reduces friction, lubricates, and provides extra protection against rust and corrosion.

  12. Assessment of the influence of use on ecotoxicological characteristics of synthetic ester lubricants.

    PubMed

    Maxam, Gudrun; Hahn, Stefan; Dott, Wolfgang; Eisentraeger, Adolf

    2002-10-01

    Synthetic ester lubricants need optimisation about their technical and their ecotoxicological characteristics. To determine the ecotoxicological potential the required examinations can be based on the procedure for a risk assessment of chemicals. At present risk classification of lubricant oils is carried out with new oil fluids that are normally prepared before application in aqueous bioassays. In order to improve the ecotoxicological characteristics of some lubricant oils, the quality of the preparation method has been optimised. The resulting preparation protocol leads to aqueous extracts of the oil fluids that can be tested using biological assays. The extent of the changes of the chemical composition caused by the use as well as the ecotoxicological effects caused by additives have to be taken into consideration. For this reason various used lubricants are tested in addition to new oil fluids. In this work various lubricant samples were examined with standardised bacterial growth assays with Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida, luminescence inhibition assay with V. fischeri, survival assay with Daphnia magna and algal growth inhibition assay with Scenedesmus subspicatus. The chemical characterisation of the aqueous extracts included the determination of pH, conductivity, heavy metals, the content of dissolved organic carbon, inorganic anions and the content of phosphorus. The results emphasize the thesis that environmentally acceptable lubricants can undergo a change of their ecotoxicological potential during the use. Some of the substances that are normally added to base fluids in order to enhance the applicability of the oils may possess a high toxicological potential. PMID:12463681

  13. Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

  14. Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760 C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant additives acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear.

  15. Shearing stability of lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

  16. A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

    2006-11-01

    Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

  17. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  18. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  19. Study on water lubricated bearings of high speed pump based on numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y. X.; Kong, F. Y.; Sun, J. R.; Yuan, X.

    2016-05-01

    A method is presented for calculating and analyzing the performance of water lubricated bearing of high speed pump under different structure. In present work, six kinds of bearings in different radial clearance(C), which are 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10and0.12 respectively, under the same minimum water film thickness, have been designed. The models are built by CREO and numerical simulated by ansys. The main content of the present work is to analyze the relationship between the pressure and the load carrying capacity with different radial clearance(C) by ansys workbench based on Fluid-Solid coupling through ansys workbench.The stress deformations of bearings are also acquired through thermal-structure coupling. From the comparing result among the numerical analysis under the six different model of water lubricated bearing, the relationship between radial clearance(C) and load carrying capacity, as well as the deformation of bearing under different radial clearance(C), are obtained. Further, results indicates that, a proper selection of radial clearance(C) is essential to enhance the bearing performance.

  20. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show howmore » this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.« less

  1. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

  2. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model. PMID:23900310

  3. Control Methods of Operational Properties of Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysyannikova, N.; Kovalski, B.; Bezborodov, Yu; Lysyannikov, A.; Kravtsova, Ye; Shram, V.; Kovaleva, M.

    2016-06-01

    Some results of thermal-oxidation and temperature stability testing of motor oils are presented. The catalytic influence of metals on oxidizing processes in lubricants with use of steel 45 was determined. The parameters for identification of oils by groups of operational properties and quantity indicators of the influence of metals on oxidizing processes of lubricants are offered.

  4. STARCH-OIL INTERACTION IN DRY FILM LUBRICANTS WITH CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is one of the most abundant farm-based raw materials. It is a significant component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, rice, wheat, and barley. Because of the large surplus of these crops over demand, there is a great deal of interest in developing new uses for starch-base...

  5. Tribological behavior of some candidate advanced space lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.K.; Snyder, C.E. Jr.; Gschwender, L.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Performance of a variety of space lubricants was compared under boundary and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). The types of fluids studied were naphthenic mineral oil, paraffinic mineral oil, polyalphaolefin, and silahydrocarbon. The silahydrocarbon and the polyalphaolefin lubricants exhibited lower traction under similar conditions. A specific additive package increased the traction of the polyalphaolefin. Volatility characteristics of some of these fluids were also studied. 10 refs.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial comparing a silicone- versus water-based lubricant for sexual discomfort after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Martha; Marino, Jennifer L; Braat, Sabine; Wong, Swee

    2016-07-01

    Discomfort during sexual activity is common after breast cancer. Vaginal estrogens are effective but commonly avoided due to systemic absorption. Despite the large commercial market for vaginal lubricants, no randomized studies have compared products. We aimed to compare efficacy and acceptability of two major types of lubricant for discomfort during sexual activity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. In a single-center, randomized, double-blind, AB/BA crossover design, sexually active postmenopausal breast cancer patients used each lubricant for 4 weeks. The primary patient-reported efficacy outcome was total discomfort related to sexual activity (Fallowfield Sexual Activity Questionnaire Discomfort subscale SAQ-D). Acceptability was measured by patient preference and reported intention to continue using the products. Of 38 women analyzed, over 90 % experienced clinically significant sexually related distress at baseline. Water- and silicone-based lubricants did not differ statistically in efficacy based on total sexual discomfort (difference 0.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0-1.4, p = 0.06). In a post hoc analysis, pain/discomfort during penetration improved more during silicone-based lubricant use than during water-based lubricant use (odds ratio 5.4, 95 % CI 1.3-22.1, p = 0.02). All aspects of sexual discomfort measured with diaries were reported more commonly with water- than silicone-based lubricant. Almost twice as many women preferred silicone-based to water-based lubricant than the converse (n = 20, 65 %, vs. n = 11, 35 %). 88 % continued to experience clinically significant sexually related distress despite use of either lubricant. Total sexual discomfort was lower after use of silicone-based lubricant than water-based, but many women continue to experience sexually related distress. PMID:27306420

  7. Lubrication background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Surface topography, including the various physical methods of measuring surfaces, and the various lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, boundary, and mixed) are discussed. The historical development of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is outlined. The major accomplishments in four periods, the pre-1950's, the 1950's, the 1960's, and the 1970's are presented.

  8. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  9. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  10. Addition of low concentrations of an ionic liquid to a base oil reduces friction over multiple length scales: a combined nano- and macrotribology investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Somers, Anthony E; Howlett, Patrick C; Rutland, Mark W; Forsyth, Maria; Atkin, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricant additives to a model base oil has been probed at the nanoscale and macroscale as a function of IL concentration using the same materials. Silica surfaces lubricated with mixtures of the IL trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate and hexadecane are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (nanoscale) and ball-on-disc tribometer (macroscale). At both length scales the pure IL is a much more effective lubricant than hexadecane. At the nanoscale, 2.0 mol% IL (and above) in hexadecane lubricates the silica as well as the pure IL due to the formation of a robust IL boundary layer that separates the sliding surfaces. At the macroscale the lubrication is highly load dependent; at low loads all the mixtures lubricate as effectively as the pure IL, whereas at higher loads rather high concentrations are required to provide IL like lubrication. Wear is also pronounced at high loads, for all cases except the pure IL, and a tribofilm is formed. Together, the nano- and macroscales results reveal that the IL is an effective lubricant additive - it reduces friction - in both the boundary regime at the nanoscale and mixed regime at the macroscale. PMID:26865399

  11. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N.; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication. PMID:26725334

  12. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N.; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication.

  13. Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

    2014-10-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

  14. Tribological composition optimization of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the tribilogically optimum composition of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings using a foil gas bearing test apparatus is described. The coatings contain a wear resistant chromium carbide `base stock' with the lubricant additives silver and BaF2-CaF2 eutectic. The coating composition is optimized for air-lubricated foil gas bearings at temperatures ranging from 25 to 650 C. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized Ni-Cr alloy foils, and the test bearings were subjected to repeated start-stop cycles under a bearing unit of 14 kPa. Sliding contact between the coated journal and the smooth foil occurs during bearing start-up before lift-off or hydrodynamic lubrication by the air film and during bearing coast-down. The bearings were tested for 9000 start-stop cycles or until specimen reached a predetermined failure level.

  15. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting

  17. Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Andrew J.; Mabesa, Jose R., Jr.; Gorsich, David; Rathgeb, Brian; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Haddock, Tom F.; Bado, Philippe W.

    2004-12-01

    It is possible to dramatically improve the performance, reliability, and maintainability of vehicles and other similarly complex equipment if improved sensing and diagnostics systems are available. Each year military and commercial maintenance personnel unnecessarily replace, at scheduled intervals, significant amounts of lubricant fluids in vehicles, weapon systems, and supporting equipment. Personnel draw samples of fluids and send them to test labs for analysis to determine if replacement is necessary. Systematic use of either on-board (embedded) lubricant quality analysis capabilities will save millions of dollars each year in avoided fluid changes, saved labor, prevented damage to mechanical components while providing associated environmental benefits. This paper discusses the design, the manufacturing, and the evaluation of robust optical sensors designed to monitor the condition of industrial fluids. The sensors reported are manufactured from bulk fused silica substrates. They incorporate three-dimensional micro fluidic circuitry side-by-side with three-dimensional wave guided optical networks. The manufacturing of the optical waveguides are completed using a direct-write process based on the use of femtosecond laser pulses to locally alter the structure of the glass substrate at the nano-level. The microfluidic circuitry is produced using the same femtosecond laser based process, followed by an anisotropic wet chemical etching step. Data will be presented regarding the use of these sensors to monitor the quality of engine oil and possibly some other vehicle lubricants such as hydraulic oil.

  18. New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Julfikar; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-17

    In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

  19. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

  20. Covalent Functionalization of Fluorinated Graphene and Subsequent Application as Water-based Lubricant Additive.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiangyuan; Ma, Limin; Yang, Zhigang; Wang, Jinqing; Wang, Honggang; Yang, Shengrong

    2016-03-23

    Although the fluorinated graphene (FG) possesses numerous excellent properties, it can not be really applied in aqueous environments due to its high hydrophobicity. Therefore, how to achieve hydrophilic FG is a challenge. Here, a method of solvent-free urea melt synthesis is developed to prepare the hydrophilic urea-modified FG (UFG). Some characterizations via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrate that the urea molecules can covalently functionalize the FG and the hydrophilic UFG can be prepared. According to the tribological tests run on an optimal-SRV-I reciprocation friction tester, it can be found that the antiwear ability of water can be largely improved by adding the appropriate UFG. When the concentration of UFG aqueous dispersion is 1 mg/mL, the sample of UFG-1 has the best antiwear ability with a 64.4% decrease of wear rate compared with that of the pure water (UFG-0), demonstrating the prepared UFG can be used as a novel and effective water-based lubricant additive. PMID:26923174

  1. A cubic equation of state with group contributions for the calculation of vapor-liquid equilibria of mixtures of hydrofluorocarbons and lubricant oils

    SciTech Connect

    Elvassore, N.; Bertucco, A.; Wahlstroem, A.

    1999-05-01

    A method for calculating the vapor-liquid equilibria of mixtures between hydrofluorocarbons and lubricant oils is presented. A cubic equation of state is used containing three parameters: the attractive on, a, the volume parameter, b, and the number of external degrees of freedom per molecule, c. To allow calculation of the parameters of the high molecular weight components, whose critical constants and vapor pressure are unknown, a group-contribution approach is developed for a, b, and c. The extension to mixtures is achieved by applying Huron-Vidal mixing rules. A modified Uniquac model is used to evaluate infinite-pressure activity coefficients. With the proposed method, the density of pure heavy components (such as n-hexadecane and pentaerythritol esters) is predicted as a function of temperature. Vapor-liquid equilibria calculations are presented for binary mixtures between several hydrofluorocarbons and pentaerythritol esters or hexadecane; a comparison with the results obtained by available models is also outlined.

  2. Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    On-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces was studied. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

  3. Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study showed that on-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings can be accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented, in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

  4. Lubricity studies with biodiesel and related compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, possesses excellent lubricity. This feature has rendered biodiesel of special interest for blending with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels with poor lubricity. However, some minor components, mainly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, of ...

  5. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  6. Glass molding process with mold lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Davey, Richard G.

    1978-06-27

    Improvements are provided in glass forming processes of the type wherein hot metal blank molds are employed by using the complementary action of a solid film lubricant layer, of graphite dispersed in a cured thermoset organopolysiloxane, along with an overspray of a lubricating oil.

  7. Bench wear and single-cylinder engine evaluations of high-temperature lubricants for US Army ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Paul I.; Frame, Edwin A.; Yost, Douglas M.

    1994-09-01

    High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as an evaluation tool for HTL's. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247 deg C and an oil sump temperature of 166 deg C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired. A wide range of bench scale wear techniques have been developed to highlight different lubricant performance characteristics, with particular emphasis on high-temperature operation and oxidation. Based on the bench tests, Oil D would be expected to have inadequate high-temperature, long-term wear protection. Oil D passed the Allison C-4 graphite clutch friction test.

  8. Research on liquid lubricants for space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Lewis Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes, and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  9. Research on Liquid Lubricants for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Glenn Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  10. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhen-Bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-Hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100°C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100°C. With increasing laser-texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150°C but increased at 60 and 100°C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures. PMID:27054762

  11. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhen-bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100°C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100°C. With increasing laser—texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150°C but increased at 60 and 100°C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures. PMID:27054762

  12. Advanced Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Three Sun Coast Chemicals (SCC) of Daytona, Inc. products were derived from NASA technology: Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. NASA contractor Lockheed Martin Space Operations contacted SCC about joining forces to develop an environmentally safe spray lubricant for the Shuttle Crawler. The formula was developed over an eight-month period resulting in new products which are cost effective and environmentally friendly. Meeting all Environmental Protection Agency requirements, the SCC products are used for applications from train tracks to bicycle chains.

  13. Tribological properties of self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Eryong; Gao, Yimin; Bai, Yaping; Yi, Gewen; Wang, Wenzhen; Zeng, Zhixiang; Jia, Junhong

    2014-11-15

    Silver vanadate (AgVO{sub 3}) nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The composition and microstructure of NiAl/Mo-based composites were characterized and the tribological properties were investigated from room temperature to 900 °C. The results showed that NiAl/Mo-based composites were consisted of nanocrystalline B2 ordered NiAl matrix, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase. The appearance of metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase can be attributed to the decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} during sintering. Wear testing results confirmed that NiAl/Mo-based composites have excellent tribological properties over a wide temperature range. For example, the friction coefficient and wear rate of NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} were significantly lower than the composites containing only metallic Mo or AgVO{sub 3} lubricant when the temperature is above 300 °C, which can be attributed to the synergistic lubricating action of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3} lubricants. Furthermore, Raman results indicated that the composition on the worn surface of NiAl-based composites was self-adjusted after wear testing at different temperatures. For example, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} lubricants were responsible for the improvement of tribological properties at 500 °C, AgVO{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and molybdate for 700 °C, and AgVO{sub 3} and molybdate for 900 °C of NiAl-based composites with the addition of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical alloying and sintering. • AgVO{sub 3} decomposed to metallic Ag and vanadium oxide during the sintering process. • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} exhibited superior tribological properties at a board temperature range. • Phase composition on the worn surface was varied with temperatures. • Self-adjusted action

  14. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2). PMID:26313584

  15. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  16. Lubrication Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

  17. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  18. Hydrodynamic journal bearings: Capacity, wear, and lubrication. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Bearing load, lubrication, thermal effects, tolerance to misalignment, cavitation, and design are discussed. Studies on the effect of temperature and heat transfer on hydrodynamic films are presented. The impact of surface roughness on hydrodynamic journal bearing performance is also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Mechanical face seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from FLUIDEX data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development and applications of mechanical face seals relative to antifriction behavior, improved materials, lubricant effects, and accelerated model wear tests. Performance evaluations in mining, gas turbine engines, and pumps are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Lubricating Properties of Lead-Monoxide-Base Coatings of Various Compositions at Temperatures to 1250 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1959-01-01

    A number of ceramic coatings of different compositions containing lead monoxide (PbO) were studied to determine their relative merits as dry-film lubricants. Lead monoxide is known to be an effective solid lubricant at elevated temperatures, and this oxide was the main component in all compositions studied. Friction and wear properties were determined at temperatures from 750 to 1250 F, at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute, and at a normal load of 1 kilogram. In all of the coatings, PbO was the component primarily responsible for the lubricating properties. Oxides other than PbO had an indirect effect on lubrication by influencing such properties as adhesion, hardness, vitrifying or glaze-forming tendency, melting or softening point, and chemical stability of the coatings. Notable among these oxides were magnetite (Fe3O4.), which had generally a beneficial influence on ceramic- to-metal adhesion, and silica (SiO2), which inhibited the oxidation of PbO and enhanced the tendency for glaze formation on the sliding surfaces. Several of the compositions studied provided protection against metal-to-metal adhesive wear, galling, or seizure at test temperatures from 750 to 1250 F. Coating friction coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 at 75 F but were around 0.08 to 0.20 at temperatures of 1250 F.

  1. Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

  2. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, et al., eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ed. New York, NY: ...

  3. Effects of nano-LaF3 on the friction and wear behaviors of PTFE-based bonded solid lubricating coatings under different lubrication conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yulong; Wan, Hongqi; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-09-01

    Influence of nanometer lanthanum fluoride (nano-LaF3) on the tribological behaviors of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bonded solid lubricating coatings were investigated using a ring-on-block friction-wear tester under dry friction and RP-3 jet fuel lubrication conditions. The worn surfaces and transfer films formed on the counterpart steel rings were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope (OM), respectively. The microstructures of the nano-LaF3 modified coatings and the distribution states of nano-LaF3 were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results show that incorporation of nano-LaF3 improves the microhardness and the friction-reduced and anti-wear abilities of PTFE bonded solid lubricating coatings. The wear life of the modified coating is about 6 times longer than that of the coating without nano-LaF3 filler at a relatively low applied load (200 N) and rotary speed (1000 rev/min) under dry friction condition. The friction coefficient and wear life of the modified coating decrease with increase of applied load under dry friction, but the friction coefficient has hardly any variation and wear life decreases under RP-3 jet fuel lubrication condition. In addition, the friction coefficient of the modified coating reduces with the rotary speed increasing under dry sliding but has little change under RP-3 lubrication, the wear life increases firstly and then decreases. The results indicated that the wear failure mechanism is dominated by applied load, which plays an important role in guidance of application of nano-LaF3 modified PTFE bonded coating under different working environment.

  4. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  5. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, June 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

  6. New Vapor/Mist Phase Lubricant Formulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    To meet the increased thermal stresses of future advanced aircraft engines, new lubricants will have to be developed to replace the currently used ester-based liquid lubricants. If a suitable conventional replacement cannot be found, a different lubrication method will have to be used. The conventional method circulates bulk lubricant (stored in a sump) through a lubricating system containing cooling and filtering elements. Solid lubricants have been studied as a replacement for bulk liquid lubricants, and have been found to provide reasonable lubrication for lightly loaded systems. Solid lubricants, however, have proved inadequate for highly loaded, high-speed applications. Vapor/mist phase lubrication (VMPL), on the other hand, may be a viable alternative. VMPL has been used successfully to lubricate high-temperature bearings or gears. It can be used as an emergency backup system or as the primary source of lubrication. With VMPL, minimal weight is added to the system and minimal debris is formed. It works over a wide temperature range.

  7. Canola-Based Automotive Oil Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Ira N.; Kammerman, Steven B.

    2009-12-07

    This research project establishes data on the ability of the bioindustry to provide sufficient production of Canola/rapeseed, functioning as a biolubricant, to replace petroleum-based automotive lubricants at competitive prices. In 2005 total sales for lubricants amounted to 2.5 billion gallons. Research was also conducted to determine the attitudes toward adoption of bioproducts, specifically among industries that are large-scale users of automotive lubricants, including government and private industry users. The green technology industry, or bioindustry, uses a variety of plant- and crop-based resources, known as biomass, to produce energy, fuel and many different bioproducts. Rapeseed is categorized as a lignocellulosic biomass. High erucic acid rapeseed is not intended for human consumption thereby negating the food vs. fuel issue that arose with the increased production of corn as a feedstock for use in ethanol. Key findings show that the oil from Canola/rapeseed provides about twice the yield than soybean oil. These seeds also have significantly higher natural lubricity than petroleum, enabling Canola/rapeseed to function in many different capacities where oxidation issues are critical. It also has the most positive energy balance of all common vegetable oils, making it an excellent potential replacement for petroleum-based fuels as well. As a rotating crop, it enhances farm lands, thereby increasing subsequent yields of barley and wheat, thus increasing profit margins. Petroleum-based bioproducts negatively impact the environment by releasing greenhouse gases, sulfur, heavy metals and other pollutants into the air, ground and water. Replacing these products with bio-alternatives is a significant step toward preserving the country’s natural resources and the environment. Further to this, promoting the growth of the green biotechnology industry will strengthen the nation’s economy, creating jobs in the agriculture, science and engineering sectors, while

  8. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test

  9. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  10. Synthetic metallic dialkydithiocarbamates as antiwear and extreme-pressure additives for lubricating oils: Role of metal on their effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Tuli, D.K.; Sarin, R.; Gupta, A.K.

    1995-04-01

    Dialkydithiocarbamates of five metals have been synthesized in pure form by following a simple general method. The alkyl chain in each of these compounds has been kept the same so as to observe the performance variations due to metal ions. The EP properties expressed as load wear index and weld load indicated the highest performance by Bi followed by Pb, Sb, Zn and Mo. The antiwear properties in terms of wear scar diameter, relative anti-wear effectiveness and mean average wear scar diameter show a performance order of Bi > Pb > Sb > Zn > Mo. The large ionic radius metals (Bi, Pb & Sb) had the best overall load-carrying performance and their effectiveness increased substantially when the additive concentration was more than 0.004 gm atom/Kg. The results suggest that Bi has good potential to replace toxic Pb and Sb from existing lubrication systems. 18 refs., 7 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

  12. Tethered Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Lynden

    2010-09-15

    We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

  13. Rheology and tribology of lubricants with polymeric viscosity modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babak, LotfizadehDehkordi

    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has been used to model the lubrication state of antifriction machine elements, where initial viscosity and pressure viscosity coefficients are essential parameters in film thickness modeling. Since the pressures of lubricants in the contact zone can be very high, it is important to know the rheological properties of lubricants in these pressure and temperature regimes. The characteristics of viscosity behavior as a function of pressure are also essential for a universal definition of the pressure viscosity coefficient in order to estimate film thickness in an EHL regime. In this study, viscosities and pressure-viscosity coefficients of ten commercial engine and gear oils and seventeen laboratory-produced oil/polymer viscosity modifiers (VM) additives are measured up to 1.3 GPa at 40, 75 and 100 °C. For the first time, a sharp increase in the viscosity and piezoviscous factor is observed in both mineral-based and synthetic-based oils with different VMs. Analysis of the experimental results indicates that sharp increase in viscosity observed in these experiments are believed to arise from physical changes in the VMs, that is liquid-solid phase transition. Evidence is offered that polymer properties such as molecular weight, concentration and structure influence the onset of the phase transitions. A modified Yasutomi model, which normally describes the pressure dependence of the viscosity of lubricants very well, fails to predict the viscosity of the specimens above the onset of sharp increase in viscosity. A design of experiment (DOE) analysis using Design-Expert software indicates that pressure and temperature are the most critical parameters in the viscosity variation. Tribological tests demonstrate that wear in the contact, zone occurs at temperatures and stresses that coincides with the VM phase transitions in both commercial and laboratory synthesized oil/VMs. Tribological results also indicate that the onset of the

  14. Water Lubrication of Stainless Steel using Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2015-11-01

    Lubrication of mechanical systems using water instead of conventional oil lubricants is extremely attractive from the view of resource conservation and environmental protection. However, insufficient film thickness of water due to low viscosity and chemical reaction of water with metallic materials have been a great obstacle in utilization of water as an effective lubricant. Herein, the friction between a 440 C stainless steel (SS) ball and a 440 C stainless steel (SS) plate in water lubrication could be reduced by as much as 6-times by coating the ball with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The friction coefficient with rGO coated ball in water lubrication was comparable to the value obtained with the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. Moreover, the wear rate of the SS plate slid against the rGO coated ball in water lubrication was 3-times lower than that of the SS plate slid against the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. These results clearly demonstrated that water can be effectively utilized as a lubricant instead of oil to lower the friction and wear of SS components by coating one side with rGO. Implementation of this technology in mechanical systems is expected to aid in significant reduction of environmental pollution caused by the extensive use of oil lubricants.

  15. Water Lubrication of Stainless Steel using Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication of mechanical systems using water instead of conventional oil lubricants is extremely attractive from the view of resource conservation and environmental protection. However, insufficient film thickness of water due to low viscosity and chemical reaction of water with metallic materials have been a great obstacle in utilization of water as an effective lubricant. Herein, the friction between a 440 C stainless steel (SS) ball and a 440 C stainless steel (SS) plate in water lubrication could be reduced by as much as 6-times by coating the ball with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The friction coefficient with rGO coated ball in water lubrication was comparable to the value obtained with the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. Moreover, the wear rate of the SS plate slid against the rGO coated ball in water lubrication was 3-times lower than that of the SS plate slid against the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. These results clearly demonstrated that water can be effectively utilized as a lubricant instead of oil to lower the friction and wear of SS components by coating one side with rGO. Implementation of this technology in mechanical systems is expected to aid in significant reduction of environmental pollution caused by the extensive use of oil lubricants. PMID:26593645

  16. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  17. Improved Icephobic Properties on Surfaces with a Hydrophilic Lubricating Liquid.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Salih; Yuceel, Cigdem; Erbil, H Yildirim

    2015-10-01

    Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces were developed recently for icephobic surface applications. Perfluorinated liquids, silicone oil, hydrocarbon, and water were used as lubricating liquids to form a continuous layer on a suitable substrate to prevent icing. However, ice accretion performances of these surfaces have not been reported previously depending on the type of the lubricant. In this work, fluorinated aliphatics, polyalphaolefin, silicone oil, and decamethylcyclopenta siloxane were used as hydrophobic lubricants; water, ethylene glycol, formamide, and water-glycerine mixture were used as hydrophilic lubricants to be impregnated by hydrophobic polypropylene and hydrophilic cellulose-based filter paper surfaces; ice accretion, drop freezing delay time, and ice adhesion strength properties of these surfaces were examined; and the results were compared to those of the reference surfaces such as aluminum, copper, polypropylene, and polytetrafluoroethylene. An ice accretion test method was also developed to investigate the increase of the mass of formed ice gravimetrically by spraying supercooled water onto these surfaces at different subzero temperatures ranging between -1 and -5 °C. It was determined that hydrophilic solvents (especially a water-glycerine mixture) that impregnated hydrophilic porous surfaces would be a promising candidate for anti-icing applications at -2 °C and 56-83% relative humidity because ice accretion and ice adhesion strength properties of these surface decreased simultaneously in these conditions. PMID:26375386

  18. Preparation of soybean oil-based greases: effect of composition and structure on physical properties.

    PubMed

    Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z; Perez, Joseph M

    2004-10-20

    Vegetable oils have significant potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation. Preparation of soybean oil-based lithium greases using a variety of fatty acids in the soap structure is discussed in this paper. Soy greases with lithium-fatty acid soap having C12-C18 chain lengths and different metal to fatty acid ratios were synthesized. Grease hardness was determined using a standard test method, and their oxidative stabilities were measured using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicate that lithium soap composition, fatty acid types, and base oil content significantly affect grease hardness and oxidative stability. Lithium soaps prepared with short-chain fatty acids resulted in softer grease. Oxidative stability and other performance properties will deteriorate if oil is released from the grease matrix due to overloading of soap with base oil. Performance characteristics are largely dependent on the hardness and oxidative stability of grease used as industrial and automotive lubricant. Therefore, this paper discusses the preparation methods, optimization of soap components, and antioxidant additive for making soy-based grease. PMID:15479006

  19. Gearing up for synthetic lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.

    1993-07-01

    Much of today's plant machinery operates at faster speeds, closer tolerances and higher temperatures than ever before. Without the help of lubricants to reduce wear, remove heat, and prevent corrosion, the chemical process industries would grind to a halt. Traditional, petroleum-derived products--called mineral oils-- have long starred in these roles. But today, synthetics, such as polyalphaolefins, carboxylic acid esters, phosphate esters and polyglycols are stealing the limelight, thanks to their inherent resistance to oxidation and hydrolysis and their extended range of service temperatures. The paper reviews the advantages of the synthetic lubricants.

  20. Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula based on X-ray measurements with a synthetic paraffinic oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula for heavily loaded contacts based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with a synthetic paraffinic oil is presented. The deduced relation was found to adequately reflect the high load dependence exhibited by the measured minimum film thickness data at high Hertizian contact stresses, that is, above 1.04 x 10 to the ninth N/sq m (150,000 psi). Comparisons were made with the numerical results from a theoretical isothermal film thickness formula. The effects of changes in contact geometry, material, and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.

  1. Boron-containing compositions, and lubricants and fuels containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, F.W.; Pialet, J.W.; Barrer, D.E.; Schroech, C.W.

    1988-05-03

    A method of preparing boron-containing compositions is described which comprises reacting at least one hydroxy-substituted ester, amide or imide with a boron compound. Such boron-containing compositions are useful in lubricating oils and provide the lubricating oils with anti-wear and/or friction-reducing properties. The boron-containing compositions also are useful in fuel compositions.

  2. Lubrication fluids from branched fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have invented a new method for the synthesis of lubrication fluids using natural vegetable oils. Ordinary vegetable oils are good lubricants, but in their native form, they lack the stability necessary for many applications. Materials made using this new technology display significantly increas...

  3. Preparation and tribological properties of water-soluble copper/silica nanocomposite as a water-based lubricant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunli; Zhang, Shengmao; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Pingyu

    2012-10-01

    Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and its ultraviolet-visible light spectrum was measured in relation to surface plasmon excitation of Cu particles. The tribological properties of as-synthesized Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite as an additive in distilled water were investigated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that as-synthesized Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite as a lubricant additive is able to significantly improve the tribological properties of distilled water. A protective and lubricious film composed of Cu and a small amount of FeS, FeSO4 and SiO2 is formed on steel sliding surfaces lubricated by distilled water containing Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite. During friction process Cu nanoparticles can be released from Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite to fill up micro-pits and grooves of steel sliding surfaces, resulting in greatly reduced friction and wear of steel frictional pair via self-repairing. The state and thickness of the film formed on the worn surface is closely related to applied load; and Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite might be a promising water-based lubricant additive for steel-steel contact subjected to moderate load.

  4. Compressor lubrication and noise reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bayyouk, J.A.; Waser, M.P.

    1988-06-14

    An oil lubrication and noise suppression system is described comprising: an oil sump: a crankshaft rotatable about an axis and defining a centrifugal oil pump: an oil pickup tube extending into the oil sump and secured to the crankshaft coaxial with the axis and rotatable with the crankshaft about the axis as a unit; and an impeller axially asymmetrically mounted on the pickup tube within the oil sump whereby upon rotation of the crankshaft, the oil pickup tube and the impeller as a unit causes the production of froth and the pumping of oil while preventing the formation of a stable vortex.

  5. Characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based resources that can cause pollution due to poor degradation. Seed oils, however, are both renewable and readily biodegradable, but have lower thermal stability and shorter shelf-life. This drawback can be overcome and yet retain the...

  6. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  7. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible. PMID:26301922

  8. Historical perspective of lubricant deposit evaluations at Southwest Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, J.N.; Lestz, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    This paper presents numerous bench tests investigated at Southwest Research Institute which were intended to evaluate the performance of automotive engine and gear oils, and aircraft turbine lubricants. In most cases the tests were designed to simulate certain aspects of the environment seen by the lubricant while performing its function, and lubricant degradation with subsequent deposit formation are the parameters measured. Although in many instances good correlation with specific engine tests were achieved, the final measure of acceptability of a finished lubricant for military applications remains the full engine tests for engine oils; automotive gear tests for gear oils, and full-scale turbine engine tests for the aircraft lubricants. The tests discussed here are excellent screening devices for new experimental lubricant formulations.

  9. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1993-04-08

    In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the

  10. Comparing the Lubricity of Biofuels Obtained from Pyrolysis and Alcoholysis of Soybean Oil and their Blends with Petroleum Diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diesel-like fuel was synthesized by a pyrolysis method using only an edible soybean oil as starting material (PD). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends with both high sulfur (HSD) and low sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels, and compared with blends of biodiesel (BD) w...

  11. Biobased oil structure on amphiphilic and tribological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased oils are those derived from farm-based renewable raw materials. Most are vegetable oils (such as soybean, canola, corn, etc.) or chemical modifications of vegetable oils. They have a number of interesting structural features that impact their amphiphilic and lubrication properties. The basi...

  12. Slippery liquid-infused porous surface based on perfluorinated lubricant/iron tetradecanoate: Preparation and corrosion protection application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengsheng; Qiu, Ri; Song, Hongqing; Wang, Peng; Shi, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yanfang

    2015-02-01

    Corrosion and fouling have been two major enemies for materials immersed in seawater. Fluid including gas and liquid as coating for marine corrosion protection has attracted much attention, since it can also exert antifouling capability in seawater environment. Combining gas and solid phases, superhydrophobic surface is promising to protect the underlying metal from corrosion. However, the intrinsically short sustainability in underwater environment has hindered its practical application, so that its corrosion protection ability is only temporary. Originated from liquid and solid phases, slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) has spurred wide interest due to its prominent performance in different fields. However, the exploration of corrosion protection efficiency from SLIPS remains rare. In this research, SLIPS is constructed onto steel surface via a facile two-step protocol. First, based on a dissolution-deposition strategy, iron tetradecanoate is formed by an electrochemical route. After that, fluid lubricant is infused onto the deposit, whose rough surface acts as the reservoir to entrap the fluid to form a static liquid coating. Compared to the bare and hydrophobic deposit covering low alloy steel, the SLIPS composed perfluorinated lubricant and iron tetradecanoate endows good corrosion protection property.

  13. Inkjet-based deposition of polymer thin films enabled by a lubrication model incorporating nano-scale parasitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Meissl, Mario J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    Thin film lubrication theory has been widely used to model multi-scale fluid phenomena. Variations of the same have also found application in fluid-based manufacturing process steps for micro- and nano-scale devices over large areas where a natural disparity in length scales exists. Here, a novel inkjet material deposition approach has been enabled by an enhanced thin film lubrication theory that accounts for nano-scale substrate parasitics. This approach includes fluid interactions with a thin flexible superstrate towards a new process called Jet and Coat of Thin-films (JCT). Numerical solutions of the model have been verified, and also validated against controlled experiments of polymer film deposition with good agreement. Understanding gleaned from the experimentally validated model has then been used to facilitate JCT process synthesis resulting in substantial reduction in the influence of parasitics and a concomitant improvement in the film thickness uniformity. Polymer films ranging from 20 to 500 nm mean thickness have been demonstrated with standard deviation of less than 2% of the mean film thickness. The JCT process offers advantages over spin coating which is not compatible with roll-to-roll processing and large area processing for displays. It also improves over techniques such as knife edge coating, slot die coating, as they are limited in the range of thicknesses of films that can be deposited without compromising uniformity.

  14. Literature survey and data base assessment: microbial fate of diesel fuel and fog oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bausum, H.T.; Taylor, G.W.

    1986-04-01

    This report assesses the data base on microbial degradation and microbial concentration of military-relevant fog-generating oils (SGF 1 and 2 and diesel fuel) in soil and freshwater systems. Such data were not found for the SGF oils. For SGF 1, diesel fuel and No. 2 heating oil were considered acceptable models and for SGF 2, light lubricating oils. Disappearance rates for No. 2 fuel oil have been shown to reach 500 sq.m/month (690 mg/sq.m/hr) in soils during the first few months following application. In waters, rates are probably lower, e.g. up to 10 mg/L/day for No. 2 fuel oil. These observations actually represent favorable case situations. Rates vary greatly according to the nature of the material and, for a given material, in response to environmental and operational conditions and the degree of weathering or aging that has occurred. The data base has been considered critically from the standpoint of its adequacy in meeting the requirement of the US Army for information allowing predictions of the role of biosorption to microorganisms and the rate of biodegradation in soil and freshwater systems, of material deposited from obscurant fogs. It was concluded that to allow such prediction further research would be required to many areas. Toward this end, several research studies on biodegradative processes and biodegradation rates of impacted or settled fog material, with and without prior exposure to sunlight or UV, are recommended and prioritized.

  15. Lubrication of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

  16. High-temperature, high-wear-resistant solid lubricants. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning solid lubricants for high wear and high temperature resistant applications. Emphasis is on molybdenum disulfide; however, gold-molybdenum alloys and polysiloxanes are also discussed. Methods for depositing thin film solid lubricants, including sputtering and electrodeposition, are presented. The corrosion properties of the solid lubricant-metal interface are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  18. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  19. Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium-carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Chris; Sliney, Harold E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

  20. Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

  1. Physical and chemical properties of refrigeration lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Motoshi

    1999-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of refrigeration lubricants are discussed. Although much attention has been focused on the performance of candidate lubricants for use with hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in order to obtain satisfactory lubrication performance in compressors, the properties of the lubricants themselves have not been well discussed. In this paper, the properties of refrigeration lube base stocks and of lube-refrigerant mixtures are described, specifically the viscosity, density, and refrigerant solubility, the change in viscosity and density due to solution with HFCs, and the insulation properties of the base stocks and the refrigerant mixture.

  2. Improved boundary lubrication with formulated C-ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five recently developed C-ether-formulated fluids with an advanced formulated MIL-L-27502 candidate ester is described. Steady state wear and friction measurements were made with a sliding pin on disk friction apparatus. Conditions included disk temperatures up to 260 C, dry air test atmosphere, 1 kilogram load, 50 rpm disk speed, and test times to 130 minutes. Based on wear rates and coefficients of friction, three of the C-ether formulations as well as the C-ether base fluid gave better boundary lubrication than the ester fluid under all test conditions. The susceptibility of C-ethers to selective additive treatment (phosphinic esters or acids and other antiwear additives) was demonstrated when two of the formulations gave somewhat improved lubrication over the base fluid. The increased operating potential for this fluid was shown in relationship to bulk oil temperature limits for MIL-L-23699 and MIL-L-27502 type esters.

  3. Full-scale transmission testing to evaluate advanced lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500 hp helicopter transmission test stand. The testing was part of a lubrication program. The objectives are to develop and show a separate lubricant for gearboxes with improved performance in life and load carrying capacity. The goal was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 based reference oil and then to run identical tests with improved lubricants and show improved performance. The tests were directed at parts that failed due to marginal lubrication from Navy field experience. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hrs of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

  4. An accelerated life test model for solid lubricated bearings based on dependence analysis and proportional hazard effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Shaoping; Bai, Guanghan

    2014-02-01

    Solid lubricated bearings are important mechanical components in space, and accelerated life tests (ALT) of them are widely conducted. ALT model is needed to give the lifetime of solid lubricated bearings with ALT data, and former accelerated life test models of solid lubricated models are mainly statistical models, while physical models can imply an understanding of the failure mechanism and are preferred whenever possible. This paper proposes a physical model, which is called copula dependent proportional hazards model. A solid lubricated bearing is considered as a system consisting of several dependent items and Clayton copula function is used to describe the dependence. Proportional hazard effect is also considered to build the model. An ALT of solid lubricated bearing is carried out and the results show that this model is effective.

  5. Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1962-01-01

    The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

  6. Advances in bio-lubricant development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-lubricants are those based on natural sources such as those harvested from farms. There is a great deal of interest in bio-lubricants because of their potential to provide a number of environmental, health, safety, and economic benefits over petroleum-based products. It is anticipated that wid...

  7. Vermiculite as a component of thread lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminskii, S.E.; Shibryaev, S.B.; Lyubinin, I.A.; Nemets, V.L.

    1994-09-01

    Thread lubricants are used in threaded joints of piping and pump/compressor equipment of drilling units in order to protect the threads against wear and galling during the operations of making up and breaking the joints; the lubricants also serve as a seal against the pressure of liquid and gaseous media. Commercial thread lubricants contain fillers to provide the required level of antigalling, antiwear, and sealing properties. Powders of lead, copper, zinc, and their compounds are widely used as fillers; other materials that are used include finely dispersed molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene. The concentrations of these components in commercial thread lubricants may be as high as 60-70%,{sup *} so that the lubricants are quite expensive. Lead compounds have the further disadvantages of toxicity, requiring special protective measures in the production, storage, and application of the lubricants - i.e., these materials are ecologically hazardous. Production of specialized thread lubricants is limited by shortages of fillers, and hence general-purpose greases are almost universally used in threaded joints - greases that are inferior to thread lubricants in their set of tribotechnical properties. The end results are premature wear and leakage of the joints, losses of oil and gas, and environmental pollution. In this connection, it is of interest to use layered minerals, in particular vermiculite, in thread lubricant formulations. Heat-treated and milled vermiculite, which has a structure similar to graphite, is resistant to oxidation and to attack by corrosive media; it has a high upper temperature limit of serviceability as a lubricant, and it is readily available and inexpensive. Major reserves of vermiculite have been explored in the Kola Peninsula (Kovdor deposit), in the Urals (Potaninsk and Buldymsk deposits) and in Siberia (Sludyanka deposit).

  8. New generalized rheological model for lubrication of a ball spinning in a nonconforming groove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic theory for predicting the spinning friction of a ball in a nonconforming groove was modified to incorporate a rheological model. The rheological model is based on the exponential pressure viscosity relation for low shear stresses, but at high shear rates and pressures, the relation is altered to one in which the shear stress is porportional to the normal stress. The model was fitted to experimental spinning torques for four different lubricants: a synthetic paraffinic lubricant, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate, a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil, and a polyphenyl ether (5P4E). Good agreement between the model and experiment was found.

  9. Steady State Performance Characteristics of Micropolar Lubricated Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings with Flexible Liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Pikesh; Chattopadhyay, Ajit Kumar; Agrawal, Vishnu Prakash

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to theoretically determine the steady state characteristics of hydrodynamic oil journal bearings considering the effect of deformation of liner and with micropolar lubrication. Modified Reynolds equation based on micropolar lubrication theory is solved using finite difference method to obtain steady state film pressures. Minimum film thickness is calculated taking into consideration the deformation of the liner. Parametric study has been conducted and steady state characteristics for journal bearing with elasticity of bearing liner are plotted for various values of eccentricity ratio, deformation factor, characteristic length and coupling number.

  10. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

  11. Development of special lubricants for ball bearings operating in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A ball bearing life test program was performed to obtain data on the efficiencies of various lubricated and self-lubricating ball retainer systems for instrument bearings in a vacuum environment. The program utilized light to moderate radial loads at relatively low speeds on a NASA-GSFC designed and supplied test rig. Several systems were found which gave acceptable bearing life under the test conditions used, but the most consistent low running torques after testing resulted from oil lubrication.

  12. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.

    PubMed

    Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends. PMID:25507326

  13. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.

    PubMed

    Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends. PMID:25420342

  14. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  15. Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate and the viscosity of the base oil, according to a RSM statistical design. Moreover, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out. The transient stress response can be successfully described by the generalized Leider-Bird model based on two exponential terms. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. The stress overshoot, τ max , depends linearly on both variables in the whole shear rate range studied, although the effect of base oil viscosity on this parameter is opposite at low and high shear rates. Special attention has been given to the first part of the stress-growth curve. In this sense, it can be deduced that the “yielding” energy density not only depends on grease composition, but also on shear rate. Moreover, an interesting asymptotic tendency has been found for both the “yielding” energy density and the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of these parameters have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

  16. Liquid-Solid Self-Lubricated Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armada, S.; Schmid, R.; Equey, S.; Fagoaga, I.; Espallargas, N.

    2013-02-01

    Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Self-lubricated coatings obtained by thermal spray are exclusively based on solid lubricants (PTFE, h-BN, graphite, MoS2, etc.) embedded in the matrix. Production of thermal spray coatings containing liquid lubricants has not yet been achieved because of the complexity of keeping a liquid in a solid matrix during the spraying process. In the present article, the first liquid-solid self-lubricating thermal spray coatings are presented. The coatings are produced by inserting lubricant-filled capsules inside a polymeric matrix. The goal of the coating is to release lubricant to the system when needed. The first produced coatings consisted solely of capsules for confirming the feasibility of the process. For obtaining such a coating, the liquid-filled capsules were injected in the thermal spray flame without any other feedstock material. Once the concept and the idea were proven, a polymer was co-sprayed together with the capsules to obtain a coating containing the lubricant-filled capsules distributed in the solid polymeric matrix. The coatings and the self-lubricated properties have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and tribological tests.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  18. Self lubricating composites for medium temperatures in space based on polyimide SINTIMID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merstallinger, A.; Bieringer, H.; Kubinger, E.; Gaillard, L.; Brenner, J.; Mozdzen, G.

    2005-07-01

    The paper is surveying the results of an ESA-project on a polyimide composite named "SINTIMID". The main target was to find a self lubricating composite (SLC) which is suitable for missions to the inner solar system, where operating temperatures up to 300°C in vacuum are expected. The paper comprises a short introduction into the requirements derived from ECSS for SLC material intended for use in journal bearings working in space. It covers a brief description of new equipments for medium temperatures "vacuum tribometer" and "Journal Bearing Test rig". The presented results will cover mainly the friction and wear behaviour and component test performance. The influences of parameters like load, speed, atmosphere and temperature are discussed and compared to other already known materials, e.g. Vespel SP3. The verification procedure included three phases: a screening on several compositions with different fillers and combinations, a detailed friction test campaign on two best compositions (15M and 30M) and a final bush testing on only the best (15M=15w% MoS2). All material properties in relation to ECSS E30 were verified. No objections to the requirements were identified. Finally, a recommendation for design of bushes was set up on the results.

  19. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  20. Progress in environmentally friendly lubricant development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally friendly lubricants comprise ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. There is a great deal of interest in such lubricants because of their potential economic, environmental, health, and safety benefits over petroleum-based prod...

  1. Biodegradation of a synthetic lubricant by Micrococcus roseus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.A.; Taylor, F.; Brown, D.E.; Higgins, I.J. ); Randles, S.J. )

    1993-04-01

    The loss of large quantities of lubricants, both synthetic and mineral oil based, is causing increasing concern because they are not only an unquantified hazard to the environment, but also a potential hazard to the long-term health of people. This study examines the metabolic pathways and eventual fate of synthetic lubricants in micoorganisms involved in biodegradation. The synthetic ester Emkarate 1550 (E1550), which includes a tertiary alcohol (TMP), and the bacterium, Micrococcus roseus were used in the experiments. The results indicate that M. roseus cleaves the E1550 ester by the action of esterases bound to the surface of the cell, with the products released into the surrounding medium. The organic acids, octaoate and decanoate, are taken up and metabolized, whereas the TMP (1,1,1-tri(hydroxymethyl)propane) component is not metabolized and accumulates in the medium. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A review of liquid lubricant thermal/oxidative degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers. Experimental techniques for determining thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is also covered.

  3. Current problems: New similiquid lubricant for locomotive gears

    SciTech Connect

    Shibryaev, S.B.; Nesterov, A.V.; Seregina, I.E.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a formula for a new, domestically manufactured, semiliquid lubricant is described. The lubricant is for traction gears of locomotives and motorized cars of multiple-unit trains that will ensure year-round operation. Scientific principles have been used in selecting additives and in increasing the effectiveness of the additives by means of oxygen-containing synthetic oils.

  4. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  5. High temperature solid lubricants: When and where to use them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F) is reviewed. Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include the layer lattice compounds: MoS2, WS2, graphite and graphite fluoride, the high temperature polyimide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coating and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearing, and journal bearings.

  6. High temperature solid lubricants - When and where to use them.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F). Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include MoS2, WS2, graphite, graphite fluoride, the high temperature polymide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coatings and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearings, and journal bearings.

  7. Solid Lubricant For Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1993-01-01

    Outer layer of silver lubricates, while intermediate layer of titanium ensures adhesion. Lubricating outer films of silver deposited on thin intermediate films of titanium on alumina substrates found to reduce sliding friction and wear. Films provide effective lubrication for ceramic seals, bearings, and other hot sliding components in advanced high-temperature engines.

  8. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants. PMID:25773747

  9. Wormgear geometry adopted for implementing hydrostatic lubrication and formulation of the lubrication problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1995-01-01

    The geometrical parameters for a wormgear intended to be used as the transmission in advanced helicopters are finalized. The resulting contact pattern of the meshing tooth surfaces is suitable for the implementation of hydrostatic lubrication Fluid film lubrication of the contact is formulated considering external pressurization as well as hydrodynamic wedge and squeeze actions. The lubrication analysis is aimed at obtaining the oil supply pressure needed to separate the worm and gear surfaces by a prescribed minimum film thickness. The procedure of solving the mathematical problem is outlined.

  10. Lubricants and greases: Properties and evaluation. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a variety of lubricants, including synthetic oils and greases. Topics include properties characterization, additives, rheological studies, and uses. Bearing and gear lubricants are discussed, and lubricant testing methods are described. Some attention is given to specific applications in industry. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Haze-free polymer additives for fuels and lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, P.W.; Smith, C.R.

    1988-03-29

    A substantially free haze oil solution concentrate composition is described comprising a mineral hydrocarbon oil of lubricating viscosity and from about 0.1 to 50 wt. % based on the total weight of the composition of a viscosity index improving hydrogenated copolymer of butadiene or isoprene with 20 to 70 wt. % of copolymerized styrene, the copolymer having an M/sub n/ of 20,000 to 200,000 wherein the composition has been treated at a temperature of about 50/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C with from about 0.75 to 25% by weight based on the weight of the concentrate with an oil soluble alkyl hydroxy benzene compound, the compound having 1 to 3 C/sub 2/-C/sub 20/ alkyl groups and 1-3 hydroxy groups.

  12. One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z

    2008-05-14

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum base oils in lubricant applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications, and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of the ways to address these issues is chemical modification of fatty acid chain of triglyceride. We report a one-pot synthesis of a novel class of chemically modified vegetable oils from epoxidized triacylglycerols and various anhydrides. In an anhydrous solvent, boron trifluoride etherate is used as catalyst to simultaneously open the oxirane ring and activate the anhydride. The reaction was monitored and products confirmed by NMR, FTIR, GPC, and TGA analysis. Experimental conditions were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up (up to 4 lbs). The resultant acyl derivatives of vegetable oil, having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation, have potential in formulation of industrial fluids such as hydraulic fluids, lubricants, and metal working fluids. PMID:18399638

  13. Development of the Army thermal oxidation lube oil tester

    SciTech Connect

    Valtierra, M.; Lestz, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a bench-scale test capable of evaluating ground vehicle engine and gear lubricant performance in the area of oil deposition. The test should be capable of providing initial screening for candidate military specification lubricants, oil base stocks, and re-refined oils and should correlate with full-scale engine tests. The following conclusions may be drawn from this work: (1) the Army Fuels and Lubricants Research Laboratory-developed LUBTOT, thermal oxidation lube oil tester appears to be an effective test device for evaluating lubricants regarding oil deposits that are formed under a set of controlled test conditions. The tester has several distinct advantages, namely: ease of controlling test variables, small oil sample required, ease of cleaning between tests, simple unbias deposit rating method, and low cost per test; (2) the test method developed thus far does correlate with some of the Caterpillar single-cylinder reference tests. However, the method does not correlate with the 1-D, 1-H, and 1-H2 test results performed on selected REO oils; (3) the LUBTOT appears to be capable of differentiating between different re-refined base stock, which can be important in identifying base stock consistency; and (4) the LUBTOT can determine the effectiveness of the additive package in formulated oils regarding oil deposits caused by high-temperature operation.

  14. Influence of bio-lubricants on the orthodontic friction.

    PubMed

    Dridi, A; Bensalah, W; Mezlini, S; Tobji, S; Zidi, M

    2016-07-01

    The Friction force of Stainless Steel (SS) and Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) rectangular archwires against stainless steel brackets was investigated. Two types of brackets were used namely: Self-ligating brackets (SLB) and conventional brackets (CB). The friction tests were conducted on an adequate developed device under dry and lubricated conditions. Human saliva, olive oil, Aloe Vera oil, sesame oil and sunflower oil were used as bio-lubricants. The friction force was examined as a function of the ligation method and oil temperature. It is found that under oil lubrication, the friction behavior in the archwire/bracket assembly were the best. The SLB ligation was better than the conventional ligation system. The enhancement of the frictional behavior with natural oils was linked to their main components: fatty acids. PMID:26773645

  15. Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lynden A. Archer

    2006-01-09

    The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

  16. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

    2011-05-11

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C═C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed. PMID:21428293

  17. Composition optimization of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    A test program to determine the optimum composition of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for compliant gas bearings is described. The friction and wear properties of the coatings are evaluated using a foil gas bearing test apparatus. The various coatings were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized nickel-chromium alloy foils. The test bearings were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14 kPa (2 psi) bearing unit load. The bearings were tested for 9000 start/stop cycles or until the specimen wear reached a predetermined failure level. In general, the addition of silver and eutectic to the chromium carbide base stock significantly reduced foil wear and increased journal coating wear. The optimum coating composition, PS212 (70 wt% metal bonded Cr3C2, 15 wt% Ag, 15% BaF2/CaF2 eutectic), reduced foil wear by a factor of two and displayed coating wear well within acceptable limits. The load capacity of the bearing using the plasma-sprayed coating prior to and after a run-in period was ascertained and compared to polished Inconel 718 specimens.

  18. Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed. PMID:22574385

  19. Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

  20. Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

  1. [Oil atomic spectrometric feature selection by Parzen window based vague sets theory].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Pei-Lin; Ren, Guo-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Yu-Dong

    2011-02-01

    Large quantity and ambiguity of oil atomic spectrometric information greatly affects the applicable efficiency and accuracy in fault diagnosis. A novel method for choosing less and effective spectrometric features is presented. Based on gearbox test bed, we simulated the normal wear state and two typical faults to acquire the lubricant samples. The three wear states are regarded as three vague sets, and spectrometric feature values are vague values on vague sets. Based on similarity between vague values, mean vague sensibility (MVS) is defined to describe the sensitive degree of spectrometric feature to wear state. Besides, the membership degrees of vague sets greatly depend on human experience. The probability density distribution of spectrometric data of three wear states was estimated with Parzen window. Combined with Bayesian formula, the range of vague sets membership was calculated. Experimental results verify that the proposed method is of efficient help in choosing high fault-sensitive features from so many spectrometric features. PMID:21510405

  2. Lubricant rheology applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Viscosity measurements in a high pressure rheometer, elastohydrodynamic simulator studies (including the development of a temperature measuring technique), and analytical fluid modeling for elastohydrodynamic contacts are described. The more recent research which is described concerns infrared temperature measurements in elastohydrodynamic contacts and the exploration of the glassy state of lubricants. A correlation, of engineering significance, was made between transient surface temperature measurements and surface roughness profiles. Measurements of glass transitions of lubricants and the study of the effect of rate processes on materials lead to the conclusion that typical lubricants go into the glassy state as they pass through the contact region of typical elastohydrodynamic contacts.

  3. Base number and wetting properties of crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, S.T.; Doe, P.H. )

    1993-08-01

    Oil acid and base numbers influence wetting through their effect on electrostatic interactions with the mineral surface. An improved nonaqueous potentiometric titration has been developed that correctly quantifies weak bases in crude oils. In crude-oil/silica systems, wetting behavior correlates with base/acid ratio and is consistent with wetting theories based on disjoining pressure.

  4. Engineered solutions to the hazards of oil based muds

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetsur, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the drilling process, mud performs a number of functions requiring different physical and chemical properties and it is useful to consider how these are affected by the use of an oil based fluid. The first function of the mud is to transport cuttings to the surface, which in general requires a velocity of around 100-200 ft/min and a viscosity of 30-50 secs/qt. The mud should have sufficient viscosity and gel strength to ensure that the cuttings are transported from the cutting surface and that they do no sink back to the bottom should circulation be interrupted. Secondly, the mud also works as a cutting fluid to lubricate and cool the bit and to ensure the at it is working on a clean formation, and to assist cutting via the energy of the fluid jets from the bit nozzles. The third essential function of the mud is as a primary means of pressure control. The hydrostatic head of the column of mud serves to counter-balance the formation pressure at any depth and must be amenable to adjust to compensate for variations in pressure. Also, by measuring flow rates in and out of the hole, the volume of mud in the tanks and by monitoring whether the mud contains gas, fluids or hydrocarbons, a large amount of information about what is happening at the bit can be obtained. The fourth property of mud is to provide a filter-cake that lines the bore of the well, helping to support is and preventing the loss of mud to the formation or the ingress of fluids form the formation into the hold.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  6. Lubricant Effects on Efficiency of a Helicopter Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, A. M.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven different lubricants were used in efficiency tests conducted on the OH-58A helicopter main transmission using the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 hp torque regenerative helicopter transmission test stand. Tests were run at oil-in temperatures of 355 K and 372 K. The efficiency was calculated from a heat balance on the water running through an oil to water heat exchanger which the transmission was heavily insulated. Results show an efficiency range from 98.3% to 98.8% which is a 50% variation relative to the losses associated with the maximum efficiency measured. For a given lubricant, the efficiency increased as temperature increased and viscosity decreased. There were two exceptions which could not be explained. Between lubricants, efficiency was not correlated with viscosity. There were relatively large variations in efficiency with the different lubricants whose viscosity generally fell in the 5 to 7 centistoke range. The lubricants had no significant effect on the vibration signature of the transmission.

  7. The effect of lubricant additives on fretting wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Y.; Roylance, B. J.

    1992-10-01

    The effect of lubricant additives on fretting wear has been investigated using a ball-on-plate machine. The test results confirm that the antiwear additives, e.g. phospho-sulphurized terpene, sulphurized esters and sulphurized paraffins, are effective in reducing friction and wear. Examination of worn surfaces by optical and electron microscope inspection indicated the presence of thin films which had been deposited under fretting action when using oils containing these additives. Unlubricated fretting wear occurred in the scuffing region. In contrast, the lubricated fretting wear with the lubricating oils containing the antiwear additives took place in the mixed lubrication region. In lubricated fretting wear, the size of the wear particles was smaller than with dry fretting wear.

  8. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  9. HFRR investigation of biobased and petroleum based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased oils come in a wide range of chemical structures as do petroleum based oils. In addition, a distinct structural difference exists between these two broad categories of oils. Previous work has shown that, in spite of the structural differences, these two categories of oils display similar pr...

  10. Polyamine Triglycerides: Synthesis and Study of Their Potential in Lubrication, Neutralization, and Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Murray, Rex E

    2015-07-22

    Renewable resources have evoked a new awakening in both scientific and industrial circles in the past decade. Vegetable oil is one category of renewables that is amenable as a source of new industrial products. Because the source feedstock, seeds, are environmentally friendly, the derivatized products from these at the end of their lifetime could also be benign when designed appropriately. Bioethanol and biodiesel are examples of biobased industrial products currently in the market place and have become resources for uplifting the rural economy. Biolubricants also are playing a more prominent role because they have become closely competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. These products are renewable because the crops from which the feedstuff for the biofuels and biolubricants are produced are grown annually in contrast to nonrenewable mineral sources. Added to their renewability is the inherent biodegradability of their end-use products after their useful lifetime. In a recent study of the lubricity characteristics of peracylated polyhydroxy milkweed oil, the derivatives were found to exhibit good oxidative stability as well as excellent antiwear properties. To further explore an expansion in the properties of such materials in lubrication and other applications, in this study the polyhydroxy (OH) moieties of derivatized milkweed triglycerides were replaced with -NHR groupings in the oil. In this process novel polyketo triglyceride intermediates leading to polyamine derivatives of the vegetable oil have been synthesized. The polyamine triglyceride markedly improved the stability of the parent oil to oxidative stress. It has also attenuated the extreme viscosity of the starting polyhydroxy oil to a more useful product that could be amenable for use as a lubricating agent, for example, hydraulic fluid. Both the polyketone and polyimine intermediates of the polyamine have chelating properties. The intermediates and the polyamine were characterized spectroscopically

  11. Engineering lubrication in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-04-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  12. Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  13. Method of recovering oil-based fluid and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for recovering oil-based fluid from a surface having oil-based fluid thereon comprising the steps of: applying to the oil-based fluid on the surface an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fibers, the cloth having at least one napped surface that defines voids therein, the nap being formed of raised ends or loops of the fibers; absorbing, with the cloth, oil-based fluid; feeding the cloth having absorbed oil-based fluid to a means for applying a force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid; and applying force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid therefrom using the force applying means.

  14. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We also demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%. PMID:26056307

  15. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A; Scown, Corinne D; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-06-23

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We also demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%. PMID:26056307

  16. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a methodmore » for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.« less

  17. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.

  18. 7 CFR 3201.14 - Penetrating lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c... re-refined lubricating oil products. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.14 - Penetrating lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c... re-refined lubricating oil products. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of...

  20. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  1. Improvement of lubricant materials using ruthenium isomerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of an effective industrial lubricant additive from vegetable oils is a high profile and difficult undertaking. One candidate is alkyl 9(10)-dibutylphosphonostearate, which has been made through a radical transformation of alkyl 9-cis-octadecanoate. It is effective, but still suffers from ...

  2. Amine-intercalated α-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Dai, Wei; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, three types of amines intercalated α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of α-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators.

  3. Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer

  4. Lubricating the swordfish head.

    PubMed

    Videler, John J; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Szabo, Ben G

    2016-07-01

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy scanning, the discovery of a complex organ consisting of an oil-producing gland connected to capillaries that communicate with oil-excreting pores in the skin of the head. The capillary vessels transport oil to abundant tiny circular pores that are surrounded by denticles. The oil is distributed from the pores over the front part of the head. The oil inside the gland is identical to that found on the skin and is a mixture of methyl esters. We hypothesize that the oil layer, in combination with the denticles, creates a super-hydrophobic layer that reduces streamwise friction drag and increases swimming efficiency. PMID:27385753

  5. Evaluation of antifriction bearing lubrication methods on motor life-cycle cost

    SciTech Connect

    Hodowanec, M.M.

    1999-12-01

    The number 1 cause of induction motor failures is bearing failure. Antifriction bearing failures most commonly are the consequences of inadequate lubrication. Antifriction motor bearings are found in four lubrication configurations: regreasable, sealed, oil mist, and oil lubricated. Bearings are oil lubricated when the operating conditions (i.e., bearing size, speed, thrust, etc.) require it. However, there is much debate about the best lubrication configuration, given a choice between regreasable, sealed, or oil-misted bearings. Within their own rights, all three methods have their advantages. Selection of the proper configuration is dependent upon many factors, such as motor size/type (i.e., bearing size/type), plant maintenance practice, bearing replacement availability/cost, duty cycle, environmental conditions, and downtime cost. This paper discusses the relationship between these factors and lubrication configuration, and presents an analysis of the subsequent impact on bearing life and system cost.

  6. Tribological Properties of a Pennzane(Registered Trademark)-Based Liquid Lubricant (Disubstituted Alkylated Cyclopentane) for Low Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venier, Clifford; Casserly, Edward W.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Marchetti, Mario; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2002-01-01

    The tribological properties of a disubstituted alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane (registered) Synthesized Hydrocarbon Fluid X-1000, are presented. This compound is a lower molecular weight version of the commonly used multiply alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane X-2000, currently used in many space mechanisms. New, lower temperature applications will require liquid lubricants with lower viscosities and pour points and acceptable vapor pressures. Properties reported include: friction and wear studies and lubricated lifetime in vacuum; additionally, typical physical properties (i.e., viscosity-temperature, pour point, flash and fire point, specific gravity, refractive index, thermal properties, volatility and vapor pressure) are reported.

  7. Fuzzy measurement based image testing for oil particles contamination level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xianming; Li, Chuan; Chen, Bin

    2010-11-01

    The oil contamination level testing is important for its using and maintenance which is the basement of the oil contamination control is required higher by the developing device system, and the testing method is urgently needed to be studied for improving the process method and the maintenance quality of the contaminated oil. To classify the level of particles contamination in lubricant, CCD imaging technology is used to capture microscopic digital image of the oil particles sample . The digital image was processed and segmented in order that the computer can recognize and understand the particle targets by using image testing algorithm to measure the sizes, amounts and distributions of particles. The oil contamination level can be measured effectively by the economical and convenient method in which there is little air bubble and bead leading to false particle targets. To improve the influence produced by the false particle targets, One method is that a series of dynamical image samples from the contaminated oil in the multi-period and the multi-state are captured and used to test the particle targets, and the further method is to employ the fuzzy measurement using Gaussian subjection function, which describes the distribution of the standard evidences and the distribution of the testing data, and the testing probabilities of the evidence are weighed by the matching degree of the two distributions, which is used to classify the oil particles contamination level .The test shows that the oil particles contamination level diagnosis reliability is improved and the diagnosis uncertainty is reduced. This method combining with other testing methods by using the multi-information fusion method will be further studied later.

  8. A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

  9. A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

    2014-09-01

    Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

  10. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-12-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+)) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils. PMID:26058517

  11. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R.; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-06-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils.

  12. Boundary lubrication: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on boundary lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of boundary surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the boundary lubrication regime are considered.

  13. Oil-Soluble Silver-Organic Molecule for in Situ Deposition of Lubricious Metallic Silver at High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Desanker, Michael; Johnson, Blake; Seyam, Afif M; Chung, Yip-Wah; Bazzi, Hassan S; Delferro, Massimiliano; Marks, Tobin J; Wang, Q Jane

    2016-06-01

    A major challenge in lubrication technology is to enhance lubricant performance at extreme temperatures that exceed conventional engine oil thermal degradation limits. Soft noble metals such as silver have low reactivity and shear strength, which make them ideal solid lubricants for wear protection and friction reduction between contacting surfaces at high temperatures. However, achieving adequate dispersion in engine lubricants and metallic silver deposition over predetermined temperatures ranges presents a significant chemical challenge. Here we report the synthesis, characterization, and tribological implementation of the trimeric silver pyrazolate complex, [Ag(3,5-dimethyl-4-n-hexyl-pyrazolate)]3 (1). This complex is oil-soluble and undergoes clean thermolysis at ∼310 °C to deposit lubricious, protective metallic silver particles on metal/metal oxide surfaces. Temperature-controlled tribometer tests show that greater than 1 wt % loading of 1 reduces wear by 60% in PAO4, a poly-α-olefin lubricant base fluid, and by 70% in a commercial fully formulated 15W40 motor oil (FF oil). This silver-organic complex also imparts sufficient friction reduction so that the tribological transition from oil as the primary lubricant through its thermal degradation, to 1 as the primary lubricant, is experimentally undetectable. PMID:27163783

  14. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  15. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  16. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  17. Optimized Liquid-Liquid Extractive Rerefining of Spent Lubricants

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Fasihullah

    2014-01-01

    Central composite design methodology has been employed to model the sludge yield data obtained during liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants using an alcohol (1-butanol) and a ketone (methyl ethyl ketone) as prospective solvents. The study has resulted in two reasonably accurate multivariate process models that relate the sludge yield (R2 = 0.9065 and 0.9072 for alcohol and ketone, resp.) to process variables (settling time t, operating temperature T, and oil to solvent ratio r). Construction of such models has allowed the maximization of the sludge yield (more than 8% and 3% in case of alcohol and ketone, resp.) so that the extraction of useable oil components from spent lubricants can economically be performed under extremely mild conditions (t = 16.7 h, T = 10°C, and r = 2) and fairly moderate conditions (t = 26.6 h, T = 10°C, and r = 5) established for the alcohol and ketone correspondingly. Based on these performance parameters alcohol appears to be superior over ketone for this extraction process. Additionally extractive treatment results in oil stocks with lesser quantity of environmentally hazardous polyaromatic hydrocarbons that are largely left in the separated sludge. PMID:24688388

  18. Case-hardening medium carbon steel for tough and long life bearing under severe lubrication conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Furumura, Kyozaburo; Murakami, Yasuo; Abe, Tsutomu

    1998-12-31

    It is known these days that case-hardening bearings have a longer life than through-hardening ones under severe lubrication conditions (i.e., mixing-in of foreign particles in the lubrication oil). To explain this fact, the authors first presented the mechanism of stress relaxation at the debris dent edge. According to test results, it was found that both retained austenite and hardness are the most important factors for a longer life material. Such material has a longer life even under boundary lubrication conditions. Since a sufficient EHL oil film does not form under boundary lubrication conditions, metal contact occurs. The resulting damage is called peeling and it decreases the bearing life. To realize ideal case hardening material for bearings, a new carbo-nitride heat treatment has been developed. Normally, it is extremely difficult to obtain a sufficient case depth using a traditional carbo-nitride heat treatment process. As an alternate, medium carbon steel was studied. The application of newly developed medium carbon steel has not only proved to make the creation of a sufficient case depth easier, but also provided economic benefits. Based on results from testing both the dimensional stability and fracture toughness, newly developed medium carbon steel can be used for case-hardening bearings.

  19. Linear and non-linear control techniques applied to actively lubricated journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletti, R.; Santos, I. F.

    2003-03-01

    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can use the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can use the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurized oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and a non-linear controller, applied to a tilting-pad journal bearing, are analysed and discussed. Important conclusions about the application of integral controllers, responsible for changing the rotor-bearing equilibrium position and consequently the "passive" oil film damping coefficients, are achieved. Numerical results show an effective vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0-80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated, illustrating clearly one of its most promising applications.

  20. Stability of Water Lubricated Flow of Yield Stress Fluid in Sloping Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Nsom, B.; Decruppe, J.

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate the transport of viscous crudes in a pipe, an immiscible lubricating liquid, usually water, is added. In such configuration, the water migrates into the regions of high shear at the pipe wall where it lubricates the flow. The pumping pressures being balanced by wall shear stresses in the water, the flow therefore requires pressures comparable to pumping water alone, at the same total throughput [1]. So significant savings in pumping power can be derived from this process provided that it is well monitored. Indeed, instabilities usually take place at the oil/water interface and they constitute an important source of energy dissipation. Precisely, a core annular flow is known to undergo a long-wave instability of capillary type, modified by shear occuring at low Reynolds. Above a given critical Reynolds number, the flow is unstable to shorter waves which leads to an emulsification system of water droplets in oil. In present work, an experimental study of the stability of sloping plane Poiseuille flow of well characterized viscoplastic mineral oils lubricated by water was performed. The investigation was carried out by means of image analysis based on spatiotemporal diagrams (STD). Notably indicated are the effects of bed slope, flow rates ratio and oil rheology on flow stability.

  1. Oil-return characteristics of refrigerant oils in split heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, S.G.; Radermacher, R.

    1996-08-01

    Currently, HFC substitute refrigerants for R-22 are being evaluated in air-conditioning and heat pump applications. The oil return characteristics and heat transfer effects of the lubricants are being studied again. Based on commercial refrigeration experience POEs are the lubricants of choice for HFC refrigerants. POEs have two major drawbacks: hygroscopicity and high cost. Thus the question is raised to what extent is it possible to replace POEs with a lower cost, but immiscible, oil such as mineral oil. It is the purpose of this study to experimentally investigate the oil return behavior of R-407C with mineral oil in a split three-ton heat pump in comparison to R407C/POE and R-22/Mineral Oil.

  2. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  3. Aviation gas turbine lubricants - military and civil aspects: aviation fuel and lubricants - performance testing; Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, October 14-17, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Research and development programs in the areas of gas turbine lubricants for civil and military aviation and the performance testing of aviation gas turbine fuels and lubricants are discussed. The topics addressed include: laboratory and field evaluation of a high temperature jet engine oil, performance advantages of high load aviation lubricants, fluorocarbon elastomer compatibility with gas turbine lubricants, potential benefits in the development of a dedicated helicopter transmission lubricant, and feasibility of formulating advanced four centistoke gas turbine oils. Also covered are: advanced lubricants for aircraft turbine engines, future trends for U.S. Naval aviation propulsion system lubricants, electrochemical evaluation of corrosivity in turbine engine oils, the influence of esters on elastomer seals, deposition in gas turbine oil systems, development of the portable water separometer for the WSIM test, influence of JFTOT operating parameters on the assessment of fuel thermal stability, and evaluation of JFTOT tube deposits by carbon burnoff.

  4. Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

    2005-01-01

    In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the

  5. Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

  6. A dynamic rheological model for thin-film lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Jun; Huang, Ying; Guo, Yan-Bao; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yong-Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the lubricant in a thin-film lubrication regime between smooth surfaces were investigated. The thin-film lubrication regime typically appears in Stribeck curves with a clearly observable minimum coefficient of friction (COF) and a low-COF region, which is desired for its lower energy dissipation. A dynamic rheology of the lubricant from the hydrodynamic lubrication regime to the thin-film lubrication regime was proposed based on the convected Maxwell constitutive equation. This rheology model includes the increased relaxation time and the yield stress of the confined lubricant thin film, as well as their dependences on the lubricant film thickness. The Deborah number (De number) was adopted to describe the liquid-solid transition of the confined lubricant thin film under shearing. Then a series of Stribeck curves were calculated based on Tichy's extended lubrication equations with a perturbation of the De number. The results show that the minimum COF points in the Stribeck curve correspond to a critical De number of 1.0, indicating a liquid-to-solid transition of the confined lubricant film. Furthermore, the two proposed parameters in the dynamic rheological model, namely negative slipping length b (indicating the lubricant interfacial effect) and the characteristic relaxation time λ0, were found to determine the minimum COF and the width of the low-COF region, both of which were required to optimize the shape of the Stribeck curve. The developed dynamic rheological model interprets the correlation between the rheological and interfacial properties of lubricant and its lubrication behavior in the thin-film regime.

  7. Commercialization of NASA PS304 Solid Lubricant Coating Enhanced by Fundamental Powder Flow Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a patented high-temperature solid lubricant coating, designated PS304, for reducing friction and wear in bearing systems. The material used to produce the coating is initially a blend of metallic and ceramic powders that are deposited on the bearing surface by the plasma spray process. PS304 was developed to lubricate foil air bearings in Oil-Free turbomachinery, where the moving surfaces are coated with a hydrodynamic air film except at the beginning and end of an operation cycle when the air film is not present. The coating has been successful in several applications including turbochargers, land-based turbines, and industrial drying furnace conveyor components, with current development activities directed at implementation in Oil-Free aeropropulsion engines.

  8. Qualification of oil-based tracer particles for heated Ludwieg tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Marcus; Stephan, Sören; Scholz, Peter; Radespiel, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    The generation, insertion, pressurization and use of oil-based tracer particles is qualified for the application in heated flow facilities, typically hypersonic facilities such as Ludwieg tubes. The operative challenges are to ensure a sub-critical amount of seeding material in the heated part, to qualify the methods that are used to generate the seeding, pressurize it to storage tube pressure, as well as to test specific oil types. The mass of the seeding material is held below the lower explosion limit such that operation is safe. The basis for the tracers is qualified in off-situ particle size measurements. In the main part different methods and operational procedures are tested with respect to their ability to generate a suitable amount of seeding in the test section. For the best method the relaxation time of the tracers is qualified by the oblique shock wave test. The results show that the use of a special temperature resistant lubricant oil "Plantfluid" is feasible under the conditions of a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube with heated storage tube. The method gives high-quality tracers with high seeding densities. Although the experimental results of the oblique shock wave test differ from theoretical predictions of relaxation time, still the relaxation time of 3.2 μs under the more dense tunnel conditions with 18 bar storage tube pressure is low enough to allow the use of the seeding for meaningful particle image velocimetry studies.

  9. New immiscible refrigeration lubricant for HFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Motoshi; Takigawa, Katsuya; Suda, Satoshi; Sasaki, Umekichi

    1995-12-31

    This study examines the capability of a family of very low-viscosity alkylbenzenes (AB) used in high-side rotary compressors for HFCs. In the development of refrigeration lubricants for HFCs, miscibility is one of the most important problems to be solved. Therefore, PAG (polyalkylene glycols) and POE (polyol esters), which have good miscibility, have been applied in new HFC applications. However, it is difficult for these lubricants to maintain long-term durability in high-side rotary compressors. In friction tests under high HFC pressure, ABs with much lower viscosities than mineral oil maintained a much stronger oil film than the combination of mineral oil/R-12 or POE/HFCs. These results were also proven by compressor durability tests. From the study of the solubility of ABs and HFCs, it is suggested that the total amount of refrigerant can be reduced because HFCs are barely soluble with ABs inside the high-side shell.

  10. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  11. Self-lubricating gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demorest, K. E.

    1969-01-01

    Self-lubricating gear, designed for long term operation in a vacuum at high, low, and ambient temperatures, is constructed of alternating layers of metal and a dry lubricant material, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, with a suitable reinforcing material bonded into a laminated composite unit, which is machined to form a standard gear.

  12. High temperature lubricating process

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

    1979-10-04

    It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  13. Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems. Volume 1: Description of technical effort and results; Final technical report, March 1995--April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Biancardi, F.R.; Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.; Pandy, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this program was to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to determine lubricant circulation characteristics of new HFC/POE pairs and HFC/mineral oil pairs in a representative central residential HVAC system and to compare their behavior with the traditional HCFC-22/mineral oil (refrigerant/lubricant) pair. A dynamic test facility was designed and built to conduct the experimental efforts. This facility provided a unique capability to visually and physically measure oil circulation rates, on-line, in operating systems. A unique on-line ultraviolet-based measurement device was used to obtain detailed data on the rate and level of lubricant oil circulated within the operating heat pump system. The experimental and analytical data developed during the program are presented as a function of vapor velocity, refrigerant/lubricant viscosity, system features and equipment. Both visual observations and instrumentation were used to understand ``worst case`` oil circulation situations. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 contains a complete description of the program scope, objective, test results summary, conclusions, description of test facility and recommendations for future effort. Volume 2 contains all of the program test data essentially as taken from the laboratory dynamic test facility during the sequence of runs.

  14. Solid/liquid lubrication of ceramics at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Hong, H.

    1996-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of solid and liquid lubrication on friction and wear performance of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and cast iron. The solid lubricant was a thin silver film ({approx}2 {mu}m thick) produced on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by ion-beam-assisted deposition. A high-temperature polyol-ester-base synthetic oil served as the liquid lubricant. Friction and wear tests were performed with pin-on-disk and oscillating-slider wear test machines at temperatures up to 300{degrees}C. Without the silver films, the friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} test pairs were 0.05 to 0.14, and the average wear rates of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins were {approx}5 x 10{sup -8} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1}. The friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/cast iron test pairs ranged from 0.08 to 0.11, depending on test temperature. The average specific wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}3 x 10{sup -7} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}. However, simultaneous use of the solid-lubricant silver and synthetic oil on the sliding surfaces reduced friction coefficients to 0.02 to 0.08. Moreover, the wear of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins and silver-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} disks was so low that it was difficult to assess by a surface profilometer. The wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}7 x 10{sup -9} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1} up to 250{degrees}C, but showed a tendency to increase slightly at much higher temperatures. In general, the test results demonstrated that the solid/liquid lubrication of ceramic and/or metallic components is both feasible and effective in controlling friction and wear.

  15. Autoclaving of lubricated dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Hegna, I K; Kardel, K; Kardel, M

    1978-03-01

    Test organisms forced mechanically into lubricated, rotating dental instruments (handpieces) were all killed during autoclaving at 134 degrees C for 8 min, even when protected by serum and oil. The test organisms were: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Also when testing the sterility of autoclaved simulated instrument surfaces (brass cylinders and pieces of a cotton fabric) which had been inoculated with bacteria and dried before they were sprayed with oil, there was no growth of the test organisms. In addition to the other test organisms, spores of Bacillus subtilis and Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria isolated from used handpieces that had been exposed to several autoclavings were used. Some of the handpieces that had been left to dry after use in the dentist's office before they were autoclaved, were shown not to be sterile. Therefore, the authors suggest that autoclaving of the instruments should take place shortly after use and prescribed cleaning. PMID:274800

  16. Polymer Lubricants For Use In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes tests of lubricating properties of 10 polymer-based materials - in particular, polyimides - in vacuum. Commercially available materials, in forms of solid bodies and films on metals, were tested on pin-on-disk apparatus in vacuum. Best low-wear, low-friction material was 80 PMDA/20 BTDA solid-body polyimide. Friction and wear properties of most polyimides so good in vacuum that solid-lubricant additives not necessary.

  17. Castor oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Castor oil is a yellowish liquid often used as a lubricant and in laxatives. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing a large amount (overdose) of castor oil. This is for information only and not for ...

  18. Ice adhesion on lubricant-impregnated textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Srinivas Bengaluru; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2013-11-01

    Ice accretion is an important problem and passive approaches for reducing ice-adhesion are of great interest in various systems such as aircrafts, power lines, wind turbines, and oil platforms. Here, we study the ice-adhesion properties of lubricant-impregnated textured surfaces. Force measurements show ice adhesion strength on textured surfaces impregnated with thermodynamically stable lubricant films to be higher than that on surfaces with excess lubricant. Systematic ice-adhesion measurements indicate that the ice-adhesion strength is dependent on texture and decreases with increasing texture density. Direct cryogenic SEM imaging of the fractured ice surface and the interface between ice and lubricant-impregnated textured surface reveal stress concentrators and crack initiation sites that can increase with texture density and result in lowering adhesion strength. Thus, lubricant-impregnated surfaces have to be optimized to outperform state-of-the-art icephobic treatments. PMID:24070257

  19. Study of ball bearing torque under elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Allen, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Spinning and rolling torques were measured in an angular-contact ball bearing with and without a cage under several lubrication regimes in a modified NASA spinning torque apparatus. Two lubricants were used - a di-2 ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil, at shaft speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm and bearing loads from 45 newtons (10 lb) to 403 newtons (90 lb). An analytical model was developed from previous spinning friction models to include rolling with spinning under lubrication regimes from thin film to flooded conditions. The bearing torque values have a wide variation, under any condition of speed and load, depending on the amount of lubricant present in the bearing. The analytical model compared favorably with experimental results under several lubrication regimes.

  20. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.; Waite, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Equipment manufacturers are challenged to replace CFC-based refrigerants and their lubricants with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Information on the compatibility of motor materials with these alternative refrigerants and lubricants is a basic requirement for reliable performance. This report presents compatibility data for 24 commercially used motor materials exposed to 17 refrigerant/lubricant combinations. This compatibility data will enable the phase out of CFC's to continue at its current fast pace and insure the continued reliable performance of refrigerant-based equipment.

  1. Rust preventive oil additives based on microbial fats

    SciTech Connect

    Salenko, V.I.; Fedorov, V.V.; Kazantsev, Yu.E.

    1983-03-01

    This article investigates the composition and lubricating properties of microbial fats obtained from microorganisms grown on various hydrocarbon substrates (n-paraffins, alcohols, natural gas, petroleum distillates, etc.). Focuses on the protective functions of the 4 main fractions (unsaponifiables, free fatty acids, glycerides, and phospholipids) which comprise the microbial fat from a yeast grown on purified liquid n-paraffins. Concludes that neutralized microbial fats can be used as preservative additives; that the principal components of the microbial fats have the properties necessary for oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors; that the phospholipids of the microbial fat can fulfill the functions of not only preservative additives, but also highly effective operational/ preservative additives; and that fats of microbial origin can be used in the development of multipurpose polyfunctional additives.

  2. The Influence of the Lubricant Mixture into a Refrigerant on the Condensation Heat Transfer in Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Miyai, Ryo; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Kawai, Akinari

    In a refrigerator and an air conditioner, it is a well-known fact that the contamination of lubricant into a pure refrigerant has a great influence on the heat transfer characteristics and two-phase flow behavior at the condenser and evaporator. However, up to now, in the most of heat exchanger design, the refrigerant has been regarded as a pure one. On the other hand, a recent condenser tube diameter tends to be fine to overcome the various demands on the compactness and the high performance, especially required for the alternative refrigerant. Unfortunately, quantitative studies of the tube less than 6 mm in diameter were insufficient, moreover, only few studies have been made including the effect of the oil contamination on the condensation heat transfer. In this study, we employed HFC134a as a refrigerant and PAG-oil as a lubricant and experiments with a flat tube and three kinds of circular tube which has different diameters were made. By using the flow visualization data, a new flow pattern map being applicable both of a pure and oil-lubricant mixture was proposed. Moreover, by examining the local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, the most sensitive flow pattern affected by contamination of lubricant was specified and the detailed discussion on the quantitative effect of oil contamination on condensation heat transfer including the effect of tube geometry was carried out. Finally, based on these results, new correlation for heat transfer and pressure drop was suggested, and it predicted our data successfully well up to a mass flux of 150kg/(m2•s.)

  3. An economical route to high quality lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, J.P.; Hahn, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.; Min, W.

    1996-12-01

    The current rends in the automotive and industrial markets toward more efficient engines, longer drain intervals, and lower emissions all contribute to placing increasingly stringent performance requirements on lubricants. The demand for higher quality synthetic and non-conventional basestocks is expected to grow at a much faster rate than that of conventional lube basestocks to meet these higher performance standards. Yukong Limited has developed a novel technology (the Yukong UCO Lube Process) for the economic production of high quality, high-viscosity-index lube basestocks from a fuels hydrocracker unconverted oil stream. A pilot plant based on this process has been producing oils for testing purposes since May 1994. A commercial facility designed to produce 3,500 BPD of VHVI lube basestocks cane on-stream at Yukong`s Ulsan refinery in October 1995. The Badger Technology Center of Raytheon Engineers and Constructors assisted Yukong during the development of the technology and prepared the basic process design package for the commercial facility. This paper presents process aspects of the technology and comparative data on investment and operating costs. Yukong lube basestock product properties and performance data are compared to basestocks produced by conventional means and by lube hydrocracking.

  4. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  5. Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

  6. Effect of lubricant environment on saw damage in silicon wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, T. S.; Shih, K. K.; Vanvechten, J. A.; Westdorp, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemomechanical effect of lubricant environments on the inner diameter (ID) sawing induced surface damage in Si wafers was tested for four different lubricants: water, dielectric oil, and two commercial cutting solutions. The effects of applying different potential on Si crystals during the sawing were also tested. It is indicated that the number and depth of surface damage are sensitive to the chemical nature of the saw lubricant. It is determined that the lubricants that are good catalysts for breaking Si bonds can dampen the out of plane blade vibration more effectively and produce less surface damage. Correlations between the applied potential and the depth of damage in the dielectric oil and one of the commercial cutting solutions and possible mechanisms involved are discussed.

  7. Lubricating system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, T.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, crankcase, a crankshaft, a balancer shaft rotated by the crankshaft through gears, and an oil pump, comprising: a cover secured to the crankcase to form a part of the crankcase, the crankshaft being supported by a first bearing provided in the cover and by a second bearing provided in the crankcase; a first oil passage provided in the crankcase and cover and extending from an opening at a bottom of the crankcase to an inlet of the oil pump; a second oil passage provided in the cover and extending from an outlet of the oil pump to a first opening which opens to a journal of the crankshaft; a third oil passage provided in the crankshaft and extending from a second opening corresponding to the first opening to third openings which open to the first and second bearings and to connecting rods at crankpins of the crankshaft.

  8. The Effect of Lubricant Viscosity in High Pressure Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahrullail, S.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Seah, W. B.

    2010-06-01

    In this research, the effects of viscosity of lubricant in cold work extrusion process were investigated. The experimental evaluation was carried out by using cold work plane strain extrusion apparatus with a pair of 45-degree die half angle and a symmetrical workpiece (billet). The billet material was annealed pure aluminum, A1100. The analytical evaluation was carried out using a visioplasticity method. The testing lubricant is RBD palm olein, RBD palm stearin and palm fatty acid distillate. The results were compared with the additive free paraffinic mineral oil. The result shows that palm oil has advantage in reducing the extrusion load. We confirmed that palm oil showed satisfactory lubrication performance, as compared to additive free paraffinic mineral oil.

  9. Effects of lubrication on the performance of high speed spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, Hachiro; Isikawa, Yuuichi; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental analysis was conducted to determine power loss and gear noise of high speed spur gears with long addendum under various conditions of load, speed, and oil jet pressure for into mesh lubrication. Power losses were calculated from temperature measurements of lubricating oil, gears, gear box, and oil flow rate. Furthermore, power loss was divided into windage loss, friction loss and churning loss. The results show that windage loss and churning loss were the main components of gear power loss of high gear speed. In addition, lubricating conditions had some influences on gear noise especially under low oil temperature or high viscosity.

  10. An analytical method for lubricant quality control by NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zamora, David; Blanco, Marcelo; Bautista, Manel; Mulero, Rufí; Mir, Miquel

    2012-01-30

    The excellent compatibility of polyol esters (POEs) with general fluids coolants such as CO(2) and non-chlorinated coolants (e.g. hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs) in terms of solubility, miscibility and chemical stability has fostered their use as lubricants by the refrigeration industry. The most widely used POEs bases consist of esters of polyalcohols - such as pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol and neopentylglycol - with mixtures of carboxylic acids of 4-10 carbon atoms. Their thermophysical properties (viscosity mainly) are crucial with a view to producing efficient lubricants for specific applications. Usually, POE formulations, which usually contain several bases, are characterized in terms of global indices. In this work, we developed a methodology based on NIR spectroscopy for the characterization and analysis of lubricant formulations. The products, including lubricant bases and lubricant formulations, are characterized by reference to two spectral libraries that are used to identify as the starting lubricant bases as well as the lubricant formulations. It has been proposed to build libraries in cascade for the differentiation of lubricant formulations without and with low content in additives. Once the identification of the formulation is applied PLS multivariate models are used to determine the components of a lubricant formulation and its viscosity. PMID:22284520

  11. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. New Lubricants Protect Machines and the Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 1994, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Operations commissioned Sun Coast Chemicals of Daytona Inc to develop a new type of lubricant that would be safe for the environment and help "grease the wheels" of the shuttle-bearing launcher platform. Founded in 1989, Sun Coast Chemicals is known amongst the racing circuit for effective lubricants that help overcome engine and transmission problems related to heat and wear damage. In a matter of weeks, Sun Coast Chemical produced the biodegradable, high-performance X-1R Crawler Track Lube. In 1996, Sun Coast Chemical determined there was a market for this new development, and introduced three derivative products, Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lubricant, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid, and then quickly followed with a gun lubricant/cleaner and a fishing rod and reel lubricant. Just recently, Sun Coast introduced the X-1R Corporation, which folds the high-performance, environmentally safe benefits into a full line of standard automotive and specially formulated racing products. The entire X-1R automotive product line has stood up to rigorous testing by groups such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Oakland University (Rochester, Michigan), and Morgan-McClure Motorsports (Abingdon, Virginia). The X-1R Corporation also markets "handy packs" for simple jobs around the house, consisting of a multi-purpose, multi-use lubricant and grease. In 2003, The X-1R Corporation teamed up with Philadelphia-based Penn Tackle Manufacturing Co., a leading manufacturer of fishing tackle since 1932, to jointly develop and market a line of advanced lubrication products for saltwater and freshwater anglers

  13. Liquid lubrication in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  14. Origins of hydration lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

  15. Origins of hydration lubrication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication. PMID:25585501

  16. Solid lubrication design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, B. B.; Yonushonis, T. M.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A single element traction rig was used to measure the traction forces at the contact of a ball against a flat disc at room temperature under combined rolling and sliding. The load and speed conditions were selected to match those anticipated for bearing applications in adiabatic diesel engines. The test program showed that the magnitude of traction forces were almost the same for all the lubricants tested; a lubricant should, therefore, be selected on the basis of its ability to prevent wear of the contact surfaces. Traction vs. slide/roll ratio curves were similar to those for liquid lubricants but the traction forces were an order of magnitude higher. The test data was used to derive equations to predict traction force as a function of contact stress and rolling speed. Qualitative design guidelines for solid lubricated concentrated contacts are proposed.

  17. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  18. Lubrication and cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V; Dowson, D

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of lubrication of human synovial joints have been analysed in terms of the operating conditions of the joint, the synovial fluid and articular cartilage. In the hip and knee during a walking cycle the load may rise up to four times body weight. In the knee on dropping one metre the load may go up to 25 time body weight. The elastic modulus of cartilage is similar to that of the synthetic rubber of a car tyre. The cartilage surface is rough and in elderly specimens the centre line average is 2-75 mum. The friction force generated in reciprocating tests shows that both cartilage and synovial fluid are important in lubrication. The viscosity-shear rate relationships of normal synovial fluid show that it is non-Newtonian. Osteoarthrosic fluid is less so and rheumatoid fluid is more nearly Newtonian. Experiments with hip joints in a pendulum machine show that fluid film lubrication obtains at some phases of joint action. Boundary lubrication prevails under certain conditions and has been examined with a reciprocating friction machine. Digestion of hyaluronate does not alter the boundary lubrication, but trypsin digestion does. Surface active substances (lauryl sulphate and cetyl 3-ammonium bromide) give a lubricating ability similar to that of synovial fluid. The effectiveness of the two substances varies with pH. Images Fig. 10 PMID:3490

  19. Lubrication by glycoprotein brushes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappone, Bruno; Ruths, Marina; Greene, George W.; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Grafted polyelectrolyte brushes show excellent lubricating properties under water and have been proposed as a model to study boundary lubrication in biological system. Lubricin, a glycoprotein of the synovial fluid, is considered the major boundary lubricant of articular joints. Using the Surface Force Apparatus, we have measured normal and friction forces between model surfaces (negatively charged mica, positively charged poly-lysine and aminothiol, hydrophobic alkanethiol) bearing adsorbed layers of lubricin. Lubricin layers acts like a versatile anti-adhesive, adsorbing on all the surfaces considered and creating a repulsion similar to the force between end-grafted polymer brushes. Analogies with polymer brushes also appear from bridging experiment, where proteins molecules are end-adsorbed on two opposing surfaces at the same time. Lubricin `brushes' show good lubricating ability at low applied pressures (P<0.5MPa), especially on negatively charged surfaces like mica. At higher load, the adsorbed layers wears and fails lubricating the surfaces, while still protecting the underlying substrate from wearing. Lubricin might thus be a first example of biological polyelectrolytes providing `brush-like' lubrication and wear-protection.

  20. Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2009-06-16

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.