Science.gov

Sample records for oil based lubricants

  1. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  2. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid 'tribofilms', which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant's anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm. PMID:27488799

  3. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid ‘tribofilms’, which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant’s anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon–carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  4. Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Sevim Z; Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu

    2008-10-01

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, or total loss applications. This threat to the environment can be avoided by either preventing undesirable losses, reclaiming and recycling mineral oil lubricants, or using environmentally friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment friendly lubricants. Lubricants based on vegetable oils display excellent tribological properties, high viscosity indices, and flash points. To compete with mineral-oil-based lubricants, some of their inherent disadvantages, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature stability, must be corrected. One way to address these problems is chemical modification of vegetable oils at the sites of unsaturation. After a one-step chemical modification, the chemically modified soybean oil derivatives were studied for thermo-oxidative stability using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and a thin-film micro-oxidation test, low-temperature fluid properties using pour-point measurements, and friction-wear properties using four-ball and ball-on-disk configurations. The lubricants formulated with chemically modified soybean oil derivatives exhibit superior low-temperature flow properties, improved thermo-oxidative stability, and better friction and wear properties. The chemically modified soybean oil derivatives having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation have potential in the formulation of industrial lubricants. PMID:18783238

  5. Environmentally friendly lubricating oil candidate.

    PubMed

    Ozgülsün, A; Karaosmanoğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic lubricating oils based on renewable sources, excluding petroleum, have a great importance among all of the lubricating oil alternatives that are included in the research field about clean and environmentally friendly lubricating oil technologies. One of the environmentally friendly lubricating oils is a vegetable oil-based product. In this study, the esterification product of oleic acid with a fraction of molasses fusel oil as a lubricating oil candidate was determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard tests. The results indicate that the ester product can be used as an environmental friendly lubricating oil or lubricating oil additive. PMID:10399269

  6. Soybean oil-based lubricants: a search for synergistic antioxidants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils can contribute towards the goal of energy independence and security due to their naturally renewable resource. They are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, superior viscosity-temperature characteristic...

  7. Lubricant base oil and wax processing. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes. It furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

  8. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  9. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  10. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-05-04

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  11. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  12. Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

    Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

  13. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  14. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  15. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  16. Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil-based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil (PSO)-based lubricants have been investigated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method. It was found that PSO samples have lower oxidative stability than their precursor, soybean oil. The main reason for the...

  17. High-temperature lubricants and oils. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the chemical composition and properties of high temperature lubricants, oils, and hydraulic fluids. The testing and uses of these lubricants are discussed. The performance of solid, liquid and dry lubricants are evaluated. Also discussed are self-lubricating materials used in bearings and coatings. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

  19. Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

  20. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  1. Tribological properties of few-layer graphene oxide sheets as oil-based lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a lubricant largely depends on the additives it involves. However, currently used additives cause severe pollution if they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) consists of only C, H and O and thus is considered to be environmentally friendly. So the tribological properties of the few-layer GO sheet as an additive in hydrocarbon base oil are investigated systematically. It is found that, with the addition of GO sheets, both the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear are decreased and the working temperature range of the lubricant is expanded in the positive direction. Moreover, GO sheets has better performance under higher sliding speed and the optimized concentration of GO sheets is determined to be 0.5wt%. After rubbing, GO is detected on the wear scars through Raman spectroscopy. And it is believed that, during the rubbing, GO sheets adhere to the sliding surfaces, behaving like protective films and preventing the sliding surfaces from contacting with each other directly. This paper proves that the GO sheet is an effective lubricant additive, illuminates the lubrication mechanism, and provides some critical parameters for the practical application of GO sheets in lubrication.

  2. Impact of an oil-based lubricant on the effectiveness of the sterilization processes .

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2008-01-01

    Surgical instruments, including hinged instruments, were inoculated with test microorganisms (ie, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, approximately 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units [cfu]; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, approximately 3 x 10(6) cfu; Escherichia coli, approximately 2 x 10(5) cfu; vancomycin-resistant enterococci, 1 x 10(5) cfu; Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, 2 x 10(5) cfu or more; or Bacillus atrophaeus spores, 9 x 10(4) cfu or more), coated with an oil-based lubricant (hydraulic fluid), subjected to a sterilization process, and then samples from the instruments were cultured. We found that the oil-based lubricant did not alter the effectiveness of the sterilization process because high numbers of clinically relevant bacteria and standard test spores (which are relatively resistant to the sterilization process) were inactivated. PMID:18171191

  3. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  4. Succinimide lubricating oil dispersant

    SciTech Connect

    Wisotsky, M.J.; Bloch, R.; Brownwell, D.W.; Chen, F.J.; Gutierrez, A.

    1987-08-11

    A lubricating oil composition is described exhibiting improved dispersancy in both gasoline and diesel engines comprising a major amount of lubricating oil and 0.5 to 10 weight percent of a dispersant, the dispersant being prepared in a sequential process comprising the steps of: (a) in a first step reacting an oil-soluble polyolefin succinic anhydride, the olefin being a C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ olefin and an alkylene polyamine of the formula H/sub 2/N(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/(NH(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/)/sub m/sup -// NH/sub 2/ wherein n is 2 or 3 and m is 0 to 10, in a molar ratio of about 1.0 to 2.2 moles of polyolefin succinic anhydride per mole of polyamine, and (b) reacting the product of step (a) with dicarboxylic acid anhydride selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride in sufficient molar proportions to provide a total mole ratio of about 2,3 to 3.0 moles of anhydride compounds per mole of polyamine.

  5. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  6. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  7. Lubricant Properties of Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent a small section of the market today, but recent legislation in both the United States and Europe could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character unlike petroleum oil based products. In order to understand th...

  8. New Method to Produce an Industrial Lubrication Fluid from Vegetable Oil-based Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The projected demand for industrial and automotive lubricants in the U.S. is ~2.6 billion gallons by 2017, where bio-based lubricants will play an increasing role, from a share of 0.6% today to a possible 1.2% by 2017. This is accompanied by the expected price increase to >$7.00/gallon which will g...

  9. Solvent dewaxing of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-04-09

    This paper describes improvement in a process for producing a dewaxed lubricating oil from a wax-bearing mineral oil by the steps comprising; mixing the oil with a dewaxing solvent thereby forming an oil-solvent mixture, chilling the oil-solvent mixture to a dewaxing temperature thereby crystallizing the wax and forming an oil-solvent crystalline wax mixture, separating the oil-solvent-crystalline wax mixture to form a dewaxed oil-solvent mixture and crystalline wax, steam stripping the dewaxed oil-solvent mixture at a temperature of 300{degrees}F to 600{degrees}F and pressure of 1 atm to 3 atm, to yield a solvent free dewaxed oil.

  10. Acute, subchronic, and developmental toxicological properties of lubricating oil base stocks.

    PubMed

    Dalbey, Walden E; McKee, Richard H; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky; Biles, Robert W; Murray, Jay; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Lubricating oil base stocks (LOBs) are substances used in the manufacture of finished lubricants and greases. They are produced from residue remaining after atmospheric distillation of crude oil that is subsequently fractionated by vacuum distillation and additional refining steps. Initial LOB streams that have been produced by vacuum distillation but not further refined may contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and may present carcinogenic hazards. In modern refineries, LOBs are further refined by multistep processes including solvent extraction and/or hydrogen treatment to reduce the levels of PACs and other undesirable constituents. Thus, mildly (insufficiently) refined LOBs are potentially more hazardous than more severely (sufficiently) refined LOBs. This article discusses the evaluation of LOBs using statistical models based on content of PACs; these models indicate that insufficiently refined LOBs (potentially carcinogenic LOBs) can also produce systemic and developmental effects with repeated dermal exposure. Experimental data were also obtained in ten 13-week dermal studies in rats, eight 4-week dermal studies in rabbits, and seven dermal developmental toxicity studies with sufficiently refined LOBs (noncarcinogenic and commonly marketed) in which no observed adverse effect levels for systemic toxicity and developmental toxicity were 1000 to 2000 mg/kg/d with dermal exposures, typically the highest dose tested. Results in both oral and inhalation developmental toxicity studies were similar. This absence of toxicologically relevant findings was consistent with lower PAC content of sufficiently refined LOBs. Based on data on reproductive organs with repeated dosing and parameters in developmental toxicity studies, sufficiently refined LOBs are likely to have little, if any, effect on reproductive parameters. PMID:24567344

  11. Evaluation of PS 212 Coatings Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions with an Ester-based Oil to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Loomis, William R.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    High friction and wear of turbine engine components occur during high temperature excursions above the oxidation threshold of the liquid lubricant. This paper reports on research to study the use of a high temperature self lubricating coating, PS 212 for back-up lubrication in the event of failure of the liquid lubricant. Pin on disk tests were performed under dry and boundary-lubricated conditions at disk temperatures up to 300 C. The liquid lubricant was a formulated polyol ester qualified under MIL L-23699. At test temperatures above the oil's thermal degradation level, the use of PS 212 reduced wear, providing a back-up lubricant effect.

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  17. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308....308 Lubricating oil and test fuel. (a) Lubricating oil. (1) Use the engine lubricating oil which meets... specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (2) For two-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture...

  18. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308....308 Lubricating oil and test fuel. (a) Lubricating oil. (1) Use the engine lubricating oil which meets... specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (2) For two-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture...

  19. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  20. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines. PMID:14555432

  1. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  2. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  3. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  4. Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

  5. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, John P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  6. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  7. Screening of natural oil basestocks for lubricant applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural oils offer significant advantages, such as resource renewability, biodegradability, and performance properties, compared to petroleum-based products. Their amphiphilic character makes them excellent lubricant candidates. The wide use of vegetable oils is restricted due to low thermo-oxidativ...

  8. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  12. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 90.308... Equipment Provisions § 90.308 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the...

  13. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 90.308... Equipment Provisions § 90.308 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the...

  14. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  15. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  16. Tribological characteristic enhancement effects by polymer thickened oil in lubricated sliding contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Jamari, Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer thickened oils are the most preferred materials for modern lubrication applications due to their high shear. The present paper explores a lubrication mechanism in sliding contact lubricated with polymer thickened oil considering cavitation. Investigations are carried out by using a numerical method based on commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamic) software ANSYS for fluid flow phenomenon (Fluent) to assess the tribological characteristic (i.e. hydrodynamic pressure distribution) of lubricated sliding contact. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model for cavitation is adopted in this simulation to predict the extent of the full film region. The polymer thickened oil is characterized as non-Newtonian power-law fluid. The simulation results show that the cavitation lead lower pressure profile compared to that without cavitation. In addition, it is concluded that the characteristic of the lubrication performance with polymer thickened oil is strongly dependent on the Power-law index of lubricant.

  17. Vegetable oil based grease formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns have brought forward vegetable oils as alternatives to more expensive synthetic lubricant base oils and less environmental friendly petroleum base stocks, in moderate operating conditions. Vegetable oils are becoming an obvious choice for potential replacement of petroleum ba...

  18. Batch Production of Trimetylolpropane Ester from Palm Oil as Lubricant Base Stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubaidah Sulaiman, Siti; Luqman Chuah, A.; Fakhru`L-Razi, A.

    A batch process for the ransesterification of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) to TMP ester was investigated in a mini pilot reactor. The process was equipped with a high vacuum pump. The experimental studies explored effects of vacuum pressure, temperature, molar ratio, catalyst amount and agitator speed on the overall conversion. Five liters of TMP esters containing 83 to 87 w/w % triesterss (TE) were successfully synthesized after 2 h of reaction time Application of vacuum pump enhanced conversion of TE (w/w %) for the process. High catalyst amount resulted in higher conversion of TE (w/w %) but increased in solid content of the product. This has reduced the product yield due to inefficient separation by gravity settling.

  19. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308 Section 91.308 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.308 Lubricating oil and test fuel....

  20. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR USE AS INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a lot of interest in using vegetable oils (particularly soybean oil) as renewable raw materials for new industrial products including lubricants. This emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing co...

  1. Choline for neutralizing naphthenic acid in fuel and lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, D.G.; Roof, G.L.

    1986-07-15

    A method is described of neutralizing at least a portion of the naphthenic acids present in fuel and lubricating oils which contain naphthenic acids which comprises treating these oils with a neutralizing amount of choline.

  2. Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

  3. Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.

    1978-01-01

    The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

  4. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  5. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  6. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  7. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  8. Thermoreversible gel lubricants through universal supramolecular assembly of a nonionic surfactant in a variety of base lubricating liquids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiangliang; Fan, Mingjin; Li, Dongmei; Song, Zenghong; Cai, Meirong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-09-24

    The present paper investigates a new type of thermoreversible gel lubricant obtained by supramolecular assembly of low-molecular-weight organic gelator (LMWG) in different base oils. The LMWG is a nonionic surfactant with polar headgroup and hydrophobic tail that can self-assemble through collective noncovalent intermolecular interactions (H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction) to form fibrous structures and trap base oils (mineral oils, synthetic oils, and water) in the as-formed cavities. The gel lubricants are fully thermoreversible upon heating-up and cooling down and exhibit thixotropic characteristics. This makes them semisolid lubricants, but they behave like oils. The tribological test results disclosed that the LMWG could also effectively reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs compared with base oils without gelator. It is expected that when being used in oil-lubricated components, such as gear, rolling bearing, and so on, gel lubricant may effectively avoid base oil leak and evaporation loss and so is a benefit to operation and lubrication failure for a long time. PMID:25111146

  9. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  10. Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  12. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  13. Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of the engines and compressors. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. Catalytic process for manufacture of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Gorring, R.L.; La, P.R.

    1981-09-29

    A method is disclosed for converting an asphalt-free heavy hydrocarbon oil to high V.I. low pour point lube base stock and naphtha. The heavy oil is first catalytically dewaxed with a catalyst such as ni-zsm-5 and the dewaxed oil is then hydrocracked, or hydroconverted with a large pore zeolite catalyst such as dealuminized Y or zsm-20 associated with palladium. The V.I. is controlled by the severity of the hydroconversion step.

  15. Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

  16. Surfactant effects on bio-based emulsions used as lubrication fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful formulation of a lubricating emulsion requires carefully balancing the mixture of base oil, water and a plethora of additives. The factors that affect the performance of lubrication emulsions range from the macroscopic stability to the microscopic surface properties of the base oil. ...

  17. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  18. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

  19. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time. PMID:21361948

  20. Rise of Air Bubbles in Aircraft Lubricating Oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.

    1950-01-01

    Lubricating and antifoaming additives in aircraft lubricating oils may impede the escape of small bubbles from the oil by forming shells of liquid with a quasi-solid or gel structure around the bubbles. The rates of rise of small air bubbles, up to 2 millimeters in diameter, were measured at room temperature in an undoped oil, in the same oil containing foam inhibitors, and in an oil containing lubricating additives. The apparent diameter of the air bubbles was measured visually through an ocular micrometer on a traveling telescope. The bubbles in the undoped oil obeyed Stokes' Law, the rate of rise being proportional to the square of the apparent diameter and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the oil. The bubbles in the oils containing lubricating additives or foam inhibitors rose more slowly than the rate predicted by Stokes 1 Law from the apparent diameter, and the rate of rise decreased as the length of path the bubbles traveled increased. A method is derived to calculate the thickness of the liquid shell which would have to move with the bubbles in the doped oils to account for the abnoi'I!l8.lly slow velocity. The maximum thickness of this shell, calculated from the velocities observed, was equal to the bubble radius.

  1. Lubricating oil analysis for wear monitoring. January 1984-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 84-Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis of lubricating oils to determine and monitor the wear of mechanical equipment. The purpose of the analysis is to predict failure before it occurs in order to undertake corrective maintenance. Considerable attention is given to specific programs implemented by the military services. Various detectors and analytical methods are included, as well as their utilization in oil analyses. (Contains 164 citations with title list and subject index.)

  2. Current Uses of Vegetable Oil in the Surfactant, Fuel, and Lubrication Industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New developments in the surfactant, bio-diesel, and lubricant industries are discussed in a review with 46 references on the recent use of vegetable oil for non-food applications. Highlighted in the surfactant section, is the development of a glycerol and vegetable oil based surfactant which disp...

  3. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  4. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  5. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  6. Interactions between sealing materials and lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Winkenbach, R.; Von Arndt, E.M.; Mindermann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasingly higher application demands, engine and transmission manufactures are today using lubrication oils with more and more additives. The result is that seal materials are being damaged when exposed to such conditions and such additives. This paper shows the effects of basic oils with, and without, additives on elastomeric materials such as NBR, ACM, MVQ and FPM.

  7. Base Oils from Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  8. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  9. Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

  10. Development of an instrumentation system for measurement of degradation of lubricating oil using optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, S.; Bordoloi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an instrumentation system to measure the degradation in lubricating oil using a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) sensor probe and a temperature probe. The sensor system consists of (i) a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) as optical sensor along with a laser source and a LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) as detector (ii) a temperature sensor (iii) a ATmega microcontroller based data acquisition system and (iv) a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The BTBMOF sensor and the temperature sensor are used to provide the measure of refractive index (RI) and the temperature of a lubricating oil sample. A microcontroller based instrumentation system with trained ANN algorithm has been developed to determine the degradation of the lubricating oil sample by sampling the readings of the optical fiber sensor, and the temperature sensor.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  13. [Monitoring Water in Lubricating Oil with Min-Infrared LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang-wu; Tian, Hong-xiang; Ming, Ting-feng; Yang, Kun

    2015-06-01

    A method that could be used to quantify the water concentration in ship machinery lubricating oil based on Mid-infrared LED is discussed. A Mid-infrared LED with peak emission wavelength of 2 840 nm and FWHM of 400 nm is used as the light source, the emitting light is partly absorbed by the oil sample, the remaining is received by the infrared detector. The percentage of water is determined according to the absorbance. In the experiment, a optical configuration including the transmission, absorbing and receiving of infrared light is designed, calcium fluoride wafer is used as the window, a hard metal coil with circular section is selected as the washer to get the fixed thickness of oil film accurately, a photoelectric diode with detection wavelength of 2 500-4 800 nm and response time of 10-20 ns is used as the detector of light intensity. Matching with this, a system of signal preamplifier, microcontroller-based data acquisition, storage and communication is developed. Absorbance data of six oil samples with different water mass concentration: 0, 0.062 5%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375% and 0.5% is acquired through experiment. Fitting the data by the method of least squares, a linear equation in terms of absorbance and water concentration is obtained, and the determination coefficient is 0.996. Finally, in order to test the accuracy of this measurement method, using oil sample with water concentration of 0.317 5% to validate the equation, measuring the absorbance by the experimental device, the water content is calculated through the linear equation, the results show that the relative error is 2.7% between the percentage calculated and the real sample, indicating that this method can accurately measure the water concentration in the oil. PMID:26601352

  14. Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.; Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J.

    1992-02-01

    The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

  15. Physical properties study on partially bio-based lubricant blends: Thermally modified soybean oil with popular commercial esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An initial evaluation of several oils, including: soybean oil (SBO), high oleic SBO, and thermally modified SBO, compared their acid values and viscosities over 28 days stored at 85 deg C. As expected, the acid values and viscosities increased and the high oleic oil demonstrated a smaller effect. ...

  16. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jincan; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; van der Heide, Emile

    2014-10-01

    Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphosphoramidate (DBOP), 6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-ol calcium salt (ODOC) and 2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane (DOB) to generate boundary films on stainless steel AISI 316 and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Experimental results show lower friction values for the emulsions in combination with CoCrMo compared to AISI 316. The different performance of the additives is related to the composition of the adsorption and reaction film on the interacting surfaces, which was shown to be dependent on the active elements and molecular structure of the additives. The friction profile of the emulsions indicates that the emulsion appears to be broken during the rubbing process, then the additives adsorb onto the metal surface to form protecting boundary layers. The XPS analysis shows that for boundary lubrication conditions, the additive molecules in the emulsion first adsorb on the metal surface after the droplet is broken, and then decompose and react with the metal surface during the rubbing process to form stable lubricating films on the rubbed surfaces.

  17. 39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  19. Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

    2012-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality. PMID:22248297

  20. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  1. Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

  2. Effect of metallic-coating properties on the tribology of coated and oil-lubricated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-09-01

    Friction and wear behavior was determined for zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (Ag, Au, and Nb) deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Although the use of soft Ag and Au coatings as solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic oil significantly reduced the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250[degrees]C, these films had poor durability. In contrast, the Nb coating was more durable (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) than were the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated zirconia was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  3. Palm oil derived trimethylolpropane triesters synthetic lubricants and usage in industrial metalworking fluid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Teck-Sin; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Choong, Thomas S Y; Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah; Syam, Azhari M

    2015-01-01

    Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance. PMID:25748374

  4. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  5. Lubricants and functional fluids from lesquerella oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family that is native to the desert of the southwestern United States. The interest in this crop is due to the high level of hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in the oil. The seed contains 33% oil, 23% protein, and 15% gums. The...

  6. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction. PMID:27265613

  7. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  8. The integrated petroleum, oil lubricants data system for the military

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, E.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes a proposed system of a comprehensive database that identifies the correct petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) required to operate, maintain, and sustain all army equipment. The POL products identified by the system for each item ofequipment will represent the optimum POL basic load components. Equivalent alternative products wil be identified to account for possible shortages of the recommended materials, and compatibility data for host nation support agreements will also be available.

  9. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  10. Lubricating oil containing dispersant VII and pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Liu, C.S.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a functionalized polymer capable of use as an additive in lubricating oils. The process comprises first units, derived from first monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated carbon-to-carbon double bond; and second units, derived from a different second monomer, a dicarboxylic acid anhydride containing an ethylenically unsaturated carbon-to-carbon double bond; and the polymer bearing, bonded to the dicarboxylic-acid-derived moiety, functionalizing groups derived from: a primary or secondary functionalizing amine R/sup 7//sub 2/(NR/sup 9/)/sub ..cap alpha../NR/sup 8//sub 2/ where R/sup 7/ is alkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl hydrocarbon, R/sup 8/ is hydrogen or selected from the same group as in R/sup 7/, R/sup 9/ is alkylene, aralkylene, cycloalkylene, alkarylene, or arylene, and a is 0.20. The amine is bonded to the polymer through a nitrogen atom of the amine group; and, a functionalizing Mannich base is formed by reacting a phenol containing an active hydrogen atom, an aldehyde and a primary or secondary polyamine. The Mannich base is bonded to the polymer through a nitrogen atom of the amine group.

  11. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  12. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  13. Nanotechnology in action: overbased nanodetergents as lubricant oil additives.

    PubMed

    Hudson, L K; Eastoe, J; Dowding, P J

    2006-11-16

    The synthesis and study of oil-soluble metal carbonate colloids are of interest in the area of lubricant additives. These surfactant-stabilised nanoparticles are important components in marine and automotive engine oils. Recently introduced, environmentally driven legislation has focused on lowering of gaseous emissions by placing limits on the levels of phosphorous sulphur and ash allowed in engine oil systems. These chemical limits, coupled with improved engine performance and extended oil drainage intervals, have lead to renewed interest in the production of stable, efficient nanodetergent systems. To date, this has resulted in modification of existing surfactant structures and development of new generations of surfactants. This review covers the current state of research in the area of nanodetergents. PMID:16860284

  14. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke mopeds operated with synthetic lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke (2-S) mopeds operated with ester-based, fully synthetic lubricating oil. Exhaust particulate matter (PM) from ten 2-S, 50 cm3 mopeds belonging to three different levels of emission legislation (EURO-0, EURO-1 and EURO-2) was collected during the sampling phase of the ECE 47 driving cycle through which each mopeds was driven on a dynamometer bench. Filters containing PM were extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor and analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. The contribution of unburned lubricating oil to the PM was ascertained and quantified by exploiting characteristic ions in its mass spectrum. The experimental results show that unburned lubricating oil accounted for a significant fraction (4.7-38.7%) of the PM emitted from 2-S mopeds. Emission rates of particulate unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes from non-catalyst EURO-0 mopeds were 15.4-56.2 mg km(-1) and 1-2 mg km(-1), respectively. These emission rates were reduced of 75% and 88%, respectively, for catalyst-equipped EURO-1 mopeds. The results of the tests carried out on two EURO-2 mopeds of different technology were contrasting. A EURO-2 moped with carburettor and secondary air injection exhibited a clear reduction of 95% and 88% for unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes emission rates with respect to the average values observed for EURO-1 mopeds. On the other hand, the second EURO-2 moped, equipped with catalyst and direct injection, had unburned lubricating oil emission rates roughly in the range of EURO-0 mopeds while particulate n-alkanes were emitted at rates comparable with typical values observed for catalyst EURO-1 mopeds. PMID:19244644

  15. Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.

    PubMed

    Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

    2014-08-13

    After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. PMID:25046076

  16. High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

  17. Lubricating oil dominates primary organic aerosol emissions from motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Gentner, Drew R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Chan, Arthur W H; Ruehl, Christopher; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Wilson, Kevin R; Harley, Robert A; Goldstein, Allen H

    2014-04-01

    Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic aerosol (POA), which is a mixture of a large number of organic compounds that have not been comprehensively characterized. In this work, we apply a recently developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry approach utilizing "soft" vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to achieve unprecedented chemical characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA was characterized by number of carbon atoms (NC), number of double bond equivalents (NDBE) and degree of molecular branching. Vehicular POA was observed to predominantly contain cycloalkanes with one or more rings and one or more branched alkyl side chains (≥80%) with low abundances of n-alkanes and aromatics (<5%), similar to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring structures are most likely dominated by cyclohexane and cyclopentane rings and not larger cycloalkanes. High molecular weight combustion byproducts, that is, alkenes, oxygenates, and aromatics, were not present in significant amounts. The observed carbon number and chemical composition of motor vehicle POA was consistent with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional smaller contribution from unburned diesel fuel and a negligible contribution from unburned gasoline. PMID:24621254

  18. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  19. A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2002-01-01

    Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

  20. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  1. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  2. Lubricating oil compositions containing poly(oxyalkylene) aminoether carbamates as dispersing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Plavac, F.

    1988-03-01

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition comprising a major portion of oil of lubrication viscosity, and a minor amount of poly(oxyalkylene) aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl carbamate having a molecular weight of about 500 to 10,000; wherein the poly(oxyalkylene) moiety of the carbamate is comprised of oxyalkylene units selected from C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ oxyalkylene units which a sufficient number are branched-chain oxyalkylene units to render the carbamates soluble in lubricating oil; and the aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl moiety of the carbamate being derived from a diaminoether having from 2 to 60 carbon atoms.

  3. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. PMID:23618159

  4. Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency system and as a primary lubrication system. [for helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication system was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through system with auxiliary air cooling is an effective primary lubrication system at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Amine Functionalized Vegetable Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of the lubricants and additives currently used are petroleum based that are toxic to the environment, making it increasingly difficult for safe and easy disposal. There has been an increasing demand for green lubricants and lubricant additives in recent years due to concerns about thei...

  6. Research on the Injection Performance of a Novel Lubricating Device Based on Piezoelectric Micro-Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun-kao; Chen, Wei-shan; Ye, Le; Zhang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve the problem of lubrication failure in bearing systems, a novel lubricating device which can achieve drop-on-demand lubrication is proposed based on piezoelectric micro-jet technology. The injection performance of the novel piezoelectric micro-jet lubricating device are analyzed in this paper. The influences of the fluid-structure interaction to the working frequency are studied by comparing the results of tests with simulations. A method used to forecast the working frequency of the micro-jet is proved to be available. A velocity inlet boundary model at the nozzle is derived under the assumption that the lubricating oil cannot be pressed. Combined with this model, the influences of density, dynamic viscosity and surface tension of the lubricating oil on the injection performance are discussed according to the simulation results. An experiment on the injection performance of the micro-jet for ejecting lubricating oil with different dilution ratios is performed. The recommended excitations are given for ejecting lubricating oil with different properties by analyzing the results.

  7. Research on the Injection Performance of a Novel Lubricating Device Based on Piezoelectric Micro-Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun-kao; Chen, Wei-shan; Ye, Le; Zhang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of lubrication failure in bearing systems, a novel lubricating device which can achieve drop-on-demand lubrication is proposed based on piezoelectric micro-jet technology. The injection performance of the novel piezoelectric micro-jet lubricating device are analyzed in this paper. The influences of the fluid-structure interaction to the working frequency are studied by comparing the results of tests with simulations. A method used to forecast the working frequency of the micro-jet is proved to be available. A velocity inlet boundary model at the nozzle is derived under the assumption that the lubricating oil cannot be pressed. Combined with this model, the influences of density, dynamic viscosity and surface tension of the lubricating oil on the injection performance are discussed according to the simulation results. An experiment on the injection performance of the micro-jet for ejecting lubricating oil with different dilution ratios is performed. The recommended excitations are given for ejecting lubricating oil with different properties by analyzing the results.

  8. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  9. WASTE LUBRICATING OIL DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND: POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE TO COASTAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that approximately 35 percent changed their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular method of disposal reported by the respondents was putting the oil in the garbage ...

  10. Observations of Spacecraft Bearing Lubricant Redistribution Based on Thermal Conductance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, Yoshimi R.; Frantz, Peter P.; Hilton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The performance and life of precision ball bearings are critically dependent on maintaining a quantity of oil at the ball/race interface that is sufficient to support a robust protective film. In space applications, where parched conditions are intentionally the norm, harsh operating conditions can displace the small reserves of oil, resulting in reduced film thickness and premature wear. In the past, these effects have proven difficult to model or to measure experimentally. This paper describes a study addressing this challenge, where bearing thermal conductance measurements are employed to infer changes in lubricant quantity at the critical rolling interfaces. In the first part of the paper, we explain how the lubricant's presence and its quantity impacts bearing thermal conductance measurements. For a stationary bearing, we show that conductance is directly related to the lubricant quantity in the ball/race contacts. Hence, aspects of bearing performance related to oil quantity can be understood and insights improved with thermal conductance data. For a moving bearing, a different mechanism of heat transfer dominates and is dependent on lubricant film thickness on the ball. In the second part of the report, we discuss lubricant quantity observations based on bearing thermal conductance measurements. Lubricant quantity, and thus bearing thermal conductance, depends on various initial and operating conditions and is impacted further by the run-in process. A significant effect of maximum run-in speed was also observed, with less oil remaining after obtaining higher speeds. Finally, we show that some of the lubricant that is displaced between the ball and race during run-in operation can be recovered during rest, and we measure the rate of recovery for one example.

  11. Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

  12. STRUCTURE INDUCED THERMO-OXIDATIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIO-BASED SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental awareness has led to new generation of lubricants and fluids based on renewable resources that are nontoxic and eco-friendly. These fluids are potential replacements for mineral oil in various agricultural, marine, forestry and industrial equipment and therefore prevent polluting the ...

  13. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-03-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50. PMID:26730677

  14. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  15. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

  16. Effect of temperature on lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is an important parameter affecting the performance of lubricant ingredients. It affects such important tribological characteristics as viscosity, film thickness, adsorption, desorption, friction, and wear. Temperature also promotes oxidation, polymerization, and degradation which nega...

  17. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  18. Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  19. Pipe flow of pumping wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianjun; Liu, Guoming; Cheng, Weimin; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wet shotcrete can reduce dust and improve supporting strength, however, safe and efficient pipage is a key technical part of wet shotcrete process. The paper studied the pipe flow law of wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer by build the experimental pumping circuit of wet shotcrete that can carry out a number of full-scale pumping tests. The experimental results show there was a linear relationship between pressure loss and flow rate. Combined with the Buckingham rheological equation, the computing equations of the yield shear stress and plastic viscosity were deduced through linear regression. A simple analytical method allowing for a rough estimation of the pumping pressure was proposed and used when considering the lubrication layer of wet shotcrete in pipes. In addition, two kinds of particulate distributive models were established along the time axial to analyze the formation of lubrication layer which is related with particles migration. By computational fluid dynamics simulation, the lubrication layer thickness of different mix proportions was estimated. A new method for measuring the thickness of lubrication layer was proposed to verify it by binarization processing. Finally, according to the comparative analysis of experiments, simulation and computed value, it can be seen that the lubrication layer plays a key role in the process of wet shotcrete flow and with the increase of lubrication layer thickness pipe pressure declines gradually. PMID:27386389

  20. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  1. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  2. Lubrication handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    Information on lubricants from government reports, military specifications, qualified parts lists, and suppliers of commercial lubricants has been consolidated in one source. Handbook includes data on chemical and physical properties of solid, bonded solid, and liquid lubricants; dispersions and composites; and greases, oils, and hydraulic fluids.

  3. The search for higher lubricant stability properties in modified vegetable oil derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this decade, great interest has been stirred up toward the use of renewable resources as industrial fuels, such as bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. Bio-lubricants are also playing a more prominent role and becoming competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. The main draw here is that we can, from y...

  4. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  5. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Sandro; Mohr, Martin; Grob, Koni; Neukom, Hans Peter

    In this study we determined particle-bound paraffins in the exhaust of six light-duty diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus, and the paraffin analysis was performed using two-dimensional normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The different molecular mass of lubricant and diesel paraffins facilitated the distinction between diesel and lubricant contribution to the emission. Although all vehicles were certified according to the same emission class, there were considerable variations between vehicles. The study showed that under cold-start conditions the organic mass fraction ranged from 10% to 30% with respect to particle mass and the paraffins from 30% to 60% with respect to the organic mass. With cold engine, falling ambient temperature increased the emission of unburned diesel fuel, whereas that from unburned lubricating oil was less affected. Under warm-start conditions, the ambient temperature had less impact on the emission of paraffins. The emissions were also affected by the operating conditions of the engine: driving cycles with higher mean load tend towards higher emissions of lubricant. The operating conditions also affected the distribution of paraffins: the emission of light paraffins seemed to be lower with higher load in the driving cycle. With an urban and a highway cycle, roughly 40% and 80% w/w, respectively, of unburned paraffins were contributed by the lubricant. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lubricating oil showed lubricant to be a sink for PAHs. As lubricant significantly contributes to the organic emission, as shown in this study, it can be assumed that it is also a significant source of PAH emissions.

  6. Graphite in lubrication. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning graphite and graphite fluoride as solid lubricants for applications requiring dry lubricants or in conjunction with oils or greases to improve lubrication. Fiber graphite is discussed in the manufacture of composite materials with self-lubricating properties. Graphite as a filler in various bearing materials is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 113 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125μm multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a λ= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven... and a permanent 5° trim. (b) When pressure or gravity-forced lubrication is employed for the steam... coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water...

  10. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  11. Liquid cryogenic lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1970-01-01

    Fluorinated polyethers are suitable lubricants for rolling-element bearings in cryogenic systems. Lubrication effectiveness is comparable to that of super-refined mineral oil lubricants operating at room temperature.

  12. Aviation Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

    Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

  13. NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

  14. Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  16. Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

  17. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  18. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshui, Chen; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO3, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO3 were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO3 as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO3 were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO3 nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO3 in rapeseed oil were attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species of B2O3, CeO2 and Fe2O3, and the adsorbates of SA/CeBO3 and rapeseed oil, on the tribo-surfaces.

  19. The detection of lubricating oil viscosity changes in gearbox transmission systems driven by sensorless variable speed drives using electrical supply parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusaad, S.; Brethee, K.; Assaeh, M.; Zhang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    Lubrication oil plays a decisive role to maintain a reliable and efficient operation of gear transmissions. Many offline methods have been developed to monitor the quality of lubricating oils. This work focus on developing a novel online method to diagnose oil degradation based on the measurements from power supply system to the gearbox. Experimental studies based on an 10kW industrial gearbox fed by a sensorless variable speed drive (VSD) shows that measurable changes in both static power and dynamic behaviour are different with lube oils tested. Therefore, it is feasible to use the static power feature to indicate viscosity changes at low and moderate operating speeds. In the meantime, the dynamic feature can separate viscosity changes for all different tested cases.

  20. On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lijuan; Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Gilon, Nicole; Zeng, Heping; Yu, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined.

  1. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  2. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. PMID:24875837

  3. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  4. Waste lubricating oil removal in a batch reactor by mixed bacterial consortium: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Munna; Guchhait, Sugata; Biswas, Dipa; Datta, Sriparna

    2015-11-01

    The growth kinetics and biodegradation of two waste lubricating oil samples including waste engine oil (WEO) and waste transformer oil (WTO) were studied using pure isolates and mixed culture of Ochrobactrum sp. C1 and Bacillus sp. K1. The mixed culture significantly influenced degradation efficiency of the pure isolates through bioaugmentation process. In particular, the mixed culture was capable of growing on various n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and was able to tolerate unusually high concentrations of waste lubricants (WEO-86.0 g/L and WTO-81.5 g/L). The initial concentration of waste lubricating oils has been varied in the range of 1-10 % (v/v). Under this experimental range, the bacterial growth has been observed to follow Haldane-type kinetics characterizing the presence of substrate inhibition. Haldane model was used to fit the exponential growth data and the following kinetic parameters were obtained: μ max = 0.078 h(-1), K S = 23.101 g/L, K i = 43.844 g/L for WEO; and μ max = 0.044 h(-1), K S = 10.662 g/L, K i = 58.310 g/L for WTO. The values of intrinsic kinetic parameters, like specific growth rate μ max, half saturation constant, K S, inhibition constant, K i and the maximum substrate concentration, S max and growth yield coefficient Y x/s , have been determined using each model hydrocarbon and their mixture as limiting substrate. Relative changes in the values of the kinetic parameters have been correlated to the number of carbon atoms present in n-alkanes. The metabolites from degradation of model hydrocarbon compounds have been identified by GC-MS to elucidate the possible pathway of waste lubricating oil degradation process. PMID:26271337

  5. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  6. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  7. Amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid and lubricating oil composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Nebzydoski, J.W.; Patmore, E.L.

    1981-08-11

    An amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid represented by the formula: 3-(HOOC-R''''-CO-NH-)-1,2,4-triazole. R'''-NH-R''' in which R'''' is an alkylene radical having from 2 to 24 carbon atoms and R''' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms at least one R''' being a hydrocarbyl radical and a lubricating oil composition containing same is provided.

  8. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  9. Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

  10. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  11. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  12. The dynamics and stability of lubricating oil films during droplet transport by electrowetting in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Jairus; Srinivasan, Vijay; Rival, Arnaud; Delattre, Cyril; Velev, Orlin D; Pamula, Vamsee K

    2015-05-01

    The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break. PMID:26045729

  13. The dynamics and stability of lubricating oil films during droplet transport by electrowetting in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Kleinert, Jairus; Srinivasan, Vijay; Rival, Arnaud; Delattre, Cyril; Velev, Orlin D.; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2015-01-01

    The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break. PMID:26045729

  14. Low temperature rheological studies of hydrocarbon base lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Venerus, D.C.; Klaus, E.E.; Duda, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study is designed to evaluate the rheological properties of samples of waxy mineral oil, a wax-free hydrocarbon solvent, wax-free polymer-thickened oils and fully formulated lubricants containing wax and polymer in hydrocarbon solvents. A mechanical spectrometer (cone and plate rotational viscometer) and the mini rotary viscometer were used in these studies. The cooling rate and cold soak times were computer programmed using a mechanical system. A compromise system using a cooling rate of 0.56/sup 0/C/min and a cold soak time of one hour was used in order to produce data in a reasonable time. These values were chosen from the information gained on wax crystal growth and equilibration from the low temperature dewaxing studies conducted at this laboratory.

  15. Recycling of the used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Duarte, C.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Sato, I. M.

    2007-11-01

    The recycling process of the used mineral oils has been gaining a very important gap in the context of environmental protection. Among mineral oils from petroleum, the lubricating oils are not entirely consumed during their use; therefore, it is necessary to apply a treatment for recuperation seeking their reuse. Moreover, the environmental legislation of countries does not allow their discard in any type of soils, rivers, lakes, oceans or sewerage systems. The conventional treatment has shown certain difficulties in the recuperation process for used oils. The ionizing radiation process is renowned in the industrial effluents treatments due to its high efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds and in the removal of metals by the action of OH rad , rad H and e aq radicals. In this work, used automotive lubricating oil was treated by the ionizing radiation process for metal removal and degradation of organic compounds. The samples were irradiated with 100 and 200 kGy irradiation doses. Determination of the elements Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Nb, Cd, Sn, Ba, Bi and Pb, before and after the irradiation, was done by X-ray fluorescence technique and the organic profile was obtained by infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Biobased lubricants and functional products from Cuphea oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (Lythraceae) is an annual plant that produces a small seed rich in saturated medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAGs). With the need for higher seed yields, oil content, and less seed shattering, Oregon State University began developing promising cuphea crosses. Cuphea PSR23 is a hybrid between C...

  17. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  18. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  19. Diesel lubricant composition containing 5-amino-triazole-succinic anhydride reaction product

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.

    1981-03-17

    A diesel crankcase lubricant is described. It contains a lubricating oil base and the reaction product of a hydrocarbyl succinic anhydride. The hydrocarbyl radical has from 12 to 30 carbon atoms and 5-amino-triazole.

  20. Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

  1. Particle size independent spectrometric determination of wear metals in aircraft lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.R.; Saba, C.S.; Rhine, W.E.; Eisentraut, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    A method for the particle size independent determination of Ni, Fe, Mg, Cu, Al, Sn, Mo, and Ti in synthetic ester lubricating oils by spectrometric analysis is presented. Partial dissolution of Cr, Si, Pb, and Ag also occurs. Used ester lubricating oils as well as samples prepared with -325 mesh (44 ..mu..m) or -200 mesh (74 ..mu..m) metal powders were reacted with a small amount of hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia at 65/sup 0/C for 45 min with ultrasonic agitation. The reacted mixture was then diluted with a methyl isobutyl ketone and isopropyl alcohol mixture and analyzed spectrometrically. The recoveries for metal powder suspensions of Ni, Fe, Mg, Cu, Al, Sn, Mo, and Ti ranged from 97 to 103% and the relative standard deviation ranged from 4 to 10%. In addition to the metal powder suspensions, over 200 aircraft oil samples were analyzed. The method is much faster and more convenient than previously reported particle size independent methods using ashing techniques.

  2. Lubricants and Their Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betton, C. I.

    Environmental considerations have increased in importance in the last two decades and lubricants are part of that. The REACH Regulations apply to the components of lubricants. About 50% of a lubricant can be reclaimed using refining processes ranging from acid/clay treatment through to distillation/hydrogenation to produce up to Gp. II quality re-refined base oils. The major possible contaminants are the PAHs, which are effectively removed by optimised distillation/hydrogenation, metals, remnants of VI improvers, water and untreated acids. Sulphur contents of these base oils must be viewed differently from those of virgin mineral base oils. Certain PAHs are recognised carcinogens and pose a health and safety risk and must be controlled. The use of re-refined base oils is driven by the concept of 'sustainability', to minimise pollution and maximise the use of resources.

  3. Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics and Space Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wal, Randy L. Vander

    2007-01-01

    The tribology program at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is investigating carbon based nano-particles for their potential in advanced concept lubrication products. Service conditions range from high temperature atmospheric to low temperature vacuum. Some of the lubricants and surface coatings of tribological significance that we have evaluated include neat nano-particles, both grown in-situ and as bulk material deposited on the substrate, and nano-particles dispersed in oils which are all highly substrate interactive. We discuss results of testing these systems in a spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) and a unidirectional pin-on-disc (PoD) tribometer. A nano-onions/Krytox mixture evaluated as a lubricant for angular contact bearings in air caused a marked lowering of the coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.04 to 0.05) for the mixture with an eight-fold improvement in lifetime over that of the Krytox alone. In vacuum, no effect was observed from the nano-onions. Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) and graphitized MWNT were tested under sliding friction in both air and vacuum. The MWNT which were grown in-situ oriented normal to the sliding surface exhibited low CoF (0.04) and long wear lives. Bulk MWNT also generate low CoF (0.01 to 0.04, vacuum; and 0.06, air) and long wear life (>1 million orbits, vacuum; and >3.5 million, air). Dispersed graphitized MWNT were superior to MWNT and both were superior to aligned MWNT indicating that orientation is not an issue for solid lubrication. Single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) were modified by cutting into shorter segments and by fluorination. All SWNTs exhibited low CoF in air, with good wear lives. The SWNT with slight fluorination yielded an ultra-low CoF of 0.002 although the best wear life was attributed to the nascent SWNT.

  4. Biobased, environmentally friendly lubricants for processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil based lubricants have excellent lubricity, biodegradability, good viscosity temperature characteristics and low evaporation loss, but poor thermos-oxidative stability and cold flow properties. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidative and cold flow behavior of...

  5. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft. PMID:10701290

  6. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

  7. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  8. Forging processes: Lubrication. January 1970-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning lubricants used in the forging industries to reduce tool wear and help prevent buildup formation on tools. Methods developed to select and evaluate forging lubricants for both safety and effectiveness are described. Low-pollution level, water-based synthetic lubricants, and non-corrosive, graphite-free lubricants are described. Mathematical modelling and finite element analyses used to determine lubricant dosage and distribution are included. (Contains 189 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2007-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

  10. Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes

    SciTech Connect

    De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

    1983-10-01

    A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  11. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  12. Lubrication with solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

  13. THE USE AND FATE OF LUBRICANTS, OILS, GREASES, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the use and fate of lubricants, oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids in the iron and steel industry. Data from nine integrated steel plants and two consultants with extensive steel industry experience were used to: develop correlatio...

  14. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  15. Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

    1986-04-08

    A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

  16. International Conference on Solid Lubrication, 3rd, Denver, CO, August 7-10, 1984, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The present conference on solid lubrication technologies gives attention to such topics as graphite films and graphite motor oils, a wear equation for solid film lubricants, a built-in SEM friction tester, cupric oxide solid lubricant for copper, intercalated dichalcogenide solid lubricants, and the in situ formation of solid lubricating films from mineral oil and ester base lubricants. Also discussed are bonded solid film lubricants, motor brush wear test results, solid lubricant performance contributions to friction linings, the self-lubricating property of Fe-Mo-S alloys in vacuum, the friction of solvent-cast polymeric films, tribological processes in sliding polymer interfaces, and the application of ethyl cellulose to the cold pressure working of ferrous metals. A closing section gives attention to sputtered and ion-plated coatings.

  17. Variable resistance constant tension and lubrication device. [using oil-saturated leather wiper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A variable resistance device is described which includes a cylindrical housing having elongated resistance wires. A movable arm having a supporting block carried on the outer end is rotatably carried by the cylindrical housing. An arcuate steel spring member is pivotally supported by the movable arm. A leather wiper member is carried adjacent to one end of the spring steel member, and an electrically conductive surface is carried adjacent to the other end. The supporting block maintains the spring steel member in compression so that a constant pressure is applied to the conductive end of the spring steel member and the leather wiper. The leather wiper is saturated with a lubricating oil for maintaining the resistance wire clean as the movable arm is manipulated.

  18. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST) from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v) was degraded on Day 20 (71.5). Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes. PMID:26295402

  19. Estolides: Bioderived synthetic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the estolide technology developed by NCAUR scientists is given in this book chapter. The goal was to synthesize a class of new lubricant compounds that would have better physical properties than normal vegetable oil. Estolides were developed, characterized, and tested in wide range of...

  20. Mechanically Tunable Slippery Behavior on Soft Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Anisotropic Wrinkles Infused with Lubricating Fluid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pritam Kumar; Pant, Reeta; Nagarajan, Arun Kumar; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-06-14

    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces using one-dimensional (anisotropic) elastic wrinkles. Such wrinkles show tunable topography (amplitude) on the application of mechanical strain. Following Nepenthes pitcher plants, lubricating fluid infused solid surfaces show excellent slippery behavior for test liquid drops. Therefore, combining the above two, that is, infusing suitable lubricating fluid on elastic wrinkles, would enable us to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces. Completely stretched (flat) wrinkles have uniform coating of lubricating fluid, whereas completely relaxed (full amplitude) wrinkles have most of the lubricating oil in the wrinkle grooves. Therefore, water drops on completely stretched surface show excellent slippery behavior, whereas on completely relaxed surface they show reduced slippery behavior. Therefore, continuous variation of wrinkle stretching provides reversibly tunable slippery behavior on such a system. Because the wrinkles are one-dimensional, they show anisotropic tunability of slippery behavior depending upon whether test liquid drops slip parallel or perpendicular to the wrinkles. PMID:27221199

  1. High-Efficient Production of Boron Nitride Nanosheets via an Optimized Ball Milling Process for Lubrication in Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hait, Samik K.; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  2. The investigation of different particle size magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) nanoparticles on the lubrication behavior of paraffin oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyani; Jaiswal, V.; Rastogi, R. B.; Kumar, D.

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) (ZMO) nanoparticles of 23 nm particle size have been synthesized by auto-combustion method. The variation in particle size of these nanoparticles has been performed by their further calcination at 800 and 1000 °C for 2 h and the corresponding calcined particles are designated as ZMO-1 and ZMO-2, respectively. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder-XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and transmission electron microscope. The effect of particle size on the antiwear lubrication behavior of paraffin base oil has been investigated on four-ball lubricant tester. The tribological tests of these nanoparticles as antiwear additives have been studied at an optimized concentration (0.5 %w/v) by varying load for 30 min test duration and by varying the test durations at 392 N load. Various tribological parameters such as mean wear scar diameter, friction coefficient (µ), mean wear volume, running-in and steady-state wear rates show that these nanoparticles act as efficient antiwear additives and possess high load-carrying ability. From these tribological tests it has been observed that the lubrication behavior of studied nanoparticles is strongly size-dependent. The best tribological behavior is shown by nanoparticles of the smallest size, ZMO. Being sulfur, halogen and phosphorous free, ZMO nanoparticles have potential to be used as low SAPS lubricant additives. The SEM and atomic force microscopy analysis of the worn surfaces lubricated with ZMO nanoparticles at 392 N applied load for 60 min test duration show drastic decrease in surface roughness. The values of surface roughness of different additives are in good agreement with their observed tribological behavior.

  3. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants. PMID:25766933

  4. Tribological Properties of WC-Reinforced Ni-Based Coatings Under Different Lubricating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhu, Lufa; Zhou, Zhiming; Liu, Gang; Liu, Eryong; Zeng, Zhixiang; Wu, Xuedong

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the tribological properties of aluminum alloy cylinders and cylinder bore walls, WC-reinforced Ni-WC coatings were deposited on an aluminum substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying. The composition and microstructure of Ni-WC coatings with different WC contents were investigated and the tribological properties were tested under oil lubrication, lean oil lubrication and dry friction. The results showed that Ni-WC coatings consisted of a lamellar structure. Friction and wear testing results demonstrated that Ni-WC coatings had much better tribological performance than gray cast iron under different lubricating conditions. These Ni-WC composite coatings exhibited excellent mechanical properties and tribological properties due to the strengthening effect of the WC phase.

  5. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ogali, Regina E; Osuji, Leo C; Ayodele, Olufemi

    2007-12-01

    Static tests were employed to assess the acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of spent automotive lubricating oil (of mixed SAE grades) on Clarias gariepinus, a freshwater fish commonly cultured in Nigeria. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the WSF were found to decrease as a function of exposure time from 690+/-21 (after 24 h) to 513+/-58 mg/l (after 96 h). The characteristics of the WSF such as mean acidity (pH 6.6), turbidity (40 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS; 40 mg/l) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) dissolved-oxygen (DO) values (1.44 mg/l) were not compliant with existing standards set for discharged effluents. The solubility of the detected straight-chain aliphatics ranked as C14>C16>C32>C18>C28; that of the simple aromatics was ortho-xylene>para-xylene; and that of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was acenaphthylene>9H-fluorene>naphthalene>anthracene>phenanthrene>chrysene>benzo[k]fluoranthene>benzo[a]pyrene>benzo[b]fluoranthene, most of which being serious carcinogens. These oil constituents and the overall physico-chemical properties of the WSF are expected to act synergistically on the test organism (C. gariepinus), eliciting the quantal responses observed. The toxicity of the WSF points to the base constituent, oxidative degradation, and mechano-chemical reactions associated with aged crankcase oils. These oils, therefore, should definitely no longer be disposed into water streams or landscape, not even at sub-lethal concentrations, because of the inherent toxicity of their soluble fractions and the associated danger of bioaccumulation. PMID:18081085

  6. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pentaerythritol Hexanoate: Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Refrigerant-Lubricant Oil System.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Taisuke; Ishii, Eiji; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2015-09-17

    We have investigated the solubility and the solvation structure between a refrigerant (carbon dioxide, CO2) and a lubricant oil (pentaerythritol hexanoate, PEC6) by molecular dynamics simulations. First, to investigate the solubility, we calculated the vapor-liquid equilibrium pressure. The chemical potential of the liquid phase and the gas phase were calculated, and the equilibrium state was obtained from the crossing point of these chemical potentials. The equilibrium pressures agreed well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures and mole fractions of CO2. Second, the solvation structure was also investigated on a molecular scale. We found the following characteristics. First, the tails of the lubricant oil are relatively rigid inside the ester groups but flexible beyond. Second, CO2 molecules barely enter the lubricant core as delimited by the ester groups. Third, the double-bonded oxygen atoms of the ester groups are good sorption sites for CO2. Fourth, only a few CO2 molecules are attached to more than one carbonyl oxygen simultaneously. Finally, there is also significant unspecific sorption of CO2 in the alkane tail region. These results indicate that increasing the size of the rigid lubricant core would probably decrease the solubility, whereas increasing the number of polar groups would increase it. PMID:26287696

  7. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%. PMID:25679531

  8. High Temperature Tribological Properties of Modified Nano-diamond Additive in Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. F.; Qiao, Y. L.; Song, W.; Ma, S. N.; Hu, C. H.

    The high temperature tribological properties of surface-modified nano-diamond in colza oil were tested with SRV machine, and wear surface morphology was observed by using three dimension profiler. The results show that the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester possesses excellent anti-wear and friction reducing properties as lubricating oil additive. The friction coefficients of the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester are lower than those of nano-daimond and the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester when the temperature is lower than 200 °C, and its friction coefficients are very similar to nano-diamond's when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, but are better than that of the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester. The wear volume of the modified nano-diamond by dimer ester is far-forth lower than that of nano-daimond and the modified nano-diamond by oleic ester after the continuously heating test, and the wear volume decrease 60% than nano-diamond's.

  9. Lubrication of Nitinol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

  10. Valorization of lubricant-based wastewater for bacterial neutral lipids production: Growth-linked biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Pedro D M P; Lima, Filipa; Alves, Maria Madalena; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-09-15

    Lipids produced by microorganisms are currently of great interest as raw material for either biofuels or oleochemicals production. Significant biosynthesis of neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG) and wax esters (WE) are thought to be limited to a few strains. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), key players in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ecosystems, are among this group of strains. Hydrocarbon rich wastewaters have been overlooked concerning their potential as raw material for microbial lipids production. In this study, lubricant-based wastewater was fed, as sole carbon source, to two HCB representative wild strains: Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630. Neutral lipid production was observed with both strains cultivated under uncontrolled conditions of pH and dissolved oxygen. A. borkumensis SK2 was further investigated in a pH- and OD-controlled fermenter. Different phases were assessed separately in terms of lipids production and alkanes removal. The maximum TAG production rate occurred during stationary phase (4 mg-TAG/L h). The maximum production rate of WE-like compounds was 15 mg/L h, and was observed during exponential growth phase. Hydrocarbons removal was 97% of the gas chromatography (GC) resolved straight-chain alkanes. The maximum removal rate was observed during exponential growth phase (6 mg-alkanes/L h). This investigation proposes a novel approach for the management of lubricant waste oil, aiming at its conversion into valuable lipids. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated under low salt (0.3%) and saline (3.3%) conditions, and presents clues for its technological development, since growth associated oil production opens the possibility for establishing continuous fermentation processes. PMID:27244293

  11. Elastohydrodynamic properties of blends of plant-based and petroleum-based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based oils are mostly triglycerides but can also be esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are renewable and biodegradable materials, and display certain lubrication characteristics that are superior to petroleum-based products. However, for some applications, plant-based ...

  12. Preparation of high thermal stability polysulfone microcapsules containing lubricant oil and its tribological properties of epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Qing; Li, Meiling; Cui, Yexiang; Zhu, Yanji; Wang, Baohui; Wang, Huaiyuan

    2016-05-01

    Polysulfone (PSF) microcapsules containing lubricant oil have been successfully prepared using solvent evaporation method. The results show that lubricant oil was successfully encapsulated and the encapsulation capacity of about 56.0 wt.% was achieved. The uniform microcapsules have nearly spherical shape and quite smooth outer surface. The mean diameter is approximately 156 and 169 μm by using different dispersant solutions. The wall material is porous in structure with wall thickness of about 20 μm. The initial decomposition temperature of PSF is 480 °C. It is higher than traditional poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) and poly(melamine-formaldehyde) (PMF) wall materials with 245 °C and 260 °C initial decomposition temperature, respectively. High thermal stability of PSF microcapsules can be considered as additives in high temperature resistant polymer materials. The frictional coefficient and wear rate of epoxy composites decreased significantly by incorporating microcapsules containing lubricant oil into epoxy. When the concentration of microcapsules was 25 wt.%, the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate were reduced by 2.3 and 18.3 times, respectively, as compared to the neat epoxy. PMID:27066695

  13. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  14. Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1988-01-01

    A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

  15. Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2014-12-10

    Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations. PMID:25416127

  16. Optofluidic multi-measurement system for the online monitoring of lubricant oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Tom; Callewaert, Manly; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; De Malsche, Wim; Grazia Mignani, Anna; Thienpont, Hugo; Ottevaere, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    We show a detection system that simultaneously allows absorbance (ABS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and scattering detection excited by two different laser sources at 405 nm and 450 nm. The heart of the system consists of a mass manufacturable polymer optofluidic chip. The chip is mounted in an optical detection assembly that aligns the chip to the rest of the system, seals the chip from leakage, fixes the position and connects the channels to the rest of the fluidic system. The fluidics exhibit a reduced susceptibility to perturbations caused by air bubbles, this is accomplished by making use of a serpentine channel layout. For coumarin 480, detection limits of 100 nM and 10 pM are observed for ABS and LIF respectively. An effective detection range of 4000 down to 1 nephelometric turbidity units is shown for the detection of scattered light. The viscous behaviour of the sample is analysed by a secondary FFT processing step of which the result is further processed by multivariate data analysis. This allows the identification of samples and prediction of their quality parameters. We apply this system for the monitoring of lubricant oil, demonstrating its ability to compete with spectroscopic detection techniques. The low-cost approach and multi-measurement architecture shown in this paper pave the way for miniaturized on-line monitoring of liquids in an industrial environment.

  17. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles. PMID:22369074

  18. High-temperature bearing lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1968-01-01

    Synthetic paraffinic oil lubricates ball bearings at temperatures in the 600 degrees F range. The lubricant contains antiwear and antifoam additives, is thermally stable in the high temperature range, but requires protection from oxygen.

  19. Boundary friction in liquid and dry film biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm-based raw materials such as fats, seed oils, starches, proteins, and gums can be subjected to various degrees of processing to make them suitable for use in lubrication. The resulting biobased ingredients are then blended with each other and/or with synthetic ingredients to formulate lubricant...

  20. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  1. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  2. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  3. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  4. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

  5. Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2009-07-01

    The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

  6. Oil film thickness measurement and analysis for an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Scott D.

    1986-01-01

    The capacitance method is used to estimate the oil film thickness in the Hertzian contact zone of an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. The parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime is characterized by a transient film thickness and basic speed ratio (ball spin rate over combined race speed) and the formation of a friction polymer. The experimental apparatus tests 40 mm 108 H ball bearings in the counter rotating race mode at loads of 200 and 300 lb, a film parameter of 1.6 and nominal inner and outer race speeds of 38 and 26 rps, respectively. Experimental results are presented for the capacitance, thickness, and conductance of the oil film as functions of elapsed time and for the basic speed ratios as a function of elapsed time, load, and amount of lubricant applied to the test bearing. Results indicate that a friction polymer formed from the initial lubricant has an effect on the capacitance and basic speed ratio measurements.

  7. Experimental and analytical determination of gear tooth temperatures with oil jet lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Gear tooth average and instantaneous surface temperatures were measured with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope, while operating at arious speeds, loads and oil jet pressures. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface temperatures at all test conditions, increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface temperatures of gear teeth. A gear tooth temperature analysis was conducted by a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input and oil jet impingment depth with estimated heat transfer coefficients based on the experimental data. It is concluded that oil jet pressures required for adequate cooling at high load and speed conditions must be high enough to get full penetration depth of the teeth.

  8. Economic incentives for hazardous-waste management: Deposit-refunded systems and used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Economic incentives have been widely advocated for controlling environmental externalities. There has been increasing interest in devising such incentives to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. It is demonstrated that since firms comply with existing disposal rules, there is no efficiency basis for additional incentives. In contrast, incentives may be appropriate for firms that do not comply with existing rules. A range of regulatory instruments is compared, including taxes on inputs and waste generation, and subsidies for safe disposal and waste minimization. Each instrument has undesirable properties. Waste-end taxes encourage illegal disposal; safe-disposal subsides stimulate waste generation; and waste-minimization subsidies cannot be effectively targeted. The economic incentive instrument proposed is a combination of input taxes and safe-disposal subsidies, sometime manifest in the deposit-refund system. This instrument is efficiency-enhancing under plausible real-world conditions. The theoretical results are applied to the case of used lubricating oil, a large-volume waste stream that has vexed regulators for many years. An empirical model is developed that enables the simulation of prices, quantities, and net social benefits resulting from the establishment of a tax-subsidy or deposit-refund system. This model accounts for variations in: price-responsiveness; residual external damage from disposal; ex ante rates of regulatory compliance; and the level of transactions costs implied by the program. The instrument offers positive net social benefits, but only under a narrow range of conditions. The model is modified to apply to a generic hazardous waste problem that emphasizes illegal dumping. The existence of positive net social benefits depends on differences in risk across disposal options, the ex ante level of regulatory compliance, and the magnitude of unit transactions costs.

  9. The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.; Walton, J.F. )

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant. Unlike previous work in this field, this approach is based on the postulate of the quasi-hydrodynamic nature of powder lubrication. This postulate is deduced from past observation and present verification that there are a number of basic features of powder flow in narrow interfaces that have the characteristic behavior of fluid film lubrication. In addition to corroborating the basic mechanism of powder lubrication, the conceptual and experimental work performed in this program provides guidelines for selection of the proper geometries, materials, and powders suitable for this tribological process. The present investigation describes the fundamentals of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication and defines the rationale underlying the design of the test facility. The performance and the results of the experimental program present conclusions reached regarding design requirements as well as the formulation of a proper model of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication.

  10. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  11. The Wear Behavior of Brush-Plated Ni-W-Co/SiC Composite Layer with Oil Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Liu, Wenjin

    The wear behavior of brush-plating a Ni-W-Co/SiC composite layer on 1045 steel with oil lubrication is investigated. The composite layer is determined by OM, XRD and TEM. The worn surface of the plated layer is observed with SEM and laser profile analysis. The composition and average size of worn debris are analyzed by means of ferrograph and fluid spectrum. The results show that the brush-plated composite layer with added SiC particles reveals high wear resistance compared to the Ni-W-Co brush-plated layer.

  12. Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. I: For Jet Velocity Less than or Equal to Gear Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or less than pitch line velocity. The analysis includes the case for the oil jet offset from the pitch point in the direction of the pinion and where the oil jet is inclined to intersect the common pitch point. Equations were developed for the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the pinion or gear and the optimum oil jet velocity to obtain the maximum impingement depth.

  13. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two

  14. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  15. Study on Antiwear and Repairing Performances about Mass of Nano-copper Lubricating Additives to 45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Yin, Y. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Wang, W. Y.; Zhao, K. K.

    Nano-copper usually serve for lubricating additives in tribology field. The antiwear and reducing friction performances both basic lubrication oil and basic lubrication oil with nano-copper in different mass were tested by friction wear test machine. The morphologies and the main elements of worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that nano-copper could improve tribology performances of basic lubrication oil. Comparing with base lubrication oil, the mass is 0.15% of nano-copper, the friction coefficient and the worn trace width can be reduced 34% and 32% respectively. Nano-copper can form self-repairing film in lubrication oil which availably separates the friction materials in friction process. Therefore, nano-copper has wonderful antiwear, reducing friction and self-repairing performances. And the function mechanism of Cu nanoparticles is studied in the paper.

  16. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  17. Determination of iodine value of lubricating oils by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarpal, A.S.; Kapur, G.S.; Mukherjee, S.

    1995-03-01

    A direct, quick and non-destructive method for estimating the iodine value of fats, fatty oils and their blends in mineral oils has been developed based on {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The method involves the determination of unsaturation content of the samples by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The iodine value of the sample is directly proportional to the unsaturated proton or carbon content. The value of the proportionality constant is independent of the nature of the fats and their blends in mineral oils for the limited samples studied. The iodine value determined by this method also includes the contribution from additives containing unsaturation. Saturated ingredients in the sample do not contribute to the iodine value as is the case with the standard IP-84 method. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Truhan, Jr., John J

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  19. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  20. Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

  1. The determination of wear metals in used lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using sulphanilic acid as ashing agent.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, E J; Lori, J A; Thomas, S A

    1997-11-01

    A simple and reliable ashing procedure is proposed for the preparation of used lubricating oil samples for the determination of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, chromium and nickel by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sulphanilic acid was added to oil samples and the mixture coked and the coke ashed at 550 degrees C. The solutions of the ash were analysed by flame AAS for the metals. The release of calcium, zinc, iron and chromium was improved by the addition of sulphanilic acid to samples. The relative standard deviations of metal concentration results in the initial oil samples were 1.5% for Ca (1500 mg l(-1) level), 0.3% for Mg (100 mg l(-1) level), 3.1% for Zn (1500 mg l(-1) level), 0.7% for Fe (500 mg l(-1) level), 0.02% for Cr (50 mg l(-1) level) and 0.002% for Ni (10 mg l(-1) level). The optimum sample size for efficient metal release was 20 g while the optimum sulphanilic acid to oil ratio was 0.05 g per gram of oil for Zn and Cr and 0.10 g for Ca and Fe. Results obtained by this procedure were highly reproducible and comparable with those obtained for the same samples using standard procedures. PMID:18966959

  2. Estolides: A developing and versatile lubricant base stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides a general overview of estolide technology and compares the four major types of estolides: synthetic estolides from unsaturated fatty acids, natural estolides from hydroxy oils, synthetic estolides from hydroxy oils, and synthetic estolides from hydroxy fatty acids. The syntheti...

  3. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  4. Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, P. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

  5. Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

  6. The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt% NiCr binder, 20 wt% Cr2O3 hardener, and 10 wt% each Ag, and BaF2/CaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc foil bearing. The test load was 10 KPa (1.5 psi) and the bearings were run under start/stop cyclic conditions. The data show good wear performance of the bearing, especially at temperatures above 25 deg. C. Bearing friction was moderate (micron approx. or equal to 0.4) over the entire temperature range. Based upon the results obtained, the PS304 coating has promise for high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

  7. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  8. Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

  9. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  10. PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, H; Shepherd, DET; Dearn, KD

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec® cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 – 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine. PMID:22670159