Sample records for oil based lubricants

  1. LUBRICANT BASE STOCKS FROM MODIFIED SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Lubricant Base Stocks from Modified Soybean Oil" discusses a variety of potential lubricant base fluids prepared by chemical modification of epoxidized soybean oil. The opening of the epoxy-ring structure allows for the addition of substituents to enhance low-temperature properties and improve the...

  2. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  3. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

  4. HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

  5. Soybean oil-based lubricants: a search for synergistic antioxidants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils can contribute towards the goal of energy independence and security due to their naturally renewable resource. They are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, superior viscosity-temperature characteristic...

  6. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  7. A Generalized Correlation for Characterization of Lubricating Base-oils from Their Viscosities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Mehrkesh; S. Hajimirzaee; M. S. Hatamipour

    2010-01-01

    Lubricating mineral base oils are normally extracted from lube-oil cuts with furfural solvent. Aromatic content in the raffinate phase from extraction process is an essential parameter that affects the quality of the lubricating base-oils. For determination of aromatic content by the usual ASTM D3238 method, density, refractive index and molecular weight of the raffinate are required. In this work, a

  8. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  9. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  10. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  11. Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil-based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil (PSO)-based lubricants have been investigated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method. It was found that PSO samples have lower oxidative stability than their precursor, soybean oil. The main reason for the...

  12. The Elastohydrodynamic Friction and Film Forming Properties of Lubricant Base Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selda Gunsel; Stefan Korcek; Matthew Smeeth; Hugh A. Spikes

    1999-01-01

    The stringent and often competing requirements of high fuel economy and low emissions are placing increasing emphasis on the selection of appropriate base oils for modem engine lubricants. Two properties now recognized as important in engine oil design are the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction coefficient and the pressure-viscosity coefficient. The former determines the level of friction in high pressure contacts such

  13. Biodegradability study of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed-oil-based lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, E.; Crawford, R.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Shanahan, A.; Mammel, W. Jr. [International Lubricants, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A variety of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed (HEAR)-oil-based lubricants, lubricant additives, and greases were examined for biodegradability at the University of Idaho Center for Hazardous Waste Remediation Research. Two standard biodegradability tests were employed, a currently accepted US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol and the Sturm Test. As is normal for tests that employ variable inocula such as sewage as a source of microorganisms, these procedures yielded variable results from one repetition to another. However, a general trend of rapid and complete biodegradability of the HEAR-oil-based materials was observed.

  14. Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

    2005-01-01

    A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

  15. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  16. Basestock Oils for Lubricants from Mixtures of Corn Oil and Synthetic Diesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loredana Pop; Cosmina Pu?ca?; Geza Bandur; Gabriela Vlase; Remus Nu?iu

    2008-01-01

    Environmentally friendly vegetable oils and their derivatives represent alternatives to mineral-based lubricants. Vegetable\\u000a oils have high biodegradability and low production costs. Their poor thermo-oxidative stability and poor low temperature properties\\u000a are disadvantages in their use as lubricant basestocks. In our study we used corn oil and diester mixtures, which become lubricants\\u000a when additives are introduced. These mixtures of corn oil

  17. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines. PMID:14555432

  18. Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

  19. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 89.330 Section 89.330 ...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.330 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil....

  20. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Lubricating oil and test fuels. 89.330 Section 89.330 ...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.330 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil....

  1. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  2. Lubricant oil containing polytetrafluoroethylene and fluorochemical surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reick

    1980-01-01

    A lubricating oil containing polytetrafluoroethylene particles and a fluorochemical surfactant which stabilizes the dispersion and creates a molecular surface tension skin on the surface of the oil to reduce volatilization losses during use in an internal combustion engine.

  3. Predicting the storage life of lubricating oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Echin; G. T. Novosartov; T. B. Kondrat'eva

    1988-01-01

    One of the most important requirements imposed on lubricating oils is stability of their properties in extended storage. However, lubricating oils, the same as any other products of organic origin, are subject to natural aging over an extended period of exposure to various actions such as temperature variations, oxygen, air, moisture, and gravitation. These products are complex multicomponent systems; and

  4. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  5. Tribological evaluation of coconut oil as an environment-friendly lubricant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Jayadas; K Prabhakaran Nair; Ajithkumar G

    2007-01-01

    Increased concerns about environmental damage caused by mineral oil based lubricants, has created a growing worldwide trend of promoting vegetable oil as base oil for automobile lubricants. Coconut oil, which is abundantly available in southern states of India, is reportedly being widely used as two-stroke engine lubricant (2T oil) by autorikshaw11A tri-wheeled three seated vehicle powered by two stroke air

  6. Characterization of the lubricating action of oils under boundary lubrication conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gee, A. W. J.; Lossie, C. M.; Stoop, W.

    1995-07-01

    Polyalphaolefin (PAO) and polypropylene glycol (PPG)-based lubricants as well as mineral oils were tested to characterize their wear reducing performance under boundary lubrication conditions, using the ISO 7148 test method, which was originally developed for the characterization of bearing materials. This test method has practical value with respect to developing lubricants for use in sliding contacts, such as occur in worm gear drives. It is found that the wear reducing action of PAO-based lubricants is significantly better than that of mineral oils. PPG fluids perform equally well or slightly better than PAOs. Provided that viscosities are in line and additives are compatible, contamination of PAOs with mineral oils has no or only marginal effect on wear reduction.

  7. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  8. Lubricating Oil Requirements of Large Gas Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. O. Bowman; R. S. Ridgway

    1961-01-01

    This paper discusses lubricating oil field tests conducted in two-cycle and four-cycle engines fueled with natural gas. The main objective was achieved; i.e., high performance lubricants were developed with low ash-forming properties. In the four-cycle engine program, it was found that (a) good oil oxidation stability was a primary requirement, (b) increasing either detergent or oxidation inhibitor level reduced piston

  9. Air/oil lubrication of mill drives

    SciTech Connect

    Nemes, G.L. [Lubriquip, Cleveland, OH (United States); Balogh, D. [F.D. Johnson Co., Cleveland, OH (United States); Wilson, G.A. [USS/KOBE Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Large gear drives and power shaft bearings for rolling mills have historically been lubricated with circulating oil, wet sump systems that flood gears and bearings with large volumes of oil. Recent investigations have demonstrated that such systems contribute to heat build-up from oil-shear friction and increase drive power consumption. Other problems include: compromises in the selection of a single oil to serve different types of lubrication points; high oil consumption; contamination of lubricating oil by process fluids; contamination of process fluids and mill product by lubricating oil; and health, safety and environmental issues. To improve the performance of the 6-stand continuous billet/round rolling mill in its Lorain, Ohio facility, USS/KOBE Steel developed a hybrid air/oil centralized system to replace a circulating oil system pumping 150 gpm with a system delivering only 42 cu in./hr to each stand. This article discusses the continuous improvement process which identified the hybrid air/oil system, and the test and development steps that proved its suitability. In addition, the basic theory, equipment and controls that have made the series-progressive air/oil concept a practical and beneficial technique for heavy-duty mill drives are presented.

  10. Modification of Vegetable Oils for Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current talk deals with a partial review of research for developing improved lubricants from vegetable oils through modifications of the chemical structure. The typical vegetable oil is a mixture of triesters of glycerin with linear fatty acids, most of them with one or more double bonds. The ...

  11. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  12. Spectroscopic measurement of used lubricating oil quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, A. D.; Trotman, S. M.; Doolan, K. J.; Fredericks, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Used lubricating oils have been examined by a number of spectroscopictechniques to assess whether it might be possible to improveturn-around time for laboratory analyses or to develop a simple oilquality sensor which could be used in a service workshop. Investigationshows that the development of an oil quality sensor based on discretewavenumber measurements in the mid-infrared region would not be warranted,but heptane-insolubles can be estimated from a single measurement in thenear-infrared region, and this could form the basis of a simple sensor.Considerable information about the quality of a used oil is availablethrough a thorough examination of its mid-infrared spectrum. Use ofthe computer program CIRCOM, which employs factor analysis followed bymultiple linear regression, allowed useful correlations to beobtained for /ital n/-heptane insolubles level and viscosity and total basenumber of the oil sample. This supplements and extends the previouslydescribed methods for obtaining information such as fuel and water levelsby IR analysis.

  13. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS FROM EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL AND 2-ETHYLHEXYL ALCOHOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically adaptable bio-based synthetic lubricant basestocks were prepared from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and 2-ethylhexyl alcohol in the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid. 1H NMR has shown that the ring-opening reaction occurs first and then transesterification follows under the given rea...

  14. Determining the oxidation stability of lubricating oils using sealed capsule differential scanning calorimetry (SCDSC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Bowman; G. W. Stachowiak

    1996-01-01

    Oxidative degradation of mineral oil based lubricants has increasingly been an area of important research. Oil deterioration leads to changes in its chemical and physical properties which ultimately affect equipment performance. Therefore, in order to save costs and reduce environmental impact it is important to optimize a lubricant's renewal time. In this study, criteria were developed to assess the remaining

  15. Coconut oil as base oil for industrial lubricants—evaluation and modification of thermal, oxidative and low temperature properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Jayadas; K. Prabhakaran Nair

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of coconut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil and a commercial 2T oil under nitrogen and oxygen environment to study their thermal and oxidative degradation and the analysis of the low-temperature properties of the vegetable oils using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A molecular dynamics simulation software (Spartan 02, Wavefunction Inc.) has been used to

  16. Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

  17. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Qu; Huimin Luo; Sheng Dai; Peter Julian Blau; Bruce G Bunting; Gregory Mordukhovich; Donald Smolenski

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in

  18. [Identification of automotive lubricants and other heavy oils by isotachophoresis].

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, F; Misawa, S

    1989-06-01

    Automotive lubricants were analysed by isotachophoresis for the purpose of identification of lubricants and suspected stains adhered to victims in traffic accidents. As the results, it was found that each lubricant showed a characteristic isotachophreogram even if they were manufactured by the same maker, and that the isotachopherogram of the lubricant changed in proportion to the running distance of an automobile. Each lubricant had its own changing rate. Moreover, A, B, C heavy oils, asphalt, soy sauce and sauce, which apparently resembled lubricants when they adhered to victims, were analysed with this method. They were found to be clearly different from lubricants in isotachopherogram and they could be discriminated from lubricants. Therefore, it was found that lubricants could be easily identified or discriminated from other lubricants such as engine oils, gear oils and other oils by comparing their isotachopherograms obtained with this method in a short time. It was, however, difficult to suggest the maker of a lubricant from isotachopherogram. We conclude from these observations that isotachophoresis method is useful for the analysis of lubricants in case of traffic accidents. PMID:2810898

  19. OXIDATION AND LOW TEMPERATURE STABILITY OF VEGETABLE OIL-BASED LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for environmentally friendly materials that has potential to substitute mineral oil in various industrial applications is currently being considered a top priority research in the fuel and energy sector. This emphasis is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves an...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section 75... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section 75... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section 75... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section 75... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section 75... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory...

  5. An integrated lubricant oil conditioning sensor using signal multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoliang; Du, Li; Zhe, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    One effective approach to detect signs of potential failure of a rotating or reciprocating machine is to examine the conditions of its lubrication oil. Here we present an integrated oil condition sensor for detecting both wear debris and lubricant properties. The integrated sensor consists of miniature multiplexed sensing elements for detection of wear debris and measurements of viscosity and moisture. The oil debris sensing element consists of eight sensing channels to detect wear debris in parallel; the elements for measuring oil viscosity and moisture, based on interdigital electrode sensing, were fabricated using micromachining. The integrated sensor was installed and tested in a laboratory lubricating system. Signal multiplexing was applied to the outputs of the three sensing elements such that responses from all sensing elements were obtained within two measurements, and the signal-to-noise ratio was improved. Testing results show that the integrated sensor is capable of measuring wear debris (>50?µm), moisture (>50?ppm) and viscosity (>12.4?cSt) at a high throughput (200?ml?min?1). The device can be potentially used for online health monitoring of rotating machines.

  6. Choline for neutralizing naphthenic acid in fuel and lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, D.G.; Roof, G.L.

    1986-07-15

    A method is described of neutralizing at least a portion of the naphthenic acids present in fuel and lubricating oils which contain naphthenic acids which comprises treating these oils with a neutralizing amount of choline.

  7. Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Goodrum; Daniel P. Geller

    2005-01-01

    Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may

  8. Electrical techniques for monitoring the condition of lubrication oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

    2003-10-01

    The lubricating oil used in engines for vehicle and other applications is renewed according to a schedule specified by the manufacturer. This timetable is, naturally, very conservative, and makes no allowance for the way in which the engine is operated. Constant-speed operation (such as motorway use) is much less harmful to the lubricant than variable-speed operation, such as urban driving, during which the oil experiences extreme variations of temperature and engine speed. The net result of the conservative lubricant replacement schedule is that most engine oil is discarded well before it has reached the end of its useful life. This paper reports a study in which changes to the dielectric and magnetic properties of the oil are assessed as methods of measuring the degradation of lubricating oil. The relationship between oil use (measured by the distance a vehicle has travelled) and oil viscosity is also measured. The conclusions from this work are that simple distance travelled (miles/kilometres) is not a good indicator of the state of an oil, as estimated by measuring its viscosity. The magnetic characteristics of lubricating oil (i.e. its magnetic permeability) do change as the oil degrades, but the measurements were poorly correlated with viscosity and do not seem to offer much promise as the basis of an oil monitoring system. The dielectric properties of lubricating oil are reasonably well correlated with viscosity, and it is proposed that this could form the basis of a useful sensing technique.

  9. Characterization of Worn Surface of Bearing Materials Under Palm Oil Methyl Ester Added Lubricant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Maleque; H. H. Masjuki; M. Hamidullah

    In this investigation, wear test of ball-plate pair was carried out using a modified universal wear and friction machine under three different percentages of palm oil methyl ester (POME) added lubricants. The plain mineral-based lube oil was also used as a comparison purposes. The present authors previous study has shown that POME can act as an additive in mineral oil

  10. Thermoreversible gel lubricants through universal supramolecular assembly of a nonionic surfactant in a variety of base lubricating liquids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiangliang; Fan, Mingjin; Li, Dongmei; Song, Zenghong; Cai, Meirong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-09-24

    The present paper investigates a new type of thermoreversible gel lubricant obtained by supramolecular assembly of low-molecular-weight organic gelator (LMWG) in different base oils. The LMWG is a nonionic surfactant with polar headgroup and hydrophobic tail that can self-assemble through collective noncovalent intermolecular interactions (H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction) to form fibrous structures and trap base oils (mineral oils, synthetic oils, and water) in the as-formed cavities. The gel lubricants are fully thermoreversible upon heating-up and cooling down and exhibit thixotropic characteristics. This makes them semisolid lubricants, but they behave like oils. The tribological test results disclosed that the LMWG could also effectively reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs compared with base oils without gelator. It is expected that when being used in oil-lubricated components, such as gear, rolling bearing, and so on, gel lubricant may effectively avoid base oil leak and evaporation loss and so is a benefit to operation and lubrication failure for a long time. PMID:25111146

  11. Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of the engines and compressors. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  13. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. Reactivity of Triphenyl Phosphorothionate in Lubricant Oil Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Mangolini; Antonella Rossi; Nicholas D. Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Investigating the thermo-oxidative reactivity of anti-wear additives in lubricant oil solution at high temperature can significantly\\u000a contribute to an understanding of the mechanism of thermal film and tribofilm formation on metal surfaces. In this study,\\u000a the reactivity of triphenyl phosphorothionate (TPPT) in lubricant oil solution at high temperature (423 and 473 K) has been\\u000a studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)

  15. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-01

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%. PMID:22870990

  16. The Influence of Temperature on the Lubricating Effectiveness of MoS2 Dispersed in Mineral Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Rolek; C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

    1985-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with

  17. Effect of base oil polarity on micro and nanofriction behaviour of base oil + ZDDP solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tomala; A. Naveira-Suarez; I. C. Gebeshuber; R. Pasaribu

    2009-01-01

    Ball-on-disc tribo tests and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the effect of base oil polarity on the friction behaviour of steel-steel contacts lubricated with base oil + zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) solutions. Understanding the lubrication properties of the first chemisorbed layer of additives on work pieces yields important information for the optimization of lubrication in various solutions, in

  18. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  19. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svajus Joseph Asadauskas; Girma Biresaw; Ted G. McClure

    2010-01-01

    Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were\\u000a tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional\\u000a food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0–20% (w\\/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure\\u000a (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests

  20. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  1. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  2. Chemical sensor development for measuring soot caused lubricant oil thickening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Zhang; Herman George; Barb Soukup; Ralph Kornbrekke; Frederick P Boyle; Steve A Goodlive

    2004-01-01

    Soot caused oil thickening is a known failure mode for lubricants operating in heavy-duty diesel engines. An integrated chemical sensor has been developed. It consists of a bulk acoustic wave quartz resonator and a capacitor formed between a grounded electrode of the quartz resonator and an additional electrode. Two series of engine oil drain samples were tested and the temperature

  3. Catalytic cracking of intermediate products of lubricating oil synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Free

    1941-01-01

    During the polymerization of propylene, butylene, or mixtures of those hydrocarbons to form lubricants, gas oil fractions arose as byproducts. The gas oil fractions could be catalytically cracked to gasline in a one-pass process, with a yield of 50% to 70% by weight and with little loss to gas (less than 20%). The gasoline formed was almost purely olefinic. when

  4. Waste automotive lubricating oil as a municipal incinerator fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chansky; B. McCoy; N. Surprenant

    1973-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental impact of utilizing waste ; automotive lubricating oils to improve the municipal incineration combustion ; process was examined. Utilization of the heating value of waste oil in a ; municipal incinerator can help to alleviate the high level of combustible air ; pollutants and poor residue quality resulting from the firing of wet and\\/or low

  5. Alkyl methacrylate and styrene terpolymers as lubricating oil viscosity index improvers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ante Jukic; Elvira Vidovic; Zvonimir Janovic

    2007-01-01

    The properties of styrene\\/dodecyl methacrylate\\/octadecyl methacrylate terpolymers as viscosity index improvers of lubricating\\u000a mineral oils were investigated. Terpolymers of different composition and molar mass were prepared by peroxide-initiated polymerization\\u000a of the monomer mixture in a mineral base oil solution. All the terpolymer solutions in base oil exhibited high kinematic viscosity\\u000a and viscosity index values (> 130), proving their high thickening

  6. Boron-containing heterocyclic compounds and lubricating oil containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Holstedt, R.A.; Baron, K.; Jessup, P.J.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a compound comprising the reaction product of a primary amine or ammonia and an aromatic oxide, subsequently or concurrently reacted with a boric acid. The primary amine or ammonia, the aromatic oxide, and the boric acid react at about a 1:2:1 molar ratio. A lubricating composition is described comprising a major amount of a lubricating oil containing the compound described above.

  7. Air/oil lubrication systems for mill drives

    SciTech Connect

    Nemes, G.L. (Lubriquip Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Balogh, D. (F.D. Johnson Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Wilson, G.A. (USS/Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States))

    1994-09-01

    Large mill gear drives and power shaft bearings have historically been lubricated with circulating oil, wet sump systems which flood gears and bearings with large volumes of oil. Recent investigations have demonstrated that such systems contribute to heat buildup from oil-shear friction and increase drive power consumption. Other problems include: compromises in the selection of a single oil to serve different types of lube points; high oil consumption; contamination of lube oil by process fluids; contamination of process fluids and mill product by lubricating oil; and health, safety and environmental issues. To improve the performance of the 6-stand continuous rolling mill in its Lorain, Ohio facility, USS/Kobe Steel Co. has developed a hybrid air/oil centralized system that is replacing a circulating oil system pumping 150 gpm with one that lubricates each of the six stands with only 42 cu in./hr. This paper details the continuous improvement process which identified this hybrid air/oil system and the test and development steps which proved its suitability. In addition, the paper presents the basic theory, equipment and controls which have made the air/oil concept a practical and beneficial technique for heavy-duty mill drives.

  8. Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

  9. Status of New Direction of Liquid Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klaus, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    The status of liquid lubricants is discussed. Liquid lubricants which continue to be the predominant form of lubrication for machinery are discussed. Petroleum base lubricants comprise a very high percentage of the liquid lubricants in use today. There is a significant movement toward synthetic lubricants driven by crude oil problems coupled with improved additive response, and low temperature performance for the synthetics. Lubricant degradation mechanisms are included for guidance in the selection of lubricant and additive types.

  10. [Acidity and temperature effect on the fluorescence characteristics of hydraulic oils and lubricants].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hu; Zhou, Xun; Shang, Li-ping; Zhang, Ze-lin; Wang, Shun-li

    2014-12-01

    By analyzing HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil environmental impacts (oil, etc.) and confounding factors (pH, temperature, etc.), the feasibility was studied for the fluorescence detection of aircraft hydraulic oil leaks. By using the fluorescence spectrophotometer at various acidities and temperatures, the fluorescence properties of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant were gained. The experimental results are shown as following: The fluorescence peaks of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant are at 362, 405 and 456 nm, respectively. The impact of temperature on HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil is less effective; Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing temperature. When acidity increases, the fluorescence peak of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil gradient shifts from 370 to 362 nm, and the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of Jet Oil II lubricant is always 405 nm, while the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of 2197 lubricant at 456 nm red shifts to 523 nm, and double fluorescence peaks appeare. The results are shown as following: under the influence of the environment and interference factors, the fluorescence characteristics of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil remain unchanged, and distinguish from Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant. Therefore, the experiments indicate that the detection of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil leak is feasible by using fluorescence method. PMID:25881425

  11. Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  12. Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Prince; Yasodha Sambasivam

    1993-01-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation.

  14. 39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  15. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  16. High-performance base fluids for environmentally adapted lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Pettersson

    2007-01-01

    Future lubricants have to be more environmentally adapted, have a higher level of performance, and lower total life cycle cost (LCC) than presently used lubricants. To be able to formulate those lubricants, the properties of the base fluids have to be well known. Base fluid properties that influence the formulated lubricant performance could be divided into three different groups. These

  17. Model-based diagnostics of gas turbine engine lubrication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Byington, C.S.

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the current research was to develop improved methodology for diagnosing anomalies and maintaining oil lubrication systems for gas turbine engines. The effort focused on the development of reasoning modules that utilize the existing, inexpensive sensors and are applicable to on-line monitoring within the full-authority digital engine controller (FADEC) of the engine. The target application is the Enhanced TF-40B gas turbine engine that powers the Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) platform. To accomplish the development of the requisite data fusion algorithms and automated reasoning for the diagnostic modules, Penn State ARL produced a generic Turbine Engine Lubrication System Simulator (TELSS) and Data Fusion Workbench (DFW). TELSS is a portable simulator code that calculates lubrication system parameters based upon one-dimensional fluid flow resistance network equations. Validation of the TF- 40B modules was performed using engineering and limited test data. The simulation model was used to analyze operational data from the LCAC fleet. The TELSS, as an integral portion of the DFW, provides the capability to experiment with combinations of variables and feature vectors that characterize normal and abnormal operation of the engine lubrication system. The model-based diagnostics approach is applicable to all gas turbine engines and mechanical transmissions with similar pressure-fed lubrication systems.

  18. Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

    2000-01-20

    An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

  19. Lubrication properties of new crop oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

  20. Extreme—Pressure lubricant tests on jojoba and sperm whale oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Miwa; J. A. Rothfus; E. Dimitroff

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory and simulated in-use lubricant tests were performed on sulfurized jojoba oil and on reference sulfurized sperm\\u000a whale oil. Data from these comprehensive tests indicated sulfurized jojoba oil prepared from heat-treated filtered oil to\\u000a be comparable or superior to sulfurized sperm whale oil as an extreme-pressure additive for motor oils, gear lubricants, and\\u000a automotive transmission fluids.

  1. Minimised gear lubrication by a minimum oil\\/air flow rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-R. Höhn; K. Michaelis; H.-P. Otto

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the research project were to investigate the limits concerning possible reduction of lubricant quantity in gears without detrimental influence on the load carrying capacity.The investigations covered the influence of the oil level in dip-lubricated systems as well as the oil flow rate in spray-lubricated systems namely oil\\/air supply systems on power loss, heat generation and load carrying

  2. Recycling of waste lubricant oil into chemical feedstock or fuel oil over supported iron oxide catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thallada Bhaskar; Akinori Muto; Yusaku Sakata; Yoji Omura; Kenji Kimura; Yasuhisa Kawakami

    2004-01-01

    The recycling of waste lubricant oil from automobile industry was found to be best alternative to incineration. Silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), silica–alumina (SiO2–Al2O3) supported iron oxide (10wt% Fe) catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation method and used for the desulphurisation of waste lubricant oil into fuel oil. The extent of sulphur removal increases in the sequence of Fe\\/SiO2–Al2O3

  3. An experimental investigation into oil mist lubrication 

    E-print Network

    Kannan, Krishna

    2000-01-01

    -ranges (for all lube oils) over a period of time . . 31 11 Overall collection efficiency at 20 C. . . . 34 12 Overall collection efficiency at 40 C . . 13 Overall collection efficiency at 60 C. 14 Overall collection efficiency at 90 C. 15 The temperature... at 60 C. . . . . . . . 41 18 The temperature of the lube oil, in the generator, is maintained at 90 C . 42 19 Stage collection efficiency at 20 C and 400 rpm . . . . . 43 20 Stage collection efficiency at 40 C and 400 rpm . . . . . 44 21 Stage...

  4. Quaternary ammonium salts and lubricating oil containing said salts as dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, H.; Lee, G. D.

    1981-02-03

    Quaternary ammonium salts prepared by reacting an alkenylsuccinimide with a monocarboxylic acid ester provide improved dispersancy in lubricating oils, as compared with the starting alkenylsuccinimides.

  5. Micropitting performance of nitrided steel gears lubricated with mineral and ester oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. R. Cardoso; R. C. Martins; J. H. O. Seabra; A. Igartua; J. C. Rodríguez; R. Luther

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the gear micropitting performance of high pressure nitriding (HPN) steel gears, lubricated with three different gear oils: a standard mineral lubricant, containing a special micropitting additive package, and two biodegradable esters with low toxicity additivation. The physical, chemical and wear properties of the three lubricants were determined, as well as their biodegradability and toxicity characteristics. The gear

  6. An experimental investigation into the dimension-sensitive viscosity of polymer containing lubricant oils in microchannels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Erickson; Fuzhi Lu; Dongqing Li; Tony White; Jason Gao

    2002-01-01

    In many lubrication processes, lubricating oils containing polymer additives are subject to high shear rate through very small clearance channels. While the influence of shear rate on the performance of these lubricants has been well examined, very little is known about the effects of channel size. In this study a specially designed microchannel viscometer has been used to experimentally characterize

  7. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  8. Development and application of a lubricant composition model to study effects of oil transport, vaporization, fuel dilution, and soot contamination on lubricant rheology and engine friction

    E-print Network

    Gu, Grace Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Engine oil lubricants play a critical role in controlling mechanical friction in internal combustion engines by reducing metal-on-metal contact. This implies the importance of understanding lubricant optimization at the ...

  9. Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.

    PubMed

    Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

    2014-08-13

    After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. PMID:25046076

  10. Effects of syringe material and silicone oil lubrication on the stability of pharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling. PMID:25256796

  11. Preparation of nano-copper as lubrication oil additive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-li Wang; Bin-shi Xu; Yi Xu; He-long Yu; Pei-jing Shi; Qian Liu

    2005-01-01

    Nano-copper used as lubrication oil additive has good tribological property and active self-repairing effect for friction\\u000a pairs. The reduction in liquid phase for preparing nano-additive is one of the most common method. Nano-copper was prepared\\u000a by reduction in liquid phase. The different project and routine practice for preparing nano-copper were researched. The dispersion\\u000a problem of nano-copper was investigated by surface

  12. Stimulated Biodegradation of Used Lubricating Oil in Soil Using Organic Wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Aziz

    Biostimulation studies of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil was undertaken with three organic wastes (Banana skin BS, Brewery spent grain BSG and Spent mushroom compost SMC) used as sources of nutrient to enhance biodegradation of used lubricating oil in soil for a period of 84 days under laboratory conditions. The hydrocarbon loss in the soil shows positive linear correlation

  13. A Method to Calculate Frictional Effects in Oil-Lubricated Ball Bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tedric A. Harris; Roger M. Barnsby; Michael N. Kotzalas

    2001-01-01

    Friction and heat generation in oil-lubricated ball bearings is mainly the result of sliding in the ball-raceway contacts and agitation of the lubricant in the free space between the balls, cage. and bearing rings. Endurance of a ball bearing is highly dependent on the thicknesses of the oil films which serve to separate the balls from the raceways in a

  14. Numerical Analysis of the Oil-Supply Condition in Isothermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Finite Line Contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoling Liu; Peiran Yang

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of oil-supply condition on the lubrication performance of machine components, such as gears\\u000a and roll bearings, a full numerical solution of the isothermal finite line contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) problem\\u000a under different oil-supply conditions was obtained. The supplied oil quantity was given with the thicknesses of layers of\\u000a oil films on both solid surfaces,

  15. Power Loss in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable Ester vs. Mineral oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martins; J. Seabra; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua; A. Brito

    2005-01-01

    Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, are compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [1,2].The physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents of the two lubricants are characterized. The viscosity-temperature behaviors are compared to describe the feasible operation temperature

  16. The filling of powdered herbs into two-piece hard capsules using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as lubricant.

    PubMed

    Aling, Joanna; Podczeck, Fridrun

    2012-11-20

    The aim of this work was to investigate the plug formation and filling properties of powdered herbal leaves using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as an alternative lubricant. In a first step, unlubricated and lubricated herbal powders were studied on a small scale using a plug simulator, and low-force compression physics and parameterization techniques were used to narrow down the range in which the optimum amount of lubricant required would be found. In a second step these results were complemented with investigations into the flow properties of the powders based on packing (tapping) experiments to establish the final optimum lubricant concentration. Finally, capsule filling of the optimum formulations was undertaken using an instrumented tamp filling machine. This work has shown that hydrogenated cotton seed oil can be used advantageously for the lubrication of herbal leaf powders. Stickiness as observed with magnesium stearate did not occur, and the optimum lubricant concentration was found to be less than that required for magnesium stearate. In this work, lubricant concentrations of 1% or less hydrogenated cotton seed oil were required to fill herbal powders into capsules on the instrumented tamp-filling machine. It was found that in principle all powders could be filled successfully, but that for some powders the use of higher compression settings was disadvantageous. Relationships between the particle size distributions of the powders, their flow and consolidation as well as their filling properties could be identified by multivariate statistical analysis. The work has demonstrated that a combination of the identification of plug formation and powder flow properties is helpful in establishing the optimum lubricant concentration required using a small quantity of powder and a powder plug simulator. On an automated tamp-filling machine, these optimum formulations produced satisfactory capsules in terms of coefficient of fill weight variability and capsule weight. PMID:22960627

  17. Performance and anti-wear mechanism of Cu nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Zhang; Xiaobo Wang; Weimin Liu; Xisheng Fu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the tribological performance and anti-wear mechanism of Cu nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An end-face wear testing apparatus is used to measure the tribological properties of Cu nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives and using a commercial SJ 15W\\/40 gasoline engine oil for comparison. Electrical contact resistance (ECR) is

  18. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  19. Solubility correlation and phase behaviors of carbon dioxide and lubricant oil mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yokozeki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, carbon dioxide is being considered as one of the promising environmentally-friendly refrigerants, and extensive studies on the “trans-critical” vapor-compression cycle using CO2 have been undertaken both experimentally and theoretically. In the vapor compression cycle, lubricant oils are always required, and thus thermophysical properties of lubricant and refrigerant mixtures must be well understood. Currently, the lubricants of choice are polyalkylene

  20. Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency system and as a primary lubrication system. [for helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication system was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through system with auxiliary air cooling is an effective primary lubrication system at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.

  1. Research of intelligent dual - line lubricant system based on PROFIBUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yin Zhang; Xiangdong Kong; Chao Ai

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a new intelligent dual-line lubricant bus system was introduced. SIEMENS PLC is central controller, the PROFIBUS is the communication mode, the touch screen is to show the working status data and set data can be input through it in this system. Through measuring the oil temperature, oil pressure, and pressure difference etc signals, the system can automatically

  2. The aging of lubricating oil, the influence of unburnt fuel and particulate SOF contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Abbass; P. T. Williams; G. E. Andrews; K. D. Bartle

    1987-01-01

    The role of lubricating oil as a sink for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) and alkanes derived from unburnt fuel is described for two different oils used in two different DI diesel engines. The diesel engines used were, an older technology Petter AV1 single cylinder mine pumping engine and a Perkins 4.236 current technology engine. Analysis of the oil was by

  3. WASTE LUBRICATING OIL DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND: POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE TO COASTAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that approximately 35 percent changed their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular method of disposal reported by the respondents was putting the oil in the garbage ...

  4. Effect of dissolved lubricating oils on the viscosity of alternative refrigerants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. N. Chang; A. Nagashima

    1993-01-01

    The operation of refrigeration systems involves the circulation of a working fluid which is actually a mixture of refrigerant and lubricant oil. Since the viscosity of oil and that of refrigerants normally differ by up to a factor of 4, the effect of dissolved oil is very large. In order to use new alternative refrigerants, accurate information on thermophysical properties

  5. Design, fabrication and testing of a bearing test rig and preliminary studies on oil mist lubrication

    E-print Network

    Shamim, Abdus

    1990-01-01

    to 10kHz frequency band width KURT1 = Kurtosis factor calculated over 0 to 3kHz frequency band wid1h LFRICT= Log(FRICT) LLOAD= Log(LOAD) LSPEED= Log(SPEED) LTEMP= Log(TEMP) LUB= Lubrication system LUB1= Oil mist lubrication system LUB2= Oil sump... of test shafts, bearings and lubrication systems, for which load and speed are varied. The dependent variables are operating temperature (TEMP), friction (FRICT) and Kurtosis factors (KURT), all measured at the test bearing. The test rig system has two...

  6. Observations of Spacecraft Bearing Lubricant Redistribution Based on Thermal Conductance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, Yoshimi R.; Frantz, Peter P.; Hilton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The performance and life of precision ball bearings are critically dependent on maintaining a quantity of oil at the ball/race interface that is sufficient to support a robust protective film. In space applications, where parched conditions are intentionally the norm, harsh operating conditions can displace the small reserves of oil, resulting in reduced film thickness and premature wear. In the past, these effects have proven difficult to model or to measure experimentally. This paper describes a study addressing this challenge, where bearing thermal conductance measurements are employed to infer changes in lubricant quantity at the critical rolling interfaces. In the first part of the paper, we explain how the lubricant's presence and its quantity impacts bearing thermal conductance measurements. For a stationary bearing, we show that conductance is directly related to the lubricant quantity in the ball/race contacts. Hence, aspects of bearing performance related to oil quantity can be understood and insights improved with thermal conductance data. For a moving bearing, a different mechanism of heat transfer dominates and is dependent on lubricant film thickness on the ball. In the second part of the report, we discuss lubricant quantity observations based on bearing thermal conductance measurements. Lubricant quantity, and thus bearing thermal conductance, depends on various initial and operating conditions and is impacted further by the run-in process. A significant effect of maximum run-in speed was also observed, with less oil remaining after obtaining higher speeds. Finally, we show that some of the lubricant that is displaced between the ball and race during run-in operation can be recovered during rest, and we measure the rate of recovery for one example.

  7. A comparative life cycle assessment of petroleum and soybean-based lubricants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelie A; Landis, Amy E; Theis, Thomas L; Reich, Ronald A

    2007-06-01

    A comparative life cycle assessment examining soybean and petroleum-based lubricants is compiled using Monte Carlo analysis to assess system variability. Experimental data obtained from an aluminum manufacturing facility indicate significantly less soybean lubricant is required to achieve similar or superior performance. With improved performance and a lower use rate, a transition to soybean oil results in lower aggregate impacts of acidification, smog formation, and human health from criteria pollutants. Regardless of quantity consumed, soybean-based lubricants exhibit significant climate change and fossil fuel use benefits; however, eutrophication impacts are much greater due to non-point nutrient emissions. Fundamental tradeoffs in the carbon and nitrogen cycles are addressed in the analysis, demonstrating that a transition to soybean oil may result in climate change benefits at the expense of regional water quality. PMID:17612203

  8. STRUCTURE INDUCED THERMO-OXIDATIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIO-BASED SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental awareness has led to new generation of lubricants and fluids based on renewable resources that are nontoxic and eco-friendly. These fluids are potential replacements for mineral oil in various agricultural, marine, forestry and industrial equipment and therefore prevent polluting the ...

  9. Analytical Aspects of Gear Lubrication on the Disengaging Side

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. McCain; E. Alsandor

    1966-01-01

    Variations and inconsistencies in the ratings of rocket engine lubricating oils on the Ryder Gear Tester prompted an analytical investigation into the mechanism of lubrication. It is considered that gears are lubricated on the disengaging side primarily to rapidly dissipate frictional heat. Based on this consideration, it is contended that oil nozzle position and depth of oil impingement are important

  10. Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tian; V. W. Wong

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both

  11. Scuffing resistance of DLC-coated gears lubricated with ecological oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remigiusz Michalczewski; Witold Piekoszewski; Marian Szczerek; Waldemar Tuszynski

    2009-01-01

    This research was aimed to the elaboration of a new technology for heavy-loaded machine elements, lubricated with ecological oils without or with very limited amount of usually harmful AW\\/EP additives used in gear oils. The main objective of the study was the investigation of the effect of DLC coatings on scuffing resistance of coated gears. Three kinds of DLC coatings

  12. Role of the Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Mechanics of Lubricant Oil in Hermetic Reciprocating Compressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro T. Prata; Jader R. Barbosa Jr

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments regarding the influence of oil on several thermophysical phenomena in reciprocating compressors. Besides the more essential role of lubrication, the oil is responsible for several tasks in the compressor, from cooling to keeping a low system pressure while the compressor is idle. Thermodynamics dictates the number of phases in equilibrium and the amount of dissolved

  13. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

  14. Aerosol aspects of oil mist lubrication -- Generation and penetration in supply line

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    In this research work the characteristics of the oil mist generated by the vortex type oil mist generator and the behavior of oil mist flowing through the oil mist supply line have been investigated using the tools, theories and models of aerosol mechanics. In the first part of this research, the influence of oil viscosity and oil level in the generator reservoir on the generated oil mist have been studied. The characteristics of the generated oil mist has also been investigated for several commercially available lubricating oils. In the second part, the penetration (percentage of oil droplets carried with air flow without deposition in the supply pipe) of oil mist has been studied experimentally and compared to a generalized model. It has been observed that for oil mist flow through a particular diameter pipe, there exists an optimum flow rate range for maximum penetration.

  15. Model-based diagnostics of gas turbine engine lubrication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byington

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to develop improved methodology for diagnosing anomalies and maintaining oil lubrication systems for gas turbine engines. The effort focused on the development of reasoning modules that utilize the existing, inexpensive sensors and are applicable to on-line monitoring within the full-authority digital engine controller (FADEC) of the engine. The target application is the Enhanced

  16. Effect of temperature on lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is an important parameter affecting the performance of lubricant ingredients. It affects such important tribological characteristics as viscosity, film thickness, adsorption, desorption, friction, and wear. Temperature also promotes oxidation, polymerization, and degradation which nega...

  17. Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants

    E-print Network

    Sanchez, Carlos Joel

    2012-10-19

    using a high vacuum, high temperature pin-on-disc tribometer. The objectives of this research were to develop an understanding of the tribological properties of solid lubricant coatings under extreme operating conditions, and to determine whether using a...

  18. Increasing formability in sheet metal stamping operations using environmentally friendly lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lovell; C. F. Higgs; P. Deshmukh; A. Mobley

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, an alternative environmentally friendly lubricant is introduced for sheet metal forming processes. This lubricant is based on a combination of boric acid and canola oil, both of which are natural, environmentally friendly, and have independently demonstrated good lubrication potential. In order to evaluate the interfacial friction characteristics of the canola oil and boric acid lubricant in

  19. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  20. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A S; Rich, D; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A

    2002-12-06

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) 1600 m) used 100% biodiesel fuel (B100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C/ mg C. The C concentration of the exhaust C02 and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in I4C content in the PM is due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions. The slight depression in CO{sub 2} isotope content could be attributed to ambient CO{sub 2} levels and measurement uncertainty.

  1. Scuffing and lubricant film breakdown in FZG gears Part II. New PV scuffing criteria, lubricant and temperature dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Castro; J. Seabra

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of experimental and theoretical results, from constant temperature scuffing tests with FZG type A gears lubricated with base oils, show a good agreement between the scuffing loads and the scuffing lubricant film thickness, meaning that a close relation exists between scuffing failure and lubricant film breakdown, for a base oil tested in the FZG rig. This relation is

  2. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  3. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  4. The search for higher lubricant stability properties in modified vegetable oil derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this decade, great interest has been stirred up toward the use of renewable resources as industrial fuels, such as bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. Bio-lubricants are also playing a more prominent role and becoming competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. The main draw here is that we can, from y...

  5. Investigation of zinc additives in coliquefaction of waste lubricating oil and a bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, F.E.; Zhao, J.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky,Lexington, KY (United States); Kuo, C.H.; Tarrer, A.R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The behavior and fate of a zinc additive to lubricating oil in the coliquefaction of waste lubricating oil and a bituminous coal have been investigated by means of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS)spectroscopy. Although the zinc additive appears to remain largely unaltered during use as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), it is readily converted to solid zinc sulfide and effectively separated from the desired liquid hydrocarbon products during the coliquefaction process. It is anticipated that similar behavior will be shown by most other environmentally important elements. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Lubrication guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Bolt; J. G. Carroll

    1991-01-01

    This guide is written for people who may have operating problems with lubricants to resolve. It concentrates on practical items. For example, information about specific types of lubricates from various suppliers -- oils, greases, and special products -- is provided in table format. These tables, the heart of the presentation, include profiles of lubricants for each use category, recommended specific

  7. Friction and Wear Characteristics of Advanced Space Lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyoshi Ohno; Shigeki Morita; Sobahan Mia; Shingo Obara

    \\u000a Synthetic oils and greases are used for space lubricant. So, it is important to know the performances of these lubricants.\\u000a The base oil 815Z and 2001A and the greases 600EF, 601EF and 602EF with base oil 815Z and grease R2000 with base oil 2001A\\u000a were considered as the test lubricants in this study. The highest wear scar has found for

  8. Primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of mineral base oils and their relationships with oil viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Haus; O. Boissel; G.-A. Junter

    2004-01-01

    We have determined the primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of a series of paraffinic base oils representative of the main classes that are used for the production of lubricating oils, such as engine, industrial, and marine oils. Primary and ultimate biodegrability (B) data were determined using the CEC test and the modified Sturm test (OECD 301B), respectively. There was a strong

  9. Reciprocating seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and practical analyses of reciprocating seal wear and lubrication. Topics include behavior, friction coefficient, cylinder wear, lubrication film thickness, friction forces, design innovations, lubricating oil viscosity, and wear modeling relative to reciprocating seal frictional wear and lifetime optimization. Applications in piston ring lubrication, internal combustion engines, and vehicle suspension systems are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Preparation and properties of lubricant basestocks from epoxidized soybean oil and 2-ethylhexanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic lubricant basestocks were prepared from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH) to be used alone or with polyalphaolefin (PAO). Sulfuric acid-catalyzed reaction of ESO with 2-EH involves ring-opening reaction at the epoxy group followed by transesterification at the ester g...

  11. A review of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPS): characterisation and role in the lubricating oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allyson M. Barnes; Keith D. Bartle; Vincent R. A. Thibon

    2001-01-01

    This is a review of the additive, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which is found commonly in lubricating oil where it plays a role as both an antioxidant and an antiwear additive. This zinc complex is highly effective but its mechanisms of action have not been definitively reported. This review covers work pertaining to the characterisation and mechanisms of action of ZDDP

  12. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  13. Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

  14. Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

  15. On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lijuan; Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Gilon, Nicole; Zeng, Heping; Yu, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined.

  16. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  17. Lubricant analysis for gas turbine condition monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lukas; D. P. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of used lubricating oil is a fast-evolving technique for predictive maintenance with any closed-loop lubricating system such as those in gas and steam turbines, diesel and gasoline engines, transmissions, gearboxes, compressors, pumps, bearings, and hydraulic systems. Based on analysis of periodic oil samples, a laboratory diagnostic report is sent to the personnel responsible for the equipment to warn of

  18. Waste lubricating oil disposal practices in Providence, Rhode Island: potential significance to coastal water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Falke, A.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that about 35% change their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular disposal method was putting the oil in garbage cans, followed by backyard dumping, sewer disposal, dumping it on roads, or taking it to the town dump. Road and sewer disposal can account for 44 metric tons of hydrocarbons discharged into the city's combined storm and sanitary sewage treatment system. Residents indicated a high degree of willingness to participate in a state-wide recycling program.

  19. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. PMID:24875837

  20. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  1. Frictional characteristics of fatty-based oils in wire drawing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Obi; A. K. Oyinlola

    1996-01-01

    Lubricity criteria of fatty-based oils (palm, groundnut and shea butter oils) in wire drawing operations have been qualitatively assessed based on friction values obtained from the experimental procedure of Evans and Avitzur (J. Lubr. Technol. Trans. ASME, Ser. F, 90 (1) (1968) 72–89). for friction evaluation for processes like wire drawing and extrusion through open dies. The potentials of these

  2. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  3. Diesel engine condition monitoring based on oil analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xufeng Jiang; Jianbo Wang; Ying Zong

    2011-01-01

    To verify the validity of oil analysis for heavy diesel engine condition monitoring, the lubricating oil were sampled from the lubricating system of the domestic diesel engines, and then were tested by oil analysis (including contamination detection, periodic sampling test and ferrography technology). The results showed that oil analysis could monitor the lubricating oil contamination and mechanical wear condition to

  4. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ben Mohammadi; F. Kullmann; M. Holzki; S. Sigloch; T. Klotzbuecher; J. Spiesen; T. Tommingas; P. Weismann; G. Kimber

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition

  5. NON-LUBRICANT RELATED COMPOUNDS IN USED MINERAL OILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Lengyel

    2009-01-01

    Used mineral oils (UMO) represent an important commodity, which is interesting from the viewpoint of both their energy-production utilization and material valorisation via their recovery. Being a hazardous waste, they are of environmental concern too. The quality and yield of the reclaimed oil are determined by the UMO quality. UMO which were selectively collected are of a substantially higher utility

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

  11. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels. (1) Use diesel fuels for testing which are clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

  12. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels. (1) Use diesel fuels for testing which are clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

  13. Vapor phase lubrication of a Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hanyaloglu, B.; Fedor, D.C.; Graham, E.E. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In addition to ceramics, alloys such as tool steel and nickel- and iron-based superalloys are being considered for high temperature applications such as missile bearings and low heat rejection engines. Studies were made to lubricate a nickel-based superalloy at 500{degrees}C, by using a vaporized aryl phosphate ester, at a concentration of 0.1% in air. From deposition and wear studies it was found that it was impossible to form a good polymeric coating on the superalloy surface. Energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDXA) analysis showed that this was due to minute quantities of aluminum in the alloy segregating to the surface, upon being heated to 500{degrees}C, forming a passive oxide coating. It was necessary to activate the surface, in order to lubricate the material successfully. A method of activation by electrodepositing the surface with a layer of iron oxide was developed. Once activated, a good lubricous polymer was formed on the superalloy surface. Tests performed under dynamic conditions and 1 MPa pressure, using an activated specimen surface showed no wear and a coefficient of friction ({mu}) of 0.05. These results stress the importance of material selection for high temperature vapor phase lubrication. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Recycling of the used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Duarte, C.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Sato, I. M.

    2007-11-01

    The recycling process of the used mineral oils has been gaining a very important gap in the context of environmental protection. Among mineral oils from petroleum, the lubricating oils are not entirely consumed during their use; therefore, it is necessary to apply a treatment for recuperation seeking their reuse. Moreover, the environmental legislation of countries does not allow their discard in any type of soils, rivers, lakes, oceans or sewerage systems. The conventional treatment has shown certain difficulties in the recuperation process for used oils. The ionizing radiation process is renowned in the industrial effluents treatments due to its high efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds and in the removal of metals by the action of OH rad , rad H and e aq radicals. In this work, used automotive lubricating oil was treated by the ionizing radiation process for metal removal and degradation of organic compounds. The samples were irradiated with 100 and 200 kGy irradiation doses. Determination of the elements Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Nb, Cd, Sn, Ba, Bi and Pb, before and after the irradiation, was done by X-ray fluorescence technique and the organic profile was obtained by infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Biobased lubricants and functional products from Cuphea oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (Lythraceae) is an annual plant that produces a small seed rich in saturated medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAGs). With the need for higher seed yields, oil content, and less seed shattering, Oregon State University began developing promising cuphea crosses. Cuphea PSR23 is a hybrid between C...

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of novel acyl derivatives from jatropha oil as potential lubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-05-21

    A novel class of jatropha oil-based acylated derivatives from hydroxy alkyl esters of jatropha fatty acids (C1, C3, C4, and C8) and various anhydrides (C2, C3, C4, and C6) were synthesized and their physicochemical and lubricant properties reported. Jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were dihydroxylated using the in situ performic acid method and further acylated with different anhydrides to produce acylated derivatives. Acylated derivatives of dihydroxy jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were charaterized by NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC-MS analysis and were evaluated for their viscosity, viscosity index, pour and flash points, and oxidation stability. Most of the derivatives are either in ISO VG 22 or 32 viscosity grade with good viscosity index. It was observed that increase in acyl chain length and branching in the end-chain ester improved the pour point of the diacyl derivatives. All of the hexanoylated esters exhibited better oxidation stability compared to other acylated products, and their pour points are comparable to those of synthetic esters such as TMP trioleates. In general, isoalcohol esters with longer acyl chains showed promise as potential candidates for hydraulic fluids and metal-working fluids in ISO VG 22 and 32 viscosity range. PMID:24798988

  17. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  18. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  19. Ethylene polymer useful as a lubricating oil viscosity modifier E-25

    SciTech Connect

    Kresge, E.N.; Ver Strate, G.W.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition comprising a lubricating fluid and an amount, effective for improving viscosity, of a thickening agent. The agent comprises a substantially saturated, long chain, branched ethylene tetrapolymer comprising ethylene, an alpha-olefin, a non-conjugated diene monomer having a first site of unsaturation which is coordination catalyst polymerizable and a second site of unsaturation which is cationically polymerizable, and a cationically polymerizable mono-olefin. The monomer has a bulk viscosity at 100/sup 0/C and strain rate less than 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ which is at least 3 times that of a linear ethylene-propylene polymer having the same intrinsic viscosity and ethylene content.

  20. Assessment of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate techniques for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnobio Roberto Caneca; M. Fernanda Pimentel; Roberto Kawakami Harrop Galvão; Cláudia Eliane da Matta; Florival Rodrigues de Carvalho; Ivo M. Raimundo Jr.; Celio Pasquini; Jarbas J. R. Rohwedder

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis

  1. AN INVESTIGATION OF DIESEL ENGINE OIL FILTRATION AND ABRASIVE WEAR WITH HIGH DETERGENCY LUBRICANTS BY MEANS OF RADIOACTIVE TRACER TECHNIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halliwell

    1959-01-01

    A study designed to evaluate the relative effects of fullflow and bypass ; filtration, abrasive particle size, and detergent additive level of diesel ; lubricating oils on piston ring wear in a General Motors 3-71 type diesel engine ; was conducted using radioisotope tracer techniques. The detergent-type oils ; greatly reduced the amount of piston ring wear in comparison to

  2. Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Hironori; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo; Tsuda, Yoshihiro

    This paper deals with the influence of the quantity of oil supply in hobbing with minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) of cutting oil, compared with that using dry cutting and flooded oil, in terms of flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness, for various types of coating films of the hob. Experiments were carried out using a fly tool. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1) The flank wear obtained with a quantity of oil supply of only 1mL/h showed almost the same value as that obtained by dry cutting, when using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. However, it is a result of great interest that flank wear increases with increasing quantity of oil supply, and the largest value was obtained when the oil was flooded. (2) The crater wear and finished surface roughness with the MQL system are smaller than those using dry cutting and flooded oil. (3) The quantities of oil supply of 1mL/h to 15mL/h in the MQL system are suitable for hobbing in terms of reducing flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness.

  3. BEARING FATIGUE LIFE TESTS OF TWO ADVANCED BASE OILS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS UNDER VACUUM AND ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NOBUYOSHI OHNO; KENTARO SONODA; HIROYUKI TSUCHIDA; SOBAHAN MIA; SHIGEKI MORITA; HIROSHI SHIOMI; SHINGO OBARA

    2011-01-01

    Four series of rolling-element bearing fatigue tests were conducted with 51104 size thrust ball bearings with three balls made from SUJ2 (AISI 52100) steel lubricated with two advanced synthetic base oils used for space applications. The test lubricants were Perfluropolyether (PFPE) and Multy Alkyated cyclopentane (MAC). Each oil was tested with the bearings under vacuum and atmospheric environments. The bearings

  4. Friction and wear of aluminium–steel contacts lubricated with ordered fluids-neutral and ionic liquid crystals as oil additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Iglesias; M. D. Bermúdez; F. J. Carrión; G. Mart??nez-Nicolás

    2004-01-01

    Friction and wear of ASTM B211 aluminium–AISI 52100 steel contacts have been determined using pin-on-disk tests under variable conditions of normal applied load, sliding speed and temperature, in the presence of a lubricating base oil modified with a 1wt.% proportion of three different liquid crystalline additives.The tribological behavior of the ionic liquid crystal n-dodecylammonium chloride (LC3) has been compared with

  5. Friction and Wear Characteristics of Advanced Space Lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyoshi Ohno; Sobahan Mia; Shigeki Morita; Shingo Obara

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a variety of space lubricants was compared under boundary lubrication at ground level. The types of lubricants studied were the two synthetic base oils PFPE 815Z and MAC 2001A and the two greases 601EF and R2000. High-pressure rheological tests were performed in order to characterize the behavior of each base oil as a function of pressure and

  6. Lubrication. life blood of the railroad industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of railroad lubrication covers: the diesel engine, for which the railroad industry requires 4 billion gal\\/yr of diesel fuel; crankcase lubricating oil, 5 million gal\\/yr of which is used by a major railroad; analytical procedures for lubricants to determine wear and contamination trends; locomotive roller bearing greases, usually lithium-based and containing rust, oxidation, and EP additives; traction motor

  7. FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

  8. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ampaitepin Singhabhandhu; Tetsuo Tezuka

    2010-01-01

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea

  9. Biodegradation of waste-lubricating petroleum oil in a tropical alfisol as mediated by animal droppings.

    PubMed

    Adesodun, J K; Mbagwu, J S C

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of some organic wastes from animal droppings as bioremediation alternative for soils spiked with waste-lubricating oil (spent oil). The total hydrocarbon contents (THC) with time of sampling were markedly reduced with addition of cow dung (CD), poultry manure (PM) and pig wastes (PW). The general trend in the first year indicated that PW stimulated the highest net percentage loss in THC for soils polluted with 5,000 mg kg(-1) (0.5%SP) and 50,000 mg kg(-1) (5%SP) oil levels. Poultry manure induced the highest reduction in soils polluted with medium, i.e. 2.5%SP (25,000 mg kg(-1)) oil concentration. The overall net loss mediated by each organic waste in the 2nd year showed that PM addition was better irrespective of total oil loading. For example, at 3 months PM led to 16.1% and 14.6% net reduction in THC for soils treated with 50,000 mg kg(-1) (5%) and 100,000 mg kg(-1) (10%) total oil loading, respectively; whereas at same period, the performance of the organic wastes were relatively similar in soils with 10,000 mg kg(-1) oil loading. At 6 and 12 months, PM reduced the oil levels better than CD and PW. Further evaluation by first-order kinetic model which utilized combine data for the entire periods for each year indicated that PW was better at low oil pollution level, while PM performed better at high oil pollution levels. Overall, the differential performance of these organic amendments followed PM>PW>CD. PMID:18036815

  10. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication research on Planetary Gear Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao Peide; Xie Jun; Yin Xiaoqin; Yang Qizhi; Ma Luzhong

    2011-01-01

    Based on elastohydrodynamic Lubrication theory (EHL),the EHL oil film thicknesses and those distributions for two operation cases on meshing line were calculated: one case is the sun gear as the driving gear and another case is the ring gear as the driving gear in the Planetary Gear Transmission. From the graph, gear lubrication can be reflected by the gear mesh

  11. The Effect of Three Mineral Base Oils on Roller Bearing Fatigue Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Koved

    1966-01-01

    The effect of three mineral base oils on roller bearing fatigue life has been studied. Life performance tests were conducted, using a specially controlled group of 45-mm bore cylindrical roller bearings. The results indicate that base oil stock affects bearing performance. Of the highly naphthenic, naphthenic, and paraffinic mineral oils studied, bearings lubricated with the latter achieved superior lives. The

  12. Tribological Properties of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Systems 

    E-print Network

    Kheireddin, Bassem

    2013-08-02

    New nanomaterials and nanoparticles are currently under investigation as lubricants or lubricant additives due to their unusual properties compared to traditional materials. One of the objectives of this work is to investigate ...

  13. Experimental investigations about the influence of oil lubricant between teeth on the gear rattle phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Riccardo; Brancati, Renato; Rocca, Ernesto

    2009-04-01

    The article describes an experimental investigation into the "gear rattle" phenomenon in automotive manual transmissions with a special focus on the influence that lubricant oil may have in reducing this undesirable event. The experimental analysis has been conducted in order to validate a theoretical model developed by the authors that accounts for the presence of oil between the meshing gear teeth of unloaded gear pairs during the no-contact phase. An original measurement technique has been adopted for the tests that consist of the acquisition of the angular relative motion of a gear pair by two high resolution encoders. The experimental test rig designed for this analysis offers the possibility of varying the distance between the wheel axes so that the influence of the backlash variation on the rattle phenomenon can be investigated. The paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on helical gear pairs from an automotive gear box in the "idle gear rattle" condition by varying the lubrication mechanism. The experimental results show good agreement with the expectations provided by the theoretical model.

  14. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

  15. Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2007-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

  16. Tribological behaviour of DLC coatings in combination with biodegradable lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vercammen; K. Van Acker; A. Vanhulsel; J. Barriga; A. Arnsek; M. Kalin; J. Meneve

    2004-01-01

    The tribological behaviour of coated components lubricated with a biodegradable saturated ester and unsaturated ester has been studied. Different diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based coatings were selected as low friction coatings: pure DLC, Si-doped, Ti-doped and W-doped DLC. The performance of the studied ester oils has been compared with sunflower oil and mineral oil lubrication as reference. The oils were all formulated

  17. Application of the extraction induced by emulsion breaking for the determination of Cu, Fe and Mn in used lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Luiz Fernando S; Brum, Daniel M; de Paula, Carlos Eduardo R; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2013-06-15

    A novel approach is proposed for the sample preparation of used lubricating oils to determine Cu, Fe and Mn by FAAS. The method is based on the extraction induced by emulsion breaking, in which the elements of interest are transferred to an aqueous phase before the measurement by FAAS. In the method, each sample of used lubricating oil was diluted with toluene (20% v/v) and the resulting solution was emulsified with a Triton X-114 solution containing HNO3. Further, the water-in-oil emulsion was broken by centrifugation for 30 min at 3500 rpm, originating a system with two well-separated phases: (i) the upper phase, containing the used lubricating oil diluted in toluene and (ii) the lower aqueous phase, containing the analytes that were extracted from oil. The lower phase was collected, diluted with water and the analytes were determined by FAAS. The optimization of the methodology was performed by studying the influence of different parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency such as the nature and concentration of the solvent used for sample dilution, the concentrations of HNO3 and Triton X-114 in the solution employed for emulsification and the operational conditions for extraction (extraction, centrifugation and sampling times). The limits of quantification for Cu, Fe and Mn were 2.9, 77 and 8.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the reference method based on the total digestion of the samples in a closed-vessel microwave oven. There were no statistical differences between the results obtained with the proposed method and the reference one, except for Fe in the cases where its concentration was higher than 80 µg g(-1). PMID:23618170

  18. Effects of Base Oil Viscosity and Type on Bearing Ball Fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred G. Rounds

    1962-01-01

    Thirty-to-one differences in fatigue life have been observed during four-ball fatigue studies conducted on sixty base oils selected from eleven different chemical classes including mineral oils and most of the commonly used synthetic fluids. Among the lubricant factors that appear to control fatigue are: (a) lubricant viscosity, (b) molecular shape, (c) reactivity or polarity, and (d) anti-wear characteristics. Presented as

  19. Estimating the lifetime of gear lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Maisch; D. Kirschmann; B. Bertsche

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present methods on how to take oil degradation into account in reliability modeling. Therefore mineral oil based gear lubricant was artificially aged in an oven and reliability data was gathered from exemplary selected tests. For testing the aged oil, three tests were selected: two simple test benches (Brugger test apparatus and a

  20. International Conference on Solid Lubrication, 3rd, Denver, CO, August 7-10, 1984, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The present conference on solid lubrication technologies gives attention to such topics as graphite films and graphite motor oils, a wear equation for solid film lubricants, a built-in SEM friction tester, cupric oxide solid lubricant for copper, intercalated dichalcogenide solid lubricants, and the in situ formation of solid lubricating films from mineral oil and ester base lubricants. Also discussed are bonded solid film lubricants, motor brush wear test results, solid lubricant performance contributions to friction linings, the self-lubricating property of Fe-Mo-S alloys in vacuum, the friction of solvent-cast polymeric films, tribological processes in sliding polymer interfaces, and the application of ethyl cellulose to the cold pressure working of ferrous metals. A closing section gives attention to sputtered and ion-plated coatings.

  1. Low-Cost Oil Quality Sensor Based on Changes in Complex Permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Angel Torres; Hadfield, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Real time oil quality monitoring techniques help to protect important industry assets, minimize downtime and reduce maintenance costs. The measurement of a lubricant’s complex permittivity is an effective indicator of the oil degradation process and it can be useful in condition based maintenance (CBM) to select the most adequate oil replacement maintenance schedules. A discussion of the working principles of an oil quality sensor based on a marginal oscillator to monitor the losses of the dielectric at high frequencies (>1 MHz) is presented. An electronic design procedure is covered which results in a low cost, effective and ruggedized sensor implementation suitable for use in harsh environments. PMID:22346666

  2. High-Efficient Production of Boron Nitride Nanosheets via an Optimized Ball Milling Process for Lubrication in Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hait, Samik K.; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 ?m in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  3. Elastohydrodynamic properties of blends of plant-based and petroleum-based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based oils are mostly triglycerides but can also be esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are renewable and biodegradable materials, and display certain lubrication characteristics that are superior to petroleum-based products. However, for some applications, plant-based ...

  4. Friction coefficient in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable ester vs. mineral oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martins; J. Seabra; A. Brito; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua

    2006-01-01

    Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, were characterized in terms of their physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents and compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [Höhn BR, Michaelis K, Döbereiner R. Load carrying capacity properties of fast

  5. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa.

    PubMed

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming. PMID:23841994

  6. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming. PMID:23841994

  7. Effect of tetraalkylphosphonium based ionic liquids as lubricants on the tribological performance of a steel-on-steel system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LiJun Weng; XuQing Liu; YongMin Liang; QunJi Xue

    2007-01-01

    A series of asymmetrical tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids were synthesized and evaluated as a new kind of lubricant for\\u000a the contact of steel\\/steel using an Optimol SRV oscillating friction and wear tester in ambient condition. The phosphonium\\u000a ionic liquid shows excellent tribological performance when being used as the lubricating oil, and is superior to the conventional\\u000a high temperature lubricants X-1P and

  8. Analysis of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate Additives in Commercial Lubricating Oil using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption\\/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jannate Tungcharoen; Amorn Petsom

    2008-01-01

    The zinc dialkyl\\/aryl dithiophosphates (ZDDPs) are multifunctional lubricating oil additives. In this research, the analy- sis of ZDDPs additive in lubricating oils using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption\\/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI- Tof) has been developed. The complexes (Zn(DTP)(DMSO) 2 ) + from reaction between zinc dithiophosphate with di- methylsulfoxide were prepared. Analysis parameters for MALDI-Tof MS have been investigated; types of matrix

  9. Development of ecofriendly\\/biodegradable lubricants: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma; Savita Kaul

    Synthetic and vegetable oil based esters offer the best choice in formulating environment friendly lubricants. In the present review an attempt has been made to highlight some recent developments in the area of biodegradable synthetic ester base stocks for formulation of new generation lubricants including the efforts made so far at the author's laboratory in this direction. The developed products

  10. Tribology and energy efficiency: from molecules to lubricated contacts to complete machines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert Ian

    2012-01-01

    The impact of lubricants on energy efficiency is considered. Molecular details of base oils used in lubricants can have a great impact on the lubricant's physical properties which will affect the energy efficiency performance of a lubricant. In addition, molecular details of lubricant additives can result in significant differences in measured friction coefficients for machine elements operating in the mixed/boundary lubrication regime. In single machine elements, these differences will result in lower friction losses, and for complete systems (such as cars, trucks, hydraulic circuits, industrial gearboxes etc.) lower fuel consumption or lower electricity consumption can result. PMID:23285639

  11. Influence of boric acid additive size on green lubricant performance.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Michael R; Kabir, M A; Menezes, Pradeep L; Higgs, C Fred

    2010-10-28

    As the industrial community moves towards green manufacturing processes, there is an increased demand for multi-functional, environmentally friendly lubricants with enhanced tribological performance. In the present investigation, green (environmentally benign) lubricant combinations were prepared by homogeneously mixing nano- (20 nm), sub-micrometre- (600 nm average size) and micrometre-scale (4 ?m average size) boric acid powder additives with canola oil in a vortex generator. As a basis for comparison, lubricants of base canola oil and canola oil mixed with MoS(2) powder (ranging from 0.5 to 10 ?m) were also prepared. Friction and wear experiments were carried out on the prepared lubricants using a pin-on-disc apparatus under ambient conditions. Based on the experiments, the nanoscale (20 nm) particle boric acid additive lubricants significantly outperformed all of the other lubricants with respect to frictional and wear performance. In fact, the nanoscale boric acid powder-based lubricants exhibited a wear rate more than an order of magnitude lower than the MoS(2) and larger sized boric acid additive-based lubricants. It was also discovered that the oil mixed with a combination of sub-micrometre- and micrometre-scale boric acid powder additives exhibited better friction and wear performance than the canola oil mixed with sub-micrometre- or micrometre-scale boric acid additives alone. PMID:20855323

  12. Passenger car motor oils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of a conference on passenger car motor oil. Topics covered include: Analysis of oil consumption mechanism by measuring oil rims radial movement; Base oil effects in sequence IIID and sequence V-D engine tests; Study of transient oil consumption of automotive engines; and SI engine warm-up: Water and lubricating oil temperature influences.

  13. Synthesis of zinc borate by inverse emulsion technique for lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sevdiye Atakul Savr?k; Devrim Balköse; Semra Ülkü

    2011-01-01

    Lubricating oil additives based on boron compounds are promising materials for lubrication due to their tribological advantages\\u000a such as antiwear efficiency, good film strength, and high temperature resistance. This article deals with the preparation\\u000a of zinc borate particles that are well dispersed and colloidally stabilized in mineral oil. This method starts with preparing\\u000a two inverse emulsions (water-in-oil) with sorbitan monostearate

  14. Lubrication of Nitinol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

  15. Automated acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

    2014-12-01

    The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures. PMID:25271046

  16. Scuffing Performance of M50 Bearing Steel Lubricated with a Gas Turbine Engine Oil at High Sliding Speeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Martin; M. P. Alanou; H. P. Evans; R. W. Snidle; H. Kawamura; A. Dodd

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the results of scuffing tests carried out in a special high speed rig using M50 bearing steel rollers prepared to simulate the ball and raceway elements of gas turbine angular contact thrust bearings. The lubricant was Mobiljet2, a typical 5 cSt gas turbine engine oil, and sliding speeds of up to 30 m\\/s were simulated. It was

  17. Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1988-01-01

    A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

  18. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao [Refrigeration and Cryogenics Institute, Department of Power and Energy Engineering, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang, Kaijian [Fujitsu General Institute of Air-Conditioning Technology Limited, Kawasaki 213-8502 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  19. High-temperature bearing lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1968-01-01

    Synthetic paraffinic oil lubricates ball bearings at temperatures in the 600 degrees F range. The lubricant contains antiwear and antifoam additives, is thermally stable in the high temperature range, but requires protection from oxygen.

  20. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  1. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  2. Next generation lubrication system for weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitesh K. Trivedi; Maurice M. Massey; Rabi S. Bhattacharya; Gerald A. Strahl; David Collum

    2001-01-01

    Current weapon system lubricants have performance limitations in extreme climatic conditions, specifically in sand and dust and cold environments. An alternative solid lubricant based lubrication system was investigated and validated using the ASTM subscale tests. The solid lubricants were selected and evaluated based on weapon system lubrication requirements. The solid lubrication systems were evaluated for coefficient of friction, wear, load

  3. Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. 2: for Jet Velocities Equal to or Greater than Great Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or greater than gear pitch line velocity. Equations were developed for minimum and maximum oil jet impingement depth. The analysis also included the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the gear or pinion and the optimum oil jet velocity required to obtain the best lubrication condition of maximum impingement depth and gear cooling. It was shown that the optimum oil jet velocity for best lubrication and cooling is when the oil jet velocity equals the gear pitch line velocity. When the oil jet velocity is slightly greater than the pitch line velocity the loaded side of the driven gear and the unloaded side of the pinion receive the best lubrication and cooling with slightly less impingement depth. As the jet velocity becomes much greater than the pitch line velocity the impingement depth is considerably reduced and may completely miss the pinion.

  4. Experimental and analytical determination of gear tooth temperatures with oil jet lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Gear tooth average and instantaneous surface temperatures were measured with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope, while operating at arious speeds, loads and oil jet pressures. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface temperatures at all test conditions, increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface temperatures of gear teeth. A gear tooth temperature analysis was conducted by a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input and oil jet impingment depth with estimated heat transfer coefficients based on the experimental data. It is concluded that oil jet pressures required for adequate cooling at high load and speed conditions must be high enough to get full penetration depth of the teeth.

  5. Economic incentives for hazardous-waste management: Deposit-refunded systems and used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Economic incentives have been widely advocated for controlling environmental externalities. There has been increasing interest in devising such incentives to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. It is demonstrated that since firms comply with existing disposal rules, there is no efficiency basis for additional incentives. In contrast, incentives may be appropriate for firms that do not comply with existing rules. A range of regulatory instruments is compared, including taxes on inputs and waste generation, and subsidies for safe disposal and waste minimization. Each instrument has undesirable properties. Waste-end taxes encourage illegal disposal; safe-disposal subsides stimulate waste generation; and waste-minimization subsidies cannot be effectively targeted. The economic incentive instrument proposed is a combination of input taxes and safe-disposal subsidies, sometime manifest in the deposit-refund system. This instrument is efficiency-enhancing under plausible real-world conditions. The theoretical results are applied to the case of used lubricating oil, a large-volume waste stream that has vexed regulators for many years. An empirical model is developed that enables the simulation of prices, quantities, and net social benefits resulting from the establishment of a tax-subsidy or deposit-refund system. This model accounts for variations in: price-responsiveness; residual external damage from disposal; ex ante rates of regulatory compliance; and the level of transactions costs implied by the program. The instrument offers positive net social benefits, but only under a narrow range of conditions. The model is modified to apply to a generic hazardous waste problem that emphasizes illegal dumping. The existence of positive net social benefits depends on differences in risk across disposal options, the ex ante level of regulatory compliance, and the magnitude of unit transactions costs.

  6. Processing and Formulation of Lithium Lubricating Greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Moreno, G.; Gallegos, C.

    2006-05-01

    The effects that soap concentration, base oil viscosity and additives exert on the rheology of lubricating greases have been studied. Also, changes in both microstructure and rheology of lithium lubricating greases during their manufacturing process have been evaluated. With this aim, different lithium lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate, base oil viscosity and processing conditions or using different polymeric additives. The manufacturing process was followed through the mixing rheometry technique by measuring the evolution of torque with processing time, and samples of incipient and finished greases were taken from the stirred tank at different processing times. Rheological (small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS)) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observations were carried out on each sample. The experimental results obtained demonstrate that the values of the linear viscoelasticity functions and the mechanical behaviour of lubricating grease strongly depend on the processing variables and grease composition. Also, it has been found that the structural skeleton (size and shape of the disperse phase particles) is highly influenced by the base oil viscosity. These results have been explained taking into account the balance between the solvency of the thickener in the base oil and the level of entanglements formed by soap fibres, which influence the lubricating grease network.

  7. Into mesh lubrication of spur gears with arbitrary offset oil jet. I - For jet velocity less than or equal to gear velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or less than pitch line velocity. The analysis includes the case for the oil jet offset from the pitch point in the direction of the pinion and where the oil jet is inclined to intersect the common pitch point. Equations were developed for the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the pinion or gear and the optimum oil jet velocity to obtain the maximum impingement depth.

  8. Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. I: For Jet Velocity Less than or Equal to Gear Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or less than pitch line velocity. The analysis includes the case for the oil jet offset from the pitch point in the direction of the pinion and where the oil jet is inclined to intersect the common pitch point. Equations were developed for the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the pinion or gear and the optimum oil jet velocity to obtain the maximum impingement depth.

  9. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

  10. Gear Lubrication in Inert Gas Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Baber; C. W. Lawler; H. R. Smith; G. A. Beane; P. M. Ku

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of inert gas atmospheres on the gear load-carrying capacity of lubricants. The experiments were performed in two types of gear test machines, using case-hardened AMS-6260 steel test gears. It was found that two mineral oils (a solvent-extracted turbine oil base stock and a USP grade white mineral oil), as well as the same

  11. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Truhan, Jr., John J [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  12. New Solid State Oil Condition Sensor for Real Time Engine Oil Condition Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Bennett; Leonid Matsiev; Mark Uhrich; Oleg Kolosov; Zbigniew Bryning; Robert Lattin; Thermo-King Corp

    Engine lubrication oil degrades at varying rates depending on the lubricant, engine type and application. Traditional maintenance programs are designed to change oil on predetermined intervals (such as run time\\/mileage), with more advanced algorithms taking into account load and operating temperature of the engine, or lab analysis. Conservative interval based maintenance programs spend too many resources changing oil and longer

  13. Tribological properties of Fe 7Mo 6-based alloy under two ionic liquid lubrications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Murakami; K. Kaneda; M. Nakano; A. Korenaga; H. Mano; S. Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    The tribological properties of Fe7Mo6-based alloy, Mo, Fe and ASTM class no. 45 cast iron disk specimens were investigated against ASTM 52100 steel balls under the lubrication of two different kinds of hydrophobic ionic liquid: N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PP13-TFSI) and N-N-N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TMPA-TFSI). When lubricated with PP13-TFSI or TMPA-TFSI, the Fe7Mo6-based alloy disk specimens exhibited lower friction coefficients and lower wear

  14. The wear of aluminium-based journal bearing materials under lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Feyzullaho?lu; Nehir ?akiro?lu

    2010-01-01

    The aluminium-based alloys, nowadays, are developed to be used in high performance engine bearings. In this study, new Al-based bearing alloys, which are produced by metal mould casting, were developed; and tribologic properties of these alloys under lubrication were analyzed experimentally. Four different aluminium alloys were carried out on pin on disc wear tester for that purpose. SAE 1040 steel

  15. Process for the preparation of superalkalinized metallic detergent-dispersants for lubricating oils and products obtained therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Demoures, B.; Le Coent, J.L.

    1983-11-01

    A process is provided for preparing detergent-dispersant compositions of high alkalinity by: 1. Carbonation, at a temperature of between about 100/sup 0/ C. and 250/sup 0/ C., with carbon dioxide of a reaction medium comprising a sulfurized alkylphenate of an alkaline-earth metal having a TBN of between about 1 and 170, an alkaline-earth metal alkylbenzene sulfonate having a molecular weight of more than about 300 and a TBN of less than or equal to about 150, an alkaline-earth metal compound, an alkylene glycol, and a dilution oil; 2. Removal of the alkylene glycol; and 3. Separation of the superalkalinized metallic detergent-dispersant thus obtained. The metallic detergent-dispersant compositions obtained are useful in improving the detergent-dispersant power of lubricating oils.

  16. Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

  17. Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

  18. Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, P. M. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

  19. The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt% NiCr binder, 20 wt% Cr2O3 hardener, and 10 wt% each Ag, and BaF2/CaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc foil bearing. The test load was 10 KPa (1.5 psi) and the bearings were run under start/stop cyclic conditions. The data show good wear performance of the bearing, especially at temperatures above 25 deg. C. Bearing friction was moderate (micron approx. or equal to 0.4) over the entire temperature range. Based upon the results obtained, the PS304 coating has promise for high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

  20. Fuel and lubricants primer for automotive engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on automotive fuels and lubricating oils. Topics considered at the conference included modern refining, modern engine oils, additives for automotive engine oils, the performance of two-stroke cycle engine lubricants, modern automotive greases, the properties and performance of modern automotive fuels, gasoline and diesel fuel additives for improving performance, the fundamentals of automotive gear lubrication, automatic transmission fluids, and the lubrication of farm equipment.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block... Use lubricating oils specified in § 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified...fuel and lubricating oil, mix the...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block... Use lubricating oils specified in § 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified...fuel and lubricating oil, mix the...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block... Use lubricating oils specified in § 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified...fuel and lubricating oil, mix the...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block... Use lubricating oils specified in § 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified...fuel and lubricating oil, mix the...

  5. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  6. Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

  7. Starting and Steady-State Friction Torque of Grease-Lubricated Rolling Element Bearings at Low Temperatures—Part I: A Parameter Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Wikström; E. Höglund

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the friction torque in a roller element bearing was made. The aim was to sort out parameters important to bearing torque, and to see whether they interact. Friction torque in grease-lubricated bearings were compared to bearings lubricated with the corresponding base oil at ?20° and + 20°C. Also, base oil viscosity, NLGI number, load and acceleration

  8. Influence of steel type on the propensity for tribochemical wear in boundary lubrication with a wind turbine gear oil

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ryan D. [Timken Company; Doll, Gary L. [Timken Company; Hager, C H [Timken Company; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Tribochemical wear may occur at the interface between a surface and a lubricant as a result of chemical and mechanical interactions in a tribological contact. Understanding the onset of tribochemical wear damage on component surfaces requires the use of high resolution techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, two steel types, case carburized AISI 3310 and through-hardened AISI 52100, were wear tested using a ball-on-disk rolling/sliding contact tribometer in fully formulated commercial wind turbine gearbox oil under boundary lubrication conditions with 10% slip. With the exception of steel type, all other test conditions were held constant. Conventional tribofilm analysis in the wear tracks was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and no significant composition differences were detected in the tribofilms for the different steel disk types. However, TEM analysis revealed significant tribochemical wear differences between the two steel types at multiple length scales, from the near-surface material microstructure (depth < 500 nm) to the tribofilm nanostructure. Nanometer-scale interfacial cracking and surface particle detachment was observed for the AISI 52100 case, whereas the tribofilm/substrate interface was abrupt and undamaged for the AISI 3310 case. Differences in tribofilm structure, including the location and orientation of MoS{sub 2} single sheet inclusions, were observed as a function of steel type as well. It is suggested that the tribochemical wear modes observed in these experiments may be origins of macroscopic surface-initiated damage such as micropitting in bearings and gears.

  9. Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Delgado; J. M. Franco; C. Valencia; E. Kuhn; C. Gallegos

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration\\u000a and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments.\\u000a With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate\\u000a and the viscosity of the base

  10. Non-Newtonian Effects on Film Formation in Grease-Lubricated Radial Lip Seals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Baart; Piet M. Lugt; Braham Prakash

    2010-01-01

    In existing models, the only lubricant property used for predicting film thickness in radial lip seals is the (base) oil viscosity. Lubricating greases show non-Newtonian behavior, and additional normal stress components develop that may contribute to the load-carrying capacity. This study investigates the shear rheology of greases and determines whether this “normal stress effect” in grease can significantly contribute to

  11. BIODIESEL AND THE ISSUE OF DIESEL FUEL LUBRICITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advent of (ultra-)low sulfur diesel fuels based on petroleum has caused changes in the properties of these fuels. One of the major changes is the loss of previously inherent lubricity. Biodiesel, a diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or used frying oils, is miscible with petr...

  12. High-temperature lubricants. November 1971-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1971-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning high temperature synthetic and natural lubricating compositions. Thickening agents, thermal stabilizers, polymeric additives, antioxidants, and preservatives are included relative to such lubricants as greases, oils, and soaps. Methods of manufacturing and various applications are included. (This updated bibliography contains 95 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. High-temperature lubricants. January 1970-January 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning high-temperature synthetic and natural lubricating compositions. Thickening agents, thermal stabilizers, polymeric additives, antioxidants, and preservatives are included relative to such lubricants as greases, oils, and soaps. Methods of manufacturing and various applications are included. (This updated bibliography contains 80 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. MICROWAVE IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE, VISCOSITY, THERMAL PROPERTIES AND LUBRICITY OF SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil (SBO) was heat-bodied (HB) or microwave-irradiated (MI). HB oil with Gardner bubble viscosity in the B-C range was studied as its viscosity was similar to oil MI at 200-250 deg C for 20-60 min. SBO that was HB had increased viscosity and MI further increased viscosity compared with unt...

  15. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  16. USE OF VEGETABLE OILS IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils have a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerid...

  17. USE OF SOYBEAN OIL IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil has a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerides a...

  18. Metalworking corrosion inhibition/drawing lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, H.F.; Wantling, S.J.

    1980-05-06

    A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

  19. The Effect of Doping Elements and Oil Additives on the Tribological Performance of Boundary-Lubricated DLC\\/DLC Contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kalin; J. Vižintin; J. Barriga; K. Vercammen; K. van. Acker; A. Arnšek

    2004-01-01

    In the past decade the range of possible applications for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings has changed significantly: from their conventional use in low-stress applications without lubricants, to their use in high-stress applications under lubricated conditions. Despite this progress, there is still a lack of understanding of the lubrication mechanisms involving DLC coatings. Our idea for improving the boundary lubrication of

  20. In-situ, On-demand Lubrication System for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2002-01-01

    Many of today's spacecraft have long mission lifetimes. Whatever the lubrication method selected, the initial lubricant charge is required to last the entire mission. Fluid lubricant losses are mainly due to evaporation, tribo-degradation, and oil creep out of the tribological regions. In the past, several techniques were developed to maintain the appropriate amount of oil in the system. They were based on oil reservoirs (cartridges, impregnated porous parts), barrier films, and labyrinth seals. Nevertheless, all these systems have had limited success or have not established a proven record for space missions. The system reported here provides to the ball-race contact fresh lubricant in-situ and on demand. The lubricant is stored in a porous cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing. The oil is released by heating the cartridge to eject oil, taking advantage of the greater thermal expansion of the oil compared to the porous network. The heating may be activated by torque increases that signal the depletion of oil in the contact. The low surface tension of the oil compared to the ball bearing material is utilized and the close proximity of the cartridge to the moving balls allows the lubricant to reach the ball-race contacts. This oil resupply system can be used to avoid a mechanism failure or reduce torque to an acceptable level and extend the life of the component.

  1. Lubrication of Inconel 600 with ionic liquids at high temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Jiménez; M. D. Bermúdez; P. Iglesias

    2009-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of Inconel 600 against AISI 52100 steel have been studied in the presence of three ionic liquid (IL) lubricants, two imidazolium derivatives, 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (L108) and 1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (L-P106), and the quaternary ammonium chloride AMMOENG™101 (AM-101), and compared with a mineral base oil at room temperature. The IL lubricants have been studied at high temperature.

  2. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BASE STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Vegetable Oil-Based Base Stocks" is a study of a series of vegetable oils selected for potential use as base fluids for industrial and automotive applications. Their thermal-oxidative stabilities and low-temperature properties are evaluated. Effects of diluents and additives on selected vegetable...

  3. Determination of metallo-organic and particulate wear metals in lubricating oils associated with hybrid ceramic bearings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Robin Ann

    It is possible to increase both the performance and operating environment of jet engines by using hybrid ceramic bearings. Our laboratory is concerned with investigating lubricating fluids for wear metals associated with silicon nitride ball bearings and steel raceways. Silicon nitride is characterized by low weight, low thermal expansion, high strength, and corrosion resistance. These attributes result in longer engine lifetimes than when metallic ball bearings are used. Before the routine use of ceramic ball bearings can be realized, the wear mechanisms of the materials should be thoroughly understood. One important variable in determining wear degradation is the concentration of metal present in the lubricating oils used with the bearings. A complete method for analyzing used lubricating oils for wear metal content must accurately determine all metal forms present. Oil samples pose problems for routine analysis due to complex organic matrices. Nebulizing these types of samples into an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer introduces many problems including clogging of the sample cone with carbon and increasing interferences. In addition, other techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry are particle size dependent. They are unable to analyze particles greater than 10 mum in size. This dissertation describes a method of analyzing lubricating oils for both metallo-organic and particulate species by ICP-MS. Microwave digestion of the oil samples eliminates the need for elaborate sample introduction schemes as well as the use of a modified carrier gas. Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Y have been determined in both aqueous and organic media. Metallo-organic solutions of these metals were successfully digested, nebulized into the ICP, and the singly charged ions measured by mass spectrometry. Metal particulates in oil matrices have also been quantitatively determined by the above method. Linear analytical curves were obtained for these elements from the detection limits (˜1 ppb) to greater than 1 ppm. Used lubricating oil samples were also analyzed by microwave digestion ICP-MS. Oil samples were collected from a Rolling Contact Fatigue tester. Two bearing systems were evaluated: M50 steel balls on an M50 steel rod, and Sisb3Nsb4 balls on an M50 steel rod. Improved operating conditions were obtained when the Sisb3Nsb4 balls were used, which corresponds to longer engine lifetimes.

  4. (31)P-NMR analysis of zinc dialkyl(diaryl)-dithiophosphate in lubricating oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.

    1982-11-01

    To assure that the oils furnished the government are of the same formulations as the oils originally qualified, a new method has been developed to examine zinc dialkyl(diaryl)dithiophosphate (ZDDP) additives by using P-NMR. Two finished oils and primary alkyl-ZDDP, secondary alkyl-ZDDP, and aryl-ZDDP were examined. P-NMR was found to be a better method than other existing analytical methods to analyze the change of ZDDP additives in full formulated oil without pre-separation.

  5. Tribological Characterization of Several Silicon-Based Materials Under Ionic-Liquids Lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoxin Xie; Quan Wang; Lina Si; Shuhai Liu; Gang Li

    2009-01-01

    The tribological behaviors of three silicon-based materials (low temperature silicon oxide (LTO), polysilicon (Poly Si) and\\u000a silicon nitride (Si3N4) films) under ion liquids (ILs) lubrication have been investigated by varying the applied load and the sliding velocity.\\u000a An atomic force microscope and a nanoindentor were used to characterize the deposited films, and the worn surfaces after frictional\\u000a tests were analyzed

  6. The Role of Configuration Entropy in Boundary Lubricants Based on the n -Perfluoropropylene Oxide Main Chain Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Waltman; N. Kobayashi; T. Shimizu; A. Inoue; H. Deng; Y.-C. Wu

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the resistance of a novel end-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant film to slider–disk\\u000a interactions caused by low-flying sliders. The PFPE lubricant is based on the CF2CF2CF2O main chain monomer unit. Both slider–disk interactions and the formation of lubricant moguls are significantly reduced compared\\u000a to the Fomblin Z backbone, (CF2O)\\u000a p\\u000a –(CF2CF2O)\\u000a q\\u000a . These results are interpreted on

  7. Molecular dynamics study on the mechanism of AFM-based nanoscratching process with water-layer lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiaqi; Zhao, Jinsheng; Dong, Zeguang; Liu, Pinkuan

    2015-08-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) based direct nanoscratching has been thoroughly studied but the mechanism of nanoscratching with water-layer lubrication is yet to be well understood. In current study, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to evaluate the effects of the water-layer lubrication on the AFM-based nanoscratching process on monocrystalline copper. Comparisons of workpiece deformation, scratching forces, and friction coefficients are made between the water-lubricated and dry scratching under various thickness of water layer, scratching depth and scratching velocity. Simulation results reveal that the water layer has positive impact on the surface quality and significant influence on the scratching forces (normal forces and tangential forces). The friction coefficients of the tip in water-lubricated nanoscratching are significantly bigger than those in the dry process. Our simulation results shed lights on a promising AFM-based nanofabrication method, which can assist to get nanoscale surface morphologies with higher quality than traditional approaches.

  8. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    PubMed

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source. PMID:23490355

  9. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of chlorine in the lubricant and that emissions did not change in response to a much greater step change in the total chlorine entering the combustion chamber due to a change in the level of chlorine in the fuel. Emissions when the engine was configured with a diesel oxidation catalyst showed a consistent pattern that appears to be unique in the experience of the authors. PMID:17254630

  10. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

  11. Environmental liability and life-cycle management of used lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2008-12-30

    Used oil handling, as a business, requires an extensive understanding by management that environmental liabilities exist through its supply chain. Findings from a review of the legal requirements of operating a used oil handling business were: understanding the transfer of ownership of used petroleum hydrocarbons is critical to any such business and how this is documented; used oil handlers are responsible for providing training to their staff, including site personnel and any third party waste contractors, and for communicating best practice procedures relating to the management of used petroleum hydrocarbons to all those individuals and organisations involved in business relationships that the used oil handling companies have; used oil handlers should audit the performance of any third party contractors that it engages to conduct work on behalf of its customers. Hypothetical situations of a company planning to enter the used oil handling market are described in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes it handles to illustrate the range of potential liabilities. Companies proposing to establish a used oil handling business should ensure that they provide accurate advice to its employees, its customer's employees and to its third party contractors, all of which may be responsible for handling used petroleum hydrocarbons as part of the service it intends to provide, and that it has a well documented system addressing how environmental issues are managed. PMID:18423855

  12. Effect of PAG-type lubricating oil on heat transfer characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide cooled inside a small internally grooved tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaobin Dang; Koji Iino; Eiji Hihara

    2010-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of supercritical CO2 cooled inside a small internally grooved tube were investigated. The mean inner diameter (ID) and helix angle of this tube were 2 mm and 6.3°, respectively. Experiments were conducted in the pressure range of 8–10 MPa and mass flux range of 400–1200 kg m?2 s?1. The effect of PAG-type lubricating oil on the heat

  13. Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Knowles; D Baglee

    2012-01-01

    Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for

  14. Transesterification of trimethylolpropane and rapeseed oil methyl ester to environmentally acceptable lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esa Uosukainen; Yu-Yen Linko; Merja Lämsä; Tommi Tervakangas; Pekka Linko

    1998-01-01

    Biodegradable trimethylolpropane [2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol] esters of rapeseed oil fatty acids were synthesized\\u000a by transesterification with rapeseed oil methyl ester both by enzymatic and chemical means, both in bench and pilot scales.\\u000a Nearly complete conversions were obtained with both techniques. A reduced pressure of about 2 to 5 kPa, to remove the methanol\\u000a formed during transesterification, was critical for a high product

  15. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  16. Transient Shear Flow of Model Lithium Lubricating Greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behaviour of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of lithium grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying lithium 12-hydroxystearate concentration and base oil viscosity. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. Moreover, an asymptotic tendency has been found for the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of this parameter have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

  17. Synthesis and Tribological Behavior of Oil-Soluble Cu Nanoparticles as Additive in SF15W\\/40 Lubricating Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuhong Pan; Xifeng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Oil-soluble Cu nanoparticles were prepared by an oil-water interface growth method, using ascorbic acid as a reductant, polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000) as a modifier, and 1-butanol as growth agent. The particle size distribution of the obtained nanoparticles was between 18.2-80.2 nm, and the average size was 44.7 nm. The microstructures of these nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM and high-concentration laser

  18. Effect of fillers in lubricating oil and of structure on the operating performance of parts from sintered materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Avakov; É. N. Popov; I. B. Saiko; Yu. I. Pustovoit; L. P. Brener; V. K. Krivonosov

    1978-01-01

    1.The useful life of a self-lubricating sintered part from an iron powder can be substantially increased by introducing a polymer and graphite into the lubricant and from 1 to 1.5 wt.% graphite into the starting charge.2.In the absence of an external lubricant supply the operating performance of a system composed of a sintered skeleton and a filler depends mainly on

  19. Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

  20. Design and prototype of dual loop lubricant system to improve engine fuel economy, emissions, and oil drain interval

    E-print Network

    Plumley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Regulations aimed at improving fuel economy and reducing harmful emissions from internal combustion engines place constraints on lubricant formulations necessary for controlling wear and reducing friction. Viscosity reduction ...

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of surface energy and ZDDP effects on friction in nano-scale lubricated contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Berro; Nicolas Fillot; Philippe Vergne

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the tribological performance of a lubricant mixture containing hexadecane base oil and 5% zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) under molecular confinement conditions. The influence of ZDDP additive and the surface–lubricant interaction on the mechanical and thermal interfacial response are studied in detail. Results show that mechanical and thermal slips are reduced by increasing the surface

  2. Standardization and selection of a method for evaluating shear resistance of lubricating oils with polymer additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wislicki, B.

    1984-01-01

    The wide use of polymer additives increasing the viscosity index of mineral oils justified the usefulness of selecting a standard laboratory method for evaluating the shear resistance of this kind of oils. The suitability of a particular method was analyzed on the basis of comparative tests performed in Poland and abroad using mechanical methods (in a laboratory and on stands), operational tests, and ultrasonic methods, including the method developed in the Institute of Aeronautics. The ultrasonic method described and incorporated in branch standard BN-70/0535 was accepted as the most advantageous method from the standpoint of standardization requirements.

  3. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  4. The Effect of Water in Lubricating Oil on Bearing Fatigue Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Cantley

    1977-01-01

    The effect of water in an SAE 20 oil on tapered roller bearing fatigue life was evaluated. Full-scale bearing life tests were conducted with water concentrations of 25, 100, and 400 ppm. Good correlation was obtained between fatigue life and water content and the detrimental effects of water on fatigue life at these levels were clearly demonstrated. As a result

  5. Classification of engine oils for tractor diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Arabyan

    1971-01-01

    1.An empirical relationship has been established which is based on study of the effects of the main constructional features of tractor diesel engines and their operating conditions upon the rate of ageing of the lubricating oil and upon the formation of carbon and gum deposition on the pistons. This relationship enables the “service loading” on the lubricating oil in a

  6. Lubricating system for vertical shaft engine

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Tachibana, Y.; Oguri, K.; Isaka, Y.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a lubrication system for an internal combustion engine having an output shaft rotatable about a generally vertically extending axis, a lubricant reservoir defined at least in part by a lower wall of the engine surrounding the output shaft and through which the output shaft passes for driving a driven element. The lower wall is formed with an upwardly extending baffle for dividing the lubricant reservoir into separate sections and for reducing sloshing of lubricant within the lubricant reservoir, and oil passage means extending through the baffle for permitting lubricant to flow therethrough.

  7. Industrial Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajdas, C.; Karpi?ska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

    'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

  8. Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1990-11-01

    Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals. PMID:2225336

  9. Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Hironori; Tsuda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of cutting speed on flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness during hobbing using an uncoated tool, and TiN- and (Al, Ti)N- coated tools with a minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) system. The experiments were conducted by simulating hobbing by fly tool cutting on a milling machine. The results helped clarify the following points. (1) With the uncoated tool and the TiN-coated tool, the flank wear increases upon increasing in the cutting speed from 47m/min to 86m/min. Conversely, flank wear decreases at the higher speed of 117m/min. It was impossible to cut at 159m/min owing to the failure of the cutting edge. With the (Al, Ti)N-coated tool, the flank wear showed nearly the same small value, irrespective of cutting speed. (2) The cutting speed also has a large effect on crater wear, particularly for the TiN-and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. The cutting speed of 117m/min is suitable for decreasing crater wear. (3) The finished surface roughness is small for all the tools used in this test for cutting speeds less than 86m/min, after which it becomes large because of the adhesion of deposited metal at cutting speeds more than 117m/min. When using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools, there is a critical cutting groove length, at which the surface roughness decreases rapidly.

  10. Status and New Directions for Solid Lubricant Coatings and Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    At one time, solid lubricants were used almost entirely in aerospace applications. Today there is a pronounced trend to use them over a much broader range of applications. For example, self-lubricating polymer-based composites have displaced traditional oil-lubricated, metallic composites for many journal bearings and thrust washers in applications as diverse as earth-moving machinery and snow blowers to aircraft applications. For moderate temperatures below 200 C, glass filament-wound epoxy bearings with PTFE lubricating liners are usefl; for temperatures up to 350 C, graphite fiber reinforced polyimide bearing materials are finding applications. Advanced technology engines have severe lubrication and wear problems at temperatures beyond the capabilities of any of these lubricants. Here, self-lubricating ceramics and inorganic composites for use at 1000 C or higher are of interest. However, perhaps the most significant new direction for solid lubricant coatings and self-lubricating composites is their steadily increasing use in dry bearings for large volume, moderate temperature applications. This can be attributed to their simplicity of use (no supporting lubricant system needed), light weight, convenience, and general cost effectiveness.

  11. [Unequal interval jump grey modeling and its application to the spectral analysis of lubricating oil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Zhu-guo; Chen, Zhao-neng

    2004-05-01

    Unequal interval jump grey model was built for raw data series with unequal interval and jump trend in this paper. Levenberg-Marquardt arithmetic that belongs to non-linear least-square. estimation was used to recognize the parameters. The model built was used to fit spectrometric analysis values of diesel engine and the fitting precision is good. It is helpful to improve the accuracy and reliability of spectrometric analysis by revising test data after oil change with model parameter. PMID:15769063

  12. KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

  13. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

  14. Lubrication and thermal characteristics of mechanical seal with porous surface based on cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huilong, Chen; Muzi, Zuo; Tong, Liu; Yu, Wang; Cheng, Xu; Qiangbo, Wu

    2014-04-01

    The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LST-MS) was established. The liquid film of LST-MS was simulated by the Fluent software, using full cavitation model and non-cavitation model separately. Dynamic mesh technique and relationship between viscosity and temperature were applied to simulate the internal flow field and heat characteristics of LST-MS, based on the more accurate cavitation model. Influence of porous depth ratio porous diameter ? and porous density SP on lubrication performance and the variation of lubrication and thermal properties with shaft speed and sealing pressure were analyzed. The results indicate that the strongest hydrodynamic pressure effect and the biggest thickness of liquid film are obtained when ? and SP are respectively about 0.025 and 0.5 which were thought to be the optimum value. The frictional heat leads to the increase of liquid film temperature and the decrease of medium viscosity with the shaft speed increasing. The hydrodynamic pressure effect increases as shaft speed increasing, however it decreases as the impact of frictional heat.

  15. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  16. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  17. Effect of die wall lubrication on warm compaction powder metallurgy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Y Li; T. L Ngai; D. T Zhang; Y Long; W Xia

    2002-01-01

    Die wall lubrication was applied on warm compaction powder metallurgy in the hope to reduce the concentration level of the admixed lubricant, since lubricant is harmful to the mechanical properties of the sintered material. Iron-based samples were prepared by die wall lubricated warm compaction at 135 and 175°C, using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) emulsion as the die wall lubricant. Compacting pressures of

  18. The effect of lubricant traction of scuffing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A.; Webster, M. N.; Enthoven, J. C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a disc machine gear simulation investigating the influence of lubricant traction characteristics and formulation on the load at which scuffing occurs. Scuffing theories in general link the onset of scuffing to the amount of heat generated in the contact and the authors hypothesized that reduced heat generation with low traction lubricants should lead to an increase in scuffing load. The study compared low traction poly alpha olefin (PAO)-based lubricants with mineral oils in basestock, antiwear and EP formulations and at both high (greater than 6) and moderate (approximately 1.2) specific film thickness, lambda. At lambda greater than 6, the benefits of the synthetics over their mineral counterparts ranged from 25 percent to 220 percent and at lambda approximately = 1.2, the benefits were a uniform 40 percent. It was particularly interesting to observe that the antiwear PAO-based oil gave a similar scuff load per unit contact width to an EP mineral gear oil. In addition, it was shown that scuffing load decreased with increasing traction coefficient to the power of approximately -1.85, close to the -2.00 power predicted by the frictional power intensity concept. The agreement with flash temperature theory, with a predicted power of -1.33, was less close.

  19. The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Heshmat; J. F. Walton

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant.

  20. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints 

    E-print Network

    Pendelton, Alice Mae

    2009-05-15

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. ...

  1. Lubricants at low temperatures. Technical digest

    SciTech Connect

    Diemand, D.

    1990-12-01

    Lubricants represent the single most critical problem encountered by vehicles in cold regions. A vehicle lubricated for use in temperature regions will simply not operate in an extremely cold environment. A chunk of heavy gear oil can be used to pound nails at -40C. Thus it is of the utmost importance to ensure that all lubricants used in the vehicle be chosen with low-temperature operation in mind, including engine oil, gear oil, grease transmission fluid, hydraulic fluid and brake fluid. Lubricants must have a sufficiently low viscosity for low-temperature use and must also be able to diffuse over all surfaces requiring lubrication and to permeate the pores and surface cracks of metals. The use of unsuitable lubricants may result in channeling, dry gears and bearings, difficult starting and shifting, quick wear, and deterioration of engines, engine attachments and chassis.

  2. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  3. Analyses on the Splashing Parameters of High-Speed Oil Impacted a Wall in Jet Lubrications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Gu; Liqin Wang; Zhenhuan Ye; Dezhi Zheng

    \\u000a A new model for the free jet breakup is derived from the TAB theory to determine the size of breakup in the energy conservation\\u000a law. In addition, the splash behavior of droplets after impingement is determined by the newly proposed model, which incorporates\\u000a both the size and the number models based on Wu Ziniu’s phenomenological theory. The numerical calculations for

  4. Frictional behavior of oxide graphene nanosheets as water-base lubricant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hao-Jie; Li, Na

    2011-12-01

    Oxide graphene (GO) nanosheets were prepared by modified Hummers and Offeman methods. The products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tribological properties of GO nanosheets as water-base lubricant additive were investigated using a UMT-2 ball-plate tribotester. By the addition of GO nanosheets in pure water, the antiwear ability was improved and the friction coefficient was decreased. The water with GO nanosheets showed better tribological properties than the water with oxide multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs-COOH). It is concluded that the formation of a thin physical tribofilms on the substrate can explain the good friction and wear properties of GO nanosheets.

  5. Lubrication background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Surface topography, including the various physical methods of measuring surfaces, and the various lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, boundary, and mixed) are discussed. The historical development of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is outlined. The major accomplishments in four periods, the pre-1950's, the 1950's, the 1960's, and the 1970's are presented.

  6. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s?¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol?¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

  7. 1992 SAE fuels and lubricants standards manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book is a source of fuels and lubricants standards - all in one volume. This reference features all SAE fuels and lubricants Standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports. Several standards documents have been revised and three are new. In addition to including a total of 24 standards documents, HS-23 also contains recent SAE technical papers that discuss the Oil Labeling Assessment Program (OLAP). A comprehensive bibliography of fuels and lubricants technical papers published by SAE is also included. Engine Oil Performance and Engine Service Classification; Engine Oil Viscosity Classification; International Tests and Specification for Automotive Engine Oils; Two-Stroke Cycle Gasoline Engine Lubricants Performance and Service Classification; Automotive Lubricating Greases; Diesel Fuels; and Alternative Automotive Fuels.

  8. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

  9. Reciprocating Sliding Friction and Wear Property of Fe 3 Si Based Alloys Containing Cu in Water Lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangang Jia; Qin Ma; Jinjun Lu; Bo Wang

    2008-01-01

    Fe3Si, Fe3Si alloys containing Cu were fabricated by arc melting followed by hot-pressing. The friction and wear behaviors of Fe3Si based alloys with and without Cu addition against Si3N4 ball in water-lubrication were investigated. The friction coefficient and the wear rates of Fe3Si based alloys decreased as the load increased. The wear rate of Fe3Si was higher than that of

  10. Boundary cartilage lubrication: review of current concepts.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Matej

    2014-03-01

    Effective lubrication of synovial joints is important to prevent cartilage degeneration and to keep the joints healthy. This paper sets out the basics of engineering lubrication with respect to the composition and properties of synovial fluid constituents. Two basic types of boundary lubrication are discussed: the presence of highly hydrophilic proteoglycans that provide a water liquid film, and the existence of multilamellar phospholipids lubricating layers at the surface ofarticular cartilage. Based on current knowledge, we may conclude that no single mechanism of boundary lubrication exists, and that effective boundary lubrication of synovial joints is maintained by the synergic effect of all synovial fluid constituents. PMID:24081750

  11. Effect of Vaginal Lubricants on Natural Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Long, D. Leann; Tanner, Catherine; Herring, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants have been shown to negatively affect in vitro sperm motility. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of vaginal lubricant use during procreative intercourse on natural fertility. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months completed a baseline questionnaire on vaginal lubricant use. Subsequently, women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding, intercourse, and vaginal lubricant use and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Diary data were used to determine the fertile window and delineate lubricant use during the fertile window. A proportional hazards model was used to estimate fecundability ratios with any lubricant use in the fertile window considered as a time-varying exposure. Results Of the 296 participants, 75 (25%) stated in their baseline questionnaire that they use vaginal lubricants while attempting to conceive. Based on daily diary data, 57% of women never used a lubricant, 29% occasionally used a lubricant, and 14% used a lubricant frequently. Women who used lubricants during the fertile window had similar fecundability to those women who did not use lubricants (fecundability ratio 1.05, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.85) after adjusting for age, partner race, and intercourse frequency in the fertile window. Conclusion Lubricants are commonly used by couples during procreative intercourse. Lubricant use during procreative intercourse does not appear to reduce the probability of conceiving. PMID:22914390

  12. A novel lubricant additive based on carbon nanotubes for ionic liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Yu; Zhilu Liu; Feng Zhou; Weimin Liu; Yongmin Liang

    2008-01-01

    Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL)\\/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) composite was prepared by chemical modification. The composite was analyzed by using laser Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The RTIL\\/MWNTs composite was evaluated as lubricant additive in ionic liquid due to their excellent dispersibility. Tribological performances of RTIL\\/MWNTs composite as lubricant additive were performed on a universal UMT-2MT Tribo-tester. It is

  13. Lubricating Greases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Featured Molecules for this month all come from the paper "Lubricating Grease: A Chemical Primer" by Craig Donahue. This paper is a rich source of structural examples ranging from small molecules to metal complexes to polymeric species.

  14. Barge-based oil barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, R. R.

    1984-11-19

    An offshore oil spill cleanup system is provided which includes a barge arranged downstream of an oil spill to split the flow of oil to either side of the barge, two booms, each arranged on opposite sides of the barge to catch the diverted oil, and stationary skimmers working in the sheltered area behind the barge and within the booms to remove oil from the boom area to the barge. Diversionary booms are arranged upstream of the barge and chase skimming systems are located downstream of the barge and are functionable to move independently of the barge and recover any oil getting past the booms attached to the barge.

  15. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in the skin of mice treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and exhaust condensates.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1989-08-01

    Samples of unused or used petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 4- to 6-week-old male Parkes mice, either as a single treatment (50 microliters/mouse) or as four consecutive daily treatments (50 microliters/application). DNA isolated from the skin 24 h after the final treatment was digested to 3'-mononucleotides and analysed by 32P-postlabelling for the presence of aromatic adducts. Enhancement of sensitivity using butanol extraction or nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA hydrolysates led to the detection of up to eight adduct spots on polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin-layer chromatograms with samples of DNA from skin treated with used engine oils, at levels of 40-150 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA. Multiple treatments with the used oils gave rise to similar patterns of adducts in lung DNA. A single treatment of mouse skin with petrol engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), or diesel engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), containing 20 and 46 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g respectively, gave rise to approximately 75 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA in skin. A significant proportion, 31 and 48% respectively, of the adducts formed by the petrol and diesel engine exhaust condensates co-chromatographed with the major BaP-DNA adduct, but with the used engine oils, only petrol engine oil, and not diesel engine oil, produced significant amounts of an adduct (22% of total) that corresponded to the BaP-DNA adduct. PMID:2473852

  16. New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Julfikar [School of CEIS, Ellison Building, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of MME, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland)

    2011-01-17

    In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

  17. Surface integrity of inconel-718 nickel-base superalloy using controlled and natural contact length tools. part I: Lubricated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Sadat; M. Y. Reddy

    1992-01-01

    The surface integrity of inconel-718 nickel-base superalloy was investigated using orthogonal cutting at various cutting speeds,\\u000a depths of cut and chip-tool contact lengths under lubricated conditions. The experimental work involved the determination\\u000a of residual stress, plastic strain and microhardness distribution in the surface region and the examination of the surface\\u000a and subsurface using scanning electron and optical microscopy. Both residual

  18. Fuel economy of multigrade gear lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bala; G. Brandt; D. K. Walters

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the setup of a light duty axle efficiency test in evaluating gear lubricants for their fuel economy performance. Data collected with an internal reference oil highlight the repeatability of the test in different axles. Comparisons between single grade SAE 90 to multigrade gear lubricants were made under a variety of pinion torques and speeds to simulate highway

  19. Thermal and Oxidative Stabilities of Liquid Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental processes which occur during the thermal and oxidation degradation of hydrocarbons is reviewed. Various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers are emphasized. Techniques to determine thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is examined.

  20. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  1. Lubricating Holes for Corroded Nuts and Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Clemons, J. M.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III

    1986-01-01

    Corroded fasteners taken apart more easily. Lubricating holes bored to thread from three of flats. Holes facilitate application of penetrating oil to help loosen nut when rusted onto bolt. Holes make it possible to apply lubricants and rust removers directly to more of thread than otherwise reachable.

  2. Lubricity studies with biodiesel and related compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, possesses excellent lubricity. This feature has rendered biodiesel of special interest for blending with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels with poor lubricity. However, some minor components, mainly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, of ...

  3. Lubricant replenishment on carbon coated discs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Ma; J. Gui; B. Marchon; M. S. Jhon; C. L. Bauer; G. C. Rauch

    1999-01-01

    The replenishment of a lubricant on a carbon coated disc was characterized through theoretical modeling employing experimentally acquired diffusion coefficient data. To quantify the reflow behaviour of a lubricant film, a parameter, the critical reflow time, was defined as the time to replenish a depleted hole of 1 ?m diameter in a 2 nm thick lubricant film. The results based

  4. The tribological performance of DLC-coated gears lubricated with biodegradable oil in various pinion\\/gear material combinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kalin; J. Vižintin

    2005-01-01

    Biodegradable oils possess good tribological properties and are less harmful to the environment than conventional oils; however, they suffer from a poor oxidation stability, which limits their operating temperature. Diamond-like carbon coatings, with their low-friction properties, could offer an innovative solution to prevent excessive frictional heating in machine components and reduce the oxidation of biodegradable oils and hence prolong the

  5. Oil film thickness measurement in the middle main bearing of a six-cylinder supercharged 9 litre diesel engine using capacitive transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Irani; Mats Pekkari; Hans-Erik Ångström

    1997-01-01

    A system for monitoring oil film thickness based on a capacitive measurement technique has been adapted to measure hydrodynamic lubricating oil film thicknesses in the middle main bearing of a heavy-duty diesel engine. Transducers have been developed to suit the extreme conditions in the bearing, with very high and varying pressures created by the lubricating film. Measurements of the film

  6. New direction for paper machine lubricants, ashless vs. ash type additive formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kray, L.R.; Chan, J.H.; Morimoto, K.M. [Chevron Research and Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The development of lubricants for paper machine roller bearings has followed an evolutionary development from the use of uncompounded oils to high performance products, most of which utilize metallic based antirust, antiwear/antioxidant additives to meet the demanding requirements of this application. It has been found that ashless or metal free oils can be formulated for this service which show outstanding performance. Performance comparisons of a new ashless formulation have been verified by field testing. In addition, the ashless oil can be used as an EP gear lubricant and meets new lubricant requirements for paper machine Extended Nip - Crown Control rolls. Also no mortality or other adverse toxic effects were observed with Rainbow Trout in the acute aquatic toxicity (LC-50) test. Therefore, small accidental discharges or leaks should not be toxic to sensitive species of fish such as trout and salmon. 8 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Ionic liquid lubricants: designed chemistry for engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Liang, Yongmin; Liu, Weimin

    2009-09-01

    This tutorial review outlines current state of the art research on ionic liquid lubricants. Ionic liquids (ILs) were first reported as very promising high-performance lubricants in 2001 and have attracted considerable attention in the field of tribology since then because of their remarkable lubrication and anti-wear capabilities as compared with lubrication oils in general use; in recent times we have seen dramatically increased interest in the topic. The review starts with a brief introduction to ILs and fluid lubrication, and then discusses in more detail the tribological properties of IL lubricants, either as lubrication oils, additives or thin films. As well as lubrication mechanisms, some current problems and potential solutions are tentatively discussed. PMID:19690739

  8. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  9. Analytical approach to wear rate determination for internal combustion engine condition monitoring based on oil analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Macián; B. Tormos; P. Olmeda; L. Montoro

    2003-01-01

    Wear has important, negative effects on the functioning of engine parts. Additionally, this situation is very difficult to evaluate accurately in oil analysis for engine condition monitoring. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), lubricant suppliers and oil analysis laboratories provide specific guidelines for wear metal concentrations. These limits provide good general guidelines for interpreting oil analysis data, but do not take into

  10. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao [Refrigeration and Cryogenics Institute, Shanghai JiaoTong University, ShangHai 200030 (China); Wang, Kaijian [Fujitsu General Institute of Air-Conditioning Technology Limited, Kawasaki 213-8502 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  11. Oxidation and corrosion resistant diesel engine lubricant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Sung; B. H. Zoleski; R. L. ORourke

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a diesel engine lubricating oil composition comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon lubricating oil and from 0.1-5.0 weight percent of the reaction product obtained by reacting at a temperature range of 50°C-200°C substantially equimolar amounts of an N-acyl sarcosine reactant and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic azole reactant.

  12. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  13. Reliability analysis of engine oil using “polygraph approach”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sharma; O. P. Gandhi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The lubricating oil is a non-renewable source of energy and its useful life is limited due to deterioration during its usage. It is desirable to maximize its use to conserve this scarce resource. At present, continuation or change of the engine oil is decided, based on the manufacturer's recommendation and experience. The suggested engine oil change period is

  14. Behaviour of boundary lubricating additives on DLC coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ksenija Topolovec-Miklozic; Frances Lockwood; Hugh Spikes

    2008-01-01

    The friction properties of a range of boundary lubricating additives in diamond-like carbon (DLC)–DLC rolling–sliding contact have been investigated. Two types of commercial DLC have been studied, one hydrogenated diamond-like and the other Cr-doped, non-hydrogenated and graphitic.The graphitic-type DLC coating initially gave very low boundary friction with additive-free base oil but after a few minutes of rubbing in thin film

  15. Synthetic metallic dialkydithiocarbamates as antiwear and extreme-pressure additives for lubricating oils: Role of metal on their effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Tuli, D.K.; Sarin, R.; Gupta, A.K. [Indian Oil Corporation, Faridabad (India)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Dialkydithiocarbamates of five metals have been synthesized in pure form by following a simple general method. The alkyl chain in each of these compounds has been kept the same so as to observe the performance variations due to metal ions. The EP properties expressed as load wear index and weld load indicated the highest performance by Bi followed by Pb, Sb, Zn and Mo. The antiwear properties in terms of wear scar diameter, relative anti-wear effectiveness and mean average wear scar diameter show a performance order of Bi > Pb > Sb > Zn > Mo. The large ionic radius metals (Bi, Pb & Sb) had the best overall load-carrying performance and their effectiveness increased substantially when the additive concentration was more than 0.004 gm atom/Kg. The results suggest that Bi has good potential to replace toxic Pb and Sb from existing lubrication systems. 18 refs., 7 refs., 1 tab.

  16. An investigation into the molecular stability of zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphates (ZDDPs) in relation to their use as anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives in lubricating oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R Armstrong; E. S Ferrari; K. J Roberts; D Adams

    1997-01-01

    The electronic energies and structures of the monomeric, neutral and basic forms of the important lubricating oil additive zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphate (ZDDP) are examined by molecular optimisation techniques using semi-empirical quantum chemistry calculations (MNDO). The optimised geometries reveal good agreement with known crystallographic data. The molecular stability is found to be highest for the basic form of ZDDP. For all forms,

  17. Study of lubricant jet flow phenomena in spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Mross, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the results of lubrication tests conducted in the NASA-Lewis Research Center gear test apparatus modified for high speed photography of gear tooth lubrication. The experimental results are compared with an analytical model that includes windage effects. The resulting findings show that the analytical model provides good agreement with the experimental impingement depth and that small oil drops are affected by gear windage. For this reason, the best lubrication is provided when the oil jet is not atomized.

  18. Influence of Lubricant Properties and Temperature on the Scuffing Failure of FZG Gears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Castro; J. Seabra

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of experimental scuffing results of FZG gears lubricated with mineral paraffinic base oils, with different viscosities, showed the relevance of friction power dissipation in gear scuffing, represented by the product of traction coefficient by hertzien pressure and sliding speed.

  19. Lubrication fluids from branched fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have invented a new method for the synthesis of lubrication fluids using natural vegetable oils. Ordinary vegetable oils are good lubricants, but in their native form, they lack the stability necessary for many applications. Materials made using this new technology display significantly increas...

  20. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of steel\\/steel, steel\\/DLC and DLC\\/DLC contacts when lubricated with mineral and biodegradable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kalin; J. Vižintin

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, which can nowadays be applied to many highly loaded mechanical components, sometimes need to operate under lubricated conditions. It is reasonable to expect that in steel\\/DLC contacts, at least the steel counter body will behave according to conventional lubrication mechanisms and will interact with lubricants and additives in the contact. However, in DLC\\/DLC contacts, such mechanisms

  1. Electrowetting on dielectrics on lubricating fluid based slippery surfaces with negligible hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Jitesh Barman; Arun Kumar Nagarajan; Krishnacharya Khare

    2015-07-09

    Low voltage electrowetting on dielectrics on substrates with thin layer of lubricating fluid to reduce contact angle hysteresis is reported here. On smooth and homogeneous solid surfaces, it is extremely difficult to reduce contact angle hysteresis (contact angle difference between advancing and receding drop volume cycle) and the electrowetting hysteresis (contact angle difference between advancing and receding voltage cycle) below 10{\\deg}. On the other hand, electrowetting hysteresis on rough surfaces can be relatively large (>30{\\deg}) therefore they are of no use for most of the fluidic devices. In the present report we demonstrate that using a thin layer of dielectric lubricating fluid on top of the solid dielectric surface results in drastic reduction in contact angle hysteresis as well as electrowetting hysteresis (surfaces. Subsequently fitting the Lippmann-Young electrowetting equation to the experimental electrowetting data reveal that the dielectric lubricating fluid layer is only responsible for smooth movement of the three phase contact line of the liquid drop and does not affect the effective specific capacitance of the system.

  2. Graphene-ionic liquid based hybrid nanomaterials as novel lubricant for low friction and wear.

    PubMed

    Khare, Varsha; Pham, Minh-Quan; Kumari, Nitee; Yoon, Hae-Sung; Kim, Chung-Soo; Park, Jae-Il; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2013-05-22

    Hybrid nanomaterials offer potential scope for an increasing number of novel applications when engineered to deliver usefully functional properties. Recent advancements in the design of new material products that result from interactions among different compositions at the nanoscale and microscale has led to innovative ways to fabricate and process hybrids with altered structural physicochemical properties. An example is the development of novel "lubricants" that make use of ionic liquids (ILs) and their ability to induce exploitable molecular assemblies at the IL-graphene interface. In the present study, we report the potential of graphene-IL hybrid nanomaterials for engineering applications with a focus on "lubricant" properties to reduce frictional forces to enhance tribological performance. The present contribution outlines the wear and tribological properties (friction and lubrication) of a highly viscous IL [BMIM][I] and its comparison with its nanohybrid material counterpart. Detailed structural-microstructural investigations of the nanohybrid materials were performed using X-ray diffraction and microscopic techniques employing scanning electron (SEM), transmission electron (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) microscopies. A comparative study of the morphology of friction track and wear behavior was assessed by SEM and TEM. These characteristic properties within and outside the friction track were further correlated with physical and chemical interactions obtained by contact angle measurements and Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX). PMID:23597151

  3. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  4. Friction and wear behaviors of a (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of various polyols as water-based lubricating additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenguang Zhang; Weimin Liu; Laigui Yu

    2000-01-01

    The friction and wear behaviors of (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of water or various polyol aqueous solutions were investigated with an SRV friction and wear tester in a ball-on-disc configuration. This was conducted to simulate the effect of polyols as aqueous additive in machining sialon ceramic. The morphologies of and elemental distributions in the worn surfaces

  5. Influence of oil viscosity, chemical oil structure, and chemical additives on friction loss of spur gears (concerning the influence of synthetic oil and mineral oil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chotaro Naruse; Ryozo Nemoto; Shoji Haizuka; Masatoshi Yoshizaki

    1994-01-01

    The friction loss of gears and its quantitative estimation are important problems because of their relevance to energy conservation and load-carrying capacity. Recent research results do not provide satisfactory estimates of friction loss of spur gears. Therefore, the authors carried out experiments to study the influences of lubricating oil viscosity and additives, as well as base oil type and load

  6. Developing of an Intelligent Oil Quality Analyzer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Shengjian

    2007-01-01

    This paper chiefly introduces the design principal of an intelligent analyzer used to accurately measures quality of lubricating oil in service based on MCU SST89E554, meanwhile further discussing in detail the overall structural design of hardware and software as well as the key technology in the process of realization. The application of intelligent analyzer can alter traditional oil changing by

  7. VEGETABLE OIL-BASED SUNSCREENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an environmentally friendly method for making ultraviolet (UV) absorbing lipids by enzymatically esterifying vegetable oil with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a compound of the cinnamon family that is found in oat, rice, and corn bran, and occurs naturally in our food supply. The ...

  8. Comparing the Lubricity of Biofuels Obtained from Pyrolysis and Alcoholysis of Soybean Oil and their Blends with Petroleum Diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diesel-like fuel was synthesized by a pyrolysis method using only an edible soybean oil as starting material (PD). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends with both high sulfur (HSD) and low sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels, and compared with blends of biodiesel (BD) w...

  9. UWB based oil quality detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Levitas; Jonas Matuzas; Ganapathy Viswanath; Vijaykumar Basalingappa; Vijendran Venkoparao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach for fuel quality detection using Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. The experimental setup consists of an ultrashort monocycle pulse transmitter (30 ps), an UWB sampling receiver and UWB antennae (3.1- 10.6 GHz). One dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) model was used to model the electromagnetic wave propagation and assess the feasibility of oil quality

  10. Friction Reduction in Mixed Lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashlie Martini; Dong Zhu; Qian Wang

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of frictional losses in the drivetrain of heavy-duty vehicles is important from both consumer satisfaction and\\u000a environmental perspectives. Approaches to friction reduction in these components can be evaluated using simulation-based investigations.\\u000a However, nearly all drivetrain components operate in the mixed lubrication regime which is difficult to model because both\\u000a hydrodynamic lubrication and surface contact are significant and therefore, the

  11. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  12. Slippery liquid-infused porous surface based on perfluorinated lubricant/iron tetradecanoate: Preparation and corrosion protection application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengsheng; Qiu, Ri; Song, Hongqing; Wang, Peng; Shi, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yanfang

    2015-02-01

    Corrosion and fouling have been two major enemies for materials immersed in seawater. Fluid including gas and liquid as coating for marine corrosion protection has attracted much attention, since it can also exert antifouling capability in seawater environment. Combining gas and solid phases, superhydrophobic surface is promising to protect the underlying metal from corrosion. However, the intrinsically short sustainability in underwater environment has hindered its practical application, so that its corrosion protection ability is only temporary. Originated from liquid and solid phases, slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) has spurred wide interest due to its prominent performance in different fields. However, the exploration of corrosion protection efficiency from SLIPS remains rare. In this research, SLIPS is constructed onto steel surface via a facile two-step protocol. First, based on a dissolution-deposition strategy, iron tetradecanoate is formed by an electrochemical route. After that, fluid lubricant is infused onto the deposit, whose rough surface acts as the reservoir to entrap the fluid to form a static liquid coating. Compared to the bare and hydrophobic deposit covering low alloy steel, the SLIPS composed perfluorinated lubricant and iron tetradecanoate endows good corrosion protection property.

  13. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  14. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.

    PubMed

    Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends. PMID:25420342

  15. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.

    PubMed

    Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends. PMID:25507326

  16. Influence of lubricant properties on elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Höglund

    1999-01-01

    In hard EHL, encountered in, e.g., gears, rolling element bearings etc. the properties of the lubricant play a significant role in the forming of a lubricating film and reducing friction between the contacting surfaces. The influence of pressure and temperature on viscosity, limiting shear stress and density, has to be taken into account when creating lubricant models to be used

  17. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  18. Lubrication of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

  19. Unique gear design provides self-lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winiarski, F. J.

    1965-01-01

    Composite gear configuration provides a reliable automatic means for replenishing gear mechanism lubricants that dissipate in the harsh environment of space. The center or hub section of the gear consists of a porous, oil impregnated material, and the outer or toothed section has radially drilled passages to cause the oil to gradually flow to the gear teeth surface.

  20. Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

  1. Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium-carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Chris; Sliney, Harold E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

  2. Polymer Grafted Nanoparticle-based Oil Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2015-03-01

    Particle-based oil dispersants mainly composed of inorganic nanoparticles such as silica nanoparticles are considered as environmentally friendly oil dispersants due to their biocompatibility and relatively low toxicity. The oil-water interfacial tension is reduced when nanoparticles segregate to the oil-water interface and this segregation is improved by grafting interfacially active polymer brushes. In this study, surfactant-like amphiphilic block copolymers were grafted from silica nanoparticles using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method in order to increase their interfacial activity. We have studied the interfacial activity of such hybrid nanoparticles using pendant drop interfacial tension measurements, and their structure using small angle X-ray scattering. Amphiphilic copolymer grafted nanoparticles significantly reduced oil-water interfacial tension compared to the interfacial tension reduction induced by homopolymer grafted nanoparticles or the corresponding free ungrafted copolymer. Moreover, hard and stable oil-water emulsions were formed by applying the block copolymer grafted nanoparticles due to the formation of interparticle network structures, which were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

  3. Composition optimization of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C. Final contractor report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dellacorte

    1987-01-01

    A test program to determine the optimum composition of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for compliant gas bearings is described. The friction and wear properties of the coatings are evaluated using a foil gas bearing test apparatus. The various coatings were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired

  4. Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P.L. Dickrell and W.G. Sawyer*

    E-print Network

    Sawyer, Wallace

    Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P life [4,5], ability to operate from cryogenic temperature (4 K) to 500 K, and their relative that operate at cryogenic temperatures, there is a paucity of data available for friction coeffi- cients

  5. Synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic lubricants on boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Ajayi, O.O.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.; Ockers, J.M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Kar, K.K.; Morgan, T.A. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In a study seeking to achieve low friction and low wear on ceramic materials, we investigated a new lubrication concept that explores the synergistic effect of a silver film and a recently developed synthetic oil on the boundary lubrication behavior of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramics. Friction and wear tests were performed on a wear test machine at temperatures up to 380{degree}C. Under the test conditions explored, we found that the friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} test pairs during oil-lubricated sliding tests ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, and the average wear rates of ceramic pins were between 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}6} mm{sup 3} N{sup {minus}1} m{sup {minus}1}, depending on test temperature. Concurrent use of lubricant oil with a silver film had a synergistic effect on both friction and wear. When silver films are used at oil-lubricated sliding interfaces, wear rates of both pins and flats were reduced to unmeasurable levels and the friction coefficients were reduced by factors of two to ten below those of the test pairs without silver films. Beneficial synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic oil on the boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics were more pronounced at elevated test temperatures than at room temperature.

  6. Estimation of refractive index and density of lubricants under high pressure by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Fujishiro, I.; Kawakami, H.

    1994-07-01

    Employing a diamond-anvil cell, Brillouin scattering spectra of 90° and 180° angles for synthetic lubricants (paraffinic and naphthenic oils) were measured and sound velocity, density, and refractive index under high pressure were obtained. The density obtained from the thermodynamic relation was compared with that from Lorentz-Lorentz's formula. The density was also compared with Dowson's density-pressure equation of lubricants, and density-pressure characteristics of the paraffinic oil and naphthenic oil were described considering the molecular structure for solidified lubricants. The effect of such physical properties of lubricants on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of ball bearings, gears and traction drives was considered.

  7. Full-scale transmission testing to evaluate advanced lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500 hp helicopter transmission test stand. The testing was part of a lubrication program. The objectives are to develop and show a separate lubricant for gearboxes with improved performance in life and load carrying capacity. The goal was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 based reference oil and then to run identical tests with improved lubricants and show improved performance. The tests were directed at parts that failed due to marginal lubrication from Navy field experience. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hrs of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

  8. Development of micro engine oil condition sensor using multi-wall carbon nanotube films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Seok Na; James Jung-Ho Pak; Jai Kyeong Kim

    2007-01-01

    A new interdigit-type micro oil condition sensor was designed and fabricated for monitoring the deterioration of lubricating and insulating oils. The designed sensor operates based on the change of the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. In order to improve sensor performance, an oil condition sensor was fabricated using MEMS technology and multi-wall carbon nanotube film. The experiment was performed with

  9. New criteria to assess the remaining useful life of industrial turbine oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Bowman; G. W. Stachowiak

    1996-01-01

    Oxidative deterioration of mineral-based turbine oils has traditionally been measured by changes in an oil`s physical properties such as viscosity or total acid number or by long standard oxidation tests taking up to 5000 hours to complete. Recently, the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to measure the oxidative stability of a range of lubricants as it

  10. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  11. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

  12. New generalized rheological model for lubrication of a ball spinning in a nonconforming groove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic theory for predicting the spinning friction of a ball in a nonconforming groove was modified to incorporate a rheological model. The rheological model is based on the exponential pressure viscosity relation for low shear stresses, but at high shear rates and pressures, the relation is altered to one in which the shear stress is porportional to the normal stress. The model was fitted to experimental spinning torques for four different lubricants: a synthetic paraffinic lubricant, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate, a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil, and a polyphenyl ether (5P4E). Good agreement between the model and experiment was found.

  13. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants. PMID:25773747

  14. Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate and the viscosity of the base oil, according to a RSM statistical design. Moreover, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out. The transient stress response can be successfully described by the generalized Leider-Bird model based on two exponential terms. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. The stress overshoot, ? max , depends linearly on both variables in the whole shear rate range studied, although the effect of base oil viscosity on this parameter is opposite at low and high shear rates. Special attention has been given to the first part of the stress-growth curve. In this sense, it can be deduced that the “yielding” energy density not only depends on grease composition, but also on shear rate. Moreover, an interesting asymptotic tendency has been found for both the “yielding” energy density and the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of these parameters have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

  15. Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1962-01-01

    The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

  16. Tests show benefits of new polished rod lubricator

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, M.R.; Khatib, A. [Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center, Casper, WY (United States)

    1995-04-10

    Tests with beam-pumped oil wells, completed over 7-months at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (Rmotc), indicated that a new lubricator supplying supplementary grease to polished rods lowered operating costs by reducing maintenance, material costs, and electrical requirements. It also minimized polished rod corrosion and enhanced pollution control. The lubricator worked with extremely hot fluids and in adverse weather conditions. The paper describes Rmotc, the new lubrication, the test wells, and cost reduction.

  17. Rapid analysis of lubricants by atmospheric solid analysis probe-ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barrère, Caroline; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Afonso, Carlos; Racaud, Amandine

    2014-08-01

    Formulated lubricants are complex mixtures composed of base oil(s) and additives with various functions (detergents, corrosion inhibiter, antioxidant, viscosity modifiers, etc.). Because of the aliphatic nature of base oil and the chemical diversity of additives, the characterization of lubricant is currently a long and complex process. The comprehensive analysis of lubricant samples involves several techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The coupling of atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) with ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has been shown to be an efficient tool for the characterization of complex mixture containing vaporizable polar to non-polar compounds. This approach affords the coupling of a direct ionization technique that does not require sample preparation, with a bi-dimensional separation method with high peak capacity. In this work, we show that ASAP-IM-MS is a suitable method for rapid and direct characterization of lubricant samples. Indeed, base oil and additives yielded, by ASAP, ions series which could be separated by IM-MS. Molecular additives such as Zn-dithiocarbamate, phosphite, thiophosphate and Alkyl diphenylamine were ionized as molecular ions [M](+•) or protonated molecules [M?+?H](+), depending of their polarity. In some cases, fragment ions were observed, confirming the additive identification. In addition, high molecular weight polymeric additives such as poly(alkyl methacrylate) (PAM) were pyrolized in the ASAP source leading to characteristic fragment ions. ASAP-IM-MS is shown to be a powerful tool for studying complex mixtures, allowing the first comprehensive analysis of lubricants in just a few minutes. PMID:25044898

  18. HFRR investigation of biobased and petroleum based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased oils come in a wide range of chemical structures as do petroleum based oils. In addition, a distinct structural difference exists between these two broad categories of oils. Previous work has shown that, in spite of the structural differences, these two categories of oils display similar pr...

  19. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  20. Simulation of Submarine Pipeline Oil Spill Based on Wave Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Xiao; Qingjun Gao; Jianguo Lin; Wei Li; Xiao Liang

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore the motion law of oil spill to conduct cleaning, simulation for submarine oil spill based on wave motion is carried out by user defined function and volume of fluid in FLUENT, and the dispersion and diffusion of oil spill in deep sea is simulated dynamically. Also the oil spill processes with different wavelength and current velocity

  1. Dry film lubricant for difficult drawing applications of galvanized steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wakano, Shigeru; Sakane, Tadashi; Hirose, Yozou (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Lab.); Matsuda, Naomichi; Onodera, Show (Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan). Oleo Chemicals Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Press formability of metals sheets is considered to depend on surface lubricity, press forming condition and mechanical properties of the metal sheets. In Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coatings, surface lubricity is the most important property. This is because the low melting temperature and low hardness of the plated layer occasionally cause microscopic galling through deformation at the beads of dies which may, consequently, result in sheet breakage. Press formability of Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coating weight has been improved by the use of a high viscosity lubricant oil and a Fe-Zn alloy flash-plating on galvannealed steel. However, the use of high viscosity lubricant oils created problems with oil staining and removal before painting. An alloy flash plating results in appreciably higher production costs. This article describes the characteristics of a thin film dry lubricant, Super S-coat, as a new countermeasure, which will overcome these problems.

  2. Method for improving the lubricating properties of solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Brendle, M.C.

    1980-05-13

    A process for preparing improved solid lubricants, by modifying the surface characteristics of the solid lubricants using reactive chemical compounds, is disclosed. Prior art measures anticipate combinations of modifiers and solid lubricants as lubricating mixtures but do not disclose bonding modifiers with solid lubricants. Examples of the improved modified solid lubricants are molybdenum disulfide chemically bonded to polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate or polydimethylsiloxane.

  3. Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

  4. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1), hydrogenated coconut oil (X2), and soybean oil (X3). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90?min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3). An optimal predicted formulation with Y10?min, Y30?min, Y60?min, and Y90?min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886

  5. Sea water resistant turbo oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Metro; D. D. Carr

    1987-01-01

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising: A. a base oil; B. an alkylphenol; C. a salicylate salt; D. polyisobutylene succinic acid\\/amine reaction product; E. phosphate salt of an amine; and, F. a naphthenate. The total concentration of the alkylphenol, salicylate salt and polyisobutylene succinic acid\\/amine reaction product is in the range of between about 0.005 and about 1.5 wt

  6. Equilibrium Temperature in Concentrated Sliding Contact with Formulated Lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid S. Al-Rubeye

    1984-01-01

    The scoring equilibrium temperature of spur gears lubricated with formulated lubricants was investigated using the dynamic-temperature measurement method. The results show that combination of additives in the bare oil may have an influence different from that with each additive separately, either strengthening or weakening its efficiency. In addition, the results which were obtained on the Four-Ball machine show good agreement

  7. A review of liquid lubricant thermal/oxidative degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers. Experimental techniques for determining thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is also covered.

  8. High temperature solid lubricants: When and where to use them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F) is reviewed. Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include the layer lattice compounds: MoS2, WS2, graphite and graphite fluoride, the high temperature polyimide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coating and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearing, and journal bearings.

  9. High temperature solid lubricants - When and where to use them.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F). Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include MoS2, WS2, graphite, graphite fluoride, the high temperature polymide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coatings and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearings, and journal bearings.

  10. The experimental evaluation and application of high temperature solid lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dellacorte

    1989-01-01

    A research program meant to develop an understanding of high temperature solid lubrication and experimental techniques through the development of a composite lubricant coating system was described. The knowledge gained through this research was then applied to a specific engineering challenge, the tribology of a sliding seal for hypersonic flight vehicles. The solid lubricant coating is a chromium carbide based

  11. Fuel economy benefits of synthetic lubricants in heavy-duty trucks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Keller; N. S. Kotuszenko; R. R. McCoy

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic diesel engine oil and gear lubricant show substantial fuel savings over conventional premium quality lubricants under widely different test conditions and test procedures. Significant fuel economy improvements, ranging up to six percent, from the use of synthetic lubricants in heavy-duty diesel trucks, are documented in a laboratory engine test, vehicle chassis rolls tests and ATA (American Trucking Association)

  12. Water as a lubricant for Stirling air engines: design considerations and operating experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. R. Fauvel; J. van Benthem; G. Walker

    1983-01-01

    Air is favoured as the working fluid for large, slow-running Stirling engines. Lubricating oil entering the working space could combine with compressed, heated air to form a mixture capable of spontaneous combustion. To preclude this possibility, water may be used as the lubricant in Stirling air engines. This paper reviews the lubrication requirements of Stirling air engines and the potential

  13. Ionic liquids as advanced lubricant fluids.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, María-Dolores; Jiménez, Ana-Eva; Sanes, José; Carrión, Francisco-José

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding technological applications as chemical reaction media and engineering fluids. Some emerging fields are those of lubrication, surface engineering and nanotechnology. ILs are thermally stable, non-flammable highly polar fluids with negligible volatility, these characteristics make them ideal candidates for new lubricants under severe conditions, were conventional oils and greases or solid lubricants fail. Such conditions include ultra-high vacuum and extreme temperatures. Other very promising areas which depend on the interaction between IL molecules and material surfaces are the use of ILs in the lubrication of microelectromechanic and nanoelectromechanic systems (MEMS and NEMS), the friction and wear reduction of reactive light alloys and the modification of nanophases. PMID:19701132

  14. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  15. Wormgear geometry adopted for implementing hydrostatic lubrication and formulation of the lubrication problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1995-01-01

    The geometrical parameters for a wormgear intended to be used as the transmission in advanced helicopters are finalized. The resulting contact pattern of the meshing tooth surfaces is suitable for the implementation of hydrostatic lubrication Fluid film lubrication of the contact is formulated considering external pressurization as well as hydrodynamic wedge and squeeze actions. The lubrication analysis is aimed at obtaining the oil supply pressure needed to separate the worm and gear surfaces by a prescribed minimum film thickness. The procedure of solving the mathematical problem is outlined.

  16. Comparison Between Jojoba Oil and Other Vegetable Oils as a Substitute to Petroleum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OMAYMA EL KINAWY

    2004-01-01

    Jojoba oil and other vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and castor oils, were evaluated to be used as lubricants. Three standard mineral lubricating oils were considered in this study as reference. The essential parameters tested for comparison were the oil viscosity, viscosity index, and viscosity—temperature and shear rate—shear stress relationships. The effect of excessive heating on the vegetable oils

  17. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-12-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+)) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils. PMID:26058517

  18. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R.; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-06-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils.

  19. Solid Lubricant For Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1993-01-01

    Outer layer of silver lubricates, while intermediate layer of titanium ensures adhesion. Lubricating outer films of silver deposited on thin intermediate films of titanium on alumina substrates found to reduce sliding friction and wear. Films provide effective lubrication for ceramic seals, bearings, and other hot sliding components in advanced high-temperature engines.

  20. Lubrication of electrical contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bella H. Chudnovsky

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a review of research data published during last 40-year period in the field of electrical contact lubrication. The paper examines the role of lubrication in corrosion protection as a barrier between contact surfaces and atmospheric pollutants. For effective long-term corrosion protection, it is important to properly choose and thoroughly qualify a lubrication product for a specific contact

  1. Reciprocating seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and practical analyses of reciprocating seal wear and lubrication. Topics include behavior, friction coefficient, cylinder wear, lubrication film thickness, friction forces, design innovations, lubricating oil viscosity, and wear modeling relative to reciprocating seal frictional wear and lifetime optimization. Applications in piston ring lubrication, internal combustion engines, and vehicle suspension systems are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

  3. Polyamine Triglycerides: Synthesis and Study of Their Potential in Lubrication, Neutralization, and Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Murray, Rex E

    2015-07-22

    Renewable resources have evoked a new awakening in both scientific and industrial circles in the past decade. Vegetable oil is one category of renewables that is amenable as a source of new industrial products. Because the source feedstock, seeds, are environmentally friendly, the derivatized products from these at the end of their lifetime could also be benign when designed appropriately. Bioethanol and biodiesel are examples of biobased industrial products currently in the market place and have become resources for uplifting the rural economy. Biolubricants also are playing a more prominent role because they have become closely competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. These products are renewable because the crops from which the feedstuff for the biofuels and biolubricants are produced are grown annually in contrast to nonrenewable mineral sources. Added to their renewability is the inherent biodegradability of their end-use products after their useful lifetime. In a recent study of the lubricity characteristics of peracylated polyhydroxy milkweed oil, the derivatives were found to exhibit good oxidative stability as well as excellent antiwear properties. To further explore an expansion in the properties of such materials in lubrication and other applications, in this study the polyhydroxy (OH) moieties of derivatized milkweed triglycerides were replaced with -NHR groupings in the oil. In this process novel polyketo triglyceride intermediates leading to polyamine derivatives of the vegetable oil have been synthesized. The polyamine triglyceride markedly improved the stability of the parent oil to oxidative stress. It has also attenuated the extreme viscosity of the starting polyhydroxy oil to a more useful product that could be amenable for use as a lubricating agent, for example, hydraulic fluid. Both the polyketone and polyimine intermediates of the polyamine have chelating properties. The intermediates and the polyamine were characterized spectroscopically, tribologically, and rheologically for their intrinsic properties. PMID:26154265

  4. Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lynden A. Archer

    2006-01-09

    The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

  5. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We also demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%. PMID:26056307

  6. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A; Scown, Corinne D; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-06-23

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We also demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%. PMID:26056307

  7. Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hanyaloglu, B.F.; Graham, E.E.; Oreskovic, T.; Hajj, C.G. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would exhibit similar behavior. It was found that under static conditions, all three alloys formed a lubricious nodular coating when exposed to a vapor of aryl phosphate. Under dynamic sliding conditions at 500{degrees}C, these alloys were successfully lubricated with a coefficient of friction of 0.1 and no detectable wear. In order to explain these results, a direct correlation between successful vapor phase lubrication and the composition of the alloys containing aluminum has been proposed. If the ratio of copper/aluminum or iron/aluminum is greater that 100 vapor phase, lubrication will be successful. If the ratio is less than 10, a passive aluminum oxide layer will prevent vapor phase lubrication. By selecting alloys with a high iron or copper content, vapor phase lubrication can provide excellent lubrication at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Exterior, looking west Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. Amine-intercalated ?-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Dai, Wei; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, three types of amines intercalated ?-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of ?-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of ?-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators.

  11. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  12. Infrared temperature maps of EHD lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanborn, D. M.; Winer, W. O.

    1977-01-01

    Technique uses an infrared detector with two specially selected infrared filters, in separately mapping the contact-surface temperature and average oil-film temperature in an elastohydrodynamic conjunction. Apparatus includes conventional four-ball bearing tester and temperature controlled lubricant system.

  13. Dynamic analysis of flexible linkages with lubricated joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. S.; Lin, Y. S.

    1990-09-01

    The dynamic behavior of flexible linkages with lubricated revolute joints is investigated, with consideration of elastic deformation, bearing clearances and hydrodynamic lubrication. An inertial frame based approach to elastic linkage dynamics yields equations of motion in a form amenable to finite element formulations. Non-linear stiffness and damping characteristics are used to obtain impact forces at revolute joints. Pressure caused by hydrodynamic lubrication is calculated by using a finite difference method. Illustrative examples are shown to compare vibratory behaviors of idealized, clearanced, squeeze film lubricated and hydrodynamically lubricated flexible linkages.

  14. Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage that begins to explore and incorporate methods of lubrication. PMID:21955119

  15. 2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses

    E-print Network

    2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses Yu-Lin Chang & Leo Oey # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill

  16. 59 FR- Market-based Ratemaking for Oil Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-11-16

    ...RM94-1-000] Market-based Ratemaking for Oil Pipelines Issued October 28, 1994. AGENCY...procedures with respect to an application by an oil pipeline for a determination that it lacks...generally applicable ratemaking methodology for oil pipelines, which is an indexing...

  17. KNOWLEDGE-BASED DECISION SUPPORT IN OIL WELL DRILLING

    E-print Network

    Aamodt, Agnar

    KNOWLEDGE-BASED DECISION SUPPORT IN OIL WELL DRILLING Combining general and case-specific knowledge of Computer and Information Science. agnar.aamodt@idi.ntnu.no Abstract: Oil well drilling is a complex process. This is followed, in section 3, by an oil well drilling scenario and an example from a problem solving session

  18. Improved Efficiency of Oil Well Drilling through Case Based Reasoning

    E-print Network

    Aamodt, Agnar

    1 Improved Efficiency of Oil Well Drilling through Case Based Reasoning Paal Skalle Norwegian drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during oil well drilling the problem of "lost circulation", i.e. loss of circulating drilling fluid

  19. Improved Efficiency of Oil Well Drilling through Case Based Reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paal Skalle; Jostein Sveen; Agnar Aamodt

    2000-01-01

    A system that applies a method of knowledge-intensive case-based reasoning, for repair and prevention of unwanted events in the domain of offshore oil well drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during oil well drilling the problem of \\

  20. Lubricant rheology applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Viscosity measurements in a high pressure rheometer, elastohydrodynamic simulator studies (including the development of a temperature measuring technique), and analytical fluid modeling for elastohydrodynamic contacts are described. The more recent research which is described concerns infrared temperature measurements in elastohydrodynamic contacts and the exploration of the glassy state of lubricants. A correlation, of engineering significance, was made between transient surface temperature measurements and surface roughness profiles. Measurements of glass transitions of lubricants and the study of the effect of rate processes on materials lead to the conclusion that typical lubricants go into the glassy state as they pass through the contact region of typical elastohydrodynamic contacts.

  1. Stability of Water Lubricated Flow of Yield Stress Fluid in Sloping Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Nsom, B.; Decruppe, J.

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate the transport of viscous crudes in a pipe, an immiscible lubricating liquid, usually water, is added. In such configuration, the water migrates into the regions of high shear at the pipe wall where it lubricates the flow. The pumping pressures being balanced by wall shear stresses in the water, the flow therefore requires pressures comparable to pumping water alone, at the same total throughput [1]. So significant savings in pumping power can be derived from this process provided that it is well monitored. Indeed, instabilities usually take place at the oil/water interface and they constitute an important source of energy dissipation. Precisely, a core annular flow is known to undergo a long-wave instability of capillary type, modified by shear occuring at low Reynolds. Above a given critical Reynolds number, the flow is unstable to shorter waves which leads to an emulsification system of water droplets in oil. In present work, an experimental study of the stability of sloping plane Poiseuille flow of well characterized viscoplastic mineral oils lubricated by water was performed. The investigation was carried out by means of image analysis based on spatiotemporal diagrams (STD). Notably indicated are the effects of bed slope, flow rates ratio and oil rheology on flow stability.

  2. Biodegradation Behavior of Some Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal L. Shogren; Zoran Petrovic; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

    2004-01-01

    The potential biodegradability of several vegetable oil-based polymers was assessed by respirometry in soil for 60–100 days at temperatures of 30–58°C. Films of soybean oil and linseed oil which were oxidatively polymerized (Co catalyst) on a kraft paper support were 90%–100% mineralized to CO2 after 70 days at 30°C. Mineralization of polymerized tung oil to CO2 was much slower than

  3. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Streett; C. Warren

    2010-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible\\/near

  4. Optimized Liquid-Liquid Extractive Rerefining of Spent Lubricants

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Fasihullah

    2014-01-01

    Central composite design methodology has been employed to model the sludge yield data obtained during liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants using an alcohol (1-butanol) and a ketone (methyl ethyl ketone) as prospective solvents. The study has resulted in two reasonably accurate multivariate process models that relate the sludge yield (R2 = 0.9065 and 0.9072 for alcohol and ketone, resp.) to process variables (settling time t, operating temperature T, and oil to solvent ratio r). Construction of such models has allowed the maximization of the sludge yield (more than 8% and 3% in case of alcohol and ketone, resp.) so that the extraction of useable oil components from spent lubricants can economically be performed under extremely mild conditions (t = 16.7?h, T = 10°C, and r = 2) and fairly moderate conditions (t = 26.6?h, T = 10°C, and r = 5) established for the alcohol and ketone correspondingly. Based on these performance parameters alcohol appears to be superior over ketone for this extraction process. Additionally extractive treatment results in oil stocks with lesser quantity of environmentally hazardous polyaromatic hydrocarbons that are largely left in the separated sludge. PMID:24688388

  5. Optimized liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Muhammad Ashraf; Naqvi, Syed Mumtaz Danish; Khan, Fasihullah

    2014-01-01

    Central composite design methodology has been employed to model the sludge yield data obtained during liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants using an alcohol (1-butanol) and a ketone (methyl ethyl ketone) as prospective solvents. The study has resulted in two reasonably accurate multivariate process models that relate the sludge yield (R (2) = 0.9065 and 0.9072 for alcohol and ketone, resp.) to process variables (settling time t, operating temperature T, and oil to solvent ratio r). Construction of such models has allowed the maximization of the sludge yield (more than 8% and 3% in case of alcohol and ketone, resp.) so that the extraction of useable oil components from spent lubricants can economically be performed under extremely mild conditions (t = 16.7 h, T = 10°C, and r = 2) and fairly moderate conditions (t = 26.6 h, T = 10°C, and r = 5) established for the alcohol and ketone correspondingly. Based on these performance parameters alcohol appears to be superior over ketone for this extraction process. Additionally extractive treatment results in oil stocks with lesser quantity of environmentally hazardous polyaromatic hydrocarbons that are largely left in the separated sludge. PMID:24688388

  6. Ionic fluids in lubrication of aluminium-steel contacts. Surface and tribochemical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Ballesta, Ana Eva

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are high performance fluids with a wide thermal stability range. They are being studied as new lubricants in a variety of sliding contacts. One of their more interesting tribological applications is that of steel-aluminium lubrication. In this work we study the influence of the lateral alkyl chain length and of the anion on the lubricating ability of six imidazolium ILs, a pyridinium and a phosphonium derivative. For first time, these ILs have been studied as neat lubricants and as 1wt.% base oil additives in variable conditions of velocity, load and temperature in pin-on-disk tests for AISI 52100 steel-ASTM 2011 aluminium contacts. In this work we present the first study of ILs as lubricants under extreme temperature conditions. The tribological performance of ILs has been compared with that of a mineral oil and of a synthetic ester. Under these conditions, ILs show lower friction and wear values than conventional oils at all temperatures. As 1wt.% additives, the conditions of optimum lubrication and the transitions between regimes and lubrication mechanisms have been determined. We have also studied the performance of ILs as 1wt.% additives of the synthetic oil. A relationship between additive polarity and wear index has been established. If the more soluble phosphonium IL additive is used, no friction or wear reduction takes place due to competition between solvation and adsorption processes. Electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies have been used to study the wear mechanisms and tribochemical processes that take place in the contact. Finally, we have studied the performance of three aluminium alloys in corrosion and erosion-corrosion tests. In immersion tests with free-water ILs, the aluminium alloy 2011 shows a good resistance to corrosion, but dilution of 1-ethyl, 3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in water produces the hydrolysis of the anion and the corrosion of the aluminium alloy. In erosion-corrosion tests, although the three alloys show a good corrosion resistance (?0.2 mm/year) their performance is related to the copper content, with higher rates at higher copper percentages. The surfaces have been characterized by SEM, EDS, XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  7. A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

  8. A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

    2014-09-01

    Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

  10. Aviation gas turbine lubricants - military and civil aspects: aviation fuel and lubricants - performance testing; Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, October 14-17, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Research and development programs in the areas of gas turbine lubricants for civil and military aviation and the performance testing of aviation gas turbine fuels and lubricants are discussed. The topics addressed include: laboratory and field evaluation of a high temperature jet engine oil, performance advantages of high load aviation lubricants, fluorocarbon elastomer compatibility with gas turbine lubricants, potential benefits in the development of a dedicated helicopter transmission lubricant, and feasibility of formulating advanced four centistoke gas turbine oils. Also covered are: advanced lubricants for aircraft turbine engines, future trends for U.S. Naval aviation propulsion system lubricants, electrochemical evaluation of corrosivity in turbine engine oils, the influence of esters on elastomer seals, deposition in gas turbine oil systems, development of the portable water separometer for the WSIM test, influence of JFTOT operating parameters on the assessment of fuel thermal stability, and evaluation of JFTOT tube deposits by carbon burnoff.

  11. Evaluation of hexagonal boron nitride as a new tablet lubricant.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Murat; Sahin, Inan; San, Tangul

    2005-01-01

    In this study, hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) was evaluated as a new lubricant for pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing. The other conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP) were also tested along with HBN. Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor and quantify the lower punch ejection force (LPEF). The force ratio, tablet crushing strength, disintegration time, and thickness were measured. The lubricant film formation and lubricant distribution in tablets were studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Based on the force ratio, a good lubrication was obtained at 1% for MGST and HBN; in contrast, STAC and COMP did not show a good lubrication. After 1%, all lubricants performed well. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubricant concentration profile. HBN provided a 50% decrease in LPEF at 2% lubricant concentration and was rated as an effective tablet lubricant. HBN was better than either STAC or COMP. Unlike MGST, HBN had no significant prolongation effect on tablet disintegration times. PMID:16176018

  12. Tribological Properties of a Pennzane(Registered Trademark)-Based Liquid Lubricant (Disubstituted Alkylated Cyclopentane) for Low Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venier, Clifford; Casserly, Edward W.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Marchetti, Mario; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2002-01-01

    The tribological properties of a disubstituted alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane (registered) Synthesized Hydrocarbon Fluid X-1000, are presented. This compound is a lower molecular weight version of the commonly used multiply alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane X-2000, currently used in many space mechanisms. New, lower temperature applications will require liquid lubricants with lower viscosities and pour points and acceptable vapor pressures. Properties reported include: friction and wear studies and lubricated lifetime in vacuum; additionally, typical physical properties (i.e., viscosity-temperature, pour point, flash and fire point, specific gravity, refractive index, thermal properties, volatility and vapor pressure) are reported.

  13. Long wave and lubrication theories for core-annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.P. (Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (USA)); Joseph, D.D. (Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA))

    1991-11-01

    Different nonlinear amplitude equations for long waves in core-annular flow are compared. Each equation has its own limits of validity that can be critically assessed by comparing the linearization of approximate and exact theories. Long wave theory gets the dispersion relation for the longest waves correctly but cannot accommodate cases like capillary instability, in which the most dangerous wave is not surpassingly long. Small gap lubrication based theories accommodate shorter waves of the size of the core when various extra conditions are satisfied, but various stabilizing mechanisms associated with inertia may not be well represented. One theory in which lubrication theory is used in the water film but not in the core captures the shear stabilization of inertia when the gap is small enough. The criterion for small enough is not uniform in the viscosity ratio and surpassingly small films are required for validity when the oil viscosity is large. The results of lubrication theory are not robust with respect to changes to larger gaps outside the regime of asymptotic validity; for example, the stabilizing effects of the inertia of the core and annulus may reverse for larger, but still small thicknesses.

  14. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

    PubMed

    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration. PMID:24139435

  15. Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

    2005-01-01

    In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the bearing was turned at a rate of 200 RPM. The lubricator control was turned on at the beginning of the test, turned off for about 800 seconds, then turned on again. As shown in Figure 2, the controlled lubricator stabilized the torque in a low range, starting immediately after initial turn-on and immediately after resumption of the lubricator control.

  16. A dynamic rheological model for thin-film lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Jun; Huang, Ying; Guo, Yan-Bao; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yong-Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the lubricant in a thin-film lubrication regime between smooth surfaces were investigated. The thin-film lubrication regime typically appears in Stribeck curves with a clearly observable minimum coefficient of friction (COF) and a low-COF region, which is desired for its lower energy dissipation. A dynamic rheology of the lubricant from the hydrodynamic lubrication regime to the thin-film lubrication regime was proposed based on the convected Maxwell constitutive equation. This rheology model includes the increased relaxation time and the yield stress of the confined lubricant thin film, as well as their dependences on the lubricant film thickness. The Deborah number (De number) was adopted to describe the liquid-solid transition of the confined lubricant thin film under shearing. Then a series of Stribeck curves were calculated based on Tichy's extended lubrication equations with a perturbation of the De number. The results show that the minimum COF points in the Stribeck curve correspond to a critical De number of 1.0, indicating a liquid-to-solid transition of the confined lubricant film. Furthermore, the two proposed parameters in the dynamic rheological model, namely negative slipping length b (indicating the lubricant interfacial effect) and the characteristic relaxation time ?0, were found to determine the minimum COF and the width of the low-COF region, both of which were required to optimize the shape of the Stribeck curve. The developed dynamic rheological model interprets the correlation between the rheological and interfacial properties of lubricant and its lubrication behavior in the thin-film regime.

  17. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  18. Lubrication of gears. III

    SciTech Connect

    Errichello, R. (Geartech, Albany, CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    An equation is presented for the calculation of that lubricant film thickness which determines whether lubricated gears will be operating in the boundary, elastohydrodynamic, or full-film lubrication regimes. This film thickness is essentially determined by the entraining velocity, lubricant viscosity, and pressure-viscosity coefficient, while the elastic properties of the gear teeth and its load have a relatively minor effect. The risk of scuffing incurred in a given case is also addressed by an equation for Block's (1937, 1970) flash temperature. 25 refs.

  19. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  3. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  4. Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

  5. The Influence of the Lubricant Mixture into a Refrigerant on the Condensation Heat Transfer in Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Miyai, Ryo; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Kawai, Akinari

    In a refrigerator and an air conditioner, it is a well-known fact that the contamination of lubricant into a pure refrigerant has a great influence on the heat transfer characteristics and two-phase flow behavior at the condenser and evaporator. However, up to now, in the most of heat exchanger design, the refrigerant has been regarded as a pure one. On the other hand, a recent condenser tube diameter tends to be fine to overcome the various demands on the compactness and the high performance, especially required for the alternative refrigerant. Unfortunately, quantitative studies of the tube less than 6 mm in diameter were insufficient, moreover, only few studies have been made including the effect of the oil contamination on the condensation heat transfer. In this study, we employed HFC134a as a refrigerant and PAG-oil as a lubricant and experiments with a flat tube and three kinds of circular tube which has different diameters were made. By using the flow visualization data, a new flow pattern map being applicable both of a pure and oil-lubricant mixture was proposed. Moreover, by examining the local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, the most sensitive flow pattern affected by contamination of lubricant was specified and the detailed discussion on the quantitative effect of oil contamination on condensation heat transfer including the effect of tube geometry was carried out. Finally, based on these results, new correlation for heat transfer and pressure drop was suggested, and it predicted our data successfully well up to a mass flux of 150kg/(m2•s.)

  6. Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. F. Hanyaloglu; E. E. Graham; T. Oreskovic; C. G. Hajj

    1995-01-01

    In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would

  7. Hexagonal boron nitride as a tablet lubricant and a comparison with conventional lubricants.

    PubMed

    U?urlu, Timuçin; Turko?lu, Murat

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the lubrication properties of hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) as a new tablet lubricant and compare it with conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP). Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor lower punch ejection force (LPEF) containing varied lubricants in different ratio (0.5, 1, 2%). Tablet crushing strength, disintegration time and thickness were measured. Tensile strength of compacted tablets were measured by applying a diametrical load across the edge of tablets to determine mechanical strength. The deformation mechanism of tablets was studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricants. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubrication concentration profile and LPEF of HBN was found very close to that of MGST. HBN was better than both STAC and COMP. A good lubrication was obtained at 0.5% for MGST and HBN (189 and 195N, respectively). Where COMP and STAC showed 20 and 35% more LPEF compare to that of MGST (239 and 288N, respectively). Even at the concentration of 2% COMP and STAC did not decrease LPEF as much as 0.5% of MGST and HBN. Like all conventional lubricants the higher the concentration of HBN the lower the mechanical properties of tablets because of its hydrophobic character. However, this deterioration was not as pronounced as MGST. HBN had no significant effect on tablet properties. Based on the Heckel plots, it was observed that after the addition of 1% lubricant granules showed less plastic deformation. PMID:18160235

  8. BIOBASED METALWORKING LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metalworking lubricants must allow the manufacture of acceptable products at competitive cost without causing harm to operators or the environment. One way of attaining such a goal is through the use of biobased raw materials in lubricant formulations. Biobased materials are generally non-toxic, e...

  9. THE LUBRICITY OF BIODIESEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advent of low-sulfur petrodiesel fuels has raised concern about the inherent lubricity of these fuels. It has been shown that these fuels possess poorer lubricity than their non-desulfurized counterparts, largely due to the removal of polar oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in these fue...

  10. Lubricants for Separable Connectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Freitag; S. T. L. Harlow

    1977-01-01

    About two dozen lubricating fluids were tested for use on electrical contacts on card edge or pin-and-socket connectors. The lubricants selected for screening represented a cross section of thewide variety of natural and synthetic materials available on the market. Among them were polyphenyl ethers, natural and synthetic hydrocarbons, several types of esters, polygiycols, some fluorinated materials, a few silicones, and

  11. Comparative analysis of plant oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.; Haines, H.; Huong, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the evaluation results from the analysis of different blends of fuels using the 13-mode standard SAE testing method. Six high oleic safflower oil blends, six ester blends, six high oleic sunflower oil blends, and six sunflower oil blends were used in this portion of the investigation. Additionally, the results from the repeated 13-mode tests for all the 25/75% mixtures with a complete diesel fuel test before and after each alternative fuel are presented.

  12. Tritium-method oil consumption and its relation to oil-film thickness in a production diesel engine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, R.M.

    1990-06-01

    Oil consumption was measured in a modern production diesel engine using tritium as a radiotracer. The measurements were made primarily at two speeds and one load using first a single-grade lubricant and then a multi-grade lubricant. These values were then compared to oil flow rates up/down the liner which were based on film thickness traces of a sister engine under the same loads and speeds. The traces were obtained using the laser-fluorescence technique. For the most part, it was discovered that there does not seem to exist a correlation between these flow rates and oil consumption. However, the traces do reveal that the crown land is dry on all four strokes and thus does not contribute to the engine's oil consumption. A larger data base is necessary in order to accurately compare oil consumption to the film traces. This is currently in progress as of this writing.

  13. Effects of lubrication on the performance of high speed spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Hachiro; Isikawa, Yuuichi; Townsend, D.P.

    1989-04-01

    An experimental analysis was conducted to determine power loss and gear noise of high speed spur gears with long addendum under various conditions of load, speed, and oil jet pressure for into mesh lubrication. Power losses were calculated from temperature measurements of lubricating oil, gears, gear box, and oil flow rate. Furthermore, power loss was divided into windage loss, friction loss and churning loss. The results show that windage loss and churning loss were the main components of gear power loss of high gear speed. In addition, lubricating conditions had some influences on gear noise especially under low oil temperature or high viscosity.

  14. Effects of lubrication on the performance of high speed spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, H.; Isikawa, Y.; Townsend, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental analysis was conducted to determine power loss and gear noise of high speed spur gears with long addendum under various conditions of load, speed, and oil jet pressure for into mesh lubrication. Power losses were calculated from temperature measurements of lubricating oil, gears, gear box, and oil flow rate. Furthermore, power loss was divided into windage loss, friction loss and churning loss. The results show that windage loss and churning loss were the main components of gear power loss of high gear speed. In addition, lubricating conditions had some influences on gear noise especially under low oil temperature or high viscosity.

  15. Tribological performance of phosphonium based ionic liquids for an aluminum-on-steel system and opinions on lubrication mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XuQing Liu; Feng Zhou; YongMin Liang; WeiMin Liu

    2006-01-01

    A series of asymmetrical tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids were synthesized and evaluated as a new kind of lubricant for the contacts of steel\\/Al using an Optimol SRV oscillating friction and wear tester in ambient condition. The phosphonium ionic liquid shows excellent tribological performance and is superior to the conventional ionic liquids 1-ethy-3-hexylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (P206) in terms of anti-wear performance and load-carrying

  16. Structural and phase transformations in the tribosynthesis area of copper-based self-lubricating composite material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Kostornov; O. I. Fushchich; T. M. Chevychelova; A. D. Kostenko

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the structural self-organization and adaptation of the surface layers of self-lubricating composite antifriction\\u000a material (SCAM) IPM-304 to friction conditions. It is shown that temperature jumps and elastoplastic deformation are observed\\u000a in the tribological contact area in SCAM performance in vacuum under friction. These factors and the difference in thermal\\u000a expansion coefficients of the matrix and lead, for

  17. Thermophysical and viscosimetric properties of environmentally acceptable lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schmidt; G. Klingenberg; M. Woydt

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The use of alternative oils for the lubrication of automobile engines has a potential of ecological and technical advantages. It requires the detailed knowledge of several thermophysical and viscosimetric properties in a large temperature range. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – For 11 different oils, the density, the heat capacity, the thermal conductivity, the viscosity at ambient pressure and the pressure-viscosity at

  18. Boundary lubrication—An important lubrication in the following time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongbin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Boundary lubrication has been proposed quite long time ago. But it still lacks proper studies and understanding. It is still quite an immature lubrication. Theoretical and experimental researches [Y.B. Zhang, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology 56 (2004) 88 [1], A. Begelinger, A.W.J. Gee de, ASME Journal of Lubrication Technology 98 (1976) 575, B.J. Tabor, ASME Journal of Lubrication Technology 103 (1981)

  19. Phase and viscosity behaviour of refrigerant–lubricant mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Quiñones-Cisneros; J. García; J. Fernández; M. A. Monsalvo

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of thermophysical properties and phase behaviour of refrigerant–lubricant oil mixtures is highly important for the optimal design of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Refrigerant–lubricant mixtures, which are likely to have strong asymmetry, can show complex phase behaviour such as closed miscibility gaps, open miscibility gaps, liquid–liquid–vapour equilibrium, and even barotropic phenomena (density inversions). In fact, the type of phase

  20. Fretting corrosion of lubricated tin-plated contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan; Young Woo Park; Kang Yong Lee

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to study the effect of a commercial lubricant, which contains a 50-50 mixture of zinc diamyldithiocarbamate and petroleum oil, on the fretting corrosion of tin-plated copper alloy contacts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The change in contact resistance as a function of fretting cycles was used to assess the effectiveness of the lubricant in preventing

  1. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. PMID:24012607

  2. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Centers, P.W. [Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  4. Crude Oil Price Prediction Using Slantlet Denoising Based Hybrid Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaijian He; Kin Keung Lai; Jerome Yen

    2009-01-01

    The accurate prediction of crude oil price movement has always been the central issue with profound implications across different levels of the economy. This study conducts empirical investigations into the characteristics of crude oil market and proposes a novel Slantlet denoising based hybrid methodology for the prediction of its movement. The proposed algorithm models the underlying data characteristics in a

  5. Composition of Floccules Formed in Hydrotreated Base Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Huang; X. G. Cheng; H. Gao; R. X. Liang

    2009-01-01

    The composition of the floccules formed in hydrotreated base oil was investigated in detail. First, a method of solvent dilution and filtration at low temperature was employed to perform the separation of the floccules in the oil. Second, n-paraffins in the floccules were separated with urea, and carbon number distribution of the floccules was obtained by gas chromatography (GC). Finally,

  6. Motor Oil Classification Based on Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Taotao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Meng, Fandong

    2014-01-01

    A time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) technique is presented for classifying motor oils. The system is constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a spectrometer, and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements are reported for several motor oils. It is found that steady-state fluorescence is insufficient to distinguish the motor oil samples. Then contour diagrams of TRF intensities (CDTRFIs) are acquired to serve as unique fingerprints to identify motor oils by using the distinct TRF of motor oils. CDTRFIs are preferable to steady-state fluorescence spectra for classifying different motor oils, making CDTRFIs a particularly choice for the development of fluorescence-based methods for the discrimination and characterization of motor oils. The two-dimensional fluorescence contour diagrams contain more information, not only the changing shapes of the LIF spectra but also the relative intensity. The results indicate that motor oils can be differentiated based on the new proposed method, which provides reliable methods for analyzing and classifying motor oils. PMID:24988439

  7. Development of a full-scale transmission testing procedure to evaluate advanced lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

    1992-08-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. The testing was part of a joint Navy/NASA/Army lubrication program. The objective of the program was to develop a separate lubricant for gearboxes and demonstrate an improved performance in life and load-carrying capacity. The goal of the experiments was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 base reference oil, then run identical tests with improved lubricants and demonstrate performance. The tests were directed at failing components that the Navy has had problems with due to marginal lubrication. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hours of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

  8. Development of a full-scale transmission testing procedure to evaluate advanced lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. The testing was part of a joint Navy/NASA/Army lubrication program. The objective of the program was to develop a separate lubricant for gearboxes and demonstrate an improved performance in life and load-carrying capacity. The goal of the experiments was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 base reference oil, then run identical tests with improved lubricants and demonstrate performance. The tests were directed at failing components that the Navy has had problems with due to marginal lubrication. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hours of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

  9. A self-lubricating bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved bearing structure is described which includes a permanently magnetized porous body filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant for extending the operational life of self-lubricating bearings. The bearing structure is characterized by a permanently magnetized retainer formed of a porous material and filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant, whereby the pores serve as lubricant reservoirs from which the lubricant continuously is delivered to a film disposed between contiguous bearing surfaces.

  10. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    NASA and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) along with industry and university researchers, are developing Oil-Free technology that will have a revolutionary impact on turbomachinery systems used in commercial and military applications. System studies have shown that eliminating an engine's oil system can yield significant savings in weight, maintenance, and operational costs. The Oil-Free technology (foil air bearings, high-temperature coatings, and advanced modeling) is being developed to eliminate the need for oil lubrication systems on high-speed turbomachinery such as turbochargers and gas turbine engines that are used in aircraft propulsion systems. The Oil-Free technology is enabled by recent breakthroughs in foil bearing load capacity, solid lubricant coatings, and computer-based analytical modeling. During the past fiscal year, a U.S. patent was awarded for the NASA PS300 solid lubricant coating, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PS300 has enabled the successful operation of foil air bearings to temperatures over 650 C and has resulted in wear lives in excess of 100,000 start/stop cycles. This leapfrog improvement in performance over conventional solid lubricants (limited to 300 C) creates new application opportunities for high-speed, high-temperature Oil-Free gas turbine engines. On the basis of this break-through coating technology and the world's first successful demonstration of an Oil-Free turbocharger in fiscal year 1999, industry is partnering with NASA on a 3-year project to demonstrate a small, Oil-Free turbofan engine for aeropropulsion.

  11. New Lubricants Protect Machines and the Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 1994, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Operations commissioned Sun Coast Chemicals of Daytona Inc to develop a new type of lubricant that would be safe for the environment and help "grease the wheels" of the shuttle-bearing launcher platform. Founded in 1989, Sun Coast Chemicals is known amongst the racing circuit for effective lubricants that help overcome engine and transmission problems related to heat and wear damage. In a matter of weeks, Sun Coast Chemical produced the biodegradable, high-performance X-1R Crawler Track Lube. In 1996, Sun Coast Chemical determined there was a market for this new development, and introduced three derivative products, Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lubricant, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid, and then quickly followed with a gun lubricant/cleaner and a fishing rod and reel lubricant. Just recently, Sun Coast introduced the X-1R Corporation, which folds the high-performance, environmentally safe benefits into a full line of standard automotive and specially formulated racing products. The entire X-1R automotive product line has stood up to rigorous testing by groups such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Oakland University (Rochester, Michigan), and Morgan-McClure Motorsports (Abingdon, Virginia). The X-1R Corporation also markets "handy packs" for simple jobs around the house, consisting of a multi-purpose, multi-use lubricant and grease. In 2003, The X-1R Corporation teamed up with Philadelphia-based Penn Tackle Manufacturing Co., a leading manufacturer of fishing tackle since 1932, to jointly develop and market a line of advanced lubrication products for saltwater and freshwater anglers

  12. Performance Test of Diamond-Like Carbon Films for Lubricating ITER Blanket Maintenance Equipment under GPa-Level High Contact Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating was tested as a candidate solid lubricant for transmission gears of the maintenance equipment of the blanket of the ITER instead of an oil lubricant. The wear tests using the pin-on-disk method were performed on disks with SCM440 and SNCM420 as the base materials and coated with soft, layered, and hard DLCs. All cases satisfied the required allowable contact stress (2 GPa) and lifetime (104 cycles), and therefore the feasibility of the DLC coating was validated. Among the three types of DLCs, the soft DLC showed the best performance.

  13. Driveline Fundamentals and Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, I.

    The various gear types and automotive transmissions in drive trains are described. The need for automotive differential axle gears is demonstrated. SAE gear lubricant classifications are related to performance specifications. Automatic transmission fluids, ATFs, are described together with agricultural and off-highway fluids. Generic formulations of driveline fluids are discussed in terms of their tribology and performance and also the contribution of various additive classes to that performance. The main functions of manual gearbox, automatic transmission and axle lubricants are described. General trends and emerging technologies in drive train components are discussed in terms of the requirements placed on the lubricant, evolution in transmission technologies and relative market penetration.

  14. Lubrication System Failure Baseline Testing on an Aerospace Quality Gear Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace drive systems are required to survive a loss-of-lubrication test for qualification. In many cases emergency lubrication systems need to be designed and utilized to permit the drive system to pass this difficult requirement. The weight of emergency systems can adversely affect the mission capabilities of the aircraft. The possibility to reduce the emergency system weight through the use of mist lubrication will be described. Mist lubrication involves the delivery of a minute amount of an organic liquid as a vapor or fine mist in flowing compressed air to rubbing surfaces. At the rubbing surface, the vapor or mist reacts to form a solid lubricating film. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline for gear behavior under oil depleted conditions. A reactive vapor-mist lubrication method is described and proposed as a candidate emergency lubrication system.

  15. DNA adducts in human and mouse skin maintained in short-term culture and treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Ni Shé, M; Phillips, D H

    1991-05-24

    Human and mouse skin samples maintained in short-term organ culture were treated topically with used engine oils from petrol- and diesel-powered vehicles. Mice were also treated topically in vivo for comparison. DNA was isolated and analysed by 32P-postlabelling and the labeled DNA digests were resolved on polyethyleneimine-cellulose tlc sheets. A large number of radioactive adduct spots were observed in DNA from skin treated with the used petrol-engine oil, indicating the formation of adducts by many components of the complex oil mixture. Total adduct levels were similar in mouse skin (both in vivo and in vitro) and in human skin, although qualitative differences in the adduct maps were apparent between the human and mouse skin DNA. Treatment with the used diesel engine oil produced adduct levels no greater than that of control samples in mouse skin (in vivo and in vitro), although significant levels were found in human skin DNA from one donor. The results correlate well with the carcinogenic activity of these oils in experimental animals, helping to substantiate the conclusion that petrol engine oils (but not diesel engine oils) may present a carcinogenic risk to man if appropriate measures to minimise skin contact are not observed. PMID:2032211

  16. Recent advances in vegetable oil-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniel P; Xia, Ying; Larock, Richard C

    2011-06-20

    Polyurethanes are among the most versatile polymers because of the wide range of monomers, particularly diols or polyols, that can be utilized in their synthesis. This Review focuses on the most recent advances made in the production of polyurethane materials from vegetable oils. Over the past several years, increasing attention has been given to the use of vegetable oils as feedstocks for polymeric materials, because they tend to be very inexpensive and available in large quantities. Using various procedures, a very broad range of polyols or diols and in some cases, poly- or diisocyanates, can be obtained from vegetable oils. The wide range of vegetable oil-based monomers leads to a wide variety of polyurethane materials, from flexible foams to ductile and rigid plastics. The thermal and mechanical properties of these vegetable oil-based polyurethanes are often comparable to or even better than those prepared from petroleum and are suitable for applications in various industries. PMID:21598405

  17. Liquid lubrication in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  18. Design and fundamental understanding of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) assisted grinding using advanced nanolubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Parash

    Abrasive grinding is widely used across manufacturing industry for finishing parts and components requiring smooth superficial textures and precise dimensional tolerances and accuracy. Unlike any other machining operations, the complex thermo-mechanical processes during grinding produce excessive friction-induced energy consumption, heat, and intense contact seizures. Lubrication and cooling from grinding fluids is crucial in minimizing the deleterious effects of friction and heat to maximize the output part quality and process efficiency. The conventional flood grinding approach of an uneconomical application of large quantities of chemically active fluids has been found ineffective to provide sufficient lubrication and produces waste streams and pollutants that are hazardous to human health and environment. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) that cuts the volumetric fluid consumption by 3-4 orders of magnitude have been extensively researched in grinding as a high-productivity and environmentally-sustainable alternative to the conventional flood method. However, the lubrication performance and productivity of MQL technique with current fluids has been critically challenged by the extreme thermo-mechanical conditions of abrasive grinding. In this research, an MQL system based on advanced nanolubricants has been proposed to address the current thermo-mechanical challenges of MQL grinding and improve its productivity. The nanolubricants were composed of inorganic Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles (? 200 nm) intercalated with organic macromolecules of EP/AW property, dispersed in straight (base) oils---mineral-based paraffin and vegetable-based soybean oil. After feasibility investigations into the grindability of cast iron using MQL with nanolubricants, this research focused on the fundamental understanding of tribological behavior and lubricating mechanisms of nanolubricants as a method to improve the productivity of MQL-assisted surface grinding of ductile iron and alloy steel. An extensive investigation on MQL-assisted grinding using vitrified aluminum oxide wheel under varied infeed and lubrication condition was carried out with the scope of documenting the process efficiency and lubrication mechanisms of the nanolubricants. Experimental results showed that MQL grinding with nanolubricants minimized the non-productive outputs of the grinding process by reducing frictional losses at the abrasive grain-workpiece interfaces, energy consumption, wheel wear, grinding zone temperatures, and friction-induced heat generation. Use of nanolubricants in MQL yielded superior productivity by producing surface roughness as low as 0.35 ?m and grinding efficiencies that were four times higher as compared to those obtained from flood grinding. Repeatable formation of tribochemical films of antifriction, antiwear, and extreme pressure chemical species in between the contact asperities of abrasive crystals and work material was identified with nanolubricants. The tribological behavior was characterized by this synergistic effect of the antiwear, antifriction, and load carrying chemical species that endured grain-workpiece seizures and reduced adhesion friction between the contact surfaces. Delivery of organic coated Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles by anchoring on the natural porosity of the abrasive wheel and eventually, sliding-induced interfacial deformation into tribolayers and alignment at the grinding zone were established as the lubrication mechanisms of the nanolubricants. These mechanisms were further validated from tribological evaluations of lubricated cubic boron nitride (cBN) superabrasives-1045 steel sliding pairs on a reciprocating tribotest rig resembling the tool-lubricant-workpiece interactions of MQL-assisted grinding.

  19. Performance evaluation of starch based polymer for enhanced oil recovery

    E-print Network

    Skurner, James Andrew

    1997-01-01

    of reservoir conditions are investigated to better evaluate the polymer's ability to enhance oil recovery. The Western Atlas' VIP simulator is used for this study. Application of the starch based polymer treatment to the near-wellbore is shown...

  20. Two methodologies for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghayan, Hamid; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Yang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The performance, efficiency and lifetime of modern combustion engines significantly depend on the quality of the engine lubricants. However, contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, coolant and wear particles, reduce the life of engine mechanical components and lubricant quality. Therefore, direct and indirect measurements of engine lubricant properties, such as physical-mechanical, electro-magnetic, chemical and optical properties, are intensively utilized in engine condition monitoring systems and sensors developed within the last decade. Such sensors for the measurement of engine lubricant properties can be used to detect a functional limit of the in-use lubricant, increase drain interval and reduce the environmental impact. This paper proposes two new methodologies for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The methodologies are based on optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium (e.g. engine lubricant). The novelty of the proposed methodologies is in the introduction of an object with a known periodic shape behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodic structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. In the object shape-based optical analysis, several parameters of an acquired optical image, such as the gray scale intensity of lubricant and object, shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative intensity and width non-uniformity coefficient are newly proposed. Variations in the contaminant concentration and use of different contaminants lead to the changes of these parameters measured on-line. In the statistical optical analysis methodology, statistical auto- and cross-characteristics (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, auto- and cross-spectrums, transfer function, coherence function, etc) are used for the analysis of combined object-lubricant images. Both proposed methodologies utilize the comparison of measured parameters and calculated object shape-based and statistical characteristics for fresh and contaminated lubricants. Developed methodologies are verified experimentally showing an ability to distinguish lubricant with 0%, 3%, 7% and 10% water and coolant contamination. This proves the potential applicability of the developed methodologies for on-line measurement, monitoring and control of the engine lubricant condition.

  1. Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    2009-06-16

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  2. Optimization of surface roughness in drilling using vegetable-based cutting oils developed from sunflower oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babur Ozcelik; Emel Kuram; Erhan Demirbas; Emrah ?ik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of four cutting oils, two different vegetable-based cutting fluids developed from refined sunflower oil and two commercial types (semi-synthetic and mineral), for surface roughness during drilling of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with HSSE tool. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – L9 (33) orthogonal array was used for the experiment plan. Spindle

  3. Friction losses in a lubricated thrust-loaded cageless angular-contract bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Allen, C. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA spinning torque apparatus was modified to measure the spinning torque on a cageless ball thrust bearing. Friction torque was measured for thrust loads varying from 44.5 to 403 newtons (10 to 90 lb) at speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm. Tests were conducted with di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil. These tests were run with either oil jet lubrication or with a thin surface film of lubricant only. An analytical model which included rolling resistance was developed and extended from previous models for spinning torque and lubricant rheology. The model was extended by the inclusion of rolling resistance. The computed values were in fair agreement with the experimental results and confirmed previous hypotheses that a thin lubricant film gives minimum bearing torque and an oil jet flow of a viscous lubricant will result in considerable rolling torque in addition to the torque due to ball spin.

  4. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL); Lane, William H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  5. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.

  6. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  7. Correlation of elastohydrodynamic film thickness measurements for fluorocarbon type 2 ester, and polyphenyl ether lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    A minimum films thickness correlation applicable to heavily loaded elastohydrodynamic (EHD) contacts was formulated from experimental data obtained by an X-ray transmission technique. The correlation, based on data generated with fluorocarbon, type II ester, and polyphenyl ether lubricants, extends a previous analysis developed from data for a synthetic paraffinic oil. The resulting correlation represents the data of the four lubricants reasonably well over a large range of operating conditions. Contained within the derived relation is a factor to account for the high-load dependence displayed by the measurements beyond that which is provided for by the theory. Thermal corrections applied to a commonly used film thickness formula showed little improvement to the general disagreement that exists between theory and test. Choice of contact geometry and material are judged to have a relatively mild influence on the form of the semiempirical model.

  8. Lubrication of Space Systems (c)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the current state-of-the-art tribology, some current and future perceived space lubrication problem areas, and some potential new lubrication technologies. It is the author's opinion that tribology technology, in general, has not significantly advanced over the last 20 to 30 years, even though some incremental improvements in the technology have occurred. There is a better understanding of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, some new lubricating and wear theories have been developed, and some new liquid and solid lubricants have been formulated. However, the important problems of being able to lubricate reliably at high temperatures or at cryogenic temperatures have not been adequately address.

  9. Engineered soy oils for new value added applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Phuong T.

    Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

  10. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as Deepwater Horizon, (2) acquire a 24 x 7 oil spill response capability at least on a pre-operational basis, (3) acquire improved and expanded ancillary datasets, (4) reduce the number of false positives (analyzed oil that is not actually oil), (5) acquire the ability to reliably differentiate, at least in general qualitative terms, thick oil (“recoverable oil”) from oil sheens, and (6) join our Canadian counterparts (the Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution group in Environment Canada) to create a joint North American center for oil spill response.

  11. Performance and Molecular Structures of Fuel Oils and Lube Base Oils Prepared from Fischer-Tropsch Waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu KOBAYASHI; Masayuki SAITO; Seiji TOGAWA; Katsuaki ISHIDA

    Fuel oils and lube base oils were prepared by hydrocracking\\/isomerization of Fischer-Tropsch synthesized waxes and long-chain ?-olefins with various carbon chain lengths. Molecular structures of the prepared oils were investigated with iso-\\/n-paraffin ratios, average carbon numbers, and average branching numbers, which were calculated from CH and CH3 carbon ratio derived from 13 C-NMR analysis. Prepared base oils showed very high

  12. An experimental study of the oil evolution in critical piston ring pack regions and the effects of piston and ring designs in an internal combustion engine utilizing two-dimensional laser induced fluorescence and the impact on maritime economics

    E-print Network

    Vokac, Adam, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Faced with increasing concern for lubricating, oil consumption and engine friction, it is critical to understand the oil transport mechanisms in the power cylinder system. Lubricating oil travels through distinct regions ...

  13. Piezoviscous effects in nonconformal contacts lubricated hydrodynamically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Y. R.; Hamrock, B. J.; Brewe, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis is concerned with the piezoviscous-rigid regime of lubrication for the general case of elliptical contacts. In this regime several formulas of the lubricant film thickness have been proposed by Hamrock and Dowson, by Dowson et al., and more recently by Houpert. However, either they do not include the load parameter W, which has a strong effect on film thickness, or they overestimate the film thickness by using the Barus formula for pressure-viscosity characteristics. The Roelands formula was used for the pressure-viscosity relationship. The effects of the dimensionless load, speed, and materials parameters, the radius ratio, and the lubricant entrainment direction were investigated. The dimensionless load parameter was varied over a range of one order of magnitude. The dimensionless speed parameter was varied by 5.6 times the lowest value. Conditions corresponding to the use of solid materials of steel, bronze, and silicon nitride and lubricants of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oil were considered in obtaining the exponent in the dimensionless materials parameter. The radius ratio was varied from 0.2 to 64 (a configuration approaching a line contact). Forty-one cases were used in obtaining a minimum film thickness formula. Contour plots indicate in detail the pressure developed between the contacting solids.

  14. Modeling of the friction caused by lubrication and surface roughness in sheet metal forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H Lee; Y. T Keum; R. H Wagoner

    2002-01-01

    In order to find the effect of material property and lubricant viscosity on the frictional characteristics of both coated and uncoated metals, a sheet metal friction tester was designed and tensile test, surface roughness test, and friction test were performed with several kinds of drawing oils. Test results showed that as the lubricant viscosity becomes lower, the friction coefficient is

  15. Multigrade gear lubricants in truck fleet testing: analysis for fuel-economy effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Stambaugh; R. A. Galluccio; R. D. Koller

    1981-01-01

    The use of specially formulated engine oil is now an acceptable means of increasing the fuel efficiency of a vehicle. In principle, many of the same arguments used to justify their performance can also be applied to gear lubricants. Viscometrics and shear stability are discussed as they pertain to proper polymer selection for gear lubricant service. The fuel efficiency effects

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  17. High temperature lubricants. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning high temperature synthetic and natural lubricating compositions. Thickening agents, thermal stabilizers, polymeric additives, antioxidants, and preservatives are included relative to such lubricants as greases, oils, and soaps. Manufacturing methods and various applications are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Measurement of rod seal lubrication for Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauter, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic behavior of sliding elastomeric seals for the Stirling engine, was analyzed using an experimental apparatus to determine the instantaneous oil film thickness throughout the cyclic reciprocating motion. Tests were conducted on two commercial elastomeric seals: a "T" seal (76 mm O.D. and 3.8 mm between backing rings) and an "O" ring (76 mm O.D. and 5.3 mm diameter). Testing conditions included seal durometers of 70 and 90, sliding velocities of 0.8, 2.0, and 3.6 m/s, and no pressure gradient across the seal. Both acrylic and aluminum cylinders were used. Measured oil film thickness profiles were compared to results of the elastohydrodynamic analysis. The comparison shows an overall qualitative agreement. Friction and oil leakage measurements were also made at these sliding speeds. The fluid used was a typical synthetic base automotive lubricant. It is concluded that this first time experimental analytical comparison for oil film thickness indicates the need for some improvements in the analytical model and in the experimental technique.

  19. The experimental evaluation and application of high-temperature solid lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DellaCorte

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research program meant to develop an understanding of high-tenperature solid lubrication and experimental techniques through the development of a composite lubricant coating system. The knowledge gained through this research was then applied to a specific engineering challenge, the tribology of a sliding seal for hypersonic flight vehicles. The solid lubricant coating is a chromium carbide based

  20. A Method to Calculate the Pressure-Viscosity Coefficient from Bulk Properties of Lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Johnston

    1981-01-01

    A relationship between the pressure-viscosity coefficient of a liquid lubricant and the ambient pressure densities and viscosities at two or more temperatures has been derived. The emphasis was to derive a relationship based on fundamental properties of a liquid lubricant rather than to propose an empirical correlation. This relationship is then tested in representative lubricants by comparing the calculated values

  1. 7 CFR 3201.107 - Water turbine bearing oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    Lubricants that are specifically formulated for use in the bearings found in water turbines for electric power generation. Previously designated turbine drip oils are used to lubricate bearings of shaft driven water well turbine pumps. (b) Minimum biobased...

  2. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  3. The effect of lubricating oil condition on the friction and wear of piston ring and cylinder liner materials in a reciprocating bench test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Truhan; Jun Qu; Peter J. Blau

    2005-01-01

    A test method has been developed to evaluate the friction and wear behavior of candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for heavy-duty diesel engine applications. Oil condition and its effects are important aspects of this test method and are the focus of this work. The test uses actual piston ring segments sliding on flat specimens of liner material to

  4. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  5. Metal oxide gas sensor array for the detection of diesel fuel in engine oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simonetta Capone; Marzia Zuppa; Dominique S. Presicce; Luca Francioso; Flavio Casino; Pietro Siciliano

    2008-01-01

    We developed a novel method to detect the presence of unburned diesel fuel in lubricating oil for internal combustion engine. The method is based on the use of an array of different gas microsensors based on metal oxide thin films deposited by sol–gel technique on Si substrates. The sensor array, exposed to the volatile chemical species of different diesel fuel

  6. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-10-09

    This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

  7. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-10-09

    This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

  8. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  9. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  10. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  11. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-print Network

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  12. New polyurethane nanocomposites based on soya oil.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Issam Ahmed; Abd Khadir, Nurul Khizrien; Jaffar Al-Mulla, Emad Abbas

    2014-01-01

    New polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared from a dispersion of 0 - 5% montmorillonite (MMT) clay with isocyanate and soya oil polyol that was synthesized via transesterification of triglycerides to reduce petroleum dependence. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of hydrogen bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix, whereas the exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical microscopy, mechanical and thermal analyses were done to investigate significant improvement of the nanocomposites. The results showed PU-3% nanoclay (NC) showed optimum results in mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength but the lowest in impact strength. PMID:24420063

  13. Applying case-based reasoning to engine oil design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongzhi Shi; Han Zhou; Jun Wang

    1997-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is an important method of problem-solving and reasoning. This article presents Formula, which is a case-based reasoning system developed for the purpose of designing additive formulae for oil products. Representation of cases, the architecture of Formula, and the retrieval mechanism will be discussed in the paper.

  14. The impact of lubricants on the precision lapping process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xionghua; Chen, Zhenxing; Wolfram, Joy; Wei, Zhongxian; Shen, Yuqiu; Yang, Zhizhou

    2014-12-01

    The impact of lubricants on pole-tip recession and surface morphology of hard disk drive heads in the precision lapping process was investigated with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and auger electron spectroscopy. In particular, the effects of deionized water, hydrocarbon oil, ethanediol, isopropanol, and ethanol lubricants were evaluated. The results reveal that proper selection of lubricant is critical for achieving optimal performance in the lapping process. A mixture of 68% hydrocarbon oil, 30% isopropanol, and 2% octadecenoic acid was found to yield the most favorable results, displaying a writer shield recession, first shield of reader recession, and surface roughness of 0.423, 0.581, and 0.242 nm, respectively. PMID:25387606

  15. Optimizing power cylinder lubrication on a large bore natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeman, Matthew R.

    More than 6000 integral compressors, located along America's natural gas pipelines, pump natural gas across the United States. These compressors are powered by 2-stroke, large bore natural gas burning engines. Lowering the operating costs, reducing the emissions, and ensuring that these engines remain compliant with future emission regulations are the drivers for this study. Substantial research has focused on optimizing efficiency and reducing the fuel derived emissions on this class of engine. However, significantly less research has focused on the effect and reduction of lubricating oil derived emissions. This study evaluates the impact of power cylinder lubricating oil on overall engine emissions with an emphasis on reducing oxidation catalyst poisoning. A traditional power cylinder lubricator was analyzed; power cylinder lubricating oil was found to significantly impact exhaust emissions. Lubricating oil was identified as the primary contributor of particulate matter production in a large bore natural gas engine. The particulate matter was determined to be primarily organic carbon, and most likely direct oil carryover of small oil droplets. The particulate matter production equated to 25% of the injected oil at a nominal power cylinder lubrication rate. In addition, power cylinder friction is considered the primary contributor to friction loss in the internal combustion engine. This study investigates the potential for optimizing power cylinder lubrication by controlling power cylinder injection to occur at the optimal time in the piston cycle. By injecting oil directly into the ring pack, it is believed that emissions, catalyst poisoning, friction, and wear can all be reduced. This report outlines the design and theory of two electronically controlled lubrication systems. Experimental results and evaluation of one of the systems is included.

  16. Preparation and tribological properties of a kind of lubricant containing calcium borate nanoparticles as additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lifeng Hao; Jiusheng Li; Xiaohong Xu; Tianhui Ren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Nanoparticles are not well dispersed in non-polar organic solvents due to their hydrophilic property which limits their applications in lubricant oils. To improve the oil-solubility of nanoparticles, a novel technology was used to prepare a kind of lubricant containing calcium borate nanoparticles. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The microstructures of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and

  17. Bearing elastohydrodynamic lubrication: A complex calculation made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The lubricant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness formula is reduced to a simplified form whereby only the rolling-element bearing inside and outside diameters and speed (in revolutions per minute) and the lubricant type and viscosity (in centipoise) at temperature are required for its use. Additionally, a graph is provided for the first time that is based upon experimental data giving an EHD film reduction factor as a function of contact lubricant flow number. This reduction factor accounts for lubricant starvation within the Hertzian contact. A graph relating the ratio of minimum film thickness to composite surface roughness and a lubrication-life correction factor is also provided. The life correction factor is used to determine resultant bearing life.

  18. An Experimental Measurement of Lubrication Behavior of Piston Rings in a Spark Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungwoo; Choi, Sangmin; Bae, Choongsik

    Friction forces of a piston ring pack for a typical SI engine were measured using a floating liner system, in which the effects of cylinder pressure, oil starvation and piston secondary motion were excluded. Friction patterns of each individual ring, represented by measured friction forces, were classified into five frictional modes with regard to the combination of predominant lubrication regimes (boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication) and stroke regions (mid-stroke and dead centers). Those modes were identified on a Stribeck diagram of the dimensionless bearing parameter and friction coefficients; the coefficients were evaluated at mid-stroke and at dead centers. Frictional modes were evaluated by varying operation parameters (such as engine speed and cylinder wall temperature). Compression rings operated in the mode in which hydrodynamic lubrication was dominant at mid-stroke, while mixed lubrication was dominant at dead centers in steady conditions. However, oil control rings operated in the mode in which mixed lubrication was dominant throughout the entire stroke.

  19. Microemulsion-Based Vegetable Oil Detergency Using an Extended Surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tri T. Phan; Anuradee Witthayapanyanon; Jeff H. Harwell; David A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    This work examined the use of a single extended surfactant in the microemulsion-based detergency of vegetable oils. The results\\u000a showed that good canola oil detergency (>80%) was achieved at 25 °C using a single extended surfactant (C14,15–8PO–SO4Na) at concentrations as low as 125 ppm, i.e., significantly lower than the surfactant concentration range of 500–2,500 ppm\\u000a reported in other microemulsion-based detergency work. It was

  20. Effect of two synthetic lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

    1991-01-01

    Spur-gear fatigue tests were conducted with two lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The gears were case carburized and hardened to Rockwell C60. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into two groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-ester-based lubricants. One lubricant was 30 percent more viscous that the other. Both lubricants have similar pressure viscosity coefficients. Test conditions included a bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The surface fatigue life of gears tested with one lubricant was approximately 2.4 times that for gears tested with the other lubricant. The lubricant with the 30 percent higher viscosity gave a calculated elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness that was 20 percent higher than the other lubricant. This increased EHD film thickness is the most probable reason for the improvement in surface fatigue life of gears tested with this lubricant over gears tested with the less viscous lubricant.