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1

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

2

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

3

Lubricating Oil Additives Based on Polyalkylpolyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is confined to the preparation and characterization of additives. These additives are based on the reaction of polyisobutylene with different ethanolamine and then amination with tetraethylenepentamine. The molecular weights of the prepared compounds were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The efficiency of the prepared compounds as antioxidant and detergent\\/dispersantadditives for lube oil was studied. It was found

Nehal S. Ahmed; Amal M. Nassar

2009-01-01

4

Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M. [Moscow State Technical University 'MAMI', Department of Autobody making and metal forging, B.Semenovskaya 38, 107023, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-05-04

5

Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

6

Tribological effects of oxide based nanoparticles in lubricating oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance the tribological properties of lubricating oil, suitable surfactants such as Tween-20, Tween-60, Span-20 and Sodium sodecylbenzenesulfonate were selected and lubricating oils containing CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared. The morphology and size of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tribological properties of the oils were tested using an MRS-1J four-ball tribotester. The research results show that when the proportion by weight of CeO2 nanoparticles to TiO2 nanoparticles is 1:3, and the total weight fraction is 0.6%, the lubricating oil has optimal anti-wear and friction reducing properties. The addition of CeO2 nanoparticles reduces the required amount of TiO2 nanoparticles.

Gu, Cai-Xiang; Zhu, Guan-Jun; Li, Lei; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Guang-Yao

2009-03-01

7

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

8

Lubrication mechanism of solid lubricants in oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricating properties of machine oils containing such solid lubricants as (CF)n, MoS2, graphite, etc., were studied on a pin and disk machine by measuring an electric contact resistance and a friction force. After lubrication tests, solid lubricants films and transferred wear particles on worn surfaces have been observed by means of an XMA and an optical microscope. The wear mechanism

T. Hisakado; T. Tsukizoe; H. Yoshikawa

1983-01-01

9

Process for producing lubricating oils and white oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of high quality, e.g., high viscosity index, base lubricating oils and white oils, particularly food grade white mineral oils, of suitable viscosity in high yield from a mineral oil distillate of suitable lubricating oil viscosity comprises contacting the distillate with hydrogen in four catalytic stages. The first reaction stage employs hydrocracking conditions. Subsequent reaction stages employ hydrogenation conditions.

G. L. Everett; W. C. Hu

1982-01-01

10

Biodegradability study of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed-oil-based lubricant additives  

SciTech Connect

A variety of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed (HEAR)-oil-based lubricants, lubricant additives, and greases were examined for biodegradability at the University of Idaho Center for Hazardous Waste Remediation Research. Two standard biodegradability tests were employed, a currently accepted US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol and the Sturm Test. As is normal for tests that employ variable inocula such as sewage as a source of microorganisms, these procedures yielded variable results from one repetition to another. However, a general trend of rapid and complete biodegradability of the HEAR-oil-based materials was observed.

Zhou, E.; Crawford, R.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Shanahan, A.; Mammel, W. Jr. [International Lubricants, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

11

Lubrication Mechanism of Solid Lubricants in Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal surfaces have been investigated after lubrication tests with oils containing solid lubricants. With an MoS2-containing engine oil, an MoS2-film was formed on engine parts. Solids without a layer structure also formed solid films on metal surfaces at the area of frictional contact. These films are, however, not the original compounds, but products of chemical reaction. Presented as an American

Rüdiger Holinski

1975-01-01

12

Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2005-01-01

13

Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.  

PubMed

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchfür Praktiker, H. Ziolkowsky (Ed.), Verlag für chemische Industrie GmbH, 1996, pp. 348-361. This article will focus on the ecological properties of oleochemical (synthetic) esters. The environmental relevance of oleochemicals in comparison to petrochemicals is discussed, and then the principles of an ecological assessment are described. The ecotoxicological properties and the biodegradability of oleochemical esters are presented. Finally, the ecological properties of the oleochemical esters are discussed with regard to existing environmental classification and labeling systems. PMID:11233830

Willing, A

2001-04-01

14

Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

1983-01-01

15

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

16

Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

Holinski, R.

1984-01-01

17

Lubricant Properties of Modified Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent a small section of the market today, but recent legislation in both the United States and Europe could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character unlike petroleum oil based products. In order to understand th...

18

Lubricants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site related to lubrication is presented by SynLube.com and its relevant page is entitled Basics: What You Need to Know About Lubrication (1). Visitors can learn why lubrication is so important to mechanical devices, why oil needs to be changed in your car, what synthetic oils can do, and more. Although the site is for a manufacturer of synthetic oil, there is a good amount of interesting physical science information. The second site provides an educational resource activity by The Explorer, called Slippery Substances -- Lubricants (2). Students in grades 5 through 8 get to compare the "slipperiness" of various substances tested, read how a lubricant works, and identify objects that need lubricants to work correctly. All information needed to complete the activity is provided, including a short list of easily attained materials. Next, from NASA's Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program Web site, comes the High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings page (3). Visitors can read about a new chrome oxide based coating, which has been shown to provide good friction and wear properties to very high temperatures. The page contains descriptions, photographs, and even a link that shows the US patent for the "Self-Lubricating Composite Containing Chromium Oxide." The fourth site, About Lubrication (4), is maintained by Machine Care Systems. The page contains an informative explanation on the definition of energy release and lubricated components, and answers the questions what energy release is and if oil ever wears out. The next site, offered by the lubrication manufacturer Lubrizol, is called Lubrication Theory and Practice (5). As the title states, the site gives detailed explanations of friction reduction, lubricant viscosity, heat removal, suspension of contaminants, and other lubrication topics. InnerAuto.com offers the next site, which is an interactive animation of an Engine Lubrication System (6). As you move your mouse over the various parts of the engine, the lubrication critical part names reveal themselves and can then be clicked for additional information. If you happen to be in the market for a lubricant, the seventh site can definitely help you out. The Lubricants EZ Search (7) page, offered by ThomasRegister.com, contains 99 categories of lubricant manufacturers, descriptions of what they offer, and direct links to their Web sites. The last site related to lubricants, Lubrication Recommendations (8), is maintained by Infomedia. Here, visitors can choose from more than a dozen of machine categories and specific models to find out the type of lubrication they require as well as any notes related to that machinery such as crankcase capacity.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

19

Acute, subchronic, and developmental toxicological properties of lubricating oil base stocks.  

PubMed

Lubricating oil base stocks (LOBs) are substances used in the manufacture of finished lubricants and greases. They are produced from residue remaining after atmospheric distillation of crude oil that is subsequently fractionated by vacuum distillation and additional refining steps. Initial LOB streams that have been produced by vacuum distillation but not further refined may contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and may present carcinogenic hazards. In modern refineries, LOBs are further refined by multistep processes including solvent extraction and/or hydrogen treatment to reduce the levels of PACs and other undesirable constituents. Thus, mildly (insufficiently) refined LOBs are potentially more hazardous than more severely (sufficiently) refined LOBs. This article discusses the evaluation of LOBs using statistical models based on content of PACs; these models indicate that insufficiently refined LOBs (potentially carcinogenic LOBs) can also produce systemic and developmental effects with repeated dermal exposure. Experimental data were also obtained in ten 13-week dermal studies in rats, eight 4-week dermal studies in rabbits, and seven dermal developmental toxicity studies with sufficiently refined LOBs (noncarcinogenic and commonly marketed) in which no observed adverse effect levels for systemic toxicity and developmental toxicity were 1000 to 2000 mg/kg/d with dermal exposures, typically the highest dose tested. Results in both oral and inhalation developmental toxicity studies were similar. This absence of toxicologically relevant findings was consistent with lower PAC content of sufficiently refined LOBs. Based on data on reproductive organs with repeated dosing and parameters in developmental toxicity studies, sufficiently refined LOBs are likely to have little, if any, effect on reproductive parameters. PMID:24567344

Dalbey, Walden E; McKee, Richard H; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky; Biles, Robert W; Murray, Jay; White, Russell

2014-01-01

20

Solvent dewaxing of lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes improvement in a process for producing a dewaxed lubricating oil from a wax-bearing mineral oil by the steps comprising; mixing the oil with a dewaxing solvent thereby forming an oil-solvent mixture, chilling the oil-solvent mixture to a dewaxing temperature thereby crystallizing the wax and forming an oil-solvent crystalline wax mixture, separating the oil-solvent-crystalline wax mixture to form a dewaxed oil-solvent mixture and crystalline wax, steam stripping the dewaxed oil-solvent mixture at a temperature of 300{degrees}F to 600{degrees}F and pressure of 1 atm to 3 atm, to yield a solvent free dewaxed oil.

Sequeira, A. Jr.

1991-04-09

21

Evaluation of PS 212 Coatings Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions with an Ester-based Oil to 300 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High friction and wear of turbine engine components occur during high temperature excursions above the oxidation threshold of the liquid lubricant. This paper reports on research to study the use of a high temperature self lubricating coating, PS 212 for back-up lubrication in the event of failure of the liquid lubricant. Pin on disk tests were performed under dry and boundary-lubricated conditions at disk temperatures up to 300 C. The liquid lubricant was a formulated polyol ester qualified under MIL L-23699. At test temperatures above the oil's thermal degradation level, the use of PS 212 reduced wear, providing a back-up lubricant effect.

Sliney, Harold E.; Loomis, William R.; Dellacorte, Christopher

1994-01-01

22

Method of rerefining used lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used oil is refined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking while providing a greater recovery of lubricating oil products through the carrier effect of the light

H. J. Beard; L. C. Fletcher

1982-01-01

23

Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

2012-06-01

24

INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISM OF LUBRICATION BY STARCH-OIL COMPOSITE DRY FILM LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The boundary coefficient of friction (COF) of FanteskTM starch-oil composite dry film lubricants was investigated as a function of starch chemistry (waxy vs. normal purified food grade corn starch), oil chemistry (hexadecane vs. oleic acid and various vegetable oils), and starch-to-oil ratio. Based...

25

Tribological performance evaluation of oil mist lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research work, the tribological performance of oil mist lubrication (pure mist), as applied to rolling element bearings, was investigated. In the first part of this research, tests were conducted to compare the performances of oil mist and conventional oil sump lubrication in terms of operating temperature and friction with variation of load and speed. In the second part,

A. Shamim; C. F. Kettleborough

1994-01-01

26

40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lubricating oil. (1) Use the engine lubricating oil which meets the marine engine...Record the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (2) For...section would have a detrimental effect on emissions or durability;...

2010-07-01

27

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.  

PubMed

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

2004-05-01

28

Lubricant oil containing polytetrafluoroethylene and fluorochemical surfactant  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil containing polytetrafluoroethylene particles and a fluorochemical surfactant which stabilizes the dispersion and creates a molecular surface tension skin on the surface of the oil to reduce volatilization losses during use in an internal combustion engine.

Reick, F.G.

1980-09-23

29

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03

30

Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils  

SciTech Connect

In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01

31

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the engine lubricating oil for testing that meets the requirements...Record the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels...dehazer, antirust, pour depressant, dye, dispersant, and biocide. (2) Use...

2011-07-01

32

STARCH-LUBRICANT COMPOSITION FOR IMPROVED LUBRICITY AND FLUID LOSS IN WATER-BASED DRILLING MUDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-based mud systems that approach the performance of oil-based muds are an ongoing effort. Starch-lubricant compositons were developed as environmentally safe, non-toxic, stable dispersions in water-based drilling muds. Starch-lubricant compositions were prepared by jet cooking mixtures of wat...

33

Production of lubricating oils by hydrocracking  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing a lubricating oil base stock from a hydrocarbon feedstock which comprises: a hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock having a boiling point above about 343/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) and containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst having cracking and hydrogenation activity and comprising a layered silicate having a framework composed essentially of only tetrahedral sheets. The sheets contain interspathic polymeric silica and interspathic polymeric oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Al, B, Cr, Ga, In, Mo, No, Ni, Ti, Tl, W and Zr. The process produces a hydrocrackate having a boiling point above about 343/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) which contains a lesser proportion of polycyclics than the charge stock.

Kirker, G.W.; Varghese, P.

1989-03-14

34

SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS FROM EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL AND 2-ETHYLHEXYL ALCOHOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Economically adaptable bio-based synthetic lubricant basestocks were prepared from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and 2-ethylhexyl alcohol in the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid. 1H NMR has shown that the ring-opening reaction occurs first and then transesterification follows under the given rea...

35

Cold forming of steel with lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

In forward extrusions, the antiseizure property could be improved fairly simply when condensed phosphoric acids were directly added to lubricating oils together with monoalkyl phosphates or dialkyl phosphites. The condensed phosphoric acids had poor forming load-lowering properties despite their high antiseizure property, while the phosphates and phosphites had good forming load-lowering properties. When used in combination, both properties supplemented each other and the antiseizure property was enhanced (Maximum workable die temperature: over 312{degrees}C at a reduction rate of cross-sectional area of 75 percent). However, seizure occured more readily in backward extrusion, since a larger active nascent surface was formed, and a sufficient amount of oil could not be supplied to the nascent surface. Powdery ureas or amide compounds helped the formation of micropools (oil pockets) and played an effective role in preventing seizure between the workpiece and the tool. Such powders acted as a good oil trapping agent and indirectly improved the effectiveness of lubricating oils. Their particles could remain at the deformed surface in the form of micropools to improve lubrication at a high piercing ration (ratio of piercing distance and punch diameter). 4 refs., 14 fig., 7 tab.

Komatsuzaki, S.; Uematsu, T. [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitchi-shi (Japan); Narahara, T. [Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-03-01

36

40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) Manufacturers must use engine lubricants representative of commercially available engine lubricants. (2) For 2-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture ratio must be that which is recommended by the manufacturer. (b) Test...

2010-07-01

37

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Lab., Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

38

OXIDATION AND LOW TEMPERATURE STABILITY OF VEGETABLE OIL-BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The search for environmentally friendly materials that has potential to substitute mineral oil in various industrial applications is currently being considered a top priority research in the fuel and energy sector. This emphasis is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves an...

39

An integrated lubricant oil conditioning sensor using signal multiplexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One effective approach to detect signs of potential failure of a rotating or reciprocating machine is to examine the conditions of its lubrication oil. Here we present an integrated oil condition sensor for detecting both wear debris and lubricant properties. The integrated sensor consists of miniature multiplexed sensing elements for detection of wear debris and measurements of viscosity and moisture. The oil debris sensing element consists of eight sensing channels to detect wear debris in parallel; the elements for measuring oil viscosity and moisture, based on interdigital electrode sensing, were fabricated using micromachining. The integrated sensor was installed and tested in a laboratory lubricating system. Signal multiplexing was applied to the outputs of the three sensing elements such that responses from all sensing elements were obtained within two measurements, and the signal-to-noise ratio was improved. Testing results show that the integrated sensor is capable of measuring wear debris (>50?µm), moisture (>50?ppm) and viscosity (>12.4?cSt) at a high throughput (200?ml?min?1). The device can be potentially used for online health monitoring of rotating machines.

Zhu, Xiaoliang; Du, Li; Zhe, Jiang

2015-01-01

40

Method for removing polynuclear aromatics from used lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing polynuclear aromatics from a used lubricating oil which comprises passing the lubricating oil through a filter system containing a hollow solid composite comprising a thermoplastic binder and activated carbon, wherein the composite is formed by the steps comprising (a) providing a quantity of the thermoplastic binder in the form of particles having diameters between

Brownswell

1993-01-01

41

Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

42

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Laboratories, Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1996-02-01

43

Perfluorinated polyalkylether based lubricant composition  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a lubricant composition comprising a perfluorinated polyalkylether base fluid and a minor amount of a diphospha-striazine in which the two phosphorus atoms are substituted by aromatic groups and the carbon atom is substituted by a perfluoroalkyl or perfluoroalkylether moiety.

Ito, T.I.; Kaufman, J.; Kratzer, R.H.; Nakahara, J.H.; Paciorek, K.J.

1980-03-25

44

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The article outlines physical and chemical properties of industrial lubricating oils that affect the performance and life of both the lubricant and machinery. Electrical conductivity and dielectric strength measurements are important criteria for monitoring transformer and insulating oils. Surface tension and interfacial tension can also monitored to see whether a oil is retaining its original properties. Contaminants of lubricating oils are classified into four areas: gaseous, liquid, solid particulates, and semi-solids. The contaminant`s method of entry, possible damaging effects, and detection by ASTM testing procedures are described.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Labs., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

45

Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

Lee, F.

1978-01-01

46

Thermoreversible gel lubricants through universal supramolecular assembly of a nonionic surfactant in a variety of base lubricating liquids.  

PubMed

The present paper investigates a new type of thermoreversible gel lubricant obtained by supramolecular assembly of low-molecular-weight organic gelator (LMWG) in different base oils. The LMWG is a nonionic surfactant with polar headgroup and hydrophobic tail that can self-assemble through collective noncovalent intermolecular interactions (H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction) to form fibrous structures and trap base oils (mineral oils, synthetic oils, and water) in the as-formed cavities. The gel lubricants are fully thermoreversible upon heating-up and cooling down and exhibit thixotropic characteristics. This makes them semisolid lubricants, but they behave like oils. The tribological test results disclosed that the LMWG could also effectively reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs compared with base oils without gelator. It is expected that when being used in oil-lubricated components, such as gear, rolling bearing, and so on, gel lubricant may effectively avoid base oil leak and evaporation loss and so is a benefit to operation and lubrication failure for a long time. PMID:25111146

Yu, Qiangliang; Fan, Mingjin; Li, Dongmei; Song, Zenghong; Cai, Meirong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

2014-09-24

47

Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking

H. J. Beard; L. C. Fletcher; R. Oblasny

1982-01-01

48

Talc as friction reducing additive to lubricating oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction of friction and wear by colloidal suspensions of ceramic powders in lubricating oils is an approach that can allow to formulate environment friendly energy saving lubricants. Commercial talc powder was evaluated as an extreme pressure additive to a lubricating oil under different temperatures and concentrations. The best lubricity was achieved at the temperature of 100 °C and the concentration of 0.15 wt% when dynamic and static friction coefficients were reduced by over 30% in comparison to reference lubricating oil alone. At high temperature, talc forms transfer film on metal surface, which reduce both friction and wear behavior in mating surfaces. However, at room temperature, film formation was not observed. Results are explained using pressure and temperature induced lamellar dehydration mechanism when products of dehydration form oxide transfer films on the friction surface.

Rudenko, Pavlo; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2013-07-01

49

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2013-07-01

50

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2014-07-01

51

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2011-07-01

52

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2012-07-01

53

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2010-07-01

54

Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.  

PubMed

Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

2005-05-01

55

Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%. PMID:22870990

Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

2012-09-01

56

Surfactant effects on bio-based emulsions used as lubrication fluids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The successful formulation of a lubricating emulsion requires carefully balancing the mixture of base oil, water and a plethora of additives. The factors that affect the performance of lubrication emulsions range from the macroscopic stability to the microscopic surface properties of the base oil. ...

57

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

58

The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1984-01-01

59

Lubricity characteristics for seed oils modified by acylation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

60

Emulsification of chemically modified vegetable oils for lubricant use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several previously uncharacterized emulsions were studied in this paper, including those made form epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found to form stable emulsions i...

61

Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies  

SciTech Connect

As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

Everett, G.L. [Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Channelview, TX (United States); Suchanek, A. [Criterion Catalyst Co. L.P., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01

62

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and...

2014-07-01

63

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and...

2012-07-01

64

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and...

2011-07-01

65

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and...

2013-07-01

66

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and...

2010-07-01

67

Behavior of Polar Compounds in Lubricating-Oil Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oil films was investigated under comparatively mild conditions of boundary lubrication (up to 10 MPa) using electrical methods.For a dynamic investigation, a pin-on-disk-type friction apparatus was uses. The capability of oil films for preventing metal-metal contact was estimated by measuring the contact resistance of the mating surfaces. For a static investigation, the characteristics of oil films while

Heihachiro Okabe; Takao Kanno

1981-01-01

68

76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils AGENCY...Circular (AC) 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils. This AC...or APUs to operate with specified propulsion fuels and lubricating oils....

2011-08-10

69

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. I - Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact is lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contacts are optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact is formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. In contrast, under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short-term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

70

Physical properties study on partially bio-based lubricant blends: Thermally modified soybean oil with popular commercial esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An initial evaluation of several oils, including: soybean oil (SBO), high oleic SBO, and thermally modified SBO, compared their acid values and viscosities over 28 days stored at 85 deg C. As expected, the acid values and viscosities increased and the high oleic oil demonstrated a smaller effect. ...

71

Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphosphoramidate (DBOP), 6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-ol calcium salt (ODOC) and 2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane (DOB) to generate boundary films on stainless steel AISI 316 and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Experimental results show lower friction values for the emulsions in combination with CoCrMo compared to AISI 316. The different performance of the additives is related to the composition of the adsorption and reaction film on the interacting surfaces, which was shown to be dependent on the active elements and molecular structure of the additives. The friction profile of the emulsions indicates that the emulsion appears to be broken during the rubbing process, then the additives adsorb onto the metal surface to form protecting boundary layers. The XPS analysis shows that for boundary lubrication conditions, the additive molecules in the emulsion first adsorb on the metal surface after the droplet is broken, and then decompose and react with the metal surface during the rubbing process to form stable lubricating films on the rubbed surfaces.

Yan, Jincan; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; van der Heide, Emile

2014-10-01

72

Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.  

PubMed

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality. PMID:22248297

Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

2012-02-01

73

Modeling of liner finish effects on oil control ring lubrication in internal combustion engines based on deterministic method  

E-print Network

Twin-land oil control ring is widely used in the automotive diesel engines, and is gaining more and more applications in the modern designs of gasoline engines. Its interaction with the cylinder liner surface accounts for ...

Chen, Haijie

2008-01-01

74

LUBRICATION WITH STARCH-OIL COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aqueous starch-oil composites consist of uniformly suspended starch-coated oil droplets (1-10 µm in diameter), and find use in a wide variety of industrial, food, and agricultural applications. One of the main benefits of these starch-oil composites is that they can be drum dried and milled into a ...

75

Lubricants and functional fluids from lesquerella oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family that is native to the desert of the southwestern United States. The interest in this crop is due to the high level of hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in the oil. The seed contains 33% oil, 23% protein, and 15% gums. The...

76

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

SciTech Connect

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

2000-01-20

77

The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

2013-01-01

78

Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing said composition  

SciTech Connect

Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by combining a polar promoter, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and a basic nitrogen compound complex to form a sulfur- and molybdenumcontaining composition.

Devries, L.; King, J.M.

1981-08-11

79

Nanotechnology in action: overbased nanodetergents as lubricant oil additives.  

PubMed

The synthesis and study of oil-soluble metal carbonate colloids are of interest in the area of lubricant additives. These surfactant-stabilised nanoparticles are important components in marine and automotive engine oils. Recently introduced, environmentally driven legislation has focused on lowering of gaseous emissions by placing limits on the levels of phosphorous sulphur and ash allowed in engine oil systems. These chemical limits, coupled with improved engine performance and extended oil drainage intervals, have lead to renewed interest in the production of stable, efficient nanodetergent systems. To date, this has resulted in modification of existing surfactant structures and development of new generations of surfactants. This review covers the current state of research in the area of nanodetergents. PMID:16860284

Hudson, L K; Eastoe, J; Dowding, P J

2006-11-16

80

Development and application of a lubricant composition model to study effects of oil transport, vaporization, fuel dilution, and soot contamination on lubricant rheology and engine friction  

E-print Network

Engine oil lubricants play a critical role in controlling mechanical friction in internal combustion engines by reducing metal-on-metal contact. This implies the importance of understanding lubricant optimization at the ...

Gu, Grace Xiang

2014-01-01

81

Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.  

PubMed

After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. PMID:25046076

Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

2014-08-13

82

High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

1999-01-01

83

LUBRICANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lubricating action of graphite is partly due to an adsorbed layer of ; water on each of the individual flakes of graphite in the agglomerate. At high ; temperature graphite loses its lubricating qualities due to desorption of the ; adsorbed water. When graphite (or a metallic powder such as copper, bronze, ; aluminum) is milled with finely divided

Blainey

1958-01-01

84

Lubricating oil dominates primary organic aerosol emissions from motor vehicles.  

PubMed

Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic aerosol (POA), which is a mixture of a large number of organic compounds that have not been comprehensively characterized. In this work, we apply a recently developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry approach utilizing "soft" vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to achieve unprecedented chemical characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA was characterized by number of carbon atoms (NC), number of double bond equivalents (NDBE) and degree of molecular branching. Vehicular POA was observed to predominantly contain cycloalkanes with one or more rings and one or more branched alkyl side chains (?80%) with low abundances of n-alkanes and aromatics (<5%), similar to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring structures are most likely dominated by cyclohexane and cyclopentane rings and not larger cycloalkanes. High molecular weight combustion byproducts, that is, alkenes, oxygenates, and aromatics, were not present in significant amounts. The observed carbon number and chemical composition of motor vehicle POA was consistent with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional smaller contribution from unburned diesel fuel and a negligible contribution from unburned gasoline. PMID:24621254

Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Gentner, Drew R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Chan, Arthur W H; Ruehl, Christopher; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Wilson, Kevin R; Harley, Robert A; Goldstein, Allen H

2014-04-01

85

Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

Gardos, M. N.

1973-01-01

86

A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

2002-01-01

87

The filling of powdered herbs into two-piece hard capsules using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as lubricant.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the plug formation and filling properties of powdered herbal leaves using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as an alternative lubricant. In a first step, unlubricated and lubricated herbal powders were studied on a small scale using a plug simulator, and low-force compression physics and parameterization techniques were used to narrow down the range in which the optimum amount of lubricant required would be found. In a second step these results were complemented with investigations into the flow properties of the powders based on packing (tapping) experiments to establish the final optimum lubricant concentration. Finally, capsule filling of the optimum formulations was undertaken using an instrumented tamp filling machine. This work has shown that hydrogenated cotton seed oil can be used advantageously for the lubrication of herbal leaf powders. Stickiness as observed with magnesium stearate did not occur, and the optimum lubricant concentration was found to be less than that required for magnesium stearate. In this work, lubricant concentrations of 1% or less hydrogenated cotton seed oil were required to fill herbal powders into capsules on the instrumented tamp-filling machine. It was found that in principle all powders could be filled successfully, but that for some powders the use of higher compression settings was disadvantageous. Relationships between the particle size distributions of the powders, their flow and consolidation as well as their filling properties could be identified by multivariate statistical analysis. The work has demonstrated that a combination of the identification of plug formation and powder flow properties is helpful in establishing the optimum lubricant concentration required using a small quantity of powder and a powder plug simulator. On an automated tamp-filling machine, these optimum formulations produced satisfactory capsules in terms of coefficient of fill weight variability and capsule weight. PMID:22960627

Aling, Joanna; Podczeck, Fridrun

2012-11-20

88

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5¥10 DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5¥10 DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet

Stanley I. Pinel; Hans R. Signer; Erwin V. Zaretsky

2001-01-01

89

Oil lubricant tribological behaviour improvement through dispersion of few layer graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Few layer graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by a very fast modified Hummers method and widely characterized. Avoiding further chemical reactions, trying to take advantage of the easy exfoliation of GO favoring the formation of a tribofilm, and using a methodology well known to the lubricant industry, they were added to a mineral oil by the help of a dispersant. The tribological behaviour of GO in mineral oil was investigated under a wide spectrum of conditions, from boundary and mixed lubrication to elastohydrodynamic regimes. A ball on disc setup tribometer has been used to verify the friction reduction due to nanosheets dispersed in mineral oil. Their good friction and anti-wear properties may possibly be attributed to the small and extremely thin laminated structure, which offer lower shear stress and prevent interaction between metal interfaces. Furthermore, the results clearly prove that graphene platelets in oil easily form a protective film to prevent the direct contact between steel surfaces and, thereby, improving the frictional behaviour of the base oil. This evidence is also related to the frictional coefficient trend in boundary regime. PMID:24757967

Sarno, Maria; Senatore, Adolfo; Cirillo, Claudia; Petrone, Vincenzo; Ciambelli, Paolo

2014-07-01

90

Dynamic stability analysis of cages in high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the cage stability of high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings, a dynamic model of cages is\\u000a developed on the basis of Gupta’s and Meeks’ work. The model can simulate the cage motion under oil lubrication with all six\\u000a degrees of freedom. Particularly, the model introduces oil-film damping and hysteresis damping, and deals with the collision\\u000a contact as imperfect

Xiuhai Liu; Sier Deng; Hongfei Teng

2011-01-01

91

Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive  

SciTech Connect

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01

92

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

93

Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.  

PubMed

Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. PMID:23618159

Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

2013-05-15

94

An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural+a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil

M. S. Hatamipour; S. M. Fakhr Hoseini; T. Tavakkoli; A. H. Mehrkesh

2010-01-01

95

Lubricating oil compositions containing poly(oxyalkylene) aminoether carbamates as dispersing agents  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lubricating oil composition comprising a major portion of oil of lubrication viscosity, and a minor amount of poly(oxyalkylene) aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl carbamate having a molecular weight of about 500 to 10,000; wherein the poly(oxyalkylene) moiety of the carbamate is comprised of oxyalkylene units selected from C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ oxyalkylene units which a sufficient number are branched-chain oxyalkylene units to render the carbamates soluble in lubricating oil; and the aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl moiety of the carbamate being derived from a diaminoether having from 2 to 60 carbon atoms.

Plavac, F.

1988-03-01

96

Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

97

Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency system and as a primary lubrication system. [for helicopter engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication system was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through system with auxiliary air cooling is an effective primary lubrication system at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.

Loomis, W. R.

1976-01-01

98

Antioxidant combinations of molybdenum complexes and organic sulfur compounds for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

An antioxidant additive combination for lubricating oils is prepared by combining (a) a sulfur containing molybdenum compound prepared by reacting an ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and a basic nitrogen compound, with (b) an organic sulfur compound.

deVries, L.; King, J.M.

1983-09-06

99

WASTE LUBRICATING OIL DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND: POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE TO COASTAL WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that approximately 35 percent changed their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular method of disposal reported by the respondents was putting the oil in the garbage ...

100

Marine Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

101

STRUCTURE INDUCED THERMO-OXIDATIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIO-BASED SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental awareness has led to new generation of lubricants and fluids based on renewable resources that are nontoxic and eco-friendly. These fluids are potential replacements for mineral oil in various agricultural, marine, forestry and industrial equipment and therefore prevent polluting the ...

102

Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

1988-01-01

103

Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both

T. Tian; V. W. Wong

2000-01-01

104

Applied models to biodegradation kinetics of lubricant and vegetable oils in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation technologies are used in order to remove pollutants from the environment in a safe, economical and harmless way during the treatment of waste, especially with the use of techniques such as biodegradation. A lubricant and vegetable oil contaminated water sample was studied in order to evaluate the biodegradability of different types of oils, considering the relevance of the obtained

Renato N. Montagnolli; Paulo R. M. Lopes; Ederio D. Bidoia

2009-01-01

105

Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

106

Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing the composition  

SciTech Connect

Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by (1) combining a polar solvent, an acidic molybdenum compound and an oil-soluble basic nitrogen compound to form molybdenum-containing complex and (2) contacting said complex with carbon disulfide to form a sulfur-and molybdenum-containing composition.

Devries, L.; King, J.M.

1981-08-25

107

A parametric study on oil\\/air lubrication of a high-speed spindle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ball-bearing is widely used on many high-speed spindles due to its low starting friction and high load capacity. However, heat generation and dynamic loading caused by high-speed rotation have been obstacles for increasing the speed limit in many high-speed ball-bearing applications. Applying an appropriate lubrication and preload cannot be overemphasized. Recently, oil\\/air lubrication has been used on high-speed spindles

Cheng-Hsien Wu; Yu-Tai Kung

2005-01-01

108

Effect of oil mists on the irritancy of sulfur dioxide. I. Mineral oils and light lubricating oil.  

PubMed

The increase in pulmonary flow resistance in unanesthetized guinea pigs was used to assess the effect of sub-micrometer oil aerosols on the response to sulfur dioxide. At a concentration of about 10 mg/m3 neither a medicinal grade mineral oil nor a light lubricating oil altered the response when given simultaneously with 1 or 10 ppm sulfur dioxide. The naphthenic medicinal oil at 100 mg/m3 failed to protect against 50 ppm sulfur dioxide when administerd simultaneously. A 30-minute pre-exposure, however, conferred complete protection. A paraffinic laboratory grade mineral oil conferred protection when given simultaneously but was less effective when the pre-exposure protocol was used. PMID:495470

Costa, D L; Amdur, M O

1979-08-01

109

The influence of contact conditions on surface reaction layers formed between steel surfaces lubricated by an aviation oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the influence of load and temperature on the formation and stability of tribo-films for bearing steel on bearing steel contacts lubricated with an aviation oil, EXXON Turbo 2380 (TCP based - tricresyl phosphate) at ambient temperatures. Experiments were carried out on a pin-on-disc (POD) tribometer (with a ball-on-flat geometry) under an average loading rate of 0.17Ns?1

L. Wang; R. J. K. Wood

2007-01-01

110

Experimental investigation of Gasoline-Like Fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation on engine performance and exhaust emission of a gasoline engine fueled by Gasoline-Like Fuel (GLF) was performed in this study. The GLF was obtained from waste lubrication oil (WLO) using the pyrolitic distillation method. Firstly, the WLO collected in a tank was particulates removed by a refining process. The refined lubrication oil samples were taken into a reactor

Orhan Arpa; Recep Yumrutas

2010-01-01

111

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

112

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

113

Graphite in lubrication. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning graphite and graphite fluoride as solid lubricants for applications requiring dry lubricants or in conjunction with oils or greases to improve lubrication. Fiber graphite is discussed in the manufacture of composite materials with self-lubricating properties. Graphite as a filler in various bearing materials is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 113 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01

114

Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125?m multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a ?= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to perform reliable and clean spectral measurements from the analyzed oil samples.

Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

2014-05-01

115

Influence of some antioxidants on the oxidative stability of Rimula D lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate some cheap and highly stable additives to improve the quality of lubricating oil. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was performed using phenol, p-cresol and pyrogallol as antioxidants. The concentration of each antioxidant was varied between 0 and 1 per cent. Sample (50 ml) blended with the antioxidant was taken in the

Imtiaz Ahmad; M. Shakirullah; M. Ishaq; M. Arsala Khan; Jan ullah

2011-01-01

116

CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE  

SciTech Connect

Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2011-01-01

117

NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

Weaver, Harold F.

2003-01-01

118

On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined.

Zheng, Lijuan; Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Gilon, Nicole; Zeng, Heping; Yu, Jin

2014-09-01

119

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

120

Waste lubricating oil disposal practices in Providence, Rhode Island: potential significance to coastal water quality  

SciTech Connect

A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that about 35% change their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular disposal method was putting the oil in garbage cans, followed by backyard dumping, sewer disposal, dumping it on roads, or taking it to the town dump. Road and sewer disposal can account for 44 metric tons of hydrocarbons discharged into the city's combined storm and sanitary sewage treatment system. Residents indicated a high degree of willingness to participate in a state-wide recycling program.

Hoffman, E.J.; Falke, A.M.; Quinn, J.G.

1980-01-01

121

Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.  

PubMed

In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. PMID:24875837

Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

2014-08-01

122

Relative toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent against benthic macro-invertebrates of a west African estuarine lagoon.  

PubMed

The relative acute toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent was evaluated against hermit crab, Clibanarius africanus (Aurivillus) and periwinkle, Tympanotonus fuscatus (L) from the Lagos lagoon in laboratory bioassays. Based on the derived toxicity indices, the detergent (96 hr LC50 = 5.77ml/l) was found to be 1.73 times more toxic than spent engine oil (96 hr LC50 = 10.01 ml/l) when acting singly against C africanus and 18.73 times (96 hr LC50-48.67 ml/l) more toxic (96 hr LC50 = 911.57 ml/l) when acting singly against T. fuscatus. On the basis of the computed susceptibility factors, C. africanus was found to be about eight times and ninety-one times more susceptible to the toxic effect of detergent and spent lubricant oil respectively. The randomized analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (Fcal 58.83 Ftab 3.87; DF 13; p > 0.05) between all treatments of spent lubricant oil and detergent during the 96 hr exposure period of test animals. At 5% level of significance the Student Neuman-Keuls (SNK) test further revealed significant differences in the mean mortality response of test animals exposed to toxicants at all concentrations and untreated control. The results obtained in this study suggest that the estuarine benthic macroinvertebrates, which play key roles in the environment, may serve as useful in-situ sentinels for biomonitoring studies of petroleum pollutants in fragile aquatic ecosystems such as the Lagos lagoon. PMID:17402237

Chukwu, L O; Odunzeh, C C

2006-07-01

123

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

124

A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

2010-04-01

125

Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

Bertrand, P. A.

1995-01-01

126

Lubricated Sliding Wear Behavior of a Cast Iron: Effect of Graphite and/or Talc Fraction in Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of suspended solid lubricant (graphite and/or talc) particles in oil on the sliding wear response of a cast iron have been studied in this investigation. The role played by the changing concentration of the talc and graphite particles added to the oil separately as well as in combination toward controlling the wear behavior of the cast iron has also been analyzed. The investigation strongly suggests beneficial effects of the solid lubricant particles suspended in lubricating oil in terms of decreasing wear rate, frictional heating, and friction coefficient. Interestingly, increasing concentration of the suspended lubricant particles in oil led to reduction in the mentioned properties initially followed by the attainment of the minimum at a specific concentration of the solid lubricants. At still higher concentrations, the trend reversed in the case of wear rate and friction coefficient while it remained unaffected as far as the influence on frictional heating is concerned. Formation of stable lubricating film/layer was noted to be responsible for the improved wear performance of the samples while rupture of the lubricant film led to deterioration in wear behavior.

Prasad, B. K.

2010-04-01

127

Vapor phase lubrication of a Ni-based superalloy  

SciTech Connect

In addition to ceramics, alloys such as tool steel and nickel- and iron-based superalloys are being considered for high temperature applications such as missile bearings and low heat rejection engines. Studies were made to lubricate a nickel-based superalloy at 500{degrees}C, by using a vaporized aryl phosphate ester, at a concentration of 0.1% in air. From deposition and wear studies it was found that it was impossible to form a good polymeric coating on the superalloy surface. Energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDXA) analysis showed that this was due to minute quantities of aluminum in the alloy segregating to the surface, upon being heated to 500{degrees}C, forming a passive oxide coating. It was necessary to activate the surface, in order to lubricate the material successfully. A method of activation by electrodepositing the surface with a layer of iron oxide was developed. Once activated, a good lubricous polymer was formed on the superalloy surface. Tests performed under dynamic conditions and 1 MPa pressure, using an activated specimen surface showed no wear and a coefficient of friction ({mu}) of 0.05. These results stress the importance of material selection for high temperature vapor phase lubrication. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Hanyaloglu, B.; Fedor, D.C.; Graham, E.E. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1995-03-01

128

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2010-10-01

129

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2011-10-01

130

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2013-10-01

131

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2012-10-01

132

Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

1986-12-09

133

Effect of lubricants on warm compaction process of Cu-based composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lubricant is the key of warm compaction technology. Because of admixed different lubricants, the optimal parameters of warm compaction process were also different. This paper investigated the effect of two kind of lubricants (zinc stearate and polystyrene) on the parameters of warm compaction process by compared properties of Cu-based composite. It was shown that with the rise

S.-S. Feng; H.-R. Geng; Zh.-Q. Guo

134

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

135

Assessment of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate techniques for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis

Arnobio Roberto Caneca; M. Fernanda Pimentel; Roberto Kawakami Harrop Galvão; Cláudia Eliane da Matta; Florival Rodrigues de Carvalho; Ivo M. Raimundo Jr.; Celio Pasquini; Jarbas J. R. Rohwedder

2006-01-01

136

Sliding Wear Behavior of Cast Iron: Influence of MoS2 and Graphite Addition to the Oil Lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study discusses sliding wear characteristics of a gray cast iron over a range of applied loads in oil lubricated condition. Effects of MoS2 and graphite addition to the oil lubricant in governing the wear behavior have also been studied. The wear rate increased with load in general with a few exceptions in the case of oil plus 5% MoS2 wherein it had a tendency to show a reverse trend in the intermediate load range. Addition of 5% graphite to the oil brought about a decrease in the wear rate without affecting seizure resistance. Increasing quantity of graphite in the oil from 5 to 10% practically did not affect the wear rate at lower loads. However, it led to significantly lower wear rates at higher loads and also offered higher seizure resistance. In the case of oil plus 5% MoS2 lubricant mixture, the wear rate of the samples was higher than that of the lubricant with 5% graphite when tests were conducted at lower loads while identical response was observed at higher loads in both cases. Seizure resistance of the samples was not affected by the addition of 5% graphite and MoS2 to the oil. The frictional heating also increased with load in general, except in the case of oil containing 5% MoS2 and 10% graphite wherein it remained practically unaffected in the intermediate load range. The presence of 5% graphite and MoS2 in the oil lubricant brought about reduced frictional heating, except in the case of oil plus 5% graphite mixture wherein the trend reversed, and oil plus 5% MoS2 leading to comparable frictional heating during specimen seizure. Increasing test duration caused higher frictional heating. Adhesion was observed to be the principal wear mechanism while microcracking assisted delamination and abrasion also contributed to material loss.

Prasad, B. K.; Rathod, S.; Yadav, M. S.; Modi, O. P.

2011-04-01

137

Study of Additive for Aluminum Cold Rolling Lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of lubricants and additives was studied through simulated ball on disc experiments on aluminum alloys AA3003 and AA5182. Experiments covered five lubricant base oils with two additives at two additive concentrations. Comparison of lubricants was carried out based on measurements of the coefficient of friction (COF), surface damage and lubrication failure temperature. With lubricant applied during the cold rolling process, a protective layer containing carbon and oxygen forms on the alloy surface; the performance of lubricants is affected by both additive type and additive concentration. Lubricants' anti-wear property is sensitive to changes in additive concentration; that is with an increase in additive concentration, the wear decreases. For lubricants' anti-friction properties, only fatty alcohol shows a decrease in coefficient of friction when the additive concentration increases. With lower concentration of additive, higher lubrication critical temperature was observed. Generally, coefficient of friction is insensitive to aluminum material changing.

Fang, Li

138

Lubricants and Their Environmental Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental considerations have increased in importance in the last two decades and lubricants are part of that. The REACH Regulations apply to the components of lubricants. About 50% of a lubricant can be reclaimed using refining processes ranging from acid/clay treatment through to distillation/hydrogenation to produce up to Gp. II quality re-refined base oils. The major possible contaminants are the PAHs, which are effectively removed by optimised distillation/hydrogenation, metals, remnants of VI improvers, water and untreated acids. Sulphur contents of these base oils must be viewed differently from those of virgin mineral base oils. Certain PAHs are recognised carcinogens and pose a health and safety risk and must be controlled. The use of re-refined base oils is driven by the concept of 'sustainability', to minimise pollution and maximise the use of resources.

Betton, C. I.

139

Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

2012-06-01

140

Relationship of Viscosity, Surface Tensions, and Coefficient of Friction of Lubricating Oils  

E-print Network

RELATI01ISHII OF VISCOSITY, SUHFACE TEUSIOUS, A3D COEFFICIENT O? FlilCTIOB 0? LUBRICATING OILS. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Kansas, Lawrence. For The Degree of Master of Science ilechanioal... indebted to Prof. 1 W.M. Sawdon, of Cornell University, Prof. F.R. Tatson, of the University of Illinois, Prof. A.E. Flowers, of the Ohio State University, Dean I\\F. Walker, of the Engineer- ing School of Kansas University, and Prof. A.H. Sluss...

Carson, Earl

1914-01-01

141

Mechanics and chemistry in lubrication  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: simple hydrodynamic theory: the Reynolds equation in two dimensions; the nature and properties of liquids; friction: mechanisms and analysis; lubricated friction; contact of solid bodies; temperature effects in friction, wear and lubrication; petroleum lubricating oils; and lubrication by solids. The relationships among friction, wear, and lubrication are examined. The mechanical properties and the factors that govern the properties and behavior of the lubricant and the surface being lubricated are emphasized.

Dorinson, A.; Ledema, K.C.

1985-01-01

142

Consider synthetic lubricants for process machinery  

SciTech Connect

Judicious application of properly formulated synthetic lubricants can benefit a wide spectrum of process machinery. This informed usage is very likely to drive down overall maintenance and downtime expenditures and can markedly improve plant efficiency. The paper describes the origin of synthetic lubricants, then explains the principal features and attributes of the six base fluids: synthetic hydrocarbon fluids; organic esters; polyglycols; phosphate esters; silicones; and blends of the synthetic lubricants. The paper discusses the properties and advantages and gives brief highlights of successful case histories of the use of synthetic lubricants. These include: circulating oil system for furnace air preheaters; Right angle gear drives for fin fan coolers; plant-wide oil mist systems; and pulverizing mills in coal-fired generating plant. In the last case, an economic analysis is done to point out the savings possible in lubricant consumption cost, reduced maintenance cost, lubricant disposal cost, and reduction in power consumption.

Bloch, H.P. (Bloch, (Heinz P.), Montgomery, TX (United States)); Pate, A.R. Jr. (Summit Industrial Products, Tyler, TX (United States))

1995-01-01

143

FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

144

Effect of solid surface on the formation of thin confined lubricating film of water with micro-content of oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of confined film between two contacting surfaces is significant for evaluating the lubricating ability of liquid. A micro-content of oil in water was experimentally demonstrated to be significantly effective to the film formation of water, which was much thicker than predicted by elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. The effect of solid surface characteristics on the liquid film confined in a nanogap has been investigated. The film forming performances of such films were presented. The work of adhesion between two different phases was calculated, and the competitive wetting behaviours of water and oil on different solid surfaces were employed to understand the film formation mechanism.

Ma, Liran; Luo, Jianbin; Zhang, Chenhui

2010-09-01

145

Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

2007-10-01

146

Application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 in the biodegradation of used lubricating oil.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 using molasses as a substrate and fertilizer to enhance the biodegradation of used lubricating oil (ULO). The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria, the emulsification activity, and the biodegradation efficiency of ULO were measured. The bacterial adhesion in the hydrocarbon test was used to denote the cell surface hydrophobicity of the used bacterial species. The results indicate a strong correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity, emulsification activity, and the degree of ULO biodegradation. The maximum degradation of ULO (62 %) was observed when either 1.5 % (w/v) of biosurfactant or fertilizer was added. The results also revealed that biosurfactants alone are capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizer. The data indicate the potential for biosurfactant production by using low-cost substrate for application in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or oils. PMID:24590892

Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

2014-04-01

147

THE USE AND FATE OF LUBRICANTS, OILS, GREASES, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of the use and fate of lubricants, oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids in the iron and steel industry. Data from nine integrated steel plants and two consultants with extensive steel industry experience were used to: develop correlatio...

148

Lubrication with solids.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

1972-01-01

149

Thermo-Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Performances of Oil-Film Bearings in Large-Scale Rolling Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the loadcase of heavy load and high speed, the elastic deformation and thermal effects heavily influence the oil film properties of bearing system. Considering the variations of oil film viscosity and density with pressure and temperature, 3D thermo-hydrodynamic lubrication model of large-scale mill bearing was built. The coupling algorithm which integrated Finite Difference Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method

Jianmei Wang; Qingxue Hang

2009-01-01

150

Influence of ion-implanted Mo on the tribological behavior of iron lubricated with oil containing antiwear additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wear tests of the unimplanted and Mo ion-implanted pure iron specimens were made on an SRV fretting wear machine under lubricating condition. The lubricants were liquid paraffin with or without additives containing one or more of the active elements Cl, S, P and Zn. After wear tests, the worn surfaces of the specimens were analyzed by means of Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that Mo ion implantation had a marked effect on friction, wear and tribochemical behavior of the specimen. When the specimens were lubricated with oil containing different additives, the increase in wear resistance due to ion implantation showed different values. This is because the physical and mechanical strengthening caused by Mo ion implantation only is one factor influencing wear behavior. Another wear-effect factor will be the lubricating film which is composed of adsorbed additive and reacted products when the wear specimen is lubricated with oil containing additive. However, Mo in the specimen decreased the chemical reactivity of the specimen surface and obstructed its formation.

Yang, D. H.; Xue, Q. J.; Zhang, X. S.; Wang, H. Q.

1994-04-01

151

Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

1986-04-08

152

Experimental Studies on a Single Stage Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler Driven by Oil-Lubricated Compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because lubricating oil for moving parts is not allowed to go into the pulse tube cryocooler, Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are generally driven by oil-free compressors although oil-lubricated compressors are much cheaper and facile. Recently, it was proposed that an acoustic transparent and oil blocking diaphragm could be employed to separate the compressor and the cryocooler. Thus, the cryocooler can be driven by oil-lubricated compressors. In this paper, a pulse tube cryocooler is designed to match a crankcase compressor. Although the efficiency of the crankcase compressor is lower compared with the oil-free linear compressor, the crankcase compressor can easily work at lower frequency which results in higher efficiency for the cryocooler. So the relative high performance of the whole system can be maintained. In this system, the cryocooler delivers 28.5 W of cooling at 80 K with 680 W of electrical input power and operates at 15 Hz. The corresponding Carnot efficiency is 11.52%.

Jia, Ren; Jianying, Hu; Ercang, Luo; Xiaotao, Wang

2010-04-01

153

Variable resistance constant tension and lubrication device. [using oil-saturated leather wiper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable resistance device is described which includes a cylindrical housing having elongated resistance wires. A movable arm having a supporting block carried on the outer end is rotatably carried by the cylindrical housing. An arcuate steel spring member is pivotally supported by the movable arm. A leather wiper member is carried adjacent to one end of the spring steel member, and an electrically conductive surface is carried adjacent to the other end. The supporting block maintains the spring steel member in compression so that a constant pressure is applied to the conductive end of the spring steel member and the leather wiper. The leather wiper is saturated with a lubricating oil for maintaining the resistance wire clean as the movable arm is manipulated.

Smith, H. J. (inventor)

1974-01-01

154

High-Efficient Production of Boron Nitride Nanosheets via an Optimized Ball Milling Process for Lubrication in Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 ?m in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hait, Samik K.; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

2014-12-01

155

Low-Cost Oil Quality Sensor Based on Changes in Complex Permittivity  

PubMed Central

Real time oil quality monitoring techniques help to protect important industry assets, minimize downtime and reduce maintenance costs. The measurement of a lubricant’s complex permittivity is an effective indicator of the oil degradation process and it can be useful in condition based maintenance (CBM) to select the most adequate oil replacement maintenance schedules. A discussion of the working principles of an oil quality sensor based on a marginal oscillator to monitor the losses of the dielectric at high frequencies (>1 MHz) is presented. An electronic design procedure is covered which results in a low cost, effective and ruggedized sensor implementation suitable for use in harsh environments. PMID:22346666

Pérez, Angel Torres; Hadfield, Mark

2011-01-01

156

Elastohydrodynamic properties of blends of plant-based and petroleum-based oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant-based oils are mostly triglycerides but can also be esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are renewable and biodegradable materials, and display certain lubrication characteristics that are superior to petroleum-based products. However, for some applications, plant-based ...

157

Soybean oil based greases: influence of composition on thermo-oxidative and tribochemical behavior.  

PubMed

The biodegradable properties and lubricating ability of greases depend on both the base oil and the thickener. Mineral oils are the most widely used lubricant base fluids due to their inherent lubricity and low cost, but recent environmental awareness has forced consideration of the use of biodegradable fluids such as vegetable oils and certain synthetic fluids in grease formulations. This study presents data on the thermo-oxidation behavior and tribology of biodegradable greases formulated with soybean oil and different compositions of metal soap thickener. The composition of thickener has been varied by using fatty acids with different degrees of unsaturation and fatty acids of different chain lengths. The improvement of thermo-oxidation and tribological properties as a result of changing thickener/base oil ratio and the antioxidative effect of some suitable additives have also been evaluated. PMID:15826046

Sharma, Brajendra K; Adhvaryu, Atanu; Perez, Joseph M; Erhan, Sevim Z

2005-04-20

158

Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa  

PubMed Central

Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming. PMID:23841994

Geibel, Scott

2013-01-01

159

Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide.  

PubMed

To ascertain whether used and re-refined lubricant oil absorbed through the skin can produce a genotoxic effect or cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, we examined the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes of peripheral blood after cutaneous application. Both re-refined and used lubricant oils showed a weak but significant induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with control, while virgin oil did not show micronucleus induction. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used not only as positive control but also to compare the sensitivity between intraperitoneal and dermal routes of administration of the test compounds in mice. The efficacy of intraperitoneal injection of CP is well known. On the other hand, dermal exposure is not so common and when CP was diluted in glycerin statistically significant values (P = 0.0036) of micronuclei were also found. Topically applied lubricant oils (virgin, re-refined and used) have the capacity to interfere with mouse bone marrow hematopoiesis evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Physical and chemical analysis revealed that used oil is more viscous than other lubricants, suggesting the presence of insoluble compounds, oxidized products and water as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Used oil differs from other lubricant oils in metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Re-refined oil revealed a neutral value typical of pure mineral oil. This assay is an important tool to evaluate environmental pollutants that cause genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity through skin exposure. PMID:17985309

Oliveira-Martins, C R; Grisolia, C K

2007-01-01

160

Tribological Properties of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Systems  

E-print Network

Internal structure .............................................................................................. 43 2.7 Geometrical considerations .................................................................................... 44 2.7.1 Effect... of lubrication conditions ............................................... 72 4.4.2.1 Effect of surface topography on friction across dry (unlubricated) surface...

Kheireddin, Bassem

2013-08-02

161

Cryogenic Friction Behavior of PTFE based Solid Lubricant Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid lubricants used in aerospace applications must provide low friction and a predictable operation life over an extreme range of temperatures, environments and contact conditions. PTFE and PTFE composites have shown favorable tribological performance as solid lubricants. This study evaluates the effect of temperature on the friction coefficient of neat PTFE, a PTFE\\/PEEK composite and an expanded PTFE (ePTFE)\\/epoxy coating.

N. L. McCook; D. L. Burris; P. L. Dickrell; W. G. Sawyer

2005-01-01

162

Sputtered Silver Films to Improve Chromium Carbide Based Solid Lubricant Coatings for Use to 900°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin silver films, 25 to 350 nm thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based, solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant “base stock” with silver and barium fluoride\\/calcium flouride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the

Christopher Dellacorte; Harold E. Sliney; Daniel L. Deadmore

1988-01-01

163

Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.  

PubMed

Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations. PMID:25416127

Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

2014-12-10

164

Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

1988-01-01

165

Boundary friction in liquid and dry film biobased lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farm-based raw materials such as fats, seed oils, starches, proteins, and gums can be subjected to various degrees of processing to make them suitable for use in lubrication. The resulting biobased ingredients are then blended with each other and/or with synthetic ingredients to formulate lubricant...

166

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

167

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

168

Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

169

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

170

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

171

Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

2009-07-01

172

Oil film thickness measurement and analysis for an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. M.S. Thesis. Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capacitance method is used to estimate the oil film thickness in the Hertzian contact zone of an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. The parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime is characterized by a transient film thickness and basic speed ratio (ball spin rate over combined race speed) and the formation of a friction polymer. The experimental apparatus tests 40 mm 108 H ball bearings in the counter rotating race mode at loads of 200 and 300 lb, a film parameter of 1.6 and nominal inner and outer race speeds of 38 and 26 rps, respectively. Experimental results are presented for the capacitance, thickness, and conductance of the oil film as functions of elapsed time and for the basic speed ratios as a function of elapsed time, load, and amount of lubricant applied to the test bearing. Results indicate that a friction polymer formed from the initial lubricant has an effect on the capacitance and basic speed ratio measurements.

Hunter, Scott D.

1986-01-01

173

Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. 2: for Jet Velocities Equal to or Greater than Great Velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or greater than gear pitch line velocity. Equations were developed for minimum and maximum oil jet impingement depth. The analysis also included the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the gear or pinion and the optimum oil jet velocity required to obtain the best lubrication condition of maximum impingement depth and gear cooling. It was shown that the optimum oil jet velocity for best lubrication and cooling is when the oil jet velocity equals the gear pitch line velocity. When the oil jet velocity is slightly greater than the pitch line velocity the loaded side of the driven gear and the unloaded side of the pinion receive the best lubrication and cooling with slightly less impingement depth. As the jet velocity becomes much greater than the pitch line velocity the impingement depth is considerably reduced and may completely miss the pinion.

Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

1982-01-01

174

Lubricating compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a lubricating oil additive prepared by the process comprising: (A) in a first stage reacting at about 140°⁻¹⁸°sup 0\\/C. a mixture comprising 100 parts by weight of at least one aliphatic olefinically unsaturated hydrocarbon containing from about 8 to 36 carbon atoms and about 1 to 160 parts by weight of at least one fatty acid ester

Lam

1987-01-01

175

40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...according to § 1065.530(a)(1). (c) Lubricating oil. Use lubricating oils specified in § 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified mixture of fuel and lubricating oil, mix the lubricating oil with the fuel according to...

2010-07-01

176

Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. I: For Jet Velocity Less than or Equal to Gear Velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or less than pitch line velocity. The analysis includes the case for the oil jet offset from the pitch point in the direction of the pinion and where the oil jet is inclined to intersect the common pitch point. Equations were developed for the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the pinion or gear and the optimum oil jet velocity to obtain the maximum impingement depth.

Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

1982-01-01

177

Processing and Formulation of Lithium Lubricating Greases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects that soap concentration, base oil viscosity and additives exert on the rheology of lubricating greases have been studied. Also, changes in both microstructure and rheology of lithium lubricating greases during their manufacturing process have been evaluated. With this aim, different lithium lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate, base oil viscosity and processing conditions or using different polymeric additives. The manufacturing process was followed through the mixing rheometry technique by measuring the evolution of torque with processing time, and samples of incipient and finished greases were taken from the stirred tank at different processing times. Rheological (small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS)) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observations were carried out on each sample. The experimental results obtained demonstrate that the values of the linear viscoelasticity functions and the mechanical behaviour of lubricating grease strongly depend on the processing variables and grease composition. Also, it has been found that the structural skeleton (size and shape of the disperse phase particles) is highly influenced by the base oil viscosity. These results have been explained taking into account the balance between the solvency of the thickener in the base oil and the level of entanglements formed by soap fibres, which influence the lubricating grease network.

Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Moreno, G.; Gallegos, C.

2006-05-01

178

Analysis of quality of aviation lubricating oils by means of liquid and gas-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the basic methodological aspects of chromatographic analysis of the quality of oils for aircraft gas turbine engines, and certain relationships in oil aging that have been established on this basis. A commercial ester (designated PEE) was selected for investigation of pentaerythritol and C/sub 5/-C/sub 9/ synthetic fatty acids (SFA) which serves as the synthetic base stock for a number of aviation oils. The changes in PEE composition upon oxidation, with or without additives, were evaluated by means of gas-liquid chromatography in a Tsvet-100 chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. The results from examination of the original and oxidized PEE samples by means of gas and liquid chromatography are presented.

Kholostova, G.G.; Bakunin, V.N.; Shimonaev, G.S.

1987-01-01

179

Positive lubrication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

1990-01-01

180

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01

181

Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system.  

PubMed

The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an "oil in water" microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil. The sonication and repetitive change of the flowing direction improved the stability of the different emulsion types (oil in water, water in oil and microemulsion). The emulsified zone was pumped to fill the sampling arm of the spectrometer with a sub-sample of 200mul. Then, 10mul of this sample solution were introduced by means of air displacement in the graphite tube atomizer. This sequence was timed to synchronize with the previous introduction of 15mug of Mg(NO(3))(2) (in a 10mul) by the spectrometer autosampler. The entire SIA system was controlled by a computer, independent of the spectrometer. The furnace program was carried out by employing a heating cycle in four steps: drying (two steps at 110 and 130 degrees C), pyrolisis (at 1500 degrees C), atomization (at 2400 degrees C) and cleaning (at 2400 degrees C). The calibration graph was linear from 7.7 to 120mugAll(-1). The characteristic mass (mo) was 33.2pg/0.0044s and the detection limit was 2.3mugAll(-1). The relative standard (RSD) of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of different lubricating oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 1.7%, and the recovery values found in the analysis of spiked samples ranged from 97.2 to 100.4%. The agreement between the observed and reference values obtained from two NIST Standard Certified Materials was good. The method was simple and satisfactory for determining aluminum in new and used lubricating oils. PMID:18970302

Burguera, José L; Burguera, Marcela; Antón, Raquel E; Salager, Jean-Louis; Arandia, María A; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo

2005-12-15

182

Effect of Seawater on the Fatigue Life and Failure Distribution of Flood-Lubricated Angular Contact Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductions in rolling contact fatigue life as high as 80 percent were observed during flood-lubricated angular-contact ball bearing studies when 1 percent by volume of seawater was added to various lubricants as a contaminant. The lubricants investigated were of different chemical and physical classes and included mineral oils, triaryl phosphate, and two recently developed mineral-oil-base sea-water-emulsifying hydraulic fluids of different

I. M. Felsen; R. W. McQuaid; J. A. Marzani

1972-01-01

183

Spectrophotometric flow-injection analysis of the total base number in lubricants by using acid–base buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric FIA method for the determination of the total base number (TBN) in a lubricant was proposed, which involved using an acid–base buffer solution prepared with a nonaqueous solvent. This method is based on measurements of the absorbance change of an indicator contained in the acid–base buffer solution, which is generated due to a neutralization reaction of base in

Keiko Jyonosono; Toshihiko Imato; Noriyuki Imazumi; Masayuki Nakanishi; Jun-ichi Yagi

2001-01-01

184

The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt% NiCr binder, 20 wt% Cr2O3 hardener, and 10 wt% each Ag, and BaF2/CaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc foil bearing. The test load was 10 KPa (1.5 psi) and the bearings were run under start/stop cyclic conditions. The data show good wear performance of the bearing, especially at temperatures above 25 deg. C. Bearing friction was moderate (micron approx. or equal to 0.4) over the entire temperature range. Based upon the results obtained, the PS304 coating has promise for high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

DellaCorte, Chris

1998-01-01

185

Enhanced response of psoriasis to UVB therapy after pretreatment with a lubricating base. A single-blind controlled study.  

PubMed

Forty-three out-patients with stable plaque-type psoriasis involving 10-30% of the skin participated in a single-blind controlled study. The psoriasis lesions on one half of the body were treated with a lubricating base of the oil-in-water type before UVB exposure, while those on the other side of the body received UVB only. The rates of improvement of scaling, infiltration and erythema were compared in 127 symmetrical pairs of psoriasis plaques. The scores for the three variables were then summed to yield a total score for the effect of treatment. After only 2 weeks of treatment and throughout the treatment period the rate of improvement in the total score was significantly (p less than 0.001) accelerated on the body half treated with the emollient compared with the control side. Pretreatment with a suitable lubricating base can thus result in shorter treatment periods, which means that the surrounding skin will be exposed to smaller doses of UVB, with a diminished risk of actinic damage. PMID:1981418

Berne, B; Blom, I; Spångberg, S

1990-01-01

186

Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

Ku, P. M. (editor)

1973-01-01

187

Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

1992-01-01

188

PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec(®) cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 - 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine. PMID:22670159

Xin, H; Shepherd, Det; Dearn, Kd

2012-01-01

189

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

190

Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P.L. Dickrell and W.G. Sawyer*  

E-print Network

Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Received 13 April 2005; accepted 24 July 2005 Solid lubricants used in aerospace as solid lubricants. This study evaluates the effect of temperature on the friction coefficient of neat

Sawyer, Wallace

191

One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

192

Mechanics of a gaseous film barrier to lubricant wetting of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two analytical models, one based on simple hydrodynamic lubrication and the other on soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication, are presented and compared to delineate the dominant physical parameters that govern the mechanics of a gaseous film between a small droplet of lubricant and the outer race of a ball bearing. Both models are based on the balance of gravity forces, air drag forces, and air film lubrication forces and incorporate a drag coefficient C sub D and a lubrication coefficient C sub L to be determined from experiment. The soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model considers the effects of droplet deformation and solid-surface geometry; the simpler hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) model assumes that the droplet remains essentially spherical. The droplet's angular position depended primarily on the ratio of gas inertia to droplet gravity forces and on the gas Reynolds number and weakly on the ratio of droplet gravity forces to surface tension forces (Bond number) and geometric ratios for the soft EHL. An experimental configuration in which an oil droplet is supported by an air film on the rotating outer race of a ball bearing within a pressure-controlled chamber produced measurements of droplet angular position as a function of outer-race velocity droplet size and type, and chamber pressure.

Prahl, J. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

1985-01-01

193

BIODIESEL AND THE ISSUE OF DIESEL FUEL LUBRICITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advent of (ultra-)low sulfur diesel fuels based on petroleum has caused changes in the properties of these fuels. One of the major changes is the loss of previously inherent lubricity. Biodiesel, a diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or used frying oils, is miscible with petr...

194

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into ‘low’-, 30–120°C,\\u000a and ‘high’-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages – induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching\\u000a and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are\\u000a related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage

G. Aguilar; G. Mazzamaro; M. Rasberger

2010-01-01

195

In-situ, On-demand Lubrication System for Space Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of today's spacecraft have long mission lifetimes. Whatever the lubrication method selected, the initial lubricant charge is required to last the entire mission. Fluid lubricant losses are mainly due to evaporation, tribo-degradation, and oil creep out of the tribological regions. In the past, several techniques were developed to maintain the appropriate amount of oil in the system. They were based on oil reservoirs (cartridges, impregnated porous parts), barrier films, and labyrinth seals. Nevertheless, all these systems have had limited success or have not established a proven record for space missions. The system reported here provides to the ball-race contact fresh lubricant in-situ and on demand. The lubricant is stored in a porous cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing. The oil is released by heating the cartridge to eject oil, taking advantage of the greater thermal expansion of the oil compared to the porous network. The heating may be activated by torque increases that signal the depletion of oil in the contact. The low surface tension of the oil compared to the ball bearing material is utilized and the close proximity of the cartridge to the moving balls allows the lubricant to reach the ball-race contacts. This oil resupply system can be used to avoid a mechanism failure or reduce torque to an acceptable level and extend the life of the component.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

2002-01-01

196

USE OF SOYBEAN OIL IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean oil has a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerides a...

197

Some Environmental Factors Affecting Surface Coating Formation with Lubricating Oil Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic friction and static immersion tests in which oil temperature was varied and dynamic friction tests in which load was varied have been run on steel balls with oil blends containing seven commercial additives. Analyses of the ball surfaces by X-ray fluorescence have shown that significant surface coating formation is initiated at calculated surface temperatures of from 250 to 350

Fred G. Rounds

1966-01-01

198

Slow Speed Wear of Steel Surfaces Lubricated by Thin Oil Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time rates of wear and distance rates of wear are presented as a function of calculated oil film thickness between two cylindrical steel rollers loaded to a maximum Hertz contact stress of 300,000 psi. Wear is divided into a constant wear mode and a transient wear mode depending on the oil film thickness. A negative slope of the curve representing

Ernest W. Landen

1968-01-01

199

An investigation of lubrication mechanisms and material removal of an alloy steel in sliding lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sliding tribological performance of an alloy steel was evaluated in the presence of lubricating oil on contact surfaces using a pin-on-disc wear machine. Based on test results and observation, a progressive wear model is given, in which the contact surfaces undergo three major stages. In the first stage, a contact surface was polished by predominant wear mechanisms of mild abrasive

2002-01-01

200

Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.  

PubMed

This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of chlorine in the lubricant and that emissions did not change in response to a much greater step change in the total chlorine entering the combustion chamber due to a change in the level of chlorine in the fuel. Emissions when the engine was configured with a diesel oxidation catalyst showed a consistent pattern that appears to be unique in the experience of the authors. PMID:17254630

Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

2007-04-01

201

[Combined action on the body of a mixture of the volatile products of lubricating oil thermal oxidative breakdown and of hypoxic hypoxia].  

PubMed

The experiments on white male mice have shown that the combined effect of different concentrations of mixtures of volatile products of thermooxidative decomposition of the lubricating oil 36/IKUA and hypoxia at altitudes 5,000; 7,000 and 8,000 m depends on the intensity of the combined factors. It is indicated that maximally allowable concentrations of the above mixtures in the space cabin atmosphere should be determined, taking into consideration the level of hypoxia. PMID:642425

Kustov, V V; Litau, V G

1978-01-01

202

Synthesis of BioDiesel and Bio-Lubricant by Transesterification of Vegetable Oil with Lower and Higher Alcohols Over Heteropolyacids Supported by Clay (K-10)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of different lower and higher alcohols viz; methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-octanol, for the synthesis of methyl, ethyl, propyl and octyl fatty acid esters by transesterification of vegetable oil (triglycerides) with respective alcohols also known as ‘Bio-diesel’ and ‘Bio-lubricants’ was studied in detail. The reactions were carried out in a batch process. The activity with different supports like

V. V. Bokade; G. D. Yadav

2007-01-01

203

Palm oil methyl esters as lubricant additive in a small diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysian crude palm oil has been successfully converted to methyl esters, also known as palm oil diesel (POD), which is readily\\u000a combustible in diesel engines. This paper presents and discusses the results of current studies on the performance and the\\u000a effects of POD on the wear characteristics of tribological components of a small, four-stroke diesel engine. Adding POD to\\u000a commercial

H. H. Masjuki; S. M. Sapuan

1995-01-01

204

Study on Detection of Pressure, Flow and Temperature in Distributed Lubrication System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dedicated lubricating system is used to supply lubricants for large equipments in metallurgical industry. The traditional lubrication system easily leads to lubrication failure for unreasonable design and poor management. A new lubrication system adopting distributed architecture is introduced in this paper. In distributed lubrication system, parameters of oil pressure, flow and temperature are detected to ensure reliable and accurate

Su Bo; Wang Li

2010-01-01

205

Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

Mcmurtrey, E. L.

1985-01-01

206

Dynamic characterization of viscoelastic polymer solutions in a lubricated cylinder - Plate apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization of several viscoelastic lubricants which are oil or water based has been studied in an apparatus consisting of a lubricated cylinder-plate contact. The friction loads were measured as a function of speed. The experimental results show the influence of the molecular weight and of the concentration of the polymeric additive as well as the influence of the viscosity of the oil-base on the load and friction coefficient. Also a test for mechanical degradation was performed on the polymer solutions. Several additives can favor a viscoelastic lubrication.

Doremus, P.; Piau, J. M.; Altman, R. L.

1987-01-01

207

Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

Kinard, J. T.

1975-01-01

208

Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has been adopted by DFEM in design process of thrust-ring-pump and it shown that can effectively improve and guarantee the performance of the oil circulating and cooling system.

Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

2014-12-01

209

Transient Shear Flow of Model Lithium Lubricating Greases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behaviour of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of lithium grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying lithium 12-hydroxystearate concentration and base oil viscosity. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. Moreover, an asymptotic tendency has been found for the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of this parameter have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

2008-07-01

210

Lubricant Rheology in Concentrated Contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant behavior in highly stressed situtations shows that a Newtonian model for lubricant rheology is insufficient for explanation of traction behavior. The oil film build up is predicted by using a Newtonian lubricant model except at high slide to roll ratios and at very high loads, where the nonNewtonian behavior starts to be important already outside the Hertzian contact area. Static and dynamic experiments are reported. In static experiments the pressure is applied to the lubricant more than a million times longer than in an EHD contact. Depending on the pressure-temperature history of the experiment the lubricant will become a crystallized or amorphous solid at high pressures. In dynamic experiments, the oil is in an amorphous solid state. Depending on the viscosity, time scale, elasticity of the oil and the bearing surfaces, the oil film pressure, shear strain rate and the type of lubricant, different properties of the oil are important for prediction of shear stresses in the oil. The different proposed models for the lubricant, which describe it to a Newtonian liquid, an elastic liquid, a plastic liquid and an elastic-plastic solid.

Jacobson, B. O.

1984-01-01

211

ADDITIVE-ADDITIVE INTERACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OIL: THE SEARCH FOR SYNERGISTIC ANTIOXIDANT USING PDSC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants based on mineral oils render unfavorable impact on the environment. Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and b...

212

Industrial Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

Kajdas, C.; Karpi?ska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

213

Investigation of long-term engine oil performance using lab-based artificial ageing illustrated by the impact of ethanol as fuel component  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol and its combustion products on the lubrication system is not very well understood. In this paper, a novel lab-based artificial ageing method for the evaluation of engine oils for bio-fuelled automotives and the results thereof are presented. Artificial ageing of three fully formulated engine oils with addition of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid was carried out.

Charlotte Besser; Christoph Schneidhofer; Nicole Dörr; Franz Novotny-Farkas; Günter Allmaier

214

Industrial Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ‘Industrial lubricant’ gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used\\u000a combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing\\u000a film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications\\u000a are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are

C. Kajdas; A. Karpinska; A. Kulczycki

2010-01-01

215

Lubricant Replenishment in Rolling Bearing Contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that starved lubricated contacts in rolling element bearings are replenished by side flow. The rolling elements partly push the lubricant to the side of the contacts after which the re-flow will provide fresh lubricant for the next rolling element. This re-flow is driven by surface tension and restricted by the viscosity. Hence, thick oils or greases

Leonid Gershuni; Mats G. Larson; Piet M. Lugt

2008-01-01

216

SYNTHESIS OF BIODEGRADABLE LUBRICANTS FROM TALLOW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumers today are demanding more from their automobile lubricants then ever before. The use of renewable lubricants can meet these demands and at the same time lessen the demand for foreign oil. These new functional fluids, estolides, have shown great promise as a biodegradable lubricant. Estol...

217

Synthesis of YPO 4 Nanoparticals vis Microemulsion Method and Its Friction Properties of Lubricating Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Yttrium phosphate nanoparticles are preparedby precipitation in reverse microemulsions which used the cyclohexane as oil phase,\\u000a the Txiton X-100, CTAB, 1-Pentanol as surfactant and cosurfactant phase, and an aqueous Y(NO3)3 and Na3PO4 solution as the water phase. YPO4 particles obtained by file classical microemulsion method are found to be monodisperse amorphous spheres with the diameter\\u000a of about 40 ran. Transmission

Limin Zhao; Xin Shao; Yibin Yin; Wenzhi Li

218

Status and New Directions for Solid Lubricant Coatings and Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At one time, solid lubricants were used almost entirely in aerospace applications. Today there is a pronounced trend to use them over a much broader range of applications. For example, self-lubricating polymer-based composites have displaced traditional oil-lubricated, metallic composites for many journal bearings and thrust washers in applications as diverse as earth-moving machinery and snow blowers to aircraft applications. For moderate temperatures below 200 C, glass filament-wound epoxy bearings with PTFE lubricating liners are usefl; for temperatures up to 350 C, graphite fiber reinforced polyimide bearing materials are finding applications. Advanced technology engines have severe lubrication and wear problems at temperatures beyond the capabilities of any of these lubricants. Here, self-lubricating ceramics and inorganic composites for use at 1000 C or higher are of interest. However, perhaps the most significant new direction for solid lubricant coatings and self-lubricating composites is their steadily increasing use in dry bearings for large volume, moderate temperature applications. This can be attributed to their simplicity of use (no supporting lubricant system needed), light weight, convenience, and general cost effectiveness.

Sliney, H. E.

1984-01-01

219

KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

1973-01-01

220

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

2012-02-28

221

Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760 C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant additives acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1987-01-01

222

Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

1972-01-01

223

Composition Optimization of Self-Lubricating Chromium-Carbide-Based Composite Coatings for Use to 760°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the “base stock” because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. “Additives” were silver and barium fluoride\\/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base

Chris Della Corte; Harold E. Sliney

1987-01-01

224

A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

2006-11-01

225

Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

2013-07-01

226

Lubrication and thermal characteristics of mechanical seal with porous surface based on cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LST-MS) was established. The liquid film of LST-MS was simulated by the Fluent software, using full cavitation model and non-cavitation model separately. Dynamic mesh technique and relationship between viscosity and temperature were applied to simulate the internal flow field and heat characteristics of LST-MS, based on the more accurate cavitation model. Influence of porous depth ratio porous diameter ? and porous density SP on lubrication performance and the variation of lubrication and thermal properties with shaft speed and sealing pressure were analyzed. The results indicate that the strongest hydrodynamic pressure effect and the biggest thickness of liquid film are obtained when ? and SP are respectively about 0.025 and 0.5 which were thought to be the optimum value. The frictional heat leads to the increase of liquid film temperature and the decrease of medium viscosity with the shaft speed increasing. The hydrodynamic pressure effect increases as shaft speed increasing, however it decreases as the impact of frictional heat.

Huilong, Chen; Muzi, Zuo; Tong, Liu; Yu, Wang; Cheng, Xu; Qiangbo, Wu

2014-04-01

227

Shearing stability of lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

1984-01-01

228

Synthesis, Characterization and Adaptability of Carbon Nanotube-Based Solid Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the experimental investigations of the tribological properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) based composites. Two different CNT composites were obtained by electro-depositing molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and silver (Ag) on vertically aligned assemblies of CNTs. Both of the CNT based composites, CNT-MoS2, as well as CNT-Ag, showed substantially lower values of friction coefficients and wear rates than traditional thin films of MoS2, and Ag. The adaptabilities of these composites under humid and non-humid conditions for CNT-MoS2, and high temperature cycling in the case of CNT-Ag composites, were also tested and will be presented. Our results indicate that the CNT-MoS2 composites were able to sustain their lubricating properties under humid/non-humid cycling, whereas the CNT-Ag composites showed degradation of their frictional properties under high temperature cycling.

Church, Amelia; Zhang, Xianfeng; Luster, Brandon; Kholi, Punit; Aoaudi, Samir; Talapatra, Saikat

2010-03-01

229

Solid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

Sliney, Harold E.

1991-01-01

230

Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

2014-10-01

231

STARCH-OIL INTERACTION IN DRY FILM LUBRICANTS WITH CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch is one of the most abundant farm-based raw materials. It is a significant component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, rice, wheat, and barley. Because of the large surplus of these crops over demand, there is a great deal of interest in developing new uses for starch-base...

232

Lubricants in conveyor applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper looks at four critical lubricants used in the conveyor systems of the northern Albertan oil sand facility. The requirements for the lubricants used in the electric motors and gear boxes of the drive systems, the pulley bearings and the idler bearings are discussed in terms of the application and the environment. A number of developments that have occurred in recent years are presented. Data from the field and from custom designed testing in the laboratory are used to support the role of simulation testing in problem solving in this area of technology. 9 refs., 21 figs.

Paton, C.G.; Bland, S.B.; Melley, R.E. [Edmonton Research Center, Alberta (Canada)

1995-01-01

233

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01

234

Effect of die wall lubrication on warm compaction powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die wall lubrication was applied on warm compaction powder metallurgy in the hope to reduce the concentration level of the admixed lubricant, since lubricant is harmful to the mechanical properties of the sintered material. Iron-based samples were prepared by die wall lubricated warm compaction at 135 and 175°C, using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) emulsion as the die wall lubricant. Compacting pressures of

Y. Y Li; T. L Ngai; D. T Zhang; Y Long; W Xia

2002-01-01

235

Evaluation of new cold forging lubricants without zinc phosphate precoat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc phosphate coatings plus metal soap lubrication system is required in nearly all steel cold forging operations. However, the chemical byproducts of this lubricant system are difficult to dispose of and have a negative environmental impact. In order to replace zinc phosphate based lubricants partially or completely, candidate lubricants were sought from lubricant manufacturers worldwide. The performance evaluation of these

Mark Gariety; Gracious Ngaile; Taylan Altan

2007-01-01

236

The Prediction of Contact Pressure–Induced Film Thickness Decay in Starved Lubricated Rolling Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under starved conditions the thickness and distribution of the lubricant film in an elastohydrodynamically lubricated (EHL) contact is directly related to the distribution of lubricant on the track in the inlet to the contact. In starved lubricated rolling bearings this lubricant distribution is determined by many effects. The authors have developed a model to predict the oil lost from the

M. T. Van Zoelen; C. H. Venner; P. M. Lugt

2010-01-01

237

Poly p -phenyl sulfide as the material for oil-lubricated sliding bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribological analysis of two different poly-p-phenyl sulfides, with melt viscosity differing more than twofold, is performed. The tribological properties of the poly-p-phenyl sulfides are compared with those of the composites based on minced carbofibers with 0.5% of fullerene C60 by mass added into the matrix of the composites. In interpreting the tribological dependences it is especially noteworthy\\u000a that the load-bearing

B. M. Ginzburg; D. G. Tochil’nikov; A. I. Lyashkov; V. K. Lavrent’ev; A. M. Leksovskii; A. O. Pozdnyakov; O. F. Pozdnyakov; T. E. Sukhanova; A. A. Shepelevskii

2010-01-01

238

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

2013-10-31

239

Tribological composition optimization of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the tribilogically optimum composition of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings using a foil gas bearing test apparatus is described. The coatings contain a wear resistant chromium carbide `base stock' with the lubricant additives silver and BaF2-CaF2 eutectic. The coating composition is optimized for air-lubricated foil gas bearings at temperatures ranging from 25 to 650 C. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized Ni-Cr alloy foils, and the test bearings were subjected to repeated start-stop cycles under a bearing unit of 14 kPa. Sliding contact between the coated journal and the smooth foil occurs during bearing start-up before lift-off or hydrodynamic lubrication by the air film and during bearing coast-down. The bearings were tested for 9000 start-stop cycles or until specimen reached a predetermined failure level.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1988-01-01

240

Study of alternative lubricants to the cold extrusion of steel shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal of this work is to develop an alternative lubrication process to the cold extrusion associated to lubricants which are less pollutant and present similar results in terms of extrusion load and product quality. Four lubricants were analyzed (a mineral oil, a semi-synthetic oil, powder soap and wheat flour) and two lubrication methods were applied (immersion and hydrostatic). Statistical

Celio Caminaga; Frederico Ozanan Neves; Fernando César Gentile; Sérgio Tonini Button

2007-01-01

241

Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s?¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol?¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-01-01

242

Effect of Vaginal Lubricants on Natural Fertility  

PubMed Central

Objective Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants have been shown to negatively affect in vitro sperm motility. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of vaginal lubricant use during procreative intercourse on natural fertility. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months completed a baseline questionnaire on vaginal lubricant use. Subsequently, women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding, intercourse, and vaginal lubricant use and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Diary data were used to determine the fertile window and delineate lubricant use during the fertile window. A proportional hazards model was used to estimate fecundability ratios with any lubricant use in the fertile window considered as a time-varying exposure. Results Of the 296 participants, 75 (25%) stated in their baseline questionnaire that they use vaginal lubricants while attempting to conceive. Based on daily diary data, 57% of women never used a lubricant, 29% occasionally used a lubricant, and 14% used a lubricant frequently. Women who used lubricants during the fertile window had similar fecundability to those women who did not use lubricants (fecundability ratio 1.05, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.85) after adjusting for age, partner race, and intercourse frequency in the fertile window. Conclusion Lubricants are commonly used by couples during procreative intercourse. Lubricant use during procreative intercourse does not appear to reduce the probability of conceiving. PMID:22914390

Steiner, Anne Z.; Long, D. Leann; Tanner, Catherine; Herring, Amy H.

2012-01-01

243

Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils  

E-print Network

of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

Mandelis, Andreas

244

New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoSx) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoSx coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoSx coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoSx based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoSx coating (2) MoSx layer on hard coating and (3) MoSx addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoSx based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

Haider, Julfikar; Hashmi, M. S. J.

2011-01-01

245

New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications  

SciTech Connect

In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

Haider, Julfikar [School of CEIS, Ellison Building, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of MME, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland)

2011-01-17

246

The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt. % NiCr binder, 20 wt. % Cr203 hardener, and 10 wt. % each Ag and BaF2ICaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc

Chris Dellacorte

2000-01-01

247

VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

248

Lubricity studies with biodiesel and related compounds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, possesses excellent lubricity. This feature has rendered biodiesel of special interest for blending with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels with poor lubricity. However, some minor components, mainly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, of ...

249

Boron nitride as a lubricant additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has a graphite-like lamellar structure, but has been considered less effective than other solid lubricants except for high-temperature applications. The present paper describes a series of sliding experiments which show somewhat curious behavior of BN when added to lubricating oil, and discusses their results by comparing with the results of observation and analysis of sliding surfaces.

Yoshitsugu Kimura; Toshiaki Wakabayashi; Kazumi Okada; Tetsuya Wada; Hiroshi Nishikawa

1999-01-01

250

Phosphate based oil well cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

Natarajan, Ramkumar

251

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts with pure spin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a lubricated, non-conformal conjunction piezoviscous effects associated with the lubricant and elastic distortion of the bounding surfaces can have a significant influence upon the generation of the lubricant film and consequently upon the oil pressure distribution. In many widely studied cases which have been concerned with surface motions of rolling\\/sliding, it has been shown that these effects enhance the

D. Dowson; C. M. Taylor; H. Xu

1993-01-01

252

Computational Chemistry and Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

Zehe, Michael J.

1998-01-01

253

Ionic liquid lubricants: designed chemistry for engineering applications.  

PubMed

This tutorial review outlines current state of the art research on ionic liquid lubricants. Ionic liquids (ILs) were first reported as very promising high-performance lubricants in 2001 and have attracted considerable attention in the field of tribology since then because of their remarkable lubrication and anti-wear capabilities as compared with lubrication oils in general use; in recent times we have seen dramatically increased interest in the topic. The review starts with a brief introduction to ILs and fluid lubrication, and then discusses in more detail the tribological properties of IL lubricants, either as lubrication oils, additives or thin films. As well as lubrication mechanisms, some current problems and potential solutions are tentatively discussed. PMID:19690739

Zhou, Feng; Liang, Yongmin; Liu, Weimin

2009-09-01

254

Boron-based Additives in Oil and Grease for Wind Turbine Applications  

E-print Network

This research investigates the tribological performance of crystalline and amorphous powders of boron as additives in lubricants: grease and mineral oil for potential applications of wind turbine. This research is focused on the wear resistance...

Kim, Jun-Hyeok

2013-06-25

255

Hydrodynamic journal bearings: Capacity, wear, and lubrication. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Bearing load, lubrication, thermal effects, tolerance to misalignment, cavitation, and design are discussed. Studies on the effect of temperature and heat transfer on hydrodynamic films are presented. The impact of surface roughness on hydrodynamic journal bearing performance is also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

256

7 CFR 2902.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2011-01-01

257

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2014-01-01

258

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2013-01-01

259

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2012-01-01

260

Oil film thickness measurement in the middle main bearing of a six-cylinder supercharged 9 litre diesel engine using capacitive transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for monitoring oil film thickness based on a capacitive measurement technique has been adapted to measure hydrodynamic lubricating oil film thicknesses in the middle main bearing of a heavy-duty diesel engine. Transducers have been developed to suit the extreme conditions in the bearing, with very high and varying pressures created by the lubricating film. Measurements of the film

Kenneth Irani; Mats Pekkari; Hans-Erik Ångström

1997-01-01

261

Bonded Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

1977-01-01

262

Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula based on X-ray measurements with a synthetic paraffinic oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula for heavily loaded contacts based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with a synthetic paraffinic oil is presented. The deduced relation was found to adequately reflect the high load dependence exhibited by the measured minimum film thickness data at high Hertizian contact stresses, that is, above 1.04 x 10 to the ninth N/sq m (150,000 psi). Comparisons were made with the numerical results from a theoretical isothermal film thickness formula. The effects of changes in contact geometry, material, and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

263

Analytical approach to wear rate determination for internal combustion engine condition monitoring based on oil analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wear has important, negative effects on the functioning of engine parts. Additionally, this situation is very difficult to evaluate accurately in oil analysis for engine condition monitoring. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), lubricant suppliers and oil analysis laboratories provide specific guidelines for wear metal concentrations. These limits provide good general guidelines for interpreting oil analysis data, but do not take into

V. Macián; B. Tormos; P. Olmeda; L. Montoro

2003-01-01

264

New Vapor/Mist Phase Lubricant Formulated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet the increased thermal stresses of future advanced aircraft engines, new lubricants will have to be developed to replace the currently used ester-based liquid lubricants. If a suitable conventional replacement cannot be found, a different lubrication method will have to be used. The conventional method circulates bulk lubricant (stored in a sump) through a lubricating system containing cooling and filtering elements. Solid lubricants have been studied as a replacement for bulk liquid lubricants, and have been found to provide reasonable lubrication for lightly loaded systems. Solid lubricants, however, have proved inadequate for highly loaded, high-speed applications. Vapor/mist phase lubrication (VMPL), on the other hand, may be a viable alternative. VMPL has been used successfully to lubricate high-temperature bearings or gears. It can be used as an emergency backup system or as the primary source of lubrication. With VMPL, minimal weight is added to the system and minimal debris is formed. It works over a wide temperature range.

Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

1999-01-01

265

Long-term lubrication of ceramics at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Use of high-performance ceramics as sliding components in engines can significantly increase fuel efficiency. However, a major problem that needs to be solved is the lubrication of ceramics at high temperatures. To study high-temperature lubrication of ceramics, an instrumented high-temperature-wear testing machine was designed and constructed. Unlubricated room temperature and high-temperature wear tests of aluminum oxide sliding against aluminum oxide showed very high wear rates, unsuitable for any long-term sliding applications. Based on wear tests conducted at room temperature with aluminum oxide against aluminum oxide using oil and sputter-deposited films of graphite of the thickness 200{Angstrom}, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) The friction mechanism in alumina with good surface finish at room temperature is adhesion, and (b) Significant reduction in friction and wear can be obtained without extraction of wear debris. (c) The dominant mechanism of wear in alumina at room temperature must be a combination of adhesion and brittle fracture. For high-temperature lubrication of alumina parts, a method of depositing solid lubricants or solid-lubricant mixtures of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, and Ag using colloidal suspensions was developed.

Lee, K.Y.

1988-01-01

266

Synthetic metallic dialkydithiocarbamates as antiwear and extreme-pressure additives for lubricating oils: Role of metal on their effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Dialkydithiocarbamates of five metals have been synthesized in pure form by following a simple general method. The alkyl chain in each of these compounds has been kept the same so as to observe the performance variations due to metal ions. The EP properties expressed as load wear index and weld load indicated the highest performance by Bi followed by Pb, Sb, Zn and Mo. The antiwear properties in terms of wear scar diameter, relative anti-wear effectiveness and mean average wear scar diameter show a performance order of Bi > Pb > Sb > Zn > Mo. The large ionic radius metals (Bi, Pb & Sb) had the best overall load-carrying performance and their effectiveness increased substantially when the additive concentration was more than 0.004 gm atom/Kg. The results suggest that Bi has good potential to replace toxic Pb and Sb from existing lubrication systems. 18 refs., 7 refs., 1 tab.

Tuli, D.K.; Sarin, R.; Gupta, A.K. [Indian Oil Corporation, Faridabad (India)] [and others

1995-04-01

267

Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

2005-01-01

268

Graphene-ionic liquid based hybrid nanomaterials as novel lubricant for low friction and wear.  

PubMed

Hybrid nanomaterials offer potential scope for an increasing number of novel applications when engineered to deliver usefully functional properties. Recent advancements in the design of new material products that result from interactions among different compositions at the nanoscale and microscale has led to innovative ways to fabricate and process hybrids with altered structural physicochemical properties. An example is the development of novel "lubricants" that make use of ionic liquids (ILs) and their ability to induce exploitable molecular assemblies at the IL-graphene interface. In the present study, we report the potential of graphene-IL hybrid nanomaterials for engineering applications with a focus on "lubricant" properties to reduce frictional forces to enhance tribological performance. The present contribution outlines the wear and tribological properties (friction and lubrication) of a highly viscous IL [BMIM][I] and its comparison with its nanohybrid material counterpart. Detailed structural-microstructural investigations of the nanohybrid materials were performed using X-ray diffraction and microscopic techniques employing scanning electron (SEM), transmission electron (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) microscopies. A comparative study of the morphology of friction track and wear behavior was assessed by SEM and TEM. These characteristic properties within and outside the friction track were further correlated with physical and chemical interactions obtained by contact angle measurements and Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX). PMID:23597151

Khare, Varsha; Pham, Minh-Quan; Kumari, Nitee; Yoon, Hae-Sung; Kim, Chung-Soo; Park, Jae-Il; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

2013-05-22

269

Friction and wear behaviors of a (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of various polyols as water-based lubricating additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction and wear behaviors of (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of water or various polyol aqueous solutions were investigated with an SRV friction and wear tester in a ball-on-disc configuration. This was conducted to simulate the effect of polyols as aqueous additive in machining sialon ceramic. The morphologies of and elemental distributions in the worn surfaces

Wenguang Zhang; Weimin Liu; Laigui Yu

2000-01-01

270

Tethered Lubricants  

SciTech Connect

We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

Archer, Lynden

2010-09-15

271

Characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based resources that can cause pollution due to poor degradation. Seed oils, however, are both renewable and readily biodegradable, but have lower thermal stability and shorter shelf-life. This drawback can be overcome and yet retain the...

272

Liquid lubrication for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

1992-01-01

273

Phosphate based oil well cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement

Ramkumar Natarajan

2005-01-01

274

Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a research program to further develop and investigate chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760/sup 0/C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the ''base stock'' because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. ''Additives'' were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma-spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760/sup 0/C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant ''additives'' acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear. Several coating compositions gave good results in hydrogen, helium, and air to 760/sup 0/C.

Della Corte, C.

1987-08-01

275

A study of the properties of lubricating oil as influenced by certain chemicals when used in connection with sulfuric acid  

E-print Network

uaeaturatod lqrdxeoarboae are ooabiaed with the aoid )5) Qaeaturated kprdreearboae are yoly Iwriaods 4) iroaatio hFdroeorboao ore oal, t'oaated. 5) Soae uaetable hydxooerbaao are celdiae4" Xraa ~ the aaouat of ae14 eayloyod mrioe eith N? stook uee4 aad... ia Tahlo X ~ Tho oil ia eaoh treat uao agitate4 until all reaetieuo eeaeeCo At thie yoiat the ae14 ter+ or aiu4go uae eauao4 to eealeeoo by tb? a44ition of a ~ll aaount of uateu ~ anC roaevoC froa the eQ, hy filtratieai Tho oil uae then uaehe...

Giffen, Emmett Donald

2012-06-07

276

Comparing the Lubricity of Biofuels Obtained from Pyrolysis and Alcoholysis of Soybean Oil and their Blends with Petroleum Diesel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A diesel-like fuel was synthesized by a pyrolysis method using only an edible soybean oil as starting material (PD). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends with both high sulfur (HSD) and low sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels, and compared with blends of biodiesel (BD) w...

277

Inkjet-based deposition of polymer thin films enabled by a lubrication model incorporating nano-scale parasitics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film lubrication theory has been widely used to model multi-scale fluid phenomena. Variations of the same have also found application in fluid-based manufacturing process steps for micro- and nano-scale devices over large areas where a natural disparity in length scales exists. Here, a novel inkjet material deposition approach has been enabled by an enhanced thin film lubrication theory that accounts for nano-scale substrate parasitics. This approach includes fluid interactions with a thin flexible superstrate towards a new process called Jet and Coat of Thin-films (JCT). Numerical solutions of the model have been verified, and also validated against controlled experiments of polymer film deposition with good agreement. Understanding gleaned from the experimentally validated model has then been used to facilitate JCT process synthesis resulting in substantial reduction in the influence of parasitics and a concomitant improvement in the film thickness uniformity. Polymer films ranging from 20 to 500 nm mean thickness have been demonstrated with standard deviation of less than 2% of the mean film thickness. The JCT process offers advantages over spin coating which is not compatible with roll-to-roll processing and large area processing for displays. It also improves over techniques such as knife edge coating, slot die coating, as they are limited in the range of thicknesses of films that can be deposited without compromising uniformity.

Singhal, Shrawan; Meissl, Mario J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

2013-09-01

278

Enhanced oil recovery projects data base  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

1992-04-01

279

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium-carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 C  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H.E.

1987-01-01

280

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 deg C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1986-01-01

281

Lubrication of space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1994-01-01

282

Piston-Skirt Lubrication System For Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piston-skirt lubrication system provides steady supply of oil to piston rings of gas compressor. No need for oil-filled crankcase or external oil pump. Instead, part of each piston acts as its own oil pump circulating oil from reservoir. Annular space at bottom of piston and cylinder constitutes working volume of small oil pump. Depending on application, reservoir open to atmosphere, or sealed and pressurized in bellows to prevent contact between oil and atmosphere. Filter removes particles worn away from piston rings and cylinder wall during normal operation.

Schroeder, Edgar C.; Burzynski, Marion, Jr.

1994-01-01

283

Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

Townsend, D. P.

1985-01-01

284

New solid lubricant coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently two new coatings based on graphite and MoS2 have been developed. These combine very low friction with high hardness, very low wear and high load bearing capacity. Both coatings act as solid lubricants and provide protection for both the coated surface and any uncoated opposing surface.The development of the coatings is described briefly together with details of tribological properties

D. G. Teer

2001-01-01

285

Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

286

Methane solubility in synthetic oil-based drilling muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new drilling technologies and the reinforcement of environmental legislations require improvements of drilling fluid formulations. In particular, mineral oil-based muds have been recently replaced by low toxic or substitution oil-based muds (SBM). The molecular composition of these oils is adapted to the fluid property requirements. Very little is known on methane solubility in these oils and in

N Berthezene; J.-C de Hemptinne; A Audibert; J.-F Argillier

1999-01-01

287

Influence of Lubricant Additives on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Compressor parts under the Alternative Refrigerant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the standpoint of lubricative deficit under the alternative refrigerant/lubricants coexistence, the influence of additives on friction and wear characteristics for compressor parts have been investigated by the wear tester reappeared on friction condition similarly to actual compressor. It has been shown that an ester type base oil containing TCP (tricresyl phosphate) as an extreme pressure agents indicates satisfactory lubrication because of its EP effect. However owning to the deterioration of base oil caused by a cresol which is a reactant of TCP, a hydrolysis inhibitor must be necessary. The results indicates that a hydrolysis inhibitor added to POE is able to not only prevent the base oil from deteriorating but also feed the strength into oil films. On the other hands, in such a case that TCP concentration added in an alkylbenzen type base oil is excess or wear track temperature is higher, wear amounts of compressor parts are increased on account of corrosion wear. The reactivity of TCP depends on wear track temperature and its concentration. Consequently, it is possible that EP effect of TCP has been considered in terms of its concentration and temperature to be appropriated.

Yamaguchi, Hidehiro; Imai, Hachiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Ueki, Yutaka; Takizawa, Kikuo; Fukushima, Kiyoshi

288

Full-scale transmission testing to evaluate advanced lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500 hp helicopter transmission test stand. The testing was part of a lubrication program. The objectives are to develop and show a separate lubricant for gearboxes with improved performance in life and load carrying capacity. The goal was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 based reference oil and then to run identical tests with improved lubricants and show improved performance. The tests were directed at parts that failed due to marginal lubrication from Navy field experience. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hrs of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

1992-01-01

289

An accelerated life test model for solid lubricated bearings based on dependence analysis and proportional hazard effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid lubricated bearings are important mechanical components in space, and accelerated life tests (ALT) of them are widely conducted. ALT model is needed to give the lifetime of solid lubricated bearings with ALT data, and former accelerated life test models of solid lubricated models are mainly statistical models, while physical models can imply an understanding of the failure mechanism and are preferred whenever possible. This paper proposes a physical model, which is called copula dependent proportional hazards model. A solid lubricated bearing is considered as a system consisting of several dependent items and Clayton copula function is used to describe the dependence. Proportional hazard effect is also considered to build the model. An ALT of solid lubricated bearing is carried out and the results show that this model is effective.

Zhang, Chao; Wang, Shaoping; Bai, Guanghan

2014-02-01

290

High performance solid and liquid lubricants: An industrial guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

1987-01-01

291

Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

1993-03-01

292

Fire-retardant lubricant for turbine generators. Final report. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The use of a fire resistant fluid in steam turbine generator lubrication systems would reduce the fire risks associated with current mineral lubricating oils. This project was directed toward determining the fesibility of modifying an existing Westinghouse lubrication system to use a phosphate ester lubricating fluid. The effects of the fluid on major components of the lubrication system including oil supply system, bearings, and generator hydrogen seal system were investigated. Performance and material compatibility impact on system components are identified and modifications recommended where required. Estimates of major modification costs are presented. The results of this study indicate that, with appropriate system modifications, a phosphate ester fluid can be an effective and reliable steam turbine generator lubricant. Recommendations are presented for component verification testing.

Pankowiecki, J.

1983-01-01

293

Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate and the viscosity of the base oil, according to a RSM statistical design. Moreover, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out. The transient stress response can be successfully described by the generalized Leider-Bird model based on two exponential terms. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. The stress overshoot, ? max , depends linearly on both variables in the whole shear rate range studied, although the effect of base oil viscosity on this parameter is opposite at low and high shear rates. Special attention has been given to the first part of the stress-growth curve. In this sense, it can be deduced that the “yielding” energy density not only depends on grease composition, but also on shear rate. Moreover, an interesting asymptotic tendency has been found for both the “yielding” energy density and the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of these parameters have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

2009-03-01

294

Development of special lubricants for ball bearings operating in vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ball bearing life test program was performed to obtain data on the efficiencies of various lubricated and self-lubricating ball retainer systems for instrument bearings in a vacuum environment. The program utilized light to moderate radial loads at relatively low speeds on a NASA-GSFC designed and supplied test rig. Several systems were found which gave acceptable bearing life under the test conditions used, but the most consistent low running torques after testing resulted from oil lubrication.

1973-01-01

295

Self lubricating composites for medium temperatures in space based on polyimide SINTIMID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is surveying the results of an ESA-project on a polyimide composite named "SINTIMID". The main target was to find a self lubricating composite (SLC) which is suitable for missions to the inner solar system, where operating temperatures up to 300°C in vacuum are expected. The paper comprises a short introduction into the requirements derived from ECSS for SLC material intended for use in journal bearings working in space. It covers a brief description of new equipments for medium temperatures "vacuum tribometer" and "Journal Bearing Test rig". The presented results will cover mainly the friction and wear behaviour and component test performance. The influences of parameters like load, speed, atmosphere and temperature are discussed and compared to other already known materials, e.g. Vespel SP3. The verification procedure included three phases: a screening on several compositions with different fillers and combinations, a detailed friction test campaign on two best compositions (15M and 30M) and a final bush testing on only the best (15M=15w% MoS2). All material properties in relation to ECSS E30 were verified. No objections to the requirements were identified. Finally, a recommendation for design of bushes was set up on the results.

Merstallinger, A.; Bieringer, H.; Kubinger, E.; Gaillard, L.; Brenner, J.; Mozdzen, G.

2005-07-01

296

Analysis of Bubbly Lubrication in Journal Bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of air bubbles evenly distributed in lubricating oil on the bearing performances is analyzed theoretically. The Reynolds equation for the bubbly lubricant in a steady-state and isothermal condition is solved with an iterative numerical method. Surface tension and the radius of bubble are taken into account in the analysis. It is assumed that bubbles move along streamlines and do not split apart or coalesce. The density and the viscosity of air-oil mixture are treated as functions of oil film pressure and the volume fraction of air. Numerical results show that the load carrying capacity of a journal bearing increases as bubbles in the supplied lubricant become smaller or the surface tension is getting larger. The load carrying capacity increases as the volume fraction increases up to a critical volume fraction that gives maximum load carrying capacity. Beyond the critical volume fraction, it decreases as the volume fraction increases.

Choi, Song; Kim, Kyung Woong

297

One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum base oils in lubricant applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications, and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of the ways to address these issues is chemical modification of fatty acid chain of triglyceride. We report a one-pot synthesis of a novel class of chemically modified vegetable oils from epoxidized triacylglycerols and various anhydrides. In an anhydrous solvent, boron trifluoride etherate is used as catalyst to simultaneously open the oxirane ring and activate the anhydride. The reaction was monitored and products confirmed by NMR, FTIR, GPC, and TGA analysis. Experimental conditions were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up (up to 4 lbs). The resultant acyl derivatives of vegetable oil, having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation, have potential in formulation of industrial fluids such as hydraulic fluids, lubricants, and metal working fluids. PMID:18399638

Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z

2008-05-14

298

[Oil atomic spectrometric feature selection by Parzen window based vague sets theory].  

PubMed

Large quantity and ambiguity of oil atomic spectrometric information greatly affects the applicable efficiency and accuracy in fault diagnosis. A novel method for choosing less and effective spectrometric features is presented. Based on gearbox test bed, we simulated the normal wear state and two typical faults to acquire the lubricant samples. The three wear states are regarded as three vague sets, and spectrometric feature values are vague values on vague sets. Based on similarity between vague values, mean vague sensibility (MVS) is defined to describe the sensitive degree of spectrometric feature to wear state. Besides, the membership degrees of vague sets greatly depend on human experience. The probability density distribution of spectrometric data of three wear states was estimated with Parzen window. Combined with Bayesian formula, the range of vague sets membership was calculated. Experimental results verify that the proposed method is of efficient help in choosing high fault-sensitive features from so many spectrometric features. PMID:21510405

Xu, Chao; Zhang, Pei-Lin; Ren, Guo-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Yu-Dong

2011-02-01

299

Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1), hydrogenated coconut oil (X2), and soybean oil (X3). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90?min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3). An optimal predicted formulation with Y10?min, Y30?min, Y60?min, and Y90?min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886

Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

2013-01-01

300

Isotretinoin oil-based capsule formulation optimization.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X?), hydrogenated coconut oil (X?), and soybean oil (X?). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90?min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X?X?, X?X?, and X?X?) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X?, X?, and X?). An optimal predicted formulation with Y(10?min), Y(30?min), Y(60?min), and Y(90?min) release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X?, X?, and X? of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f? was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886

Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

2013-01-01

301

Progress in environmentally friendly lubricant development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmentally friendly lubricants comprise ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. There is a great deal of interest in such lubricants because of their potential economic, environmental, health, and safety benefits over petroleum-based prod...

302

Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

2013-05-01

303

Current problems: New similiquid lubricant for locomotive gears  

SciTech Connect

The development of a formula for a new, domestically manufactured, semiliquid lubricant is described. The lubricant is for traction gears of locomotives and motorized cars of multiple-unit trains that will ensure year-round operation. Scientific principles have been used in selecting additives and in increasing the effectiveness of the additives by means of oxygen-containing synthetic oils.

Shibryaev, S.B.; Nesterov, A.V.; Seregina, I.E. [and others

1995-01-01

304

A review of liquid lubricant thermal/oxidative degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers. Experimental techniques for determining thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is also covered.

Jones, W. R., Jr.

1983-01-01

305

High temperature solid lubricants: When and where to use them  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F) is reviewed. Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include the layer lattice compounds: MoS2, WS2, graphite and graphite fluoride, the high temperature polyimide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coating and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearing, and journal bearings.

Sliney, H. E.

1973-01-01

306

High temperature solid lubricants - When and where to use them.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F). Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include MoS2, WS2, graphite, graphite fluoride, the high temperature polymide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coatings and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearings, and journal bearings.

Sliney, H. E.

1973-01-01

307

Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Finite Length Rough Gas Journal Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface roughness effects on the hydrodynamic lubrication characteristics of finite length gas journal bearings has been studied by numerically solving the ensemble averaged compressible Reynolds equation. Analysis is based on the premise that the ensemble averaged Reynolds equation with film thickness averages using incompressible lubrication assumptions is valid for compressible lubrication at moderate compressibility numbers (??100). Film thickness averages are

Nagaraj K. Arakere; H. D. Nelson; R. L. Rankin

1990-01-01

308

Evaluation of a carbon-rod atomizer for routine determination of trace metals by atomic-absorption spectroscopy applications to analysis of lubricating oil and crude oil.  

PubMed

A carbon-rod atomizer (CRA) fitted with a 'mini-Massmann' carbon rod was evaluated for routine analysis of petroleum and petroleum products for trace metal content by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Aspects investigated included sensitivity, detection limit, effect of solvent type, and interferences. The results of analysis of oil samples with this technique were compared with those obtained by other techniques. Metals studied were silver, copper, iron, nickel, and lead. Sensitivity and detection limit values obtained with the CRA were similar to those obtained with the carbon-filament atomizer. Strong 'solvent effects' were observed as well as interference by cations. On the basis of this study, design changes for the CRA are suggested, with the object of minimizing 'solvent effects' and interferences, increasing the atomization efficiency, and increasing the residence time of the atomic vapour in the optical path of the instrumental system. PMID:18961342

Hall, G; Bratzel, M P; Chakrabarti, C L

1973-08-01

309

Wormgear geometry adopted for implementing hydrostatic lubrication and formulation of the lubrication problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometrical parameters for a wormgear intended to be used as the transmission in advanced helicopters are finalized. The resulting contact pattern of the meshing tooth surfaces is suitable for the implementation of hydrostatic lubrication Fluid film lubrication of the contact is formulated considering external pressurization as well as hydrodynamic wedge and squeeze actions. The lubrication analysis is aimed at obtaining the oil supply pressure needed to separate the worm and gear surfaces by a prescribed minimum film thickness. The procedure of solving the mathematical problem is outlined.

Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

1995-01-01

310

Lubrication by Transferred Films of Solid Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are described to determine the lubricating ability of various solid films, particularly graphite and molybdenum disulfide, transferred from a compact to a steel surface. The amount of lubricant transferred depends markedly on the surface finish of the steel, and the most effective films are formed on relatively rough surfaces. In these conditions, bonding between the film and its substrate

J. K. Lancaster

1965-01-01

311

Solid Lubricant For Alumina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outer layer of silver lubricates, while intermediate layer of titanium ensures adhesion. Lubricating outer films of silver deposited on thin intermediate films of titanium on alumina substrates found to reduce sliding friction and wear. Films provide effective lubrication for ceramic seals, bearings, and other hot sliding components in advanced high-temperature engines.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

1993-01-01

312

Sea water resistant turbo oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising: A. a base oil; B. an alkylphenol; C. a salicylate salt; D. polyisobutylene succinic acid\\/amine reaction product; E. phosphate salt of an amine; and, F. a naphthenate. The total concentration of the alkylphenol, salicylate salt and polyisobutylene succinic acid\\/amine reaction product is in the range of between about 0.005 and about 1.5 wt

S. J. Metro; D. D. Carr

1987-01-01

313

Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.  

PubMed

Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C?C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed. PMID:21428293

Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

2011-05-11

314

Investigations of lubricant rheology as applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of lubricant shear rheological behavior in the amorphous solid region and near the liquid-solid transition are reported. Elastic, plastic and viscous behavior was observed. A shear rheological model based on primary laboratory data is proposed for concentrated contact lubrication. The model is a Maxwell model modified with a limiting shear stress. Three material properties are required: low shear stress viscosity, limiting elastic shear modulus, and the limiting shear stress the material can withstand. All three are functions of temperature and pressure. In applying the model to EHD contacts the predicted response possesses the characteristics expected from several experiments reported in the literature.

Bair, S.; Winer, W. O.

1978-01-01

315

Composition optimization of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program to determine the optimum composition of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for compliant gas bearings is described. The friction and wear properties of the coatings are evaluated using a foil gas bearing test apparatus. The various coatings were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized nickel-chromium alloy foils. The test bearings were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14 kPa (2 psi) bearing unit load. The bearings were tested for 9000 start/stop cycles or until the specimen wear reached a predetermined failure level. In general, the addition of silver and eutectic to the chromium carbide base stock significantly reduced foil wear and increased journal coating wear. The optimum coating composition, PS212 (70 wt% metal bonded Cr3C2, 15 wt% Ag, 15% BaF2/CaF2 eutectic), reduced foil wear by a factor of two and displayed coating wear well within acceptable limits. The load capacity of the bearing using the plasma-sprayed coating prior to and after a run-in period was ascertained and compared to polished Inconel 718 specimens.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1987-01-01

316

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils have several attractive features for use in lubrication. They are renewable, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly. They also have certain physical and chemical characteristics that make them potentially useful components for lubrication application. However, successful developme...

317

Variation in the fatigue strength of steel in friction in relation to the quality of the lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was previously observed that the fatigue strength of machine parts is substantially reduced under the influence of surface-active working media, especially lubricating oils. It was also established that the fatigue strength of parts under the influence of nonactivated lubricating oils may be 10% lower than that in dry air. In the case of activated oils (e. g., oils containing

M. V. Lizanets; V. I. Pokhmurskii

1973-01-01

318

Fuzzy measurement based image testing for oil particles contamination level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil contamination level testing is important for its using and maintenance which is the basement of the oil contamination control is required higher by the developing device system, and the testing method is urgently needed to be studied for improving the process method and the maintenance quality of the contaminated oil. To classify the level of particles contamination in lubricant, CCD imaging technology is used to capture microscopic digital image of the oil particles sample . The digital image was processed and segmented in order that the computer can recognize and understand the particle targets by using image testing algorithm to measure the sizes, amounts and distributions of particles. The oil contamination level can be measured effectively by the economical and convenient method in which there is little air bubble and bead leading to false particle targets. To improve the influence produced by the false particle targets, One method is that a series of dynamical image samples from the contaminated oil in the multi-period and the multi-state are captured and used to test the particle targets, and the further method is to employ the fuzzy measurement using Gaussian subjection function, which describes the distribution of the standard evidences and the distribution of the testing data, and the testing probabilities of the evidence are weighed by the matching degree of the two distributions, which is used to classify the oil particles contamination level .The test shows that the oil particles contamination level diagnosis reliability is improved and the diagnosis uncertainty is reduced. This method combining with other testing methods by using the multi-information fusion method will be further studied later.

Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xianming; Li, Chuan; Chen, Bin

2010-11-01

319

Lubricant degradation and related wear of a steel pin in lubricated sliding against a steel disc.  

PubMed

In lubricated sliding contacts, components wear out and the lubricating oil ages with time. The present work explores the interactive influence between lubricant aging and component wear. The flat face of a steel pin is slid against a rotating steel disk under near isothermal conditions while the contact is immersed in a reservoir of lubricant (hexadecane). The chemical changes in the oil with time are measured by vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The corresponding chemistry of the pin surface is recorded using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy while the morphology of the worn pins; surface and subsurface, are observed using a combination of focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy. When compared to thermal auto-oxidation of the lubricant alone, steel on steel friction and wear are found to accentuate the decomposition of oil and to reduce the beneficial impact of antioxidants. The catalytic action of nascent iron, an outcome of pin wear and disk wear, is shown to contribute to this detrimental effect. Over long periods of sliding, the decomposition products of lubricant aging on their own, as well as in conjunction with their products of reaction with iron, generate a thick tribofilm that is highly protective in terms of friction and wear. PMID:21682303

Singh, Archana; Gandra, Ravi T; Schneider, Eric W; Biswas, Sanjay K

2011-07-01

320

Tribological Evaluation of PS300: A New Chrome Oxide-Based Solid Lubricant Coating Sliding Against Al2O3 from 25° to 650°C©  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the tribological characteristics of Al2O3 sliding against PS300, a chrome oxide-based self-lubricating coaling. Al2O3, pins were slid against PS300-coated superalloy disks in air under a 4.9 N load at velocities of 1 to 8 m\\/s. At a sliding velocity of I m\\/s, friction ranged from 0.6 at 25° C to 0.2 at 650° C. Wear factors for

C. Dellacorte; J. A. Laskowski

1997-01-01

321

Improved Efficiency of Oil Well Drilling through Case Based Reasoning  

E-print Network

1 Improved Efficiency of Oil Well Drilling through Case Based Reasoning Paal Skalle Norwegian-intensive case-based reasoning, for repair and prevention of unwanted events in the domain of offshore oil well drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during

Aamodt, Agnar

322

Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

Lynden A. Archer

2006-01-09

323

Operating limitations of high speed jet lubricated ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 degrees. The bearings had either an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage, and lubrication was by recirculating oil jets which had either a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN, and bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets, but under-race lubrication produced lower bearing temperatures under all conditions of operation with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

1975-01-01

324

Sulfurized\\/aminated mixture of ethylene-based polyolefin and polyisobutylene for lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective amount of polyisobutylene effectively reduces polymerization and cross-linking reactions resulting in molecular weight and viscosity increase during production of dispersant viscosity index improvers by the amination and\\/or sulfurization of polyethylene containing polymers.

Spence

1982-01-01

325

Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would exhibit similar behavior. It was found that under static conditions, all three alloys formed a lubricious nodular coating when exposed to a vapor of aryl phosphate. Under dynamic sliding conditions at 500{degrees}C, these alloys were successfully lubricated with a coefficient of friction of 0.1 and no detectable wear. In order to explain these results, a direct correlation between successful vapor phase lubrication and the composition of the alloys containing aluminum has been proposed. If the ratio of copper/aluminum or iron/aluminum is greater that 100 vapor phase, lubrication will be successful. If the ratio is less than 10, a passive aluminum oxide layer will prevent vapor phase lubrication. By selecting alloys with a high iron or copper content, vapor phase lubrication can provide excellent lubrication at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Hanyaloglu, B.F.; Graham, E.E.; Oreskovic, T.; Hajj, C.G. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1995-06-01

326

Synthesis of UV-curable tung oil and UV-curable tung oil based alkyd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two UV-curable tung oil-based resins were synthesized via a Diels–Alder cycloaddition. An UV-curable tung oil (UVTO) was prepared from bodied tung oil and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA). An inhibitor, phenothiazine, was added to avoid homopolymerization of TMPTMA. The UV-curable tung oil alkyd (UVTA) was prepared from the monoglyceride process and then reacted with TMPTMA via the Diels–Alder reaction similar to the

Narin Thanamongkollit; Kent R. Miller; Mark D. Soucek

327

Lubricant Effects on Efficiency of a Helicopter Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven different lubricants were used in efficiency tests conducted on the OH-58A helicopter main transmission using the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 hp torque regenerative helicopter transmission test stand. Tests were run at oil-in temperatures of 355 K and 372 K. The efficiency was calculated from a heat balance on the water running through an oil to water heat exchanger which the transmission was heavily insulated. Results show an efficiency range from 98.3% to 98.8% which is a 50% variation relative to the losses associated with the maximum efficiency measured. For a given lubricant, the efficiency increased as temperature increased and viscosity decreased. There were two exceptions which could not be explained. Between lubricants, efficiency was not correlated with viscosity. There were relatively large variations in efficiency with the different lubricants whose viscosity generally fell in the 5 to 7 centistoke range. The lubricants had no significant effect on the vibration signature of the transmission.

Mitchell, A. M.; Coy, J. J.

1982-01-01

328

Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage  

PubMed Central

Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage that begins to explore and incorporate methods of lubrication. PMID:21955119

McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

2012-01-01

329

Qualification of oil-based tracer particles for heated Ludwieg tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation, insertion, pressurization and use of oil-based tracer particles is qualified for the application in heated flow facilities, typically hypersonic facilities such as Ludwieg tubes. The operative challenges are to ensure a sub-critical amount of seeding material in the heated part, to qualify the methods that are used to generate the seeding, pressurize it to storage tube pressure, as well as to test specific oil types. The mass of the seeding material is held below the lower explosion limit such that operation is safe. The basis for the tracers is qualified in off-situ particle size measurements. In the main part different methods and operational procedures are tested with respect to their ability to generate a suitable amount of seeding in the test section. For the best method the relaxation time of the tracers is qualified by the oblique shock wave test. The results show that the use of a special temperature resistant lubricant oil "Plantfluid" is feasible under the conditions of a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube with heated storage tube. The method gives high-quality tracers with high seeding densities. Although the experimental results of the oblique shock wave test differ from theoretical predictions of relaxation time, still the relaxation time of 3.2 ?s under the more dense tunnel conditions with 18 bar storage tube pressure is low enough to allow the use of the seeding for meaningful particle image velocimetry studies.

Casper, Marcus; Stephan, Sören; Scholz, Peter; Radespiel, Rolf

2014-06-01

330

Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect

A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

Perez, J. M.

2000-07-06

331

OOO stage equipment bearing performance with a lower viscosity lubricant  

SciTech Connect

One of the Gaseous Diffusion Ultimate Potential (GDUP) projects involves a study of methods to reduce process equipment bearing power losses. In support of this effort, an analytical study has been completed which assesses the performance and expected benefits of operating the 000 stage equipment with a lower viscosity lubricant. Fluid film bearing analysis codes were employed to study 000 stage compressor and motor bearings. Correlations depicting bearing minimum film thickness and power loss with variable lubricant inlet temperature are presented for two lubricants: (1) code BG oil (310 SSU at. 100 F) and code BE oil (150 SSU at. 100 F).

Lannom, D.C.

1988-05-01

332

Exterior, looking west Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

333

Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

334

2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses  

E-print Network

2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses Yu-Lin Chang & Leo Oey # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill

335

Research into Configuration and Flow of Wall Oil Film in Bearing Chamber Based on Droplet Size Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lubrication design and heat transfer determination of bearing chambers in aeroengine require a sufficient understanding of the oil droplet-film interaction and physical characteristic in an oil\\/air two-phase flow state. The analyses of oil droplet movement, mass and momentum transfer during the impingement of droplet\\/wall, as well as wall oil film thickness and flow velocity are very important for the

Guoding CHEN; Hengchao SUN; Jun WANG

2011-01-01

336

Stability of Water Lubricated Flow of Yield Stress Fluid in Sloping Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate the transport of viscous crudes in a pipe, an immiscible lubricating liquid, usually water, is added. In such configuration, the water migrates into the regions of high shear at the pipe wall where it lubricates the flow. The pumping pressures being balanced by wall shear stresses in the water, the flow therefore requires pressures comparable to pumping water alone, at the same total throughput [1]. So significant savings in pumping power can be derived from this process provided that it is well monitored. Indeed, instabilities usually take place at the oil/water interface and they constitute an important source of energy dissipation. Precisely, a core annular flow is known to undergo a long-wave instability of capillary type, modified by shear occuring at low Reynolds. Above a given critical Reynolds number, the flow is unstable to shorter waves which leads to an emulsification system of water droplets in oil. In present work, an experimental study of the stability of sloping plane Poiseuille flow of well characterized viscoplastic mineral oils lubricated by water was performed. The investigation was carried out by means of image analysis based on spatiotemporal diagrams (STD). Notably indicated are the effects of bed slope, flow rates ratio and oil rheology on flow stability.

Ahmad, A.; Nsom, B.; Decruppe, J.

2010-06-01

337

Case-hardening medium carbon steel for tough and long life bearing under severe lubrication conditions  

SciTech Connect

It is known these days that case-hardening bearings have a longer life than through-hardening ones under severe lubrication conditions (i.e., mixing-in of foreign particles in the lubrication oil). To explain this fact, the authors first presented the mechanism of stress relaxation at the debris dent edge. According to test results, it was found that both retained austenite and hardness are the most important factors for a longer life material. Such material has a longer life even under boundary lubrication conditions. Since a sufficient EHL oil film does not form under boundary lubrication conditions, metal contact occurs. The resulting damage is called peeling and it decreases the bearing life. To realize ideal case hardening material for bearings, a new carbo-nitride heat treatment has been developed. Normally, it is extremely difficult to obtain a sufficient case depth using a traditional carbo-nitride heat treatment process. As an alternate, medium carbon steel was studied. The application of newly developed medium carbon steel has not only proved to make the creation of a sufficient case depth easier, but also provided economic benefits. Based on results from testing both the dimensional stability and fracture toughness, newly developed medium carbon steel can be used for case-hardening bearings.

Furumura, Kyozaburo; Murakami, Yasuo; Abe, Tsutomu [NSK Ltd., Fujisawa (Japan). Research and Development Center

1998-12-31

338

Linear and non-linear control techniques applied to actively lubricated journal bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can use the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can use the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurized oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and a non-linear controller, applied to a tilting-pad journal bearing, are analysed and discussed. Important conclusions about the application of integral controllers, responsible for changing the rotor-bearing equilibrium position and consequently the "passive" oil film damping coefficients, are achieved. Numerical results show an effective vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0-80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated, illustrating clearly one of its most promising applications.

Nicoletti, R.; Santos, I. F.

2003-03-01

339

Biodegradation Behavior of Some Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential biodegradability of several vegetable oil-based polymers was assessed by respirometry in soil for 60–100 days at temperatures of 30–58°C. Films of soybean oil and linseed oil which were oxidatively polymerized (Co catalyst) on a kraft paper support were 90%–100% mineralized to CO2 after 70 days at 30°C. Mineralization of polymerized tung oil to CO2 was much slower than

Randal L. Shogren; Zoran Petrovic; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2004-01-01

340

A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

2015-01-01

341

A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

2014-09-01

342

Evaluation of hexagonal boron nitride as a new tablet lubricant.  

PubMed

In this study, hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) was evaluated as a new lubricant for pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing. The other conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP) were also tested along with HBN. Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor and quantify the lower punch ejection force (LPEF). The force ratio, tablet crushing strength, disintegration time, and thickness were measured. The lubricant film formation and lubricant distribution in tablets were studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Based on the force ratio, a good lubrication was obtained at 1% for MGST and HBN; in contrast, STAC and COMP did not show a good lubrication. After 1%, all lubricants performed well. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubricant concentration profile. HBN provided a 50% decrease in LPEF at 2% lubricant concentration and was rated as an effective tablet lubricant. HBN was better than either STAC or COMP. Unlike MGST, HBN had no significant prolongation effect on tablet disintegration times. PMID:16176018

Turkoglu, Murat; Sahin, Inan; San, Tangul

2005-01-01

343

Ionic fluids in lubrication of aluminium-steel contacts. Surface and tribochemical interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are high performance fluids with a wide thermal stability range. They are being studied as new lubricants in a variety of sliding contacts. One of their more interesting tribological applications is that of steel-aluminium lubrication. In this work we study the influence of the lateral alkyl chain length and of the anion on the lubricating ability of six imidazolium ILs, a pyridinium and a phosphonium derivative. For first time, these ILs have been studied as neat lubricants and as 1wt.% base oil additives in variable conditions of velocity, load and temperature in pin-on-disk tests for AISI 52100 steel-ASTM 2011 aluminium contacts. In this work we present the first study of ILs as lubricants under extreme temperature conditions. The tribological performance of ILs has been compared with that of a mineral oil and of a synthetic ester. Under these conditions, ILs show lower friction and wear values than conventional oils at all temperatures. As 1wt.% additives, the conditions of optimum lubrication and the transitions between regimes and lubrication mechanisms have been determined. We have also studied the performance of ILs as 1wt.% additives of the synthetic oil. A relationship between additive polarity and wear index has been established. If the more soluble phosphonium IL additive is used, no friction or wear reduction takes place due to competition between solvation and adsorption processes. Electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies have been used to study the wear mechanisms and tribochemical processes that take place in the contact. Finally, we have studied the performance of three aluminium alloys in corrosion and erosion-corrosion tests. In immersion tests with free-water ILs, the aluminium alloy 2011 shows a good resistance to corrosion, but dilution of 1-ethyl, 3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in water produces the hydrolysis of the anion and the corrosion of the aluminium alloy. In erosion-corrosion tests, although the three alloys show a good corrosion resistance (?0.2 mm/year) their performance is related to the copper content, with higher rates at higher copper percentages. The surfaces have been characterized by SEM, EDS, XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

Jimenez Ballesta, Ana Eva

344

Fiscal Policy Responses to Oil Price Volatility in an Oil-Based Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil prices increased from 2004 to historic highs in mid-2008 but have fallen precipitously since then. What are the effects of this volatility on an oil-based economy like Kuwait? This article examines options for policy responses from an oil-based economy perspective. The impact of changes in domestic tax and subsidy policies on the Kuwaiti economy is estimated using a computable

Mohamed Abdelbasset Chemingui; Mohammed Hajeeh

2011-01-01

345

Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

1980-01-01

346

Fabrication of novel graphene-fullerene hybrid lubricating films based on self-assembly for MEMS applications.  

PubMed

The novel graphene-C60 hybrid films have been fabricated successfully on silicon surfaces by a multistep self-assembly process, and showed synergistic effects beyond individual performance in micro/nano-tribological behaviors. It is expected that the graphene-C60 hybrid films may find wide applications as high performance lubricating films in MEMS. PMID:24257346

Pu, Jibin; Mo, Yufei; Wan, Shanhong; Wang, Liping

2014-01-14

347

How do I dispose of aerosol cans? Aerosol cans are used to disperse a variety of chemicals, including paint, lubricants and cleaners.  

E-print Network

, including paint, lubricants and cleaners. Although aerosol cans are commonplace, they are often mishandled price break. When buying aerosol spray paint, if possible buy latex paint. Latex paint is more environmentally friendly as it is easier to cleanup (with soap and water), as compared to oil based paint, which

Maroncelli, Mark

348

Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

1985-01-01

349

Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricants was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricant tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwar additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt pct sulfur and 0.1 wt pct phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

1986-01-01

350

Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the bearing was turned at a rate of 200 RPM. The lubricator control was turned on at the beginning of the test, turned off for about 800 seconds, then turned on again. As shown in Figure 2, the controlled lubricator stabilized the torque in a low range, starting immediately after initial turn-on and immediately after resumption of the lubricator control.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

2005-01-01

351

Fundamentals of fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

Hamrock, Bernard J.

1991-01-01

352

Lubrication of Machine Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

Hamrock, B. J.

1984-01-01

353

DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION  

SciTech Connect

The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

Qu, Jun [ORNL

2012-01-01

354

Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same  

SciTech Connect

Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by combining an acidic molybdenum compound, an oil-soluble basic nitrogen compound and carbon disulfide to form a sulfur-and molybdenum-containing composition.

Devries, L.; King, J.M.

1981-05-05

355

Castor oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Castor oil is a yellowish liquid often used as a lubricant and in laxatives. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing a large amount (overdose) of castor oil. This is for information only and not for ...

356

A Method for the Measurement of Hydrodynamic Oil Films Using Ultrasonic Reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the thickness of an oil film in a lubricated component is essential information for performance monitoring and control. In this work, a new method for oil film thickness measurement, based on the reflection of ultrasound, is evaluated for use in fluid film journal bearing applications. An ultrasonic wave will be partially reflected when it strikes a thin

R. S. Dwyer-Joyce; P. Harper; B. W. Drinkwater

2004-01-01

357

Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

358

THE LUBRICITY OF BIODIESEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advent of low-sulfur petrodiesel fuels has raised concern about the inherent lubricity of these fuels. It has been shown that these fuels possess poorer lubricity than their non-desulfurized counterparts, largely due to the removal of polar oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in these fue...

359

Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would

B. F. Hanyaloglu; E. E. Graham; T. Oreskovic; C. G. Hajj

1995-01-01

360

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

361

Hexagonal boron nitride as a tablet lubricant and a comparison with conventional lubricants.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the lubrication properties of hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) as a new tablet lubricant and compare it with conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP). Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor lower punch ejection force (LPEF) containing varied lubricants in different ratio (0.5, 1, 2%). Tablet crushing strength, disintegration time and thickness were measured. Tensile strength of compacted tablets were measured by applying a diametrical load across the edge of tablets to determine mechanical strength. The deformation mechanism of tablets was studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricants. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubrication concentration profile and LPEF of HBN was found very close to that of MGST. HBN was better than both STAC and COMP. A good lubrication was obtained at 0.5% for MGST and HBN (189 and 195N, respectively). Where COMP and STAC showed 20 and 35% more LPEF compare to that of MGST (239 and 288N, respectively). Even at the concentration of 2% COMP and STAC did not decrease LPEF as much as 0.5% of MGST and HBN. Like all conventional lubricants the higher the concentration of HBN the lower the mechanical properties of tablets because of its hydrophobic character. However, this deterioration was not as pronounced as MGST. HBN had no significant effect on tablet properties. Based on the Heckel plots, it was observed that after the addition of 1% lubricant granules showed less plastic deformation. PMID:18160235

U?urlu, Timuçin; Turko?lu, Murat

2008-04-01

362

Study of ball bearing torque under elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spinning and rolling torques were measured in an angular-contact ball bearing with and without a cage under several lubrication regimes in a modified NASA spinning torque apparatus. Two lubricants were used, a di-2 ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil, at shaft speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm and bearing loads from 10 lbs to 90 lbs. An analytical model was developed from previous spinning friction models to include rolling with spinning under lubrication regimes from thin film to flooded conditions. The bearing torque values have a wide variation, under any condition of speed and load, depending on the amount of lubricant present in the bearing. The analytical model compared favorably with experimental results under several lubrication regimes.

Townsend, D. P.; Allen, C. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

363

Study of ball bearing torque under elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spinning and rolling torques were measured in an angular-contact ball bearing with and without a cage under several lubrication regimes in a modified NASA spinning torque apparatus. Two lubricants were used - a di-2 ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil, at shaft speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm and bearing loads from 45 newtons (10 lb) to 403 newtons (90 lb). An analytical model was developed from previous spinning friction models to include rolling with spinning under lubrication regimes from thin film to flooded conditions. The bearing torque values have a wide variation, under any condition of speed and load, depending on the amount of lubricant present in the bearing. The analytical model compared favorably with experimental results under several lubrication regimes.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Allen, C. W.

1973-01-01

364

Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

1984-01-01

365

The Influence of the Lubricant Mixture into a Refrigerant on the Condensation Heat Transfer in Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a refrigerator and an air conditioner, it is a well-known fact that the contamination of lubricant into a pure refrigerant has a great influence on the heat transfer characteristics and two-phase flow behavior at the condenser and evaporator. However, up to now, in the most of heat exchanger design, the refrigerant has been regarded as a pure one. On the other hand, a recent condenser tube diameter tends to be fine to overcome the various demands on the compactness and the high performance, especially required for the alternative refrigerant. Unfortunately, quantitative studies of the tube less than 6 mm in diameter were insufficient, moreover, only few studies have been made including the effect of the oil contamination on the condensation heat transfer. In this study, we employed HFC134a as a refrigerant and PAG-oil as a lubricant and experiments with a flat tube and three kinds of circular tube which has different diameters were made. By using the flow visualization data, a new flow pattern map being applicable both of a pure and oil-lubricant mixture was proposed. Moreover, by examining the local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, the most sensitive flow pattern affected by contamination of lubricant was specified and the detailed discussion on the quantitative effect of oil contamination on condensation heat transfer including the effect of tube geometry was carried out. Finally, based on these results, new correlation for heat transfer and pressure drop was suggested, and it predicted our data successfully well up to a mass flux of 150kg/(m2•s.)

Katsuta, Masafumi; Miyai, Ryo; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Kawai, Akinari

366

Rotary screw compressor lubricants. [synthetic lubricant  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for synthetic lubricants comprising 15 to 45 weight percent of an ester of a hindered polyhydric alcohol having 3 to 8 hydroxy groups and 5 to 10 carbon atoms with one or more alkanoic acids having 4 to 18 carbon atoms blended with 85 to 55 weight percent of one or more polyether polyol having an number average molecular weight from about 400 to 5000. The blends are compounded with antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, and metal deactivators to produce a superior lubricant for rotary screw compressors that has a long life.

Carswell, R.; Mcgraw, P.W.

1981-11-24

367

Comparative analysis of plant oil based fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the evaluation results from the analysis of different blends of fuels using the 13-mode standard SAE testing method. Six high oleic safflower oil blends, six ester blends, six high oleic sunflower oil blends, and six sunflower oil blends were used in this portion of the investigation. Additionally, the results from the repeated 13-mode tests for all the 25/75% mixtures with a complete diesel fuel test before and after each alternative fuel are presented.

Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.; Haines, H.; Huong, C.

1995-12-31

368

The Effect of Lubricant Viscosity in High Pressure Forming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the effects of viscosity of lubricant in cold work extrusion process were investigated. The experimental evaluation was carried out by using cold work plane strain extrusion apparatus with a pair of 45-degree die half angle and a symmetrical workpiece (billet). The billet material was annealed pure aluminum, A1100. The analytical evaluation was carried out using a visioplasticity method. The testing lubricant is RBD palm olein, RBD palm stearin and palm fatty acid distillate. The results were compared with the additive free paraffinic mineral oil. The result shows that palm oil has advantage in reducing the extrusion load. We confirmed that palm oil showed satisfactory lubrication performance, as compared to additive free paraffinic mineral oil.

Syahrullail, S.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Seah, W. B.

2010-06-01

369

Linear Motion Guide with Molybdenum Disulfide Composite Solid Lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical trend of solid lubricant rolling bearing and linear motion guide was reviewed. Especially, a newly developed oil-free solid lubricant linear motion guide by authors was also reported in details in this present. The rolling ball of the guide was coated by sputtering molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and some special transition metal simultaneously, while the spacer ball made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was also applied to the guide. By this way, a composite solid lubricant with excellent wear resistance properties was provided and there has been no any organic solvent and binder added, resulting in lower particle generation and low lever of out gas. It is expected that the oil-free solid lubricant linear motion guide could be applied to high temperature, high vacuum, radiation and space utilizations.

Yang, Hong; Takahashi, Tohru

370

Effect of lubricant environment on saw damage in silicon wafers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemomechanical effect of lubricant environments on the inner diameter (ID) sawing induced surface damage in Si wafers was tested for four different lubricants: water, dielectric oil, and two commercial cutting solutions. The effects of applying different potential on Si crystals during the sawing were also tested. It is indicated that the number and depth of surface damage are sensitive to the chemical nature of the saw lubricant. It is determined that the lubricants that are good catalysts for breaking Si bonds can dampen the out of plane blade vibration more effectively and produce less surface damage. Correlations between the applied potential and the depth of damage in the dielectric oil and one of the commercial cutting solutions and possible mechanisms involved are discussed.

Kuan, T. S.; Shih, K. K.; Vanvechten, J. A.; Westdorp, W. A.

1982-01-01

371

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

372

Driveline Fundamentals and Lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various gear types and automotive transmissions in drive trains are described. The need for automotive differential axle gears is demonstrated. SAE gear lubricant classifications are related to performance specifications. Automatic transmission fluids, ATFs, are described together with agricultural and off-highway fluids. Generic formulations of driveline fluids are discussed in terms of their tribology and performance and also the contribution of various additive classes to that performance. The main functions of manual gearbox, automatic transmission and axle lubricants are described. General trends and emerging technologies in drive train components are discussed in terms of the requirements placed on the lubricant, evolution in transmission technologies and relative market penetration.

Joseph, I.

373

A self-lubricating bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved bearing structure is described which includes a permanently magnetized porous body filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant for extending the operational life of self-lubricating bearings. The bearing structure is characterized by a permanently magnetized retainer formed of a porous material and filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant, whereby the pores serve as lubricant reservoirs from which the lubricant continuously is delivered to a film disposed between contiguous bearing surfaces.

Whitaker, A. F. (inventor)

1974-01-01

374

Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid

Thiam Leng Chew; Subhash Bhatia

2008-01-01

375

Crude Oil Price Prediction Using Slantlet Denoising Based Hybrid Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate prediction of crude oil price movement has always been the central issue with profound implications across different levels of the economy. This study conducts empirical investigations into the characteristics of crude oil market and proposes a novel Slantlet denoising based hybrid methodology for the prediction of its movement. The proposed algorithm models the underlying data characteristics in a

Kaijian He; Kin Keung Lai; Jerome Yen

2009-01-01

376

Motor Oil Classification Based on Time-Resolved Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

A time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) technique is presented for classifying motor oils. The system is constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a spectrometer, and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements are reported for several motor oils. It is found that steady-state fluorescence is insufficient to distinguish the motor oil samples. Then contour diagrams of TRF intensities (CDTRFIs) are acquired to serve as unique fingerprints to identify motor oils by using the distinct TRF of motor oils. CDTRFIs are preferable to steady-state fluorescence spectra for classifying different motor oils, making CDTRFIs a particularly choice for the development of fluorescence-based methods for the discrimination and characterization of motor oils. The two-dimensional fluorescence contour diagrams contain more information, not only the changing shapes of the LIF spectra but also the relative intensity. The results indicate that motor oils can be differentiated based on the new proposed method, which provides reliable methods for analyzing and classifying motor oils. PMID:24988439

Mu, Taotao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Meng, Fandong

2014-01-01

377

Development of a full-scale transmission testing procedure to evaluate advanced lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. The testing was part of a joint Navy/NASA/Army lubrication program. The objective of the program was to develop a separate lubricant for gearboxes and demonstrate an improved performance in life and load-carrying capacity. The goal of the experiments was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 base reference oil, then run identical tests with improved lubricants and demonstrate performance. The tests were directed at failing components that the Navy has had problems with due to marginal lubrication. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hours of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

1992-01-01

378

Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitute: Miscibility of lubricants with refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, modifications were made to the experimental apparatus in preparation for performing the experiments required in this project. In addition, new procedures for charging the lubricant and refrigerant into the cells for high temperature tests have been adopted. All of the refrigerants (10 different types) and lubricants (seven different types) have been ordered from the manufacturers. To date, the data obtained includes that for R-134a and four lubricants, namely, two esters and two polypropylene glycols (PAGs). Methods for quantifying immiscibility based on observation by different lab workers have been developed.

Pate, M.B.; Zoz, S.; Berkenbosch, L. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-04-01

379

Graphene-based engine oil nanofluids for tribological applications.  

PubMed

Ultrathin graphene (UG) has been prepared by exfoliation of graphite oxide by a novel technique based on focused solar radiation. Graphene based engine oil nanofluids have been prepared and their frictional characteristics (FC), antiwear (AW), and extreme pressure (EP) properties have been evaluated. The improvement in FC, AW, and EP properties of nanofluids is respectively by 80, 33, and 40% compared with base oil. The enhancement can be attributed to the nanobearing mechanism of graphene in engine oil and ultimate mechanical strength of graphene. PMID:21981026

Eswaraiah, Varrla; Sankaranarayanan, Venkataraman; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

2011-11-01

380

Origins of hydration lubrication.  

PubMed

Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication. PMID:25585501

Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

2015-01-01

381

Origins of hydration lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4–1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

2015-01-01

382

Liquid lubrication in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1990-01-01

383

Dry film lubricant evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The lubrication characteristics of a modified tungsten disulfide (WS[sub 2]) were compared to the exiting dry film lubricant, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS[sub 2])- WS[sub 2] was verified as meeting all Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) requirements for a replacement dry film lubricant. However, in life and wear characteristics, the present lubricant outperformed the WS[sub 2]. Two studies to determine if welding could be performed through the WS[sub 2] coating indicated functionally strong welds, but evaluation showed cracks which would not meet weld requirements. Bearing tests comparing WS[sub 2], a low molecular weight tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), and unlubricated bearings indicated that WS[sub 2] bearing torque was 70 percent higher than TFE.

Bryan, R.M.

1993-04-01

384

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOEpatents

A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

1999-01-01

385

Industry Needs Fulfilled by Patented NASA PS300 Solid Lubricant Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1999, the NASA Glenn Research Center was awarded a patent (#5866518) for a new high-temperature solid lubricant coating material, PS300. A combination of wear-resistant metals and ceramics with solid lubricant additives, PS300 reduces friction and wear in sliding contacts from below ambient to over 650 C. This lubricant is an outgrowth of over three decades of high-temperature tribological research and was specifically developed as a shaft lubricant to protect foil air bearings used in Oil-Free turbomachinery, like gas turbines. Foil bearings are lubricated by air at high speeds but experience sliding and wear during initial startup and shut down when a lubricating film of air has not yet developed. PS300 shaft coatings have successfully lubricated foil bearings for over 100 000 cycles without wearing out.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2003-01-01

386

Lubrication System Failure Baseline Testing on an Aerospace Quality Gear Mesh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace drive systems are required to survive a loss-of-lubrication test for qualification. In many cases emergency lubrication systems need to be designed and utilized to permit the drive system to pass this difficult requirement. The weight of emergency systems can adversely affect the mission capabilities of the aircraft. The possibility to reduce the emergency system weight through the use of mist lubrication will be described. Mist lubrication involves the delivery of a minute amount of an organic liquid as a vapor or fine mist in flowing compressed air to rubbing surfaces. At the rubbing surface, the vapor or mist reacts to form a solid lubricating film. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline for gear behavior under oil depleted conditions. A reactive vapor-mist lubrication method is described and proposed as a candidate emergency lubrication system.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

2000-01-01

387

Operating limitations of high-speed jet-lubricated ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 deg. The bearings either had an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage. Lubrication was by recirculating oil jets. The oil jets either had a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN. Bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets. However, under-race lubrication produced under all conditions of operation lower bearing temperatures with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

1975-01-01

388

Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Boundary films are formed by physisorption, chemisorption, and chemical reaction. A good boundary boundary film physisorption\\u000a chemisorption lubricant should have a high degree of interaction between its molecules and the solid surface. As a general\\u000a rule, liquids are good lubricants when they are polar and thus able to grip solid surfaces perfluoropolyether (PFPE) (or be\\u000a adsorbed). In this chapter, we

Bharat Bhushan

389

Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.  

PubMed

The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases. PMID:22591561

Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

2012-01-01

390

Oil-Free Turbomachinery Being Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) along with industry and university researchers, are developing Oil-Free technology that will have a revolutionary impact on turbomachinery systems used in commercial and military applications. System studies have shown that eliminating an engine's oil system can yield significant savings in weight, maintenance, and operational costs. The Oil-Free technology (foil air bearings, high-temperature coatings, and advanced modeling) is being developed to eliminate the need for oil lubrication systems on high-speed turbomachinery such as turbochargers and gas turbine engines that are used in aircraft propulsion systems. The Oil-Free technology is enabled by recent breakthroughs in foil bearing load capacity, solid lubricant coatings, and computer-based analytical modeling. During the past fiscal year, a U.S. patent was awarded for the NASA PS300 solid lubricant coating, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PS300 has enabled the successful operation of foil air bearings to temperatures over 650 C and has resulted in wear lives in excess of 100,000 start/stop cycles. This leapfrog improvement in performance over conventional solid lubricants (limited to 300 C) creates new application opportunities for high-speed, high-temperature Oil-Free gas turbine engines. On the basis of this break-through coating technology and the world's first successful demonstration of an Oil-Free turbocharger in fiscal year 1999, industry is partnering with NASA on a 3-year project to demonstrate a small, Oil-Free turbofan engine for aeropropulsion.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

2001-01-01

391

Two methodologies for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance, efficiency and lifetime of modern combustion engines significantly depend on the quality of the engine lubricants. However, contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, coolant and wear particles, reduce the life of engine mechanical components and lubricant quality. Therefore, direct and indirect measurements of engine lubricant properties, such as physical-mechanical, electro-magnetic, chemical and optical properties, are intensively utilized in engine condition monitoring systems and sensors developed within the last decade. Such sensors for the measurement of engine lubricant properties can be used to detect a functional limit of the in-use lubricant, increase drain interval and reduce the environmental impact. This paper proposes two new methodologies for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The methodologies are based on optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium (e.g. engine lubricant). The novelty of the proposed methodologies is in the introduction of an object with a known periodic shape behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodic structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. In the object shape-based optical analysis, several parameters of an acquired optical image, such as the gray scale intensity of lubricant and object, shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative intensity and width non-uniformity coefficient are newly proposed. Variations in the contaminant concentration and use of different contaminants lead to the changes of these parameters measured on-line. In the statistical optical analysis methodology, statistical auto- and cross-characteristics (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, auto- and cross-spectrums, transfer function, coherence function, etc) are used for the analysis of combined object-lubricant images. Both proposed methodologies utilize the comparison of measured parameters and calculated object shape-based and statistical characteristics for fresh and contaminated lubricants. Developed methodologies are verified experimentally showing an ability to distinguish lubricant with 0%, 3%, 7% and 10% water and coolant contamination. This proves the potential applicability of the developed methodologies for on-line measurement, monitoring and control of the engine lubricant condition.

Aghayan, Hamid; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Yang, Jun

2012-01-01

392

Influence of minimum quantity lubrication parameters on tool wear and surface roughness in milling of forged steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL) technique is becoming increasingly more popular due to the safety of environment. Moreover, MQL technique not only leads to economical benefits by way of saving lubricant costs but also presents better machinability. However, the effect of MQL parameters on machining is still not clear, which needs to be overcome. In this paper, the effect of different modes of lubrication, i.e., conventional way using flushing, dry cutting and using the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique on the machinability in end milling of a forged steel (50CrMnMo), is investigated. The influence of MQL parameters on tool wear and surface roughness is also discussed. MQL parameters include nozzle direction in relation to feed direction, nozzle elevation angle, distance from the nozzle tip to the cutting zone, lubricant flow rate and air pressure. The investigation results show that MQL technique lowers the tool wear and surface roughness values compared with that of conventional flood cutting fluid supply and dry cutting conditions. Based on the investigations of chip morphology and color, MQL technique reduces the cutting temperature to some extent. The relative nozzle-feed position at 120°, the angle elevation of 60° and distance from nozzle tip to cutting zone at 20 mm provide the prolonged tool life and reduced surface roughness values. This fact is due to the oil mists can penetrate in the inner zones of the tool edges in a very efficient way. Improvement in tool life and surface finish could be achieved utilizing higher oil flow rate and higher compressed air pressure. Moreover, oil flow rate increased from 43.8 mL/h to 58.4 mL/h leads to a small decrease of flank wear, but it is not very significant. The results obtained in this paper can be used to determine optimal conditions for milling of forged steel under MQL conditions.

Yan, Lutao; Yuan, Songmei; Liu, Qiang

2012-05-01

393

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation discusses the synthesis and characterization of environmentally-friendly waterborne vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions and their resulting films. The thermal and mechanical properties of the… (more)

Garrison, Thomas Frederick

2013-01-01

394

Nano-based systems for oil spills control and cleanup.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of superhydrophobic nanocomposite systems which are also oleophilic. As hydrophobicity is based on low energy surface and surface roughness, the electrospinning technique was selected as the manufacturing technique. N,N' dimethylformamide (DMF) was employed as the polystyrene (PS) solvent. The "Tea-bag" (T-B) nanocomposite system is based on exfoliated graphite surrounded by PS superhydrophobic membranes. The T-B systems were tested regarding its adsorption and absorption rates. To test these properties, it was employed three different water/oil emulsions, i.e., new and used motor oil, which have physical properties (viscosity and specific gravity) similar to heavy crude oil extracted in Brazil, and vacuum pump oil (which does not form oil/water emulsion). It was observed that oil adsorption rate is dependent on oil surface tension, while the absorption rate is mainly dependent on membrane/exfoliated graphite surface area. Experimental data show that oil absorption rates ranged between 2.5g/g and 40g/g, while the adsorption rate oscillated from 0.32g/g/min to 0.80g/g/min. Furthermore, T-B systems were tested as containment barriers and sorbent materials with good results including its recyclability. PMID:24667439

Avila, Antonio F; Munhoz, Viviane C; de Oliveira, Aline M; Santos, Mayara C G; Lacerda, Glenda R B S; Gonçalves, Camila P

2014-05-15

395

Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit  

DOEpatents

A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL); Lane, William H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2009-11-10

396

Lubrication of Space Systems (c)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article presents an overview of the current state-of-the-art tribology, some current and future perceived space lubrication problem areas, and some potential new lubrication technologies. It is the author's opinion that tribology technology, in general, has not significantly advanced over the last 20 to 30 years, even though some incremental improvements in the technology have occurred. There is a better understanding of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, some new lubricating and wear theories have been developed, and some new liquid and solid lubricants have been formulated. However, the important problems of being able to lubricate reliably at high temperatures or at cryogenic temperatures have not been adequately address.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1995-01-01

397

Valve train calculation model with regard to oil film effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical equivalent model to describe the dynamic behaviour of mechanical actuated valve trains has been developed which is based on a multidegrees-of-freedom vibratory system. It could be shown that dampings and stiffnesses efficient in a valve train are influenced by three oil film effects: these are squeeze films between the valve train components, elastohydrodynamic lubrication of cam and follower

P. Kreuter; F. Pischinger

1985-01-01

398

Role of engine age and lubricant chemistry on the characteristics of EGR soot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust products of Diesel Engines serves as an environmental hazard, and to curtail this problem a Tier 3 emission standard was introduced which involves change in engine designs and introduction of EGR systems in Diesel engines. EGR systems, however has the challenge of generating soot which are abrasive and are major causes of wear in Diesel engines. This work has studied the characteristics of EGR soot formed in different range of engine age and in different lubricant chemistries of Mineral and Synthetic based diesel Oils. It is found that lubricant degradation is encouraged by less efficient combustion as engine age increases, and these are precursors to formation of crystalline and amorphous particles that are causes of wear in Diesel Engines. It is found that soot from new engine is dominated by calcium based crystals which are from calcium sulfonate detergent, which reduces formation of second phase particles that can be abrasive. Diversity and peak intensity is seen to increase in soot samples as engine age increases. This understanding of second phase particles formed in engines across age ranges can help in the durability development of engine, improvement of Oil formulation for EGR engines, and in development of chemistries for after-treatment Oil solutions that can combat formation of abrasive particles in Oils.

Adeniran, Olusanmi Adeniji

399

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVI, I--CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, II--LEARNING ABOUT BRAKES (PART I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF BRAKE SYSTEMS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THE NEED FOR OIL, (2) SERVICE CLASSIFICATION OF OILS, (3) CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (4)…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

400

Friction losses in a lubricated thrust-loaded cageless angular-contract bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA spinning torque apparatus was modified to measure the spinning torque on a cageless ball thrust bearing. Friction torque was measured for thrust loads varying from 44.5 to 403 newtons (10 to 90 lb) at speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm. Tests were conducted with di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil. These tests were run with either oil jet lubrication or with a thin surface film of lubricant only. An analytical model which included rolling resistance was developed and extended from previous models for spinning torque and lubricant rheology. The model was extended by the inclusion of rolling resistance. The computed values were in fair agreement with the experimental results and confirmed previous hypotheses that a thin lubricant film gives minimum bearing torque and an oil jet flow of a viscous lubricant will result in considerable rolling torque in addition to the torque due to ball spin.

Townsend, D. P.; Allen, C. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

401

[Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].  

PubMed

The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

2014-01-01

402

Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as Deepwater Horizon, (2) acquire a 24 x 7 oil spill response capability at least on a pre-operational basis, (3) acquire improved and expanded ancillary datasets, (4) reduce the number of false positives (analyzed oil that is not actually oil), (5) acquire the ability to reliably differentiate, at least in general qualitative terms, thick oil (“recoverable oil”) from oil sheens, and (6) join our Canadian counterparts (the Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution group in Environment Canada) to create a joint North American center for oil spill response.

Streett, D.; Warren, C.

2010-12-01

403

Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices  

SciTech Connect

Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

404

Tribological Properties of Carbon Nanocapsule Particles as Lubricant Additive.  

PubMed

An experimental investigation is performed into the tribological properties of mineral oil lubricants containing carbon nanocapsules (CNCs) additives with various concentrations (wt.%). Friction characteristics and wear behaviors at contact interfaces are examined by the block-on-ring tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and mapping (MAP) analysis. The results suggest that the addition of CNCs to the mineral oil yields an effective reduction in the friction coefficient at the contact interface. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations clarify the lubrication mechanism of CNCs at the sliding system, indicating the tribological properties are essentially sensitive to the structural evolutions of CNCs. PMID:25161338

Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Huang, Yao-Huei; Tsai, Ping-Chi; Hwang, Gan-Lin

2014-10-01

405

Measurement of rod seal lubrication for Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elastohydrodynamic behavior of sliding elastomeric seals for the Stirling engine, was analyzed using an experimental apparatus to determine the instantaneous oil film thickness throughout the cyclic reciprocating motion. Tests were conducted on two commercial elastomeric seals: a "T" seal (76 mm O.D. and 3.8 mm between backing rings) and an "O" ring (76 mm O.D. and 5.3 mm diameter). Testing conditions included seal durometers of 70 and 90, sliding velocities of 0.8, 2.0, and 3.6 m/s, and no pressure gradient across the seal. Both acrylic and aluminum cylinders were used. Measured oil film thickness profiles were compared to results of the elastohydrodynamic analysis. The comparison shows an overall qualitative agreement. Friction and oil leakage measurements were also made at these sliding speeds. The fluid used was a typical synthetic base automotive lubricant. It is concluded that this first time experimental analytical comparison for oil film thickness indicates the need for some improvements in the analytical model and in the experimental technique.

Krauter, A. I.

1980-01-01

406

Space Station lubrication considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

1987-01-01

407

Hydrodynamic lubrication in fully plastic asperity contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A line contact inlet zone analysis is carried out for the hydrodynamic lubrication in a fully plastic asperity contact. A governing equation of the central film thickness i.e. the film thickness in the fully plastic contact area is derived. An equation predicting this film thickness is also derived. It is found that for the fully plastic contact, under relatively light loads the prediction accuracy for the central film thickness is good, while at the load heavy enough the prediction equation greatly overestimates the central film thickness and the central film thickness solved from the analytical governing equation is significantly low showing the asperity in boundary layer lubrication. For the fully plastic contact, the central film thickness is nearly half of that obtained based on the elastic contact assumption for relatively light loads or even lower for heavier loads. The hydrodynamic lubrication is found difficult to form in the fully plastic asperity contact for the carried load heavy enough or the significantly low sliding speed between the asperities. To achieve a high hydrodynamic lubrication film thickness in the fully plastic asperity contact it is recommended to employ a high sliding speed or a high fluid viscosity. However, in the fully plastic asperity contact, the potential hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity is limited and much smaller than that based on the elastic contact assumption or predicted by conventional line contact elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication theory.

Zhang, Yongbin

2012-01-01

408

The application of Fuzzy Delphi Method and Fuzzy AHP in lubricant regenerative technology selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the funding scale and complexity of lubricant regenerative technology, the selection of recycling technology and policy for waste lubricant oil can be viewed as a multiple-attribute decision process that is normally made by a review committee with experts from academia, industry, and the government. This study aims to provide a systematic approach towards the technology selection, in which

Yu-lung Hsu; Cheng-haw Lee; Victor B. Kreng

2010-01-01

409

Spacecraft materials guide. [including: encapsulants and conformal coatings; optical materials; lubrication; and, bonding and joining processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials which have demonstrated their suitability for space application are summarized. Common, recurring problems in encapsulants and conformal coatings, optical materials, lubrication, and bonding and joining are noted. The subjects discussed include: low density and syntactic foams, electrical encapsulants; optical glasses, interference filter, mirrors; oils, greases, lamillar lubricants; and, soldering and brazing processes.

Staugaitis, C. L. (editor)

1975-01-01

410

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

411

The Compatibility of Crankcase Lubricant–Material Combinations in Internal Combustion Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in engine technology have seen the introduction of new materials and surface coatings leading to an overall reduction in weight and improved durability. However, the lubrication requirements of these materials are not fully understood. In this paper the lubrication of traditional Cr-bearing steel and Al–Si alloy-based components is investigated using two fully formulated lubricants. These two lubricants have

Michael Voong; Anne Neville; Rebecca Castle

2003-01-01

412

Quantifying lubricant droplet spreading on a flat substrate using molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physical behavior of polymer-based lubricants on the nanoscale is of critical importance to a myriad of engineering applications and devices. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to quantitatively evaluate the physical mechanisms underlying perfluoropolyether lubricant spreading on a solid substrate. We quantify the effect of molecular mass, molecule length, and lubricant and substrate functional end groups on lubricant spreading. The results show that lubricant functional end groups play a critical role in lubricant spreading on the nanoscale. Lubricant spreading increases with increasing molecule length for lubricant with functional end groups, but decreases with the increase in molecule length for lubricant without functional end groups. In the former case, the fraction of the lubricant chain that is functional is the primary driving factor for lubricant spreading, while in the latter case, the molecular mass is most important. For both lubricants with and without functional end groups, spreading is inhibited by molecule entanglement beyond a critical molecule length, and spreading becomes independent of lubricant functional end groups and molecular mass.

Noble, Brooklyn; Ovcharenko, Andrey; Raeymaekers, Bart

2014-10-01

413

Friction properties of DLC\\/DLC contacts in base oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are promising surface coatings in terms of friction and wear performance and are beginning to be introduced in internal combustion engines, mainly because of the need to reduce friction and because of compositional constraints on engine lubricants. This paper compares the friction and wear behaviour of twelve different types of DLC coating lubricated with an API

Balasubramaniam Vengudusamy; Riaz A. Mufti; Gordon D. Lamb; Jonathan H. Green; Hugh A. Spikes

2011-01-01

414

Mixed Lubrication Analysis for Journal Bearings in Rotary Compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the numerical analysis of mixed lubrication and the calculated results for journal bearings in rotary compressors. In this analysis, the modified Reynolds equation and the elastic contact equation, considering the effect of surface roughness, are solved as a coupled problem, and then influences of the elastic deformation of the bearing surface and the motion of the rotating shaft with bending deformation are also considered. The appearance of solid contact in hydrodynamic lubrication can be addressed by the analysis. Influences of the rotating speed and the surface roughness on the lubrication characteristics of the journal bearing were investigated by using the mixed lubrication analysis. As the results, it is made clear that the solid contact on the bearing surface occurs in the discharge process of rotary compressors. Furthermore, the contact pressure and the contact area decrease, even though the oil film thickness decreases, when the surface roughness becomes small.

Hattori, Hitoshi; Ito, Yasutaka; Hirayama, Takuya; Miura, Kazuhiko

415

Engineered soy oils for new value added applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

Tran, Phuong T.

416

Tribological characteristics of di(iso-butyl) polysulfide as extreme pressure additive in some mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In order to develop novel high EP S-containing additives and to meet the need of formulating GL-5 gear oil or other high EP lubricating oils, aims to investigate the tribological behaviors and mechanism of a di(iso-butyl)polysulfide (DIBPS), which was synthesized from some cheap materials at low temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure, as an additive in some mineral

Xisheng Fu; Heyang Shao; Tianhui Ren; Weimin Liu; Qunji Xue

2006-01-01

417

Synthesis of Palm Oil-Based Diethanolamides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, Epoxidized Palm Olein (EPOo) was blended with Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Olein (RBDPKOo) in a range of 10–100% (w\\/w) to react with diethanolamine (DEA) with a 1:3 molar ratio to produce diethanolamides that retained\\u000a some epoxides. The epoxidized diethanolamides are proposed as a new type of vegetable oil derived polyols for rigid polyurethane.\\u000a The optimal reaction

C. S. Lee; T. L. Ooi; C. H. Chuah; S. Ahmad

2007-01-01

418

An experimental study of the oil evolution in critical piston ring pack regions and the effects of piston and ring designs in an internal combustion engine utilizing two-dimensional laser induced fluorescence and the impact on maritime economics  

E-print Network

Faced with increasing concern for lubricating, oil consumption and engine friction, it is critical to understand the oil transport mechanisms in the power cylinder system. Lubricating oil travels through distinct regions ...

Vokac, Adam, 1978-

2004-01-01

419

Studies on zinc-containing linseed oil based polyesteramide  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time the synthesis of zinc containing linseed oil based polyesteramide resins (Zn-LPEA-1 to Zn-LPERA-5) with different loadings of zinc acetate were carried out by in situ condensation polymerization reaction between linseed oil derived linseed fattyamide diol (HELA), phthalic anhydride and zinc acetate (divalent metal salt, different mole ratios) in the absence of any solvent. By-products such as

Fahmina Zafar; S. M. Ashraf; Sharif Ahmad

2007-01-01

420

7 CFR 3201.107 - Water turbine bearing oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

Lubricants that are specifically formulated for use in the bearings found in water turbines for electric power generation. Previously designated turbine drip oils are used to lubricate bearings of shaft driven water well turbine pumps. (b) Minimum biobased...

2014-01-01

421

Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

422

Development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing of the hydraulic turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hydropower plant, a large quantities of turbine oil is used as machine control pressure oil and lubricating oil. If the oil leak out from hydropower plant, it flows into a river. And such oil spill has an adverse effect on natural environment because the oil does not degrade easily. Therefore the KANSAI and Hitachi Mitsubishi Hydro developed the water-lubricated thrust bearing for vertical type hydraulic turbine generator. The water-lubricated bearing has advantages in risk avoidance of river pollution because it does not need oil. For proceeding the development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing, we studied following items. The first is the examination of the trial products of water lubricating liquid. The second is the study of bearing structure which can satisfy bearing performance such as temperature characteristic and so on. The third is the mock-up testing for actual application in the future. As a result, it was found that the water-lubricated thrust bearing was technically applicable to actual equipments.

Inoue, K.; Deguchi, K.; Okude, K.; Fujimoto, R.

2012-11-01

423

Experience with synthetic fluorinated fluid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the late 1970's, the wet lubricant of choice for space mechanisms has been one of the family of synthetic perfluoro polyalkylether (PFPE) compounds, namely Fomblin Z-25 (Bray-815Z) or DuPont's Krytox 143xx series. While offering the advantages of extremely low vapor pressures and wide temperature ranges, these oils and derived greases have a complex chemistry compared to the more familiar natural and synthetic hydrocarbons. Many aerospace companies have conducted test programs to characterize the behavior of these compounds in a space environment, resulting in a large body of hard knowledge as well as considerable space lore concerning the suitability of the lubricants for particular applications and techniques for successful application. The facts are summarized and a few myths about the compounds are dispelled, and some performance guidelines for the mechanism design engineer are provided.

Conley, Peter L.; Bohner, John J.

1990-01-01

424

Electrophoretically-deposited solid film lubricants  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous-based process that uses electrophoresis to attract powdered lubricant in suspension to a charged target was developed. The deposition process yields coatings with low friction, complies with environmental safety regulations, requires minimal equipment, and has several advantages over processes involving organic binders or vacuum techniques. This work focuses on development of the deposition process, includes an analysis of the friction coefficient of the material in sliding contact with stainless steel under a range of conditions, and a functional evaluation of coating performance in a precision mechanical device application. Results show that solid lubricant films with friction coefficients as low as 0.03 can be produced. A 0.03 friction coefficient is superior to solid lubricants with binder systems and is comparable to friction coefficients generated with more costly vacuum techniques.

Dugger, M.T.; Panitz, J.K.J.; Vanecek, C.W.

1995-04-01

425

Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method  

E-print Network

Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

Chen, Haijie

2011-01-01

426

Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same  

SciTech Connect

Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by combining water, an acidic molybdenum compound, a basic nitrogen compound complex and a sulfur source to form a sulfur- and molybdenum-containing composition.

Devries, L.; King, J.M.

1981-04-21

427

A new solid lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction and wear life studies on burnished films of the compound graphite fluoride have demonstrated its potential as a solid lubricant material. It is effective in moist air, dry air, or in dry argon at temperatures up to approximately 400 degrees C.

Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

1969-01-01

428

Glass microsphere lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the manufacturing of the microspheres, while sorting entails deciphering the good microspheres from the bad ones. Each process is discussed in detail.

Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

1991-01-01

429

Optimizing power cylinder lubrication on a large bore natural gas engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 6000 integral compressors, located along America's natural gas pipelines, pump natural gas across the United States. These compressors are powered by 2-stroke, large bore natural gas burning engines. Lowering the operating costs, reducing the emissions, and ensuring that these engines remain compliant with future emission regulations are the drivers for this study. Substantial research has focused on optimizing efficiency and reducing the fuel derived emissions on this class of engine. However, significantly less research has focused on the effect and reduction of lubricating oil derived emissions. This study evaluates the impact of power cylinder lubricating oil on overall engine emissions with an emphasis on reducing oxidation catalyst poisoning. A traditional power cylinder lubricator was analyzed; power cylinder lubricating oil was found to significantly impact exhaust emissions. Lubricating oil was identified as the primary contributor of particulate matter production in a large bore natural gas engine. The particulate matter was determined to be primarily organic carbon, and most likely direct oil carryover of small oil droplets. The particulate matter production equated to 25% of the injected oil at a nominal power cylinder lubrication rate. In addition, power cylinder friction is considered the primary contributor to friction loss in the internal combustion engine. This study investigates the potential for optimizing power cylinder lubrication by controlling power cylinder injection to occur at the optimal time in the piston cycle. By injecting oil directly into the ring pack, it is believed that emissions, catalyst poisoning, friction, and wear can all be reduced. This report outlines the design and theory of two electronically controlled lubrication systems. Experimental results and evaluation of one of the systems is included.

Luedeman, Matthew R.

430

24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four oil storage tanks located along the east wall (left side of photograph) are, from foreground to background: dirty transformer oil tank, clean transformer oil tank, dirty lubricating oil tank, and clean lubricating oil tank. An oil filter system is also visible in background along the far wall. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

431

Effect of two synthetic lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur-gear fatigue tests were conducted with two lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The gears were case carburized and hardened to Rockwell C60. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into two groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-ester-based lubricants. One lubricant was 30 percent more viscous that the other. Both lubricants have similar pressure viscosity coefficients. Test conditions included a bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The surface fatigue life of gears tested with one lubricant was approximately 2.4 times that for gears tested with the other lubricant. The lubricant with the 30 percent higher viscosity gave a calculated elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness that was 20 percent higher than the other lubricant. This increased EHD film thickness is the most probable reason for the improvement in surface fatigue life of gears tested with this lubricant over gears tested with the less viscous lubricant.

Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

1991-01-01

432

Current Trends in Biobased Lubricant Development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biobased lubricants are those comprising ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. Biolubricants provide a number of benefits over petroleum-based products including: biodegradability, renewability, and non-toxicity. As a result, manufacture ...

433

Parallelisation of an Oil Reservoir Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of oil reservoir simulation is self evident. Almost every device with a moving part uses oil for lubrication, most forms of transport rely on oil as a source of power and many manufacturing processes use oil as a raw material. Stocks of oil are limited and our ability to recover the available oil is dependent on our knowledge

Alan M. Thompson; Garfield R. Bowen

1996-01-01

434

Radioisotopes Applied to Lubrication Problems of Inertial Gyro Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most critical components of inertial guidance systems are the angular contact bearings of the gyro. The performance of these bearings is, in turn, critically dependent upon their lubrication, which must be derived from oil impregnated ball separators.Radioisotopic techniques have been applied to the study of the impregnation and bleedout characteristics of separators from gyro bearings of two

W. J. Mayer; W. H. Lange; T. F. Conners

1963-01-01

435

Lubrication mechanism in final drive and differential unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a final drive and differential unit for a motor vehicle comprising a differential carrier integrally formed with a cylindrical support structure and arranged to store an amount of lubricating oil. A differential gear unit is rotatably mounted within the carrier. A ring gear is contained within the carrier and mounted on the differential gear unit for rotation

K. Taniyama; H. Hori

1987-01-01

436

Calibration of the ultrasonic lubricant-film thickness measurement technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an experimental apparatus and procedure for the calibration of the ultrasonic lubricant-film thickness measurement technique. It also presents a study of the accuracy of the technique. The calibration apparatus is demonstrated on a three layer steel-mineral oil-steel system. This was chosen to be representative of a typical bearing system which is the industrial application of the technique. In such bearing systems the lubricant-film thickness typically ranges from 0.1 to 100 µm. The calibration apparatus uses a high precision piezoelectric displacement translator to controllably displace one of the steel surfaces relative to the other and hence alter the lubricant-film thickness by a known amount. Through-thickness resonant frequency measurements are then used to accurately measure a thick lubricant film (h > 10 µm). These resonant frequency measurements form the starting point of the calibration. The displacement translator is then used to reduce the lubricant-film thickness into the, more practically interesting, low micron range. In this range the amplitude of the measured reflection coefficient is used via a spring interface model to calculate the lubricant-film thickness. Issues of ultrasonic beam alignment and frequency of operation are discussed. A detailed study of the effect of reflection-coefficient errors on the resultant thickness measurement is presented. Practical guidelines for use of the calibration are then defined and calibration is demonstrated experimentally over the range 0.5-1.3 µm.

Zhang, Jie; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Dwyer-Joyce, Rob S.

2005-09-01

437

Polyurethane Dispersions Based on Interesterification Product of Fish and Linseed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyd and styrenated alkyd resins based on fish oil and their interesterifications with linseed oil were synthesized. The\\u000a various properties of fish oil, such as its iodine value, acid value, saponification value and moisture content were determined.\\u000a The interesterification product of fish oil and linseed oil can be used to partially replace the commercially available linseed\\u000a oil alkyd resin. Alkyd

Ramakant V. NimbalkarVilas; Vilas D. Athawale

2010-01-01

438

Gear Mesh Loss-of-Lubrication Experiments and Analytical Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to determine the loss-of-lubrication (LOL) characteristics of spur gears in an aerospace simulation test facility has been completed. Tests were conducted using two different emergency lubricant types: (1) an oil mist system (two different misted lubricants) and (2) a grease injection system (two different grease types). Tests were conducted using a NASA Glenn test facility normally used for conducting contact fatigue. Tests were run at rotational speeds up to 10000 rpm using two different gear designs and two different gear materials. For the tests conducted using an air-oil misting system, a minimum lubricant injection rate was determined to permit the gear mesh to operate without failure for at least 1 hr. The tests allowed an elevated steady state temperature to be established. A basic 2-D heat transfer simulation has been developed to investigate temperatures of a simulated gear as a function of frictional behavior. The friction (heat generation source) between the meshing surfaces is related to the position in the meshing cycle, the load applied, and the amount of lubricant in the contact. Experimental conditions will be compared to those from the 2-D simulation.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Polly, Joseph; Morales, Wilfredo

2011-01-01

439

Tribological evaluation of PS300: A new chrome oxide based solid lubricant coating sliding against Al2O3 From 25 to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the tribological characteristics of Al203 sliding against PS300; a chrome oxide based self lubricating coating. Al203 pins were slid against PS300 coated superalloy disks in air, under a 4.9 N load at velocities of 1 to 8 m/s. At a sliding velocity of 1 m/s, friction ranged from 0.6 at 25 C to 0.2 at 650 C. Wear factors for the Al203 pins were in the 10(exp -7) mm(exp 3)/N-m range and for the PS300 coating was in the 10(exp -5) mm(exp 3)/N-m range. The test results suggest that increased surface temperature resulting from either frictional heating, generated by increased sliding velocity, or ambient heating caused a reduction in friction and wear of the sliding couple. Based upon these results, the tested material combination is a promising candidate for high temperature wear applications.

DellaCorte, C.; Laskowski, J. A.

1996-01-01

440

The Role of Tribology in the Development of an Oil-Free Turbocharger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas-turbine-based aeropropulsion engines are technologically mature. Thus, as with any mature technology, revolutionary approaches will be needed to achieve the significant performance gains that will keep the U.S. propulsion manufacturers well ahead of foreign competition. One such approach is the development of oil-free turbomachinery utilizing advanced foil air bearings, seals, and solid lubricants. By eliminating oil-lubricated bearings and seals and supporting an engine rotor on an air film, significant improvements can be realized. For example, the entire oil system including pipes, lines, filters, cooler, and tanks could be removed, thereby saving considerable weight. Since air has no thermal decomposition temperature, engine systems could operate without excessive cooling. Also, since air bearings have no diameter-rpm fatigue limits (D-N limits), engines could be designed to operate at much higher speeds and higher density, which would result in a smaller aeropropulsion package. Because of recent advances in compliant foil air bearings and high temperature solid lubricants, these technologies can be applied to oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to develop these technologies and to demonstrate a project along the path to an oil-free gas turbine engine, NASA has undertaken the development of an oil-free turbocharger for a heavy duty diesel engine. This turbomachine can reach 120000 rpm at a bearing temperature of 540 C (1000 F) and, in comparison to oil-lubricated bearings, can increase efficiency by 10 to 15 percent because of reduced friction. In addition, because there are no oil lubricants, there are no seal-leakage-induced emissions.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1997-01-01

441

Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluent to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are under development. Increased utilization of glycerol would help biodiesel producers to become more competitive and viable. Lubricants based on vegetable oils generally suffer from po...

442

2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop  

E-print Network

of vegetable and animal oils to certain crop protection needs. #12;3Agnello--Petroleum-derived spray oils2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Abstract Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop,buttheseweretoophytotoxic.Eventually, researchersconcentratedondistillatesintherangebetween kerosene and lubricating oils.Three basic classes of carbon structures present in petroleum oils

Agnello, Arthur M.

443

Prediction of scuffing failure based on competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal: Application to lubricated sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for predicting scuffing failure based on the competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal has been developed and applied to the sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel with poly-alpha-olefin as the lubricant. Oxide formation rates were determining using static oxidation tests on coupons of 52100 steel covered with poly-alpha-olefin at temperatures of 140 C to 250 C. Oxide removal rates were determined at different combinations of initial average nominal contact pressures (950 MPa to 1578 MPa) and sliding velocities (0.4 m/s to 1.8 m/s) using a ball-on-disk vacuum tribotester. The nominal asperity flash temperatures generated during the wear tests were calculated and the temperatures corresponding to the intersection of the the Arrhenius plots of oxide formation and removal rates were determined and taken as the critical failure temperatures. The pressure-velocity failure transition diagram was constructed by plotting the critical failure temperatures along isotherms of average nominal asperity flash temperatures calculated at different combinations of contact stress and sliding speed. The predicted failure transition curve agreed well with experimental scuffing data.

Cutiongco, Eric C.; Chung, Yip-Wah

1994-07-01

444

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10...

2012-07-01

445

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10...

2014-07-01

447

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10...

2011-07-01

449

Fully flooded elastohydrodynamic lubricated elliptical contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emphasis is on fully flooded, elastohydrodynamic lubricated, elliptical contacts. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. A brief description of the relevant equations used in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts is given. The most important practical aspect of the elastohydrodynamic theory is the determination of the minimum film thickness within the contact. The maintenance of a fluid film of adequate magnitude is an essential feature of the correct operation of lubricated machine elements. The results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. Film thickness equations are developed for materials of high elastic modulus, such as metal, and for materials of low elastic modulus, such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, plots of pressure and film thickness are presented. These theoretical solutions for film thickness have all the essential features of previously reported experimental observations based on optical interferometry. Correlation between theory and experiments is also presented.

Hamrock, B. J.

1980-01-01

450

Consideration of Alternate Working Fluid Properties in Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program at the NASA Glenn Research center is committed to, revolutionary improvements in performance, efficiency and reliability of turbomachinery propulsion systems. One of the key breakthroughs by which this goal is being achieved is the maturation of air lubricated foil bearing technology. Through experimental testing, foil bearings have demonstrated a variety of exceptional qualities that show them to have an important role in the future of rotordynamic lubrication. Most of the work done with foil bearings thus far has considered ambient air at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid or lubricating fluid in the bearing. However, special applications of oil-free technology require the use of air at non- standard ambient conditions or completely different working fluids altogether. The NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter program presents power generation needs far beyond that of any previous space exploration effort. The proposed spacecraft will require significant power generation to provide the propulsion necessary to reach the moons of Jupiter and navigate between them. Once there, extensive scientific research will be conducted that will also present significant power requirements. Such extreme needs require exploring a new method for power generation in space. A proposed solution involves a Brayton cycle nuclear fission reactor. The nature of this application requires reliable performance of all reactor components for many years of operation under demanding conditions. This includes the bearings which will be operating with an alternative working fluid that is a combination of Helium and Xenon gases commonly known as HeXe. This fluid has transport and thermal properties that vary significantly from that of air and the effect of these property differences on bearing performance must be considered. One of the most promising applications of oil-free technology is in aircraft turbine engines. Eliminating the oil supply systems from aircraft engines will lead to significant weight and maintenance reduction. In such applications, the lubricating fluid will be high altitude air. This air will be at much lower pressure than that at sea level. Again this property change will result in a change in bearing performance, and analysis is required to quantify this effect. The study of these alternate working fluid properties will be conducted in two ways: analytically and experimentally. Analytical research will include the use of a mathematical code that can predict film thickness profiles for various ambient conditions. Estimations of load capacity can be made based upon the film thickness trends. These values will then be compared to those obtained from classical rigid bearing analysis. Experimental Research will include testing a foil bearing at a variety of ambient air pressures. The analytical and experimental data will be compared to draw conclusions on bearing performance under alternate working fluid properties.

Smith, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

451

Characterization of the skin penetration of a hydrocarbon-based weapons maintenance oil.  

PubMed

Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of these ingredients are known to induce skin irritation in laboratory animals. Studies completed in our labs found that repeated topical application of Break-Free CLP to the backs of CD-1 mice produced evidence of systemic effects. Studies were conducted to characterize the dermal penetration of Break-Free CLP in mouse, rat, and pig skin to provide insight on possible factors or causes of skin irritation and systemic effects observed in previous studies. Mouse skin was 37 times more permeable to Break-Free CLP than pig skin and 6 times more permeable than rat skin. Flux measurements from static diffusion cells showed an inverse correlation with mouse, rat, and pig skin thickness. The concentration of Break-Free CLP in mouse skin was 4.5 times higher than the amount found in rat skin and about 17 times higher than the amount absorbed by pig skin. These results support the idea that Break-Free CLP causes skin irritation and systemic effects in the mouse by both penetrating through and accumulating in the skin. The findings for rat and pig skin are probably most representative of Break-Free CLP flux into and through unprotected human skin and suggest that dermal toxicity studies in CD-1 mice overestimate the risk to humans. These results, nevertheless, suggest that persons handling or using Break-Free CLP should protect the skin from possible exposure. PMID:16801258

Arfsten, Darryl P; Garrett, Carol M; Jederberg, Warren W; Wilfong, Erin R; McDougal, James N

2006-09-01

452

Offset printing inks based on rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. Part II: Varnish and ink formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of variable oil length, alkyd resins modified by sunflower oil (SOA) and by rapeseed oil (ROA), were evaluated in\\u000a offset formulations with mineral oils as diluent. The more suitable alkyds for this kind of application were determined. In\\u000a a second experiment, hydrocarbon solvents were substituted by the fatty acid methyl esters derived from rapeseed oil or sunflower\\u000a oil

Pascale Sabin; Bouchra Benjelloun-Mlayah; Michel Delmas

1997-01-01

453

Oil Saving Seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Driven under difficult field conditions, the Army Jeep shown went more than 22,000 miles without an oil change in a test conducted by the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command. Key to this exceptionally long oil life was a set of piston ring seals made of a new synthetic rubber formula called RC-34; the seal pictured, photographed after its arduous Army trial, shows no signs of deterioration. The seal and the RC-34 material, which may soon be available for use in the family auto, were developed by Ramsey Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri, a division of TRW Automotive Worldwide. The oil in an automobile engine must be I replaced every few thousand miles not because it wears out but because it becomes contaminated. The contamination sources are gasoline and combustion gases which blow by the piston rings to mix with the oil, reducing the oil's ability to lubricate properly. Seeking to prolong oil life by eliminating "blowby," Ramsey Corporation looked for a better way to seal piston rings and used NASA technology as a departure point. The parent company TRW, under contract to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, had developed seals and bladders from a type of material called elastomers which where designed to withstand the environmental extremes of interplanetary flight. That effort formed a knowledge base for research which culminated in Ramsey's RC-34 elastomer.

1978-01-01

454

Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

455

Lubricant Behavior in Concentrated Contact—Some Rheological Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several problems are reviewed concerning the flow behavior of lubricants under the high pressures and shear stresses which occur in the contact zones of ball bearings and gears. A description is given of experiments on this topic with a machine involving contact between cylindrical and spherical rollers. An ester-based lubricant under a mean Hertz pressure of 102,900 lb\\/in (7.1 ×

F. W. Smith

1960-01-01

456

Tension Measurement System of Oil Based on Embedded System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the common tension measurement method. As to the spinning drop method which suitable for low or ultra-low oil interface, a tension measurement system using linear CCD and bearingless SRM (switched reluctance motor) based on embedded processor S3C2410 is designed in this paper. TCD141C CCD is adopted and drove by signal produced by S3C2410. The processor also completes

Jingwen Tian; Hao Wu; Meijuan Gao

2008-01-01

457

Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils (VOs) is a promising alternative fuel to diesel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuel and the environmental concerns. In this work, an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel from VOs using heterogeneous catalyst was developed. Na\\/NaOH\\/?-Al2O3 heterogeneous base catalyst was firstly adopted for the production of biodiesel. A study

Hak-Joo Kim; Bo-Seung Kang; Min-Ju Kim; Young Moo Park; Deog-Keun Kim; Jin-Suk Lee; Kwan-Young Lee

2004-01-01

458

Extractors manual for Oil Shale Data Base System: Major Plants Data Base  

SciTech Connect

To date, persons working in the development of oil shale technology have found limited amounts of reference data. If data from research and development could be made publicly available, however, several functions could be served. The duplication of work could be avoided, documented test material could serve as a basis to promote further developments, and research costs could possibly be reduced. To satisfy the engineering public's need for experimental data and to assist in the study of technical uncertainties in oil shale technology, the Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the development of a data system to store the results of Government-sponsored research. A technology-specific data system consists of data that are stored for that technology in each of the specialized data bases that make up the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) data system. The Oil Shale Data System consists of oil shale data stored in the Major Plants Data Base (MPDB), Test Data Data Base (TDDB), Resource Extraction Data Base (REDB), and Math Modeling Data Base (MMDB). To capture the results of Government-sponsored oil shale research programs, documents have been written to specify the data that contractors need to report and the procedures for reporting them. The documents identify and define the data from oil shale projects to be entered into the MPDB, TDDB, REDB, and MMDB, which will meet the needs of users of the Oil Shale Data System. This document addresses what information is needed and how it must be formatted for entry to the MPDB for oil shale. The data that are most relevant to potential Oil Shale Data System users have been divided into four categories: project tracking needs; economic/commercialization needs; critical performance needs; and modeling and research and development needs. 2 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1986-08-01

459

Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System  

DOEpatents

An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

2000-05-09

460

The role of lubricants, scanning velocity and operating environment in adhesion, friction and wear of Pt Ir coated probes for atomic force microscope probe-based ferroelectric recording technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probe-based data recording is being developed as an alternative technology for ultrahigh areal density. In potential ferroelectric data storage, a conductive atomic force microscope tip is scanned over a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film, a ferroelectric material. The understanding and the improvement of wear of the tip during its contact with the ferroelectric materials is critical, particularly at the high scanning velocities needed for high data rate recording in the operating environments. To this end, adhesion, friction and wear experiments are performed using Pt-Ir coated tips sliding against unlubricated and lubricated PZT films at velocities ranging from 0.1 to 100 mm s-1, the maximum velocity corresponding to the expected recording rate. Two lubricants were used: perfluoropolyether and ionic liquid. The Pt-Ir tips are shown to exhibit lower wear against the lubricated PZT film. To study the role of the operating environment, experiments are also conducted at 80 and 120 °C and at 5-80% relative humidity. Relevant wear mechanisms are discussed.

Bhushan, Bharat; Kwak, Kwang Joo

2008-08-01

461

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance. PMID:20596546

2009-01-01

462

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-07-01

463

Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

464

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

465

Graphene oxide film as solid lubricant.  

PubMed

As a layered material, graphene oxide (GO) film is a good candidate for improving friction and antiwear performance of silicon-based MEMS devices. Via a green electrophoretic deposition (EPD) approach, GO films with tunable thickness in nanoscale are fabricated onto silicon wafer in a water solution. The morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties as well as the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the films were investigated. The results indicated that the friction coefficient of silicon wafer was reduced to 1/6 its value, and the wear volume was reduced to 1/24 when using GO film as solid lubricant. These distinguished tribology performances suggest that GO films are expected to be good solid lubricants for silicon-based MEMS/NEMS devices. PMID:23786494

Liang, Hongyu; Bu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Junyan; Cao, Zhongyue; Liang, Aimin

2013-07-10

466

Linseed Oil-Based Concrete Surface Treatment -for Building and Highway Structures in  

E-print Network

, Linseed Oil-Based Concrete Surface Treatment -for Building and Highway Structures in Hong Kong Y using jour Canadian linseed oil- based sealants on concrete specimens madejrom G30120 and G45120 Keywords: Unseed Oil, Concrete Surface Treatment, Salt Spray Resistance, Carbonation, Bond Strength, Ultra