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1

Lubricant base oil and wax processing. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect

This book provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes. It furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

Sequeira, A. Jr.

1994-01-01

2

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to

Philip Mercurio; Andrew P Negri; Kathryn A Burns; Andrew J Heyward

2004-01-01

3

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into 'low'-, 30-120°C, and 'high'-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages - induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage is the same as low-temperature oxidation but with reduced selectivity and increased reactivity; second, the oxidation phase becomes diffusion controlled as hydrocarbon viscosities increase from progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products, causing varnish and sludge formation. Base oil oxidation stabilities depend upon their derivation, whether solvent neutral, hydrocracked or synthetic, and their response to antioxidant treatment. Lubricant oxidation control focuses on radical scavengers and hydroperoxide decomposers and their synergistic mixtures.

Aguilar, G.; Mazzamaro, G.; Rasberger, M.

4

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOEpatents

Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, A.

1995-07-11

5

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOEpatents

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01

6

Lubricants based on renewable resources – an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the

Andreas Willing

2001-01-01

7

Lubrication mechanism of solid lubricants in oils  

SciTech Connect

Lubricating properties of machine oils containing such solid lubricants as (CF)n, MoS2, graphite, etc., were studied on a pin and disk machine by measuring an electric contact resistance and a friction force. After lubrication tests, solid lubricants films and transferred wear particles on worn surfaces have been observed by means of an XMA and an optical microscope. The wear mechanism of metals was analyzed considering a mean peak to peak distance and a mean depth of scratches on worn surfaces. The effects of particle size and concentration of (CF)n, and a suspending agent AD-6 on the friction and wear process were also discussed. It was found that when the large number of (CF)n particles can penetrate into the interface in accordance with an oil flow, they show a good performance as a lubricant but solid lubricant films were not formed on worn surfaces besides graphite particles embedded on those of a copper disk.

Hisakado, T.; Tsukizoe, T.; Yoshikawa, H.

1983-04-01

8

Tribological properties of lubricating oil-based nanofluids with metal/carbon nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Oil-based nanofluids were prepared by dispersing several metal and/or carbon nanoparticles in lubricating oil, and their tribological properties were investigated using a four-ball tribotester and an FZG machine. Each nanofluid can possess excellent wear resistance or extreme pressure capacity, but not both. Therefore, a new concept of mixed nanofluids was developed to satisfy both properties at the same time. The mixed nanofluids containing graphite and Ag nanoparticles not only showed enhanced load-carrying and anti-wear properties in the FZG gear rig test but also reduced the electric-power consumption by more than 3% compared to the base oil. PMID:21446457

Choi, Cheol; Jung, Mihee; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Jaekeun; Oh, Jemyung

2011-01-01

9

Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2005-01-01

10

41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.  

...2012-07-01 true Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26...602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. ...make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for...

2014-07-01

11

Using of Cottonseed Oil as An Environmentally Accepted Lubricant Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, to minimize friction and to control wear in machines elements are used with lubricating oil manufactured by advanced technologies. The high performance of lubricating oils is provided by oil additives. Additives improve the lubricating ability of the base oils by either enhancing the desirable properties, which is already present, or obtaining new properties. The decreasing of

ERTUGRUL DURAK; FILIZ KARAOSMANOGLU

2004-01-01

12

Succinimide lubricating oil dispersant  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described exhibiting improved dispersancy in both gasoline and diesel engines comprising a major amount of lubricating oil and 0.5 to 10 weight percent of a dispersant, the dispersant being prepared in a sequential process comprising the steps of: (a) in a first step reacting an oil-soluble polyolefin succinic anhydride, the olefin being a C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ olefin and an alkylene polyamine of the formula H/sub 2/N(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/(NH(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/)/sub m/sup -// NH/sub 2/ wherein n is 2 or 3 and m is 0 to 10, in a molar ratio of about 1.0 to 2.2 moles of polyolefin succinic anhydride per mole of polyamine, and (b) reacting the product of step (a) with dicarboxylic acid anhydride selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride in sufficient molar proportions to provide a total mole ratio of about 2,3 to 3.0 moles of anhydride compounds per mole of polyamine.

Wisotsky, M.J.; Bloch, R.; Brownwell, D.W.; Chen, F.J.; Gutierrez, A.

1987-08-11

13

Engine lubrication oil aeration  

E-print Network

The lubrication system of an internal combustion engine serves many purposes. It lubricates moving parts, cools the engine, removes impurities, supports loads, and minimizes friction. The entrapment of air in the lubricating ...

Baran, Bridget A. (Bridget Anne)

2007-01-01

14

Lubricating oil additives  

SciTech Connect

What is disclosed is a concentrated polymer emulsion useful as a lubricating oil additive for improving the viscosity index thereof, said emulsion comprising: (1) a dispersed phase of an olefinic copolymer having a molecular weight complementary with respect to the thickening effect desired; (2) a dispersing phase of a polymer predominantly comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of acrylate ester and methacrylate ester monomers; (3) a vehicle which is a good solvent for the esters in said dispersing phase and a substantially less good solvent for the olefinic copolymer by virtue of the esters dissolved in said vehicle; and (4) an emulsifier, stabilizing phase distribution, which is a member selected from the group consisting of graft copolymers and block copolymers formed from olefinic monomers and at least one member selected from the group consisting of acrylate ester and methacrylate ester monomers.

Benda, R.; Jost, H.; Knoell, H.; Pennewiss, H.

1981-09-22

15

Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

1983-01-01

16

Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

Holinski, R.

1984-01-01

17

Lubricants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site related to lubrication is presented by SynLube.com and its relevant page is entitled Basics: What You Need to Know About Lubrication (1). Visitors can learn why lubrication is so important to mechanical devices, why oil needs to be changed in your car, what synthetic oils can do, and more. Although the site is for a manufacturer of synthetic oil, there is a good amount of interesting physical science information. The second site provides an educational resource activity by The Explorer, called Slippery Substances -- Lubricants (2). Students in grades 5 through 8 get to compare the "slipperiness" of various substances tested, read how a lubricant works, and identify objects that need lubricants to work correctly. All information needed to complete the activity is provided, including a short list of easily attained materials. Next, from NASA's Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program Web site, comes the High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings page (3). Visitors can read about a new chrome oxide based coating, which has been shown to provide good friction and wear properties to very high temperatures. The page contains descriptions, photographs, and even a link that shows the US patent for the "Self-Lubricating Composite Containing Chromium Oxide." The fourth site, About Lubrication (4), is maintained by Machine Care Systems. The page contains an informative explanation on the definition of energy release and lubricated components, and answers the questions what energy release is and if oil ever wears out. The next site, offered by the lubrication manufacturer Lubrizol, is called Lubrication Theory and Practice (5). As the title states, the site gives detailed explanations of friction reduction, lubricant viscosity, heat removal, suspension of contaminants, and other lubrication topics. InnerAuto.com offers the next site, which is an interactive animation of an Engine Lubrication System (6). As you move your mouse over the various parts of the engine, the lubrication critical part names reveal themselves and can then be clicked for additional information. If you happen to be in the market for a lubricant, the seventh site can definitely help you out. The Lubricants EZ Search (7) page, offered by ThomasRegister.com, contains 99 categories of lubricant manufacturers, descriptions of what they offer, and direct links to their Web sites. The last site related to lubricants, Lubrication Recommendations (8), is maintained by Infomedia. Here, visitors can choose from more than a dozen of machine categories and specific models to find out the type of lubrication they require as well as any notes related to that machinery such as crankcase capacity.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

18

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the\\u000a replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates\\u000a for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity,\\u000a they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here

Brajendra K. Sharma; Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

19

Evaluation of PS 212 Coatings Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions with an Ester-based Oil to 300 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High friction and wear of turbine engine components occur during high temperature excursions above the oxidation threshold of the liquid lubricant. This paper reports on research to study the use of a high temperature self lubricating coating, PS 212 for back-up lubrication in the event of failure of the liquid lubricant. Pin on disk tests were performed under dry and boundary-lubricated conditions at disk temperatures up to 300 C. The liquid lubricant was a formulated polyol ester qualified under MIL L-23699. At test temperatures above the oil's thermal degradation level, the use of PS 212 reduced wear, providing a back-up lubricant effect.

Sliney, Harold E.; Loomis, William R.; Dellacorte, Christopher

1994-01-01

20

Toxicological characteristics of refinery streams used to manufacture lubricating oils.  

PubMed

In the past, reports on the tumorigenic potential of lubricating oils in experimental animals have poorly defined the materials under study. In this paper the results of mouse skin painting studies with 46 clearly defined samples of refinery streams associated with lubricating oil processing show that modern conventional solvent refining of distillates removes tumorigenic potential while conventional acid refining may not. Furthermore, dewaxing, hydrofinishing, and clay treatments do not appear to mitigate the tumorigenicity of the lubricant distillates. Lubricant processing has changed over the years and assessments of the carcinogenicity of present-day lubricating materials must be based on knowledge of modern processing. PMID:6702826

Kane, M L; Ladov, E N; Holdsworth, C E; Weaver, N K

1984-01-01

21

Chemical modification of vegetable oils for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the unfavorable impact on the environment of mineral oil-based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the\\u000a demand for biodegradable, environment-friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace\\u000a or partially substitute conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable\\u000a and are thus promising candidates as base fluids

Brajendra K. Sharma; Atanu Adhvaryu; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

22

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03

23

Characterization of the lubricating action of oils under boundary lubrication conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyalphaolefin (PAO) and polypropylene glycol (PPG)-based lubricants as well as mineral oils were tested to characterize their wear reducing performance under boundary lubrication conditions, using the ISO 7148 test method, which was originally developed for the characterization of bearing materials. This test method has practical value with respect to developing lubricants for use in sliding contacts, such as occur in worm gear drives. It is found that the wear reducing action of PAO-based lubricants is significantly better than that of mineral oils. PPG fluids perform equally well or slightly better than PAOs. Provided that viscosities are in line and additives are compatible, contamination of PAOs with mineral oils has no or only marginal effect on wear reduction.

de Gee, A. W. J.; Lossie, C. M.; Stoop, W.

1995-07-01

24

Lubricant base fluids based on renewable raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricants based on renewable raw materials and their derivatives are drawing increased attraction in various applications. Here, the environmental awareness is the key factor of success. The use of such rapidly biodegradable materials is especially favourable in loss-lubrication and hydraulic systems with increased risk of damage. Environmentally friendly, biodegradable alternatives are available for a large variety of mineral oil based

Helena Wagner; Rolf Luther; Theo Mang

2001-01-01

25

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the engine lubricating oil for testing that meets the requirements...Record the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels...dehazer, antirust, pour depressant, dye, dispersant, and biocide. (2) Use...

2010-07-01

26

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the engine lubricating oil for testing that meets the requirements...Record the specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels...dehazer, antirust, pour depressant, dye, dispersant, and biocide. (2) Use...

2011-07-01

27

Coconut oil as base oil for industrial lubricants—evaluation and modification of thermal, oxidative and low temperature properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of coconut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil and a commercial 2T oil under nitrogen and oxygen environment to study their thermal and oxidative degradation and the analysis of the low-temperature properties of the vegetable oils using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A molecular dynamics simulation software (Spartan 02, Wavefunction Inc.) has been used to

N. H. Jayadas; K. Prabhakaran Nair

2006-01-01

28

Batch Production of Trimetylolpropane Ester from Palm Oil as Lubricant Base Stock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A batch process for the ransesterification of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) to TMP ester was investigated in a mini pilot reactor. The process was equipped with a high vacuum pump. The experimental studies explored effects of vacuum pressure, temperature, molar ratio, catalyst amount and agitator speed on the overall conversion. Five liters of TMP esters containing 83 to 87 w/w % triesterss (TE) were successfully synthesized after 2 h of reaction time Application of vacuum pump enhanced conversion of TE (w/w %) for the process. High catalyst amount resulted in higher conversion of TE (w/w %) but increased in solid content of the product. This has reduced the product yield due to inefficient separation by gravity settling.

Zubaidah Sulaiman, Siti; Luqman Chuah, A.; Fakhru`L-Razi, A.

29

Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

1984-01-01

30

Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

Lee, F.

1978-01-01

31

Thermoreversible Gel Lubricants through Universal Supramolecular Assembly of a Nonionic Surfactant in a Variety of Base Lubricating Liquids.  

PubMed

The present paper investigates a new type of thermoreversible gel lubricant obtained by supramolecular assembly of low-molecular-weight organic gelator (LMWG) in different base oils. The LMWG is a nonionic surfactant with polar headgroup and hydrophobic tail that can self-assemble through collective noncovalent intermolecular interactions (H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction) to form fibrous structures and trap base oils (mineral oils, synthetic oils, and water) in the as-formed cavities. The gel lubricants are fully thermoreversible upon heating-up and cooling down and exhibit thixotropic characteristics. This makes them semisolid lubricants, but they behave like oils. The tribological test results disclosed that the LMWG could also effectively reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs compared with base oils without gelator. It is expected that when being used in oil-lubricated components, such as gear, rolling bearing, and so on, gel lubricant may effectively avoid base oil leak and evaporation loss and so is a benefit to operation and lubrication failure for a long time. PMID:25111146

Yu, Qiangliang; Fan, Mingjin; Li, Dongmei; Song, Zenghong; Cai, Meirong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

2014-09-24

32

The Growth of Thin Lubricating Films of Plant Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme conditions of high pressure and shear imposed in a lubricated sliding contact could influence tribochemical reactions\\u000a that could occur over long sliding distances and time scales, possibly leading to changes in both friction and film thickness.\\u000a Experiments conducted with 12 plant oils reveal for the first time, that thin lubricating films of some plant oils can grow\\u000a to

Wenhsi Chua; Gwidon W. Stachowiak

2011-01-01

33

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were

Philip Mercurio; Kathryn A. Burns; Andrew Negri

2004-01-01

34

Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.  

PubMed

Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

2005-05-01

35

Oil soluble metal (lower) dialkyl dithiophosphate succinimide complex and lubricating oil compositions containing same  

SciTech Connect

Oil insoluble metal salts of lower dialkyl dithiophosphates are rendered oil soluble when combined with alkenyl or alkyl mono- or bis-succinimides. Oil compositions containing this combination are useful as crankcase lubricants.

Yamaguchi, E.S.

1981-12-22

36

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2011-07-01

37

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2012-07-01

38

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2010-07-01

39

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2013-07-01

40

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2014-07-01

41

The Influence of Temperature on the Lubricating Effectiveness of MoS2 Dispersed in Mineral Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with

R. J. Rolek; C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

1985-01-01

42

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

43

Low phosphorus- and sulfur-containing lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described containing less than about 0.1% by weight of phosphorus and comprising a major amount of an oil of lubricating viscosity, and a minor amount of at least one oil-soluble sulfur-containing material which comprises the reaction product of sulfur and a Diels-Alder adduct in a molar ratio of less than 1.7:1 wherein the adduct is an adduct of at least one dienophile with at least one aliphatic conjugated diene.

Davis, K.E.

1986-04-15

44

Lubricating oil having improved rust inhibition and demulsibility  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil is described which comprises a major amount of a lubricating oil base stock and a synergistic additive combination comprising (a) a rust inhibiting amount of a rust inhibitor wherein the rust inhibitor contains a succinic acid derivative of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub 5])[sub 2]-C-COOH, and partially esterified alkyl succinic acid of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub 5])[sub 2]-C-COOR[sub 6]-OH where R[sub 4], R[sub 5], and R[sub 6] may be the same or different and are each an alkyl group containing from about 2 to about 10 carbon atoms, and (b) a pyridine derivative having the formula C[sub 5]H[sub 2]NR[sub 1]R[sub 2]R[sub 3] where R[sub 1], R[sub 2], and R[sub 3] are independently an alkyl group containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, wherein the weight ratio of (b) to (a) is greater than zero and less than about 0.06.

Pillon, L.Z.; Asselin, A.E.

1993-07-13

45

The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1984-01-01

46

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01...Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section 75.1104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory...

2014-07-01

47

Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

Koh, J. L.

1981-01-01

48

Status of New Direction of Liquid Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of liquid lubricants is discussed. Liquid lubricants which continue to be the predominant form of lubrication for machinery are discussed. Petroleum base lubricants comprise a very high percentage of the liquid lubricants in use today. There is a significant movement toward synthetic lubricants driven by crude oil problems coupled with improved additive response, and low temperature performance for the synthetics. Lubricant degradation mechanisms are included for guidance in the selection of lubricant and additive types.

Klaus, E. E.

1984-01-01

49

Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphosphoramidate (DBOP), 6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-ol calcium salt (ODOC) and 2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane (DOB) to generate boundary films on stainless steel AISI 316 and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Experimental results show lower friction values for the emulsions in combination with CoCrMo compared to AISI 316. The different performance of the additives is related to the composition of the adsorption and reaction film on the interacting surfaces, which was shown to be dependent on the active elements and molecular structure of the additives. The friction profile of the emulsions indicates that the emulsion appears to be broken during the rubbing process, then the additives adsorb onto the metal surface to form protecting boundary layers. The XPS analysis shows that for boundary lubrication conditions, the additive molecules in the emulsion first adsorb on the metal surface after the droplet is broken, and then decompose and react with the metal surface during the rubbing process to form stable lubricating films on the rubbed surfaces.

Yan, Jincan; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; van der Heide, Emile

2014-10-01

50

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. I - Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact is lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contacts are optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact is formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. In contrast, under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short-term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

51

Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel  

SciTech Connect

The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

1992-02-01

52

Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

Mcgrogan, F.

1976-01-01

53

Modeling of liner finish effects on oil control ring lubrication in internal combustion engines based on deterministic method  

E-print Network

Twin-land oil control ring is widely used in the automotive diesel engines, and is gaining more and more applications in the modern designs of gasoline engines. Its interaction with the cylinder liner surface accounts for ...

Chen, Haijie

2008-01-01

54

An experimental investigation into oil mist lubrication  

E-print Network

-bearing arrangement . . 13 3 Mass-distribution measuring system. . 15 4 Figure showing the inertial impaction of an aerosol particle. . 18 5 A schematic showing an aerosol particle being intercepted by the body 19 6 The number of particles are estimated, using... bearings as pointed out in the previous section. Thus, we have to condense the stray mist by some process. The excess uncondensed oil mist is evacuated through a draw-off port. From this port, oil mist is piped to an oil separator or electrostatic...

Kannan, Krishna

2012-06-07

55

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

SciTech Connect

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

2000-01-20

56

The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

2013-01-01

57

Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.  

PubMed

After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. PMID:25046076

Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

2014-08-13

58

Carbon microspheres as ball bearings in aqueous-based lubrication.  

PubMed

We present an exploratory study on a suspension of uniform carbon microspheres as a new class of aqueous-based lubricants. The surfactant-functionalized carbon microspheres (?0.1 wt %) employ a rolling mechanism similar to ball bearings to provide low friction coefficients (? ? 0.03) and minimize surface wear in shear experiments between various surfaces, even at high loads and high contact pressures. The size range, high monodispersity, and large yield stress of the C(?sphere), as well as the minimal environmental impact, are all desirable characteristics for the use of a C(?sphere)-SDS suspension as an alternative to oil-based lubricants in compatible devices and machinery. PMID:21699215

St Dennis, J E; Jin, Kejia; John, Vijay T; Pesika, Noshir S

2011-07-01

59

Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

2009-01-01

60

Re-refined lubrication oils. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatments and re-refining of used lubrication oils. Topics include the decontamination processes, reclamation of automobile oils, and handling and storage of waste oils. Environmental analyses of used oil recycling are included. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of recycled lubricating oils are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-07-01

61

A Method to Calculate Frictional Effects in Oil-Lubricated Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and heat generation in oil-lubricated ball bearings is mainly the result of sliding in the ball-raceway contacts and agitation of the lubricant in the free space between the balls, cage. and bearing rings. Endurance of a ball bearing is highly dependent on the thicknesses of the oil films which serve to separate the balls from the raceways in a

Tedric A. Harris; Roger M. Barnsby; Michael N. Kotzalas

2001-01-01

62

High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

1999-01-01

63

The plasma generated and photons emitted in an oil-lubricated sliding contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive work has long been going on to find out the unknown origin that sets off curious tribo-physicochemical phenomena and that causes various kinds of problems in oil-lubricated sliding contacts in mechanical and processing systems. The strange tribochemical reaction is one of the such curious chemical phenomena observed in the degradation of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricating oil film in a hard disk drive. Plasma (triboplasma) (Nakayama and Mirza 2006 Tribol. Trans. 49 17) would be one of the most probable origins of the problems if it were generated sufficiently intensely in oil-lubricated sliding contacts, as it is in such a highly energetic state. The generation of plasma was predicted in both dry and oil-lubricated sliding (Nakayama 1997 Japan. J. Tribol. 42 1077, Nakayama 2004 Surf. Coat. Technol. 188-189 599). However, plasma generation in industrially important oil-lubricated contacts has not yet been proven, though it has been found in dry sliding (Nakayama and Nevshupa 2002 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 L53). Here the author reports the discovery of the predicted plasma generated in the rear part of an oil-lubricated sliding contact, together with a new finding on photon emission phenomena from inside and outside of the sliding contact in the tribosystem of a diamond pin sliding against a sapphire disc. The plasma in oil-lubricated sliding has a simple ellipse shape, while that in dry sliding has a horseshoe pattern. Visible and infrared (IR) photons are emitted from oil-lubricated sliding contact, while ultraviolet (UV), visible and IR photons are emitted from the region of plasma generation as well as from dry sliding. The UV photon spectra emitted under oil-lubrication completely coincided with those in dry sliding and air discharge, demonstrating that plasma is generated by air discharge even under oil-lubrication. Two kinds of new concepts have been proposed. One is plasma generation by discharge of air through bubble formation in decompressed oil in the rear part of the sliding contact. The other is photon emission from surface atoms and oil molecules excited by the attack of electrons accelerated in the intense tribocharge-induced electric field of the asperity gap inside the sliding contact under dry and oil-lubricated slidings. The size and intensity of the plasma and photon emission from the sliding contact under oil-lubrication increases greatly with the applied normal force and the sliding velocity.

Nakayama, Keiji

2007-02-01

64

Tribological studies of thermally and chemically modified vegetable oils for use as environmentally friendly lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boundary lubrication in a dynamic mechanical system is primarily governed by the formation of a stable tribochemical film. Polar functional groups in the triacylglycerol molecule of vegetable oil in conjunction with oil–additive–metal interaction during the metal rubbing process can significantly improve the wear resistance and extreme-pressure lubrication. Increasing the polar functionality of vegetable oil structure has a positive impact on

A Adhvaryu; S. Z Erhan; J. M Perez

2004-01-01

65

Dynamic stability analysis of cages in high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the cage stability of high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings, a dynamic model of cages is\\u000a developed on the basis of Gupta’s and Meeks’ work. The model can simulate the cage motion under oil lubrication with all six\\u000a degrees of freedom. Particularly, the model introduces oil-film damping and hysteresis damping, and deals with the collision\\u000a contact as imperfect

Xiuhai Liu; Sier Deng; Hongfei Teng

2011-01-01

66

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...independent of other piping systems and shall be provided...Diesel engine lubrication systems shall be so arranged...type. (g) Steam turbine driven propulsion and...failure of the lubricating system. (h) Sight-flow...

2010-10-01

67

Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.  

PubMed

Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. PMID:23618159

Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

2013-05-15

68

Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

1988-01-01

69

Multifunctional Application of a Synthetic Ester to Machine Tool Lubrication Based on MQL Machining Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine tools generally necessitate a variety of lubricants. Since some of those lubricants are often contaminated with cutting fluids and disposed without adequate separation treatments, it must certainly be convenient to prepare a multifunctional fluid applicable to both machining and other lubricating parts. In minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, synthetic polyol esters are the successful cutting lubricant. This study therefore

S. Suda; T. Wakabayashi; I. Inasaki; H. Yokota

2004-01-01

70

Role of the Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Mechanics of Lubricant Oil in Hermetic Reciprocating Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments regarding the influence of oil on several thermophysical phenomena in reciprocating compressors. Besides the more essential role of lubrication, the oil is responsible for several tasks in the compressor, from cooling to keeping a low system pressure while the compressor is idle. Thermodynamics dictates the number of phases in equilibrium and the amount of dissolved

Alvaro T. Prata; Jader R. Barbosa Jr

2009-01-01

71

A parametric study on oil\\/air lubrication of a high-speed spindle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ball-bearing is widely used on many high-speed spindles due to its low starting friction and high load capacity. However, heat generation and dynamic loading caused by high-speed rotation have been obstacles for increasing the speed limit in many high-speed ball-bearing applications. Applying an appropriate lubrication and preload cannot be overemphasized. Recently, oil\\/air lubrication has been used on high-speed spindles

Cheng-Hsien Wu; Yu-Tai Kung

2005-01-01

72

Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

73

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

74

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

75

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

76

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

77

Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125?m multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a ?= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to perform reliable and clean spectral measurements from the analyzed oil samples.

Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

2014-05-01

78

Influence of Indigenous Molybdenum Disulfide, Added to Lubricating Oils, on the Coefficient of Sliding Friction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of molybdenum disulfide on lubricating oils was examined in a friction device consisting of a roll pressed to a bushing. Graphs show the effect of 0 to 5 percent molybdenum disulfide at pressures less than or equal to 100 kgf/ sq cm on the fric...

A. Rotaru, D. Babalau, I. Crudu, I. Ibanescu, V. Neculaiasa

1971-01-01

79

Effect of dissolved oxygen on lubricating performance of oils containing organic sulfides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the role of dissolved oxygen in the synergistic lubrication mechanism of oils containing organic sulfides, four-ball tests were conducted under increasing-temperature or two-step constant-temperature conditions by using oils with different concentrations of dissolved oxygen. In increasing-temperature tests, high oxygen concentration with DPDS (diphenyl disulfide) and antioxidant additives exhibited superior load-carrying capacity to reactive DBDS (dibenzyl disulfide) with the

Teruo Murakami; Hiroshi Sakamoto

1999-01-01

80

NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

Weaver, Harold F.

2003-01-01

81

Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

2014-01-01

82

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

83

CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE  

SciTech Connect

Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2011-01-01

84

Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

1996-01-01

85

40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...percent of the fuel flow rate, then the oil supplied to the engine must be added...engineering judgment may be used to estimate oil flow when oil injection is used. (b) Test fuels...defined as research octane number minus motor octane number. (d) Other...

2010-07-01

86

40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...percent of the fuel flow rate, then the oil supplied to the engine must be added...engineering judgment may be used to estimate oil flow when oil injection is used. (b) Test fuels...defined as research octane number minus motor octane number. (d) Other...

2011-07-01

87

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

88

The Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Lubricating Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest is growing concerning the influence of polymeric additives upon the viscosity of mineral oils at extremes of temperature, pressure, and shear. In this paper the author discusses the viscometry of mineral oils and mineral oil-polymer blends at moderate temperatures and high shear and at low temperatures and low shear.The non-Newtonian influences of two common polymeric additives, polyalkylmethacrylate and polyisobutylene,

T. W. Selby

1958-01-01

89

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect

The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

2011-10-01

90

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels. (1) Use diesel fuels for testing which are clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

2012-07-01

91

Amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid and lubricating oil composition containing same  

SciTech Connect

An amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid represented by the formula: 3-(HOOC-R''''-CO-NH-)-1,2,4-triazole. R'''-NH-R''' in which R'''' is an alkylene radical having from 2 to 24 carbon atoms and R''' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms at least one R''' being a hydrocarbyl radical and a lubricating oil composition containing same is provided.

Nebzydoski, J.W.; Patmore, E.L.

1981-08-11

92

Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas  

SciTech Connect

In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G. [and others

1995-09-01

93

Synthesis and evaluation of novel acyl derivatives from jatropha oil as potential lubricant basestocks.  

PubMed

A novel class of jatropha oil-based acylated derivatives from hydroxy alkyl esters of jatropha fatty acids (C1, C3, C4, and C8) and various anhydrides (C2, C3, C4, and C6) were synthesized and their physicochemical and lubricant properties reported. Jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were dihydroxylated using the in situ performic acid method and further acylated with different anhydrides to produce acylated derivatives. Acylated derivatives of dihydroxy jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were charaterized by NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC-MS analysis and were evaluated for their viscosity, viscosity index, pour and flash points, and oxidation stability. Most of the derivatives are either in ISO VG 22 or 32 viscosity grade with good viscosity index. It was observed that increase in acyl chain length and branching in the end-chain ester improved the pour point of the diacyl derivatives. All of the hexanoylated esters exhibited better oxidation stability compared to other acylated products, and their pour points are comparable to those of synthetic esters such as TMP trioleates. In general, isoalcohol esters with longer acyl chains showed promise as potential candidates for hydraulic fluids and metal-working fluids in ISO VG 22 and 32 viscosity range. PMID:24798988

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

2014-05-21

94

Effect of liquid crystals on lubricity of mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribomechanical tests were performed with friction pairs 40K~ steel\\/BrOTsS 5-5-5 bronze, 45 steel\\/BrOTsS 5-5-5 bronze, 45 steel\\/BrOTsS5-5-5 steel\\/BrOF6.5-0.15 bronze, and EI-415 steel\\/EI-415 steel. *- The working surfaces of the specimens were finished to Ra = 1.25-0.63. The load was increased in steps; tests were run on the oils with and without additives. The specimen wear was determined from the

A. P. Gribailo

1985-01-01

95

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

96

Tribological Properties of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Systems  

E-print Network

New nanomaterials and nanoparticles are currently under investigation as lubricants or lubricant additives due to their unusual properties compared to traditional materials. One of the objectives of this work is to investigate the tribological...

Kheireddin, Bassem

2013-08-02

97

A study of the working properties of trimethylol-propane esters as synthetic lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A number of esters of trimethylolpropane with fatty acids have been synthesized, and their physicochemical properties and behavior under dynamic conditions have been studied.2.The investigations conducted showed that among the esters synthesized there are products with high operational properties, which can be recommended as bases for lubricating materials for a wide range of temperatures and various conditions of operation with

T. M. Itsikson; I. B. Rapoport; V. A. Mikheev

1969-01-01

98

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the influence of the quantity of oil supply in hobbing with minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) of cutting oil, compared with that using dry cutting and flooded oil, in terms of flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness, for various types of coating films of the hob. Experiments were carried out using a fly tool. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1) The flank wear obtained with a quantity of oil supply of only 1mL/h showed almost the same value as that obtained by dry cutting, when using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. However, it is a result of great interest that flank wear increases with increasing quantity of oil supply, and the largest value was obtained when the oil was flooded. (2) The crater wear and finished surface roughness with the MQL system are smaller than those using dry cutting and flooded oil. (3) The quantities of oil supply of 1mL/h to 15mL/h in the MQL system are suitable for hobbing in terms of reducing flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness.

Matsuoka, Hironori; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo; Tsuda, Yoshihiro

99

Diesel lubricant composition containing 5-amino-triazole-succinic anhydride reaction product  

SciTech Connect

A diesel crankcase lubricant is described. It contains a lubricating oil base and the reaction product of a hydrocarbyl succinic anhydride. The hydrocarbyl radical has from 12 to 30 carbon atoms and 5-amino-triazole.

Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.

1981-03-17

100

Object shape-based optical sensing methodology and system for condition monitoring of contaminated engine lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presence of contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, and coolant in the engine lubricant indicates mechanical failure within the engine and significantly reduces lubricant quality. This paper describes a novel sensing system, its methodology and experimental verifications for analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The sensing methodology is based on the statistical shape analysis methodology utilizing optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium. The novelty of the proposed sensing system lies within the employed methodology which an object with a known periodic shape is introduced behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodical structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. The object, e.g. a stainless steel woven wire cloth with a mesh size of 65×65 µm2 and a circular wire diameter of 33 µm was placed behind a microfluidic channel, containing engine lubricant and optical images of flowing lubricant with stationary object were acquired and analyzed. Several parameters of acquired optical images, such as, color of lubricant and object, object shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative color, and object width non-uniformity coefficient, were proposed. Measured on-line parameters were used for optical analysis of fresh and contaminated lubricants. Estimation of contaminant presence and lubricant condition was performed by comparison of parameters for fresh and contaminated lubricants. Developed methodology was verified experimentally showing ability to distinguish lubricants with 1%, 4%, 7%, and 10% coolant, gasoline and water contamination individually and in a combination form of coolant (0%-5%) and gasoline (0%-5%).

Bordatchev, Evgueni; Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun

2014-03-01

101

Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics and Space Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tribology program at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is investigating carbon based nano-particles for their potential in advanced concept lubrication products. Service conditions range from high temperature atmospheric to low temperature vacuum. Some of the lubricants and surface coatings of tribological significance that we have evaluated include neat nano-particles, both grown in-situ and as bulk material deposited on the substrate, and nano-particles dispersed in oils which are all highly substrate interactive. We discuss results of testing these systems in a spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) and a unidirectional pin-on-disc (PoD) tribometer. A nano-onions/Krytox mixture evaluated as a lubricant for angular contact bearings in air caused a marked lowering of the coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.04 to 0.05) for the mixture with an eight-fold improvement in lifetime over that of the Krytox alone. In vacuum, no effect was observed from the nano-onions. Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) and graphitized MWNT were tested under sliding friction in both air and vacuum. The MWNT which were grown in-situ oriented normal to the sliding surface exhibited low CoF (0.04) and long wear lives. Bulk MWNT also generate low CoF (0.01 to 0.04, vacuum; and 0.06, air) and long wear life (>1 million orbits, vacuum; and >3.5 million, air). Dispersed graphitized MWNT were superior to MWNT and both were superior to aligned MWNT indicating that orientation is not an issue for solid lubrication. Single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) were modified by cutting into shorter segments and by fluorination. All SWNTs exhibited low CoF in air, with good wear lives. The SWNT with slight fluorination yielded an ultra-low CoF of 0.002 although the best wear life was attributed to the nascent SWNT.

Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wal, Randy L. Vander

2007-01-01

102

Lubrication. life blood of the railroad industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of railroad lubrication covers: the diesel engine, for which the railroad industry requires 4 billion gal\\/yr of diesel fuel; crankcase lubricating oil, 5 million gal\\/yr of which is used by a major railroad; analytical procedures for lubricants to determine wear and contamination trends; locomotive roller bearing greases, usually lithium-based and containing rust, oxidation, and EP additives; traction motor

1977-01-01

103

Lubricants for HFC-134a Compatible Rotary Compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In replacing CFC-12 with HFC-134a for refrigerator compressors, the compatibility with lubricating oil, and lubrication in general, are of major concern. HFC-134a dose not have adequate solubility with current lubricating oils because of its molecular structure. Current oils also do not provide enough lubricating action when using HFC-134a. A new oil and new materials have to be utilized in order to use HFC-134a. Developing a new lubricating oil involved numerous tests of different combinations of many polyolester synthetic oils and additives. One of the pre-evaluated methods was pursued via sealed tube tests. Lubricated parts were selected by studies involving a plane-on-roller type of wear test machine and by analyzing the traces of acid material commonly created during the lubricating action. The matrices of new lubricating oils and new lubricated materials were estimated based on durability tests conducted on compressors and refrigerators. Results showed that polyolester synthetic oils having a low total acid value and including certain quantities of additives did not break down into a tar-like substance and they did not produce composite particles in the operating compressors and refrigerators. The study also found that ceramics and anti-corrosion alloy steel possessed good adrasion-reducing qualities. Based on our evaluation, we will implement compressor reliability tests and apply HFC-134a to rotary compressors for refrigerators.

Takaichi, Kenji; Sakai, Hisakazu

104

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication research on Planetary Gear Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on elastohydrodynamic Lubrication theory (EHL),the EHL oil film thicknesses and those distributions for two operation cases on meshing line were calculated: one case is the sun gear as the driving gear and another case is the ring gear as the driving gear in the Planetary Gear Transmission. From the graph, gear lubrication can be reflected by the gear mesh

Bao Peide; Xie Jun; Yin Xiaoqin; Yang Qizhi; Ma Luzhong

2011-01-01

105

The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea

Ampaitepin Singhabhandhu; Tetsuo Tezuka

2010-01-01

106

Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2007-01-01

107

Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

2007-10-01

108

Experimental investigations about the influence of oil lubricant between teeth on the gear rattle phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes an experimental investigation into the "gear rattle" phenomenon in automotive manual transmissions with a special focus on the influence that lubricant oil may have in reducing this undesirable event. The experimental analysis has been conducted in order to validate a theoretical model developed by the authors that accounts for the presence of oil between the meshing gear teeth of unloaded gear pairs during the no-contact phase. An original measurement technique has been adopted for the tests that consist of the acquisition of the angular relative motion of a gear pair by two high resolution encoders. The experimental test rig designed for this analysis offers the possibility of varying the distance between the wheel axes so that the influence of the backlash variation on the rattle phenomenon can be investigated. The paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on helical gear pairs from an automotive gear box in the "idle gear rattle" condition by varying the lubrication mechanism. The experimental results show good agreement with the expectations provided by the theoretical model.

Russo, Riccardo; Brancati, Renato; Rocca, Ernesto

2009-04-01

109

Application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 in the biodegradation of used lubricating oil.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 using molasses as a substrate and fertilizer to enhance the biodegradation of used lubricating oil (ULO). The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria, the emulsification activity, and the biodegradation efficiency of ULO were measured. The bacterial adhesion in the hydrocarbon test was used to denote the cell surface hydrophobicity of the used bacterial species. The results indicate a strong correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity, emulsification activity, and the degree of ULO biodegradation. The maximum degradation of ULO (62 %) was observed when either 1.5 % (w/v) of biosurfactant or fertilizer was added. The results also revealed that biosurfactants alone are capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizer. The data indicate the potential for biosurfactant production by using low-cost substrate for application in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or oils. PMID:24590892

Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

2014-04-01

110

BEARING FATIGUE LIFE TESTS OF TWO ADVANCED BASE OILS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS UNDER VACUUM AND ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four series of rolling-element bearing fatigue tests were conducted with 51104 size thrust ball bearings with three balls made from SUJ2 (AISI 52100) steel lubricated with two advanced synthetic base oils used for space applications. The test lubricants were Perfluropolyether (PFPE) and Multy Alkyated cyclopentane (MAC). Each oil was tested with the bearings under vacuum and atmospheric environments. The bearings

NOBUYOSHI OHNO; KENTARO SONODA; HIROYUKI TSUCHIDA; SOBAHAN MIA; SHIGEKI MORITA; HIROSHI SHIOMI; SHINGO OBARA

2011-01-01

111

Lubrication with solids.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

1972-01-01

112

Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

Hill, Pamela

113

Application of the extraction induced by emulsion breaking for the determination of Cu, Fe and Mn in used lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel approach is proposed for the sample preparation of used lubricating oils to determine Cu, Fe and Mn by FAAS. The method is based on the extraction induced by emulsion breaking, in which the elements of interest are transferred to an aqueous phase before the measurement by FAAS. In the method, each sample of used lubricating oil was diluted with toluene (20% v/v) and the resulting solution was emulsified with a Triton X-114 solution containing HNO3. Further, the water-in-oil emulsion was broken by centrifugation for 30 min at 3500 rpm, originating a system with two well-separated phases: (i) the upper phase, containing the used lubricating oil diluted in toluene and (ii) the lower aqueous phase, containing the analytes that were extracted from oil. The lower phase was collected, diluted with water and the analytes were determined by FAAS. The optimization of the methodology was performed by studying the influence of different parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency such as the nature and concentration of the solvent used for sample dilution, the concentrations of HNO3 and Triton X-114 in the solution employed for emulsification and the operational conditions for extraction (extraction, centrifugation and sampling times). The limits of quantification for Cu, Fe and Mn were 2.9, 77 and 8.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the reference method based on the total digestion of the samples in a closed-vessel microwave oven. There were no statistical differences between the results obtained with the proposed method and the reference one, except for Fe in the cases where its concentration was higher than 80 µg g(-1). PMID:23618170

Caldas, Luiz Fernando S; Brum, Daniel M; de Paula, Carlos Eduardo R; Cassella, Ricardo J

2013-06-15

114

Variable resistance constant tension and lubrication device. [using oil-saturated leather wiper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable resistance device is described which includes a cylindrical housing having elongated resistance wires. A movable arm having a supporting block carried on the outer end is rotatably carried by the cylindrical housing. An arcuate steel spring member is pivotally supported by the movable arm. A leather wiper member is carried adjacent to one end of the spring steel member, and an electrically conductive surface is carried adjacent to the other end. The supporting block maintains the spring steel member in compression so that a constant pressure is applied to the conductive end of the spring steel member and the leather wiper. The leather wiper is saturated with a lubricating oil for maintaining the resistance wire clean as the movable arm is manipulated.

Smith, H. J. (inventor)

1974-01-01

115

Lubricating compositions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lubricating oil additive prepared by the process comprising: (A) in a first stage reacting at about 140/sup 0/-180/sup 0/C. a mixture comprising 100 parts by weight of at least one aliphatic olefinically unsaturated hydrocarbon containing from about 8 to 36 carbon atoms and about 1 to 160 parts by weight of at least one fatty acid ester with elemental sulfur to obtain an intermediate, and (B) in a second stage reacting at about 110/sup 0/-140/sup 0/C., the intermediate with additional sulfur and from about 25 to 100 parts by weight based on the total weight of combined the aliphatic olefinically unsaturated hydrocarbon and the fatty acid ester, a dimer of cyclopentadiene or lower C/sub 1-4/ alkyl substituted cyclopentadiene dimer.

Lam, W.Y.

1987-01-27

116

Engine Electronic Oil Pressure Sensor Based on MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engine lubrication system plays an important role in the engine working process. Mechanical pressure detection device is in use widely with some shortcomings. Engine electronic oil pressure sensor based on piezoresistor pressure sensor MEMS with contactless measure technology is designed in this paper including the low pressure alarm pressure point, zero point pressure compensation, temperature compensation and sensitivity compensation.

Yang Shengbing; Wang Jun; Xu Ying

2009-01-01

117

Influence of machine tool setting parameters on EHD lubrication in hypoid gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal elastohydrodynamic analysis of lubrication is applied to investigate the influence of machine tool setting for pinion tooth finishing on lubrication in hypoid gears. The calculation is based on the simultaneous solution of the Reynolds, elasticity, energy, and Laplace’s equations. The full thermal EHD lubrication analysis is applied, therefore, the oil viscosity variation with respect to pressure and temperature

Vilmos Simon

2009-01-01

118

Automated Acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.  

PubMed

The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIRAN/BN methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIRAN/BN analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTMAN/BN procedures. PMID:25271046

Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

2014-12-01

119

Friction coefficient in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable ester vs. mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, were characterized in terms of their physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents and compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [Höhn BR, Michaelis K, Döbereiner R. Load carrying capacity properties of fast

R. Martins; J. Seabra; A. Brito; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua

2006-01-01

120

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

Not Available

2006-06-01

121

Tribology and energy efficiency: from molecules to lubricated contacts to complete machines.  

PubMed

The impact of lubricants on energy efficiency is considered. Molecular details of base oils used in lubricants can have a great impact on the lubricant's physical properties which will affect the energy efficiency performance of a lubricant. In addition, molecular details of lubricant additives can result in significant differences in measured friction coefficients for machine elements operating in the mixed/boundary lubrication regime. In single machine elements, these differences will result in lower friction losses, and for complete systems (such as cars, trucks, hydraulic circuits, industrial gearboxes etc.) lower fuel consumption or lower electricity consumption can result. PMID:23285639

Taylor, Robert Ian

2012-01-01

122

Determination of acid number and base number in lubricants by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of practical Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) methods for the determination of acid number (AN) and base number (BN) in lubricants through the combined use of signal transduction via stoichiometric reactions and differential spectroscopy to circumvent matrix effects. Trifluoroacetic acid and potassium phthalimide were used as stoichiometric reactants to provide infrared (IR) signals proportional to the basic and acidic constituents present in oils. Samples were initially diluted with 1-propanol, then split, with one half treated with the stoichiometric reactant and the other half with a blank reagent, their spectra collected, and a differential spectrum obtained to ratio out the invariant spectral contributions from the sample. Quantitation for AN and BN was based on measurement of the peak height of the v(C = O) or v(COO) absorptions, respectively, of the products of the corresponding stoichiometric reactions, yielding a standard error of calibration of < 0.1 mg KOH/g oil. The AN/BN FT-IR methods were validated by the analysis of a wide range of new and used oils supplied by third parties, which had been analyzed by ASTM methods. Good correlations were obtained between the chemical and FT-IR methods, indicating that the measures are on the whole comparable. From a practical perspective, these new FT-IR methods have significant advantages over ASTM titrimetric methods in terms of environmental considerations, sample size, and speed of analysis, as well as the variety of oil types that can be handled. FT-IR analysis combining stoichiometric signal transduction with differential spectroscopy may be of wider utility as an alternative to titration in the determination of acid or basic constituents in complex nonaqueous systems. PMID:14658158

van de Voort, F R; Sedman, J; Yaylayan, V; Saint Laurent, C

2003-11-01

123

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

124

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

125

Process for the solubilization of mercaptobenzothiazole in a lubricating oil composition  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for preparing an amine salt solution of a substituted or unsubstituted mercaptobenzothiazole solubilized at room temperature and adapted for compatible admixture into a lubricating oil composition. The process consists of: (1) reacting to form the salt, in the absence of an oxidizing agent, at least one mercaptobenzothiazole represented by the structural formula; wherein each R independently represents hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl or alkaryl; with at least one amine represented by the structural formula; NR/sub 1/R/sub 2/R/sub 3/ wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ independently represent hydrogen of about C/sub 2/ to C/sub 20/ alkyl, and R/sub 3/ represents alkyl or alkenyl having from about 6 to about 25 carbon atoms; and wherein the molar ratio at which the amine and mercaptobenzothiazole are reacted is from about 1.1:1 to about 0.7:1; (2) admixing the amine salt prepared in accordance with step (1) with at least one solvent in a manner and under conditions sufficient to render the salt soluble in the solvent at room temperature, the solvent being represented by the structural formula; wherein n represents a number of from 1 to 3, and each R/sub 8/ independently is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl and alkaryl.

Ryer, J.; Shih, C.K.; Williams, J.E.

1986-05-20

126

Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.  

PubMed

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles. PMID:22369074

Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

2012-04-01

127

Long-term mortality study of oil refinery workers. IV. Exposure to the lubricating-dewaxing process.  

PubMed

A retrospective cohort mortality study of 1,008 male oil refinery workers who ever worked on the lubricating-dewaxing process of the lube oil department and who have been followed for a period of 43 years is presented. These workers were exposed to a number of solvents, primarily methyl ethyl ketone [(MEK) CAS: 78-93-3] and toluene (CAS: 108-88-3), but at levels far below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration's standard. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes (0.70) and the SMR for cancer (0.86) are much lower than unity when they are compared to the mortality experience of the U.S. population. Also observed in this study were 8 prostate cancer deaths (4.4 expected) with an SMR of 1.82, which was not statistically significant (P = .16). Seven of these 8 prostate cancer deaths occurred among nonwhite males, who showed an SMR of 2.47 (P = 0.53). However, only 1 prostate cancer death was seen among workers specifically assigned to the MEK units. The remaining deaths occurred among maintenance workers who had lube oil department-wide assignments. This cancer risk increased with increasing duration of employment in the lube oil department. A latency of 20 years or more was also observed for these prostate cancer deaths. In this study the processing of lubricating oils was found to be at least as important as the MEK solvents, and department-wide maintenance workers were as much at risk as the MEK unit workers. In view of this finding and findings obtained by others, it seems prudent to continue to study lubricating-dewaxing process workers, including the medical monitoring of all such workers for prostate cancer. PMID:3855471

Wen, C P; Tsai, S P; Weiss, N S; Gibson, R L; Wong, O; McClellan, W A

1985-01-01

128

On-road performance analysis of R134a\\/R600a\\/R290 refrigerant mixture in an automobile air-conditioning system with mineral oil as lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

R134a has been accepted as the single major refrigerant in the automobile industry and it has been used worldwide. But, the problem associated with it is the use of the PAG oil as the lubricant. Unlike the conventional mineral oil, the synthetic PAG oil used with R134a is highly hygroscopic in nature. The PAG lubricants come with different additives unique

T. S. Ravikumar; D. Mohan Lal

2009-01-01

129

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: molybdenum disulfide  

SciTech Connect

A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H.E.

1981-01-01

130

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

131

Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

2009-07-01

132

An analysis of lubricating system of automobile gasoline engine  

SciTech Connect

Influences of oil-flow and oil temperature on frictional torques of whole engine and main lubricating components were determined by motoring method. Oil-flow rate, temperature and pressure in main lubricating paths were directly measured under the same conditions. Oil-flow rate and frictional coefficient and crankshaft system were estimated by theoretically analysing Reynolds' equation. Experimental data were discussed based on oil-flow analyses in lubricating system. Engine frictional torque becomes smallest when the engine is supplied with an optimum oil-flow rate, 2.5 - 3.5 1/min where the ratio of oil-flow rate is 10 - 20% in crankshaft system, 30 - 40 % in a piston-connecting rod system, and 50 - 60 % in valve system. The optimum oil-flow rate which minimizes the frictional torque is 1 - 2 1/min for crankshaft and piston-connecting rod systems, and 3 - 4 1/min for a valve system.

Tran, P.; Yamamoto, T.; Baba, Y.; Hoshi, M.

1987-01-01

133

Tethered Lubricant Films Based On Cross-linked Polydimethylsiloxane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the interfacial friction and wear properties of surface-tethered cross-linked polymer thin films. We show that thin, two-tiered films produced by covalently tethering polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks to self-assembled monolayers manifest the lowest friction coefficient (mu = 0.0039) recorded for a dry lubricant film. Using a combination of lateral force microscopy, equilibrium swelling, and adhesion measurements we determine the physical processes responsible for these low friction coefficients. We also investigate the effect of free (unattached) and pendent polymer chains dispersed in thin PDMS network films on transient mechanical properties, interfacial friction, and wear characteristics.

Landherr, Lucas; Cohen, Claude; Archer, Lynden

2009-03-01

134

Experimental and analytical determination of gear tooth temperatures with oil jet lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gear tooth average and instantaneous surface temperatures were measured with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope, while operating at arious speeds, loads and oil jet pressures. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface temperatures at all test conditions, increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface temperatures of gear teeth. A gear tooth temperature analysis was conducted by a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input and oil jet impingment depth with estimated heat transfer coefficients based on the experimental data. It is concluded that oil jet pressures required for adequate cooling at high load and speed conditions must be high enough to get full penetration depth of the teeth.

Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.

1982-01-01

135

A multicommuted flow system for the determination of copper, chromium, iron and lead in lubricating oils with detection by flame AAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a flow analysis procedure for the determination of copper, chromium, iron and lead in lubricating oils using flame AAS as detection technique is described. The flow manifold was designed to implement the multicommutation approach and it comprised three 3-way solenoid valves controlled by a personal computer. The flow system presented allowed to process the oil samples to

B. F. Reis; M. Knochen; G. Pignalosa; N. Cabrera; J. Giglio

2004-01-01

136

Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. 2: For Jet Velocities Equal to or Greater Than Great Velocity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or greater than gear pitch line velocity. Equations were developed for mini...

L. S. Akin, D. P. Townsend

1982-01-01

137

The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant. Unlike previous work in this field, this approach is based on the postulate of the quasi-hydrodynamic nature of powder lubrication. This postulate is deduced from past observation and present verification that there are a number of basic features of powder flow in narrow interfaces that have the characteristic behavior of fluid film lubrication. In addition to corroborating the basic mechanism of powder lubrication, the conceptual and experimental work performed in this program provides guidelines for selection of the proper geometries, materials, and powders suitable for this tribological process. The present investigation describes the fundamentals of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication and defines the rationale underlying the design of the test facility. The performance and the results of the experimental program present conclusions reached regarding design requirements as well as the formulation of a proper model of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication.

Heshmat, H.; Walton, J.F. (Mechanical Technology Inc., Latham, NY (United States))

1993-04-01

138

Positive lubrication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

1990-01-01

139

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01

140

The identification of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates in lubricating oils by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize the Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs), which are usually found in finished commercial motor oils. ZDDPs are detergent-like molecules consisting of the polar heteroatomic organometalic core surrounded with highly alkylated side-chains to increase their solubility in the base oil. The core contains a central zinc atom coordinated to two dithiophosphate esters. Generally two alkylated side chains, ranging from three to thirteen carbons, will be on each ester. ZDDPs are low cost additives which form protective films to reduce engine wear and prevent metal seizures. ZDDPs also serve as oxidation inhibitors. Their concentrations typically vary between 1% and 4%.

Nero, V.P.; Drinkwater, D.D. [Texaco R & D, Beacon, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

141

New nanotechnology solid lubricants for superior dry lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new commercial breakthrough for advanced anti-friction materials based on unique inorganic nanospheres that can be used as dry lubricants, coatings, and for impregnating parts. The new material reduces friction and wear significantly better than other layered solid lubricants and is especially useful in self-lubricating, maintenance-free, and oil-free applications of the types encountered in aerospace markets. The material, NanoLubTM, is the world's first commercial lubricant based on spherical inorganic nanoparticles. NanoLub's particles have a unique structure of hollow nested spheres of about only 0.1 micron in diameter. This paper presents tribological evaluations of tungsten and molybdenum disulphide NanoLubTM. The material reduces friction and wear under conditions that are especially relevant for space such as ultra-high vacuum, UV radiation, and high loads. Suitable applications could include rotors, bearings, robots, planetary rovers, space vehicles and transport devices. Extensive testing by a number of independent groups clearly shows that these special nanoparticles improve considerably the tribological properties of different contact pairs in comparison to other solid lubricants.

Fleischer, N.; Genut, M.; Rapoport, L.; Tenne, R.

2003-09-01

142

The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt% NiCr binder, 20 wt% Cr2O3 hardener, and 10 wt% each Ag, and BaF2/CaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc foil bearing. The test load was 10 KPa (1.5 psi) and the bearings were run under start/stop cyclic conditions. The data show good wear performance of the bearing, especially at temperatures above 25 deg. C. Bearing friction was moderate (micron approx. or equal to 0.4) over the entire temperature range. Based upon the results obtained, the PS304 coating has promise for high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

DellaCorte, Chris

1998-01-01

143

Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

1972-01-01

144

PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec® cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 – 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine. PMID:22670159

Xin, H; Shepherd, DET; Dearn, KD

2012-01-01

145

Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1985-01-01

146

Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

Ku, P. M. (editor)

1973-01-01

147

Effect of Seawater on the Fatigue Life and Failure Distribution of Flood-Lubricated Angular Contact Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductions in rolling contact fatigue life as high as 80 percent were observed during flood-lubricated angular-contact ball bearing studies when 1 percent by volume of seawater was added to various lubricants as a contaminant. The lubricants investigated were of different chemical and physical classes and included mineral oils, triaryl phosphate, and two recently developed mineral-oil-base sea-water-emulsifying hydraulic fluids of different

I. M. Felsen; R. W. McQuaid; J. A. Marzani

1972-01-01

148

Mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

Furby, N. W.

1973-01-01

149

Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

1992-01-01

150

Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

Loomis, W. R.

1982-01-01

151

Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

1993-01-01

152

Design, fabrication and testing of a bearing test rig and preliminary studies on oil mist lubrication  

E-print Network

of the test bearings with variation of speed. . . . 38 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Ltp life calculated for different load and speed combinations for 7012C high precision angular contact ball bearing. . . . . . . . . . . . ?. , . . . 27 Load and speed... of lubrication systems, load and speed on the dependent variables, in which we are mostly interested. Two new high precision 60 mm diameter angular contact ball bearings (BRG1 and BRG2) are used in this experiment. The difference between the two test bearings...

Shamim, Abdus

2012-06-07

153

Determination of Performance of the Soybean Oil in Farm Tractors as Hydraulic Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils include an environmentally compatible lubricant and alternative fuels. To base such a lubricant and hydraulic fluids on a vegetable oil creates a product environmentally friendly and nontoxic. They have a high viscosity index and flammable point. This study describes vegetable oil-based use possibilities as hydraulic fluids on farm tractors. Mineral and soybean oils were tested as hydraulic fluid

H. O?uz; M. Acaro?lu; H. Ö?üt; B. ?lban

2009-01-01

154

Lubrication fundamentals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lubricant is any substance that is used to reduce friction and wear and to provide smooth running and a satisfactory life for machine components. Lubrication fundamentals are discussed and the various lubrication mechanisms are defined. These include: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, mixed, boundary, and extreme pressure. Before the various lubrication mechanisms are presented, it is desirable to define conformal and nonconformal surfaces.

Hamrock, B. J.

1981-01-01

155

Lubrication of Ball Bearings for Space Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of equipment on satellites and space probes has placed new demands on lubricants. To evaluate lubricants for these uses, the authors have conducted a program of testing lubricants and instrument-size ball bearings in pressures of 10-10 torr.Four classes of lubricants have been tested. Bearings with the best oil and grease lubricants have operated for over 1 year. The

W. C. Young; F. J. Clauss; S. P. Drake

1963-01-01

156

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-print Network

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01

157

Characterization of heat insulating and lubricating ability of powder lubricants for clean and high quality die casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the insulating ability of powder lubricant is higher than that of conventional oil-soluble or water-soluble lubricants. This will be effective to prevent the formation of scattered chill structure. Influence of the components and composition of powder lubricants on insulating ability and lubricating ability were investigated. Furthermore, the interaction between powder lubricants and molten alloy was observed

R Kimura; M Yoshida; G Sasaki; J Pan; H Fukunaga

2002-01-01

158

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases, which are lubricants composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers...

2013-01-01

159

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

...Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases, which are lubricants composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers...

2014-01-01

160

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases, which are lubricants composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers...

2012-01-01

161

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01

162

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

163

Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory

2013-09-26

164

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

Lagow, R.J.

1992-03-01

165

Determination of metallo-organic and particulate wear metals in lubricating oils associated with hybrid ceramic bearings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible to increase both the performance and operating environment of jet engines by using hybrid ceramic bearings. Our laboratory is concerned with investigating lubricating fluids for wear metals associated with silicon nitride ball bearings and steel raceways. Silicon nitride is characterized by low weight, low thermal expansion, high strength, and corrosion resistance. These attributes result in longer engine lifetimes than when metallic ball bearings are used. Before the routine use of ceramic ball bearings can be realized, the wear mechanisms of the materials should be thoroughly understood. One important variable in determining wear degradation is the concentration of metal present in the lubricating oils used with the bearings. A complete method for analyzing used lubricating oils for wear metal content must accurately determine all metal forms present. Oil samples pose problems for routine analysis due to complex organic matrices. Nebulizing these types of samples into an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer introduces many problems including clogging of the sample cone with carbon and increasing interferences. In addition, other techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry are particle size dependent. They are unable to analyze particles greater than 10 mum in size. This dissertation describes a method of analyzing lubricating oils for both metallo-organic and particulate species by ICP-MS. Microwave digestion of the oil samples eliminates the need for elaborate sample introduction schemes as well as the use of a modified carrier gas. Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Y have been determined in both aqueous and organic media. Metallo-organic solutions of these metals were successfully digested, nebulized into the ICP, and the singly charged ions measured by mass spectrometry. Metal particulates in oil matrices have also been quantitatively determined by the above method. Linear analytical curves were obtained for these elements from the detection limits (˜1 ppb) to greater than 1 ppm. Used lubricating oil samples were also analyzed by microwave digestion ICP-MS. Oil samples were collected from a Rolling Contact Fatigue tester. Two bearing systems were evaluated: M50 steel balls on an M50 steel rod, and Sisb3Nsb4 balls on an M50 steel rod. Improved operating conditions were obtained when the Sisb3Nsb4 balls were used, which corresponds to longer engine lifetimes.

Russell, Robin Ann

166

In-situ, On-demand Lubrication System for Space Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of today's spacecraft have long mission lifetimes. Whatever the lubrication method selected, the initial lubricant charge is required to last the entire mission. Fluid lubricant losses are mainly due to evaporation, tribo-degradation, and oil creep out of the tribological regions. In the past, several techniques were developed to maintain the appropriate amount of oil in the system. They were based on oil reservoirs (cartridges, impregnated porous parts), barrier films, and labyrinth seals. Nevertheless, all these systems have had limited success or have not established a proven record for space missions. The system reported here provides to the ball-race contact fresh lubricant in-situ and on demand. The lubricant is stored in a porous cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing. The oil is released by heating the cartridge to eject oil, taking advantage of the greater thermal expansion of the oil compared to the porous network. The heating may be activated by torque increases that signal the depletion of oil in the contact. The low surface tension of the oil compared to the ball bearing material is utilized and the close proximity of the cartridge to the moving balls allows the lubricant to reach the ball-race contacts. This oil resupply system can be used to avoid a mechanism failure or reduce torque to an acceptable level and extend the life of the component.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

2002-01-01

167

High Temperature Tribological Characteristics of Fe–Mo-based Self-Lubricating Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe–Mo-based self-lubricating composites were prepared by a powder metallurgical hot-pressing method. The tribological properties\\u000a of Fe–Mo-based composites with varied CaF2 contents at high temperature were evaluated, and the effect of glaze films on the friction and wear characteristics of composites\\u000a were analyzed. The results show that the introduction of CaF2 into Fe–Mo alloys improved the mechanical properties, and the best

Jiesheng Han; Junhong Jia; Jinjun Lu; Jingbo Wang

2009-01-01

168

Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

Mcmurtrey, E. L.

1985-01-01

169

Environmental liability and life-cycle management of used lubricating oils.  

PubMed

Used oil handling, as a business, requires an extensive understanding by management that environmental liabilities exist through its supply chain. Findings from a review of the legal requirements of operating a used oil handling business were: understanding the transfer of ownership of used petroleum hydrocarbons is critical to any such business and how this is documented; used oil handlers are responsible for providing training to their staff, including site personnel and any third party waste contractors, and for communicating best practice procedures relating to the management of used petroleum hydrocarbons to all those individuals and organisations involved in business relationships that the used oil handling companies have; used oil handlers should audit the performance of any third party contractors that it engages to conduct work on behalf of its customers. Hypothetical situations of a company planning to enter the used oil handling market are described in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes it handles to illustrate the range of potential liabilities. Companies proposing to establish a used oil handling business should ensure that they provide accurate advice to its employees, its customer's employees and to its third party contractors, all of which may be responsible for handling used petroleum hydrocarbons as part of the service it intends to provide, and that it has a well documented system addressing how environmental issues are managed. PMID:18423855

Guerin, Turlough F

2008-12-30

170

Lip seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, friction wear, and lubrication of lip seals. Lubrication film thickness, friction forces, cylinder scoring, seal leakage theory, elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal lip seals, standards and specifications, and lip seal failures and strengths are considered. Geothermal, dredge pump, and rotary shaft applications are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

171

Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

Kinard, J. T.

1975-01-01

172

Fuel lubricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with inadequate fuel lubricity were identified in the aeronautical industry in the 1960s, following a succession of in-flight engine failures. The influence of fuel composition upon fuel lubricity was established, as was the effect of various lubricity additives. Problems associated with inadequate fuel lubricity were also subsequently identified in light-duty diesel engines when low-sulphur fuel was introduced. Again,

David Margaroni

1998-01-01

173

Palm oil methyl esters as lubricant additive in a small diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysian crude palm oil has been successfully converted to methyl esters, also known as palm oil diesel (POD), which is readily\\u000a combustible in diesel engines. This paper presents and discusses the results of current studies on the performance and the\\u000a effects of POD on the wear characteristics of tribological components of a small, four-stroke diesel engine. Adding POD to\\u000a commercial

H. H. Masjuki; S. M. Sapuan

1995-01-01

174

Torque Characteristics of Oil and Grease-Lubricated R2, R3, and R4 Ball Bearings at High Speeds with Combined Radial and Axial Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of high-speed torque tests of R2, R3, and R4 ball bearings lubricated with oil and with 1\\/16 and 1\\/8-pack grease. The bearings were tested with combinations of 50g (490 × 10N), 100g (980 × 10 N), and 200g (1960 × 10 N) radial loads with 0, 50g, (490 × 10 N), 100g (980 × 10

H. H. Mabie

1978-01-01

175

Rust inhibiting additive compositions for oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compositions which include mixtures of a calcium hydroxide overbased oil-soluble calcium sulfonate, hexylene glycol and a surfactant consisting of an ethoxylated aliphatic amine, particularly, diethoxylated cocoamine or diethoxylated soyamine, are useful as rust inhibiting additives for oils and the like. By incorporating these compositions in petroleum based oils such as petroleum based oils of lubricating oil quality which come into

1980-01-01

176

Standardization and selection of a method for evaluating shear resistance of lubricating oils with polymer additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wide use of polymer additives increasing the viscosity index of mineral oils justified the usefulness of selecting a standard laboratory method for evaluating the shear resistance of this kind of oils. The suitability of a particular method was analyzed on the basis of comparative tests performed in Poland and abroad using mechanical methods (in a laboratory and on stands), operational tests, and ultrasonic methods, including the method developed in the Institute of Aeronautics. The ultrasonic method described and incorporated in branch standard BN-70/0535 was accepted as the most advantageous method from the standpoint of standardization requirements.

Wislicki, B.

1984-01-01

177

Boundary Lubricated Tribology of an Aluminium-Silicon Alloy Sliding Against Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have slid steel pins on aluminium-silicon alloy discs in the boundary lubrication regime in the presence of one drop of oil. We have explored the effect of base oil and additivated engine oil on friction and wear and analyzed the data in terms of the formation of a mechanically mixed layer at the interface and the corrosive action of

Sarmistha Das; S. K. Biswas

2004-01-01

178

Mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The causes for breakdown in the lubricant film of mineral oils are discussed. It is stated that the critical point is caused by desorption of the naturally occurring surface active agent and can be described by thermodynamic analysis. The effect of different metals in lubrication is surveyed. The problem of breakdown in elastohydrodynamic lubrication is treated phenomenologically by studying traction. The topics considered are classical and non-Newtonian explanations, anomalous film thickness and viscosity effects, surface roughness contributions, and solidification of the lubricant. Reasons for the apparent granular traction characteristics are examined.

Cameron, A.; Gentle, C. R.

1973-01-01

179

Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760 C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant additives acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1987-01-01

180

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the effect of cutting speed on flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness during hobbing using an uncoated tool, and TiN- and (Al, Ti)N- coated tools with a minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) system. The experiments were conducted by simulating hobbing by fly tool cutting on a milling machine. The results helped clarify the following points. (1) With the uncoated tool and the TiN-coated tool, the flank wear increases upon increasing in the cutting speed from 47m/min to 86m/min. Conversely, flank wear decreases at the higher speed of 117m/min. It was impossible to cut at 159m/min owing to the failure of the cutting edge. With the (Al, Ti)N-coated tool, the flank wear showed nearly the same small value, irrespective of cutting speed. (2) The cutting speed also has a large effect on crater wear, particularly for the TiN-and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. The cutting speed of 117m/min is suitable for decreasing crater wear. (3) The finished surface roughness is small for all the tools used in this test for cutting speeds less than 86m/min, after which it becomes large because of the adhesion of deposited metal at cutting speeds more than 117m/min. When using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools, there is a critical cutting groove length, at which the surface roughness decreases rapidly.

Matsuoka, Hironori; Tsuda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo

181

Sporting Good Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sun Coast Chemicals was originally contracted by Lockheed Martin Space Operations to formulate a spray lubricant free of environmental drawbacks for the Mobile Launch Platform used to haul the Space Shuttle from the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building to a launch pad. From this work, Sun Coast introduced Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. Based on the original lubricant work, two more products have also been introduced. First, the X-1R Super Gun Cleaner and Lubricant protects guns from rust and corrosion caused by environmental conditions. Second, the X-1R Tackle Pack, endorsed by both fresh and saltwater guides and certain reel manufacturers, penetrates, cleans, reduces friction, lubricates, and provides extra protection against rust and corrosion.

1997-01-01

182

KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

1973-01-01

183

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

184

Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

2013-07-01

185

Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

1972-01-01

186

Synthetic aircraft turbine oil  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprises a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester, a polyhydroxy anthraquninone, an alkylamine salt of 3-amino-triazole-dodecenylsuccinamic acid, 2-hydroxylpropyl-n, n-dibutyldithiocarbamate, and an alkyl amine salt of a methyl acid phosphate.

Reinhard, R.R.; Yaffe, R.

1980-10-07

187

High-temperature tribology of silicon nitride lubricated with cesium-based inorganic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature sliding friction and wear of silicon nitride was investigated under unlubricated and solid lubricated conditions. Experiments were performed in laboratory air (18.7% +/- 10.0% R.H.), mostly at 600°C, using a ball-on-disk configuration. Two cesium-based inorganic films were studied; a sodium silicate bonded cesium oxythiotungstate (Cs2WOS 3) coating and a cesium silicate chemical reaction film of the form Cs2O·xSiO2. The selection of these materials was based on previous studies that showed excellent high-temperature performance on sub-scale and full-scale ceramic bearing components. Wear surfaces were characterized by surface profilometry and optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface chemistry of selected posttested samples was analyzed using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) with depth profiling, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. Although both of the cesium-based films studied were effective in reducing wear at 600°C, the best tribological performance was obtained with thin chemical reaction films annealed in a sulfur-rich oxidizing environment. Friction coefficients as low as 0.04 and wear factors in the range of 4 x 10 -9 to 1 x 10-8 mm3/N·m were obtained at 600°C with this system. These are comparable to boundary liquid lubricating films at much lower temperatures. The data provide conclusive evidence that neither tungsten nor molybdenum is necessary for low friction at 600°C. The results also suggest that sulfur and cesium play important roles in the formation of a lubricious film. The results show that the lubricating film initially consists of Cs2SO4 deposits that give a mu of 0.10 at 600°C. These deposits subsequently dissolve SiO 2/Si3N4 asperities during sliding via a hot-corrosion mechanism to produce very smooth surfaces. This dissolution process leads to the formation of a lubricious cesium silicate film with mu ˜ 0.04. The tenacity and endurance of the film are thought to be enhanced by the inward diffusion of oxygen and cesium. Diffusion of magnesium out from the silicon nitride substrate (i.e., sintering aid) was also observed and resulted in higher friction.

Rosado, Lewis

2001-11-01

188

Shearing stability of lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

1984-01-01

189

Tribological Performance of 6061 Aluminum Alloy\\/Graphite Materials under Oil-Lubricated and Dry Sliding Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thrust-on-washer adapter was used to stimulate flat-on-flat-type contacts under lubricated and dry sliding conditions. The upper specimens were made of a cast aluminum alloy, A356.0 Al, and the lower specimens were prepared by powder metallurgy. Fine graphite particles were mixed with 6061 aluminum alloy powders, by means of cold pressing and sintering to create a self-lubricating composite material by

Jen Fin Lin; Ying Chong Yung; Chi Yuan Tsao

1998-01-01

190

Tribological properties of transition metal di-chalcogenide based lubricant coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition metal di-chalcogenides MX2 (X = S, Se, Te; and M= W, Mo, Nb, Ta) are one kind of solid lubricant materials that have been widely used in industry. The lubricant properties of such lubricant coatings are dependent not only on microstructure, orientation, morphology, and composition of the coatings, but also on the substrate, the interface between substrate and lubricant coatings, and the specific application environment. In this review, the effects of parameters on tribological properties of such kind of lubricant coatings were summarized. By comparing advantages and disadvantages of those coatings, the special treatments such as doping, structural modulation and post-treatment were suggested, aiming to improve the tribological performance under severe test conditions (e.g. high temperature, oxidizing atmosphere or humid condition).

Yang, Jun-Feng; Parakash, Braham; Hardell, Jens; Fang, Qian-Feng

2012-06-01

191

Running Torque of Ball Bearings with Polymer Lubricant (Effect of the Enclosure Form of Polymer Lubricant)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the running torque of ball bearings with polymer lubricant (solid composite material composed of plastic impregnated with a large amount of oil or grease). The results of the experiment showed that the measured running torque of ball bearings with polymer lubricant was affected by the enclosure form of the polymer lubricant. With regard to ball bearings

HIROYUKI OHTA; MASAYUKI KANATSU

2005-01-01

192

Lubrication background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface topography, including the various physical methods of measuring surfaces, and the various lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, boundary, and mixed) are discussed. The historical development of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is outlined. The major accomplishments in four periods, the pre-1950's, the 1950's, the 1960's, and the 1970's are presented.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

193

Solid lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the

Sliney

1991-01-01

194

Effect of die wall lubrication on warm compaction powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die wall lubrication was applied on warm compaction powder metallurgy in the hope to reduce the concentration level of the admixed lubricant, since lubricant is harmful to the mechanical properties of the sintered material. Iron-based samples were prepared by die wall lubricated warm compaction at 135 and 175°C, using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) emulsion as the die wall lubricant. Compacting pressures of

Y. Y Li; T. L Ngai; D. T Zhang; Y Long; W Xia

2002-01-01

195

Tribological composition optimization of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the tribilogically optimum composition of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings using a foil gas bearing test apparatus is described. The coatings contain a wear resistant chromium carbide `base stock' with the lubricant additives silver and BaF2-CaF2 eutectic. The coating composition is optimized for air-lubricated foil gas bearings at temperatures ranging from 25 to 650 C. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized Ni-Cr alloy foils, and the test bearings were subjected to repeated start-stop cycles under a bearing unit of 14 kPa. Sliding contact between the coated journal and the smooth foil occurs during bearing start-up before lift-off or hydrodynamic lubrication by the air film and during bearing coast-down. The bearings were tested for 9000 start-stop cycles or until specimen reached a predetermined failure level.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1988-01-01

196

Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.  

E-print Network

as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more of those currently on the market · Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel contributions of fuels and engine lubricating oil on PM and semi-volatile organic compound emissions from in-use

197

The effect of lubricant traction of scuffing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a disc machine gear simulation investigating the influence of lubricant traction characteristics and formulation on the load at which scuffing occurs. Scuffing theories in general link the onset of scuffing to the amount of heat generated in the contact and the authors hypothesized that reduced heat generation with low traction lubricants should lead to an increase in scuffing load. The study compared low traction poly alpha olefin (PAO)-based lubricants with mineral oils in basestock, antiwear and EP formulations and at both high (greater than 6) and moderate (approximately 1.2) specific film thickness, lambda. At lambda greater than 6, the benefits of the synthetics over their mineral counterparts ranged from 25 percent to 220 percent and at lambda approximately = 1.2, the benefits were a uniform 40 percent. It was particularly interesting to observe that the antiwear PAO-based oil gave a similar scuff load per unit contact width to an EP mineral gear oil. In addition, it was shown that scuffing load decreased with increasing traction coefficient to the power of approximately -1.85, close to the -2.00 power predicted by the frictional power intensity concept. The agreement with flash temperature theory, with a predicted power of -1.33, was less close.

Jackson, A.; Webster, M. N.; Enthoven, J. C.

1994-04-01

198

Characterization of the Skin Penetration of a Hydrocarbon-Based Weapons Maintenance Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of

Darryl P. Arfsten; Carol M. Garrett; Warren W. Jederberg; Erin R. Wilfong; James N. McDougal

2006-01-01

199

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

2013-10-31

200

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01

201

Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

2014-10-01

202

ElastoHydrodynamic Lubrication of Rolling-Contact Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray technique is described for the measurement of the thickness and shape of thin oil films (from 5 to 50 millionths of an inch thick) formed between the rolling and rolling-sliding surfaces of hardened steel rollers as in rolling bearings and gears. The film thickness with white mineral oil, diester-base, and silicone lubricants was found to vary with temperature

L. B. Sibley; F. K. Orcutt

1961-01-01

203

Method of recovering oil-based fluid  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

Brinkley, H.E.

1993-07-13

204

Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s?¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol?¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-01-01

205

Advanced Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three Sun Coast Chemicals (SCC) of Daytona, Inc. products were derived from NASA technology: Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. NASA contractor Lockheed Martin Space Operations contacted SCC about joining forces to develop an environmentally safe spray lubricant for the Shuttle Crawler. The formula was developed over an eight-month period resulting in new products which are cost effective and environmentally friendly. Meeting all Environmental Protection Agency requirements, the SCC products are used for applications from train tracks to bicycle chains.

1996-01-01

206

Hydrodynamic journal bearings: Capacity, wear, and lubrication. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Bearing load, lubrication, thermal effects, tolerance to misalignment, cavitation, and design are discussed. Studies on the effect of temperature and heat transfer on hydrodynamic films are presented. The impact of surface roughness on hydrodynamic journal bearing performance is also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

207

Lubricating Properties of Lead-Monoxide-Base Coatings of Various Compositions at Temperatures to 1250 F  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of ceramic coatings of different compositions containing lead monoxide (PbO) were studied to determine their relative merits as dry-film lubricants. Lead monoxide is known to be an effective solid lubricant at elevated temperatures, and this oxide was the main component in all compositions studied. Friction and wear properties were determined at temperatures from 750 to 1250 F, at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute, and at a normal load of 1 kilogram. In all of the coatings, PbO was the component primarily responsible for the lubricating properties. Oxides other than PbO had an indirect effect on lubrication by influencing such properties as adhesion, hardness, vitrifying or glaze-forming tendency, melting or softening point, and chemical stability of the coatings. Notable among these oxides were magnetite (Fe3O4.), which had generally a beneficial influence on ceramic- to-metal adhesion, and silica (SiO2), which inhibited the oxidation of PbO and enhanced the tendency for glaze formation on the sliding surfaces. Several of the compositions studied provided protection against metal-to-metal adhesive wear, galling, or seizure at test temperatures from 750 to 1250 F. Coating friction coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 at 75 F but were around 0.08 to 0.20 at temperatures of 1250 F.

Sliney, Harold E.

1959-01-01

208

Linear variable filter based oil condition monitoring systems for offshore windturbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major part of future renewable energy will be generated in offshore wind farms. The used turbines of the 5 MW class and beyond, often feature a planetary gear with 1000 liters lubricating oil or even more. Monitoring the oil aging process provides early indication of necessary maintenance and oil change. Thus maintenance is no longer time-scheduled but becomes wear dependent providing ecological and economical benefits. This paper describes two approaches based on a linear variable filter (LVF) as dispersive element in a setup of a cost effective infrared miniature spectrometer for oil condition monitoring purposes. Spectra and design criteria of a static multi-element detector and a scanning single element detector system are compared and rated. Both LVF miniature spectrometers are appropriately designed for the suggested measurements but have certain restrictions. LVF multi-channel sensors combined with sophisticated multivariate data processing offer the possibility to use the sensor for a broad range of lubricants just by a software update of the calibration set. An all-purpose oil sensor may be obtained.

Wiesent, Benjamin R.; Dorigo, Daniel G.; ?im?ek, Özlem; Koch, Alexander W.

2011-10-01

209

Bonded Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

1977-01-01

210

Lubrication Flows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

1989-01-01

211

Structured gels as lubricant and coolant mixtures in drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

91 Various lubricants are generally used to improve the performance and wear of cutting tools. They may be divided into three groups: oily liquids; aqueous emul? sions of mineral oils; and synthetic liquids [1]. Synthetic lubricants correspond to aqueous solutions of polymers, surfactants, and corrosion inhibitors [2]. At present, most researchers believe that lubrication is the most sig? nificant effect

E. V. Berezina; M. A. Shilov

2011-01-01

212

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01

213

Ionic liquid lubricants: designed chemistry for engineering applications.  

PubMed

This tutorial review outlines current state of the art research on ionic liquid lubricants. Ionic liquids (ILs) were first reported as very promising high-performance lubricants in 2001 and have attracted considerable attention in the field of tribology since then because of their remarkable lubrication and anti-wear capabilities as compared with lubrication oils in general use; in recent times we have seen dramatically increased interest in the topic. The review starts with a brief introduction to ILs and fluid lubrication, and then discusses in more detail the tribological properties of IL lubricants, either as lubrication oils, additives or thin films. As well as lubrication mechanisms, some current problems and potential solutions are tentatively discussed. PMID:19690739

Zhou, Feng; Liang, Yongmin; Liu, Weimin

2009-09-01

214

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional poisoning if swallowed in large amounts.

215

Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

1986-01-01

216

Friction and wear behaviors of a (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of various polyols as water-based lubricating additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction and wear behaviors of (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of water or various polyol aqueous solutions were investigated with an SRV friction and wear tester in a ball-on-disc configuration. This was conducted to simulate the effect of polyols as aqueous additive in machining sialon ceramic. The morphologies of and elemental distributions in the worn surfaces

Wenguang Zhang; Weimin Liu; Laigui Yu

2000-01-01

217

Tethered Lubricants  

SciTech Connect

We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

Archer, Lynden

2010-09-15

218

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, June 1991--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

Lagow, R.J.

1992-03-01

219

Oxidation and corrosion resistant diesel engine lubricant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diesel engine lubricating oil composition comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon lubricating oil and from 0.1-5.0 weight percent of the reaction product obtained by reacting at a temperature range of 50/sup 0/C-200/sup 0/C substantially equimolar amounts of an N-acyl sarcosine reactant and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic azole reactant.

Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

1989-02-28

220

Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

2005-01-01

221

7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to provide lubrication, decreased...based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight...preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date,...

2012-01-01

222

7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to provide lubrication, decreased...based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight...preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date,...

2013-01-01

223

Characterization of protein degradation in serum-based lubricants during simulation wear testing of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.  

PubMed

A size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) method has been developed which is capable of separation and quantitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine serum globulin (BSG) components of serum-based lubricant (SBL) solutions. This allowed characterization of the stability profiles of these proteins when acting as lubricants during hip wear simulation, and identification of wear-specific mechanisms of degradation. Using cobalt-chromium metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints, it was observed that BSA remained stable for up to 3 days (215K cycles) of wear testing after which the protein degraded in a fairly linear fashion. BSG on the other hand, began to degrade immediately and in a linear fashion with a rate constant of 5% per day. Loss of both proteins occurred via the formation of high molecular weight aggregates which precipitated out of solution. No fragmentation of the polypeptide backbone of either protein was observed. Data obtained suggest that protein degradation was not due to microbial contamination, denaturation at the air-water interface, or frictional heating of articulating joint surfaces in these studies. We conclude that the primary source of protein degradation during MOM simulation testing occurs via high shear rates experienced by SBL solutions at articulating surfaces, possibly coupled with metal-protein interactions occurring as new and reactive metal surfaces are generated during wear testing. The development of this analytical methodology will allow new studies to clarify the role of SBL solutions in wear simulation studies and the interactions and lubricating properties of serum proteins with prosthetic surfaces other than MOM. PMID:20583304

Maskiewicz, Victoria K; Williams, Paul A; Prates, Sarah J; Bowsher, John G; Clarke, Ian C

2010-08-01

224

Engine Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

1993-01-01

225

A control volume-based discretization of the Reynolds equation for the numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the discretization of the one-dimensional Reynolds equation coupled with the film shape equation, that is used for the numerical solution of elastohydrodynamically lubricated contacts. The derivation of the developed discretization formula is based on the control volume approach. To reduce the discretization error caused by the upwind expression of the Couette (velocity) term, non-symmetric control volumes are used for discretization of the Reynolds equation, while for the elasticity equation the standard approach is used. A numerical method for the solution of the pressure and the film thickness profiles of elastohydrodynamically lubricated isothermal line contacts is presented. Results are presented for chosen typical parameters of a highly loaded contact. To show the formula efficiency, the convergence speed of both the presented discretization formula and a chosen comparative discretization formula (A.A. Lubrecht, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Twente, The Netherlands, 1987 and C.H. Venner, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Twente, The Netherlands, 1991) are checked. The results show that the presented formula gives better approximations of film thickness values for a given number of equidistant grid nodes. Moreover, the presented approach is probably suitable for more sophisticated cases, such as transient situations and elliptical contacts.

?ermák, Jan

1998-04-01

226

Antiwear and Friction Reducing Mechanisms of Carbon Nano-onions as Lubricant Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nano-onions have better tribological properties than graphite powder when used as additives dispersed in a poly-alpha-olefin\\u000a base oil. Carbon nano-onions give a better dispersion in the liquid base oil due to their nanometre-scale size. In particular,\\u000a the anti-wear efficiency of carbon onions under boundary lubrication and mild wear regime is much better than that of graphite\\u000a powder. This effect

L. Joly-Pottuz; B. Vacher; N. Ohmae; J. M. Martin; T. Epicier

2008-01-01

227

Linear variable filter based oil condition monitoring systems for offshore windturbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major part of future renewable energy will be generated in offshore wind farms. The used turbines of the 5 MW class and beyond, often feature a planetary gear with 1000 liters lubricating oil or even more. Monitoring the oil aging process provides early indication of necessary maintenance and oil change. Thus maintenance is no longer time-scheduled but becomes wear

Benjamin R. Wiesent; Daniel G. Dorigo; Özlem Simsek; Alexander W. Koch

2011-01-01

228

Compressor lubrication and noise reduction system  

SciTech Connect

An oil lubrication and noise suppression system is described comprising: an oil sump: a crankshaft rotatable about an axis and defining a centrifugal oil pump: an oil pickup tube extending into the oil sump and secured to the crankshaft coaxial with the axis and rotatable with the crankshaft about the axis as a unit; and an impeller axially asymmetrically mounted on the pickup tube within the oil sump whereby upon rotation of the crankshaft, the oil pickup tube and the impeller as a unit causes the production of froth and the pumping of oil while preventing the formation of a stable vortex.

Bayyouk, J.A.; Waser, M.P.

1988-06-14

229

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium-carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, Chris; Sliney, Harold E.

1987-01-01

230

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 deg C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1986-01-01

231

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the Shell staff who thought that esters of perfluoro salicylic acid might be an excellent antifriction additive for motor oil fuels. One of the best additives currently used in motor oils is the hydrocarbon ester of salicylic acid.

Lagow, Richard J.

1993-04-08

232

Investigation of base oils by nmr spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

and hydrofining in the refining of crudes containing high-index components, while continuing to use current technology for selective refining. Assessment of crudes from the standpoint of potential base oil content and quality therefore becomes particularly important. The methods basedon adsorptive chromatography used in practice for determining potential distillate and residual oil contents and chemical group compositions in crude (State Standard

D. F. Kushnarev; T. V. Afonina; K. A. Demidenko; A. M. Bezhanidze; T. A. Dolbanova; G. A. Kalabin

1989-01-01

233

Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P.L. Dickrell and W.G. Sawyer*  

E-print Network

Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P life [4,5], ability to operate from cryogenic temperature (4 K) to 500 K, and their relative that operate at cryogenic temperatures, there is a paucity of data available for friction coeffi- cients

Sawyer, Wallace

234

Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

Sliney, Harold E.

1962-01-01

235

Modification of Graphene Platelets and their Tribological Properties as a Lubricant Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene platelets were chemically modified in a reflux reaction with stearic and oleic acids. Examination of the surface\\u000a features of the graphene platelets before and after modification by infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer\\u000a revealed that the modification led to an improvement in the dispersion of graphene platelets in base oil. The tribological\\u000a behavior of the lubricating oil containing modified graphene

Jinshan Lin; Liwei Wang; Guohua Chen

2011-01-01

236

Alternative Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plywood is normally produced with urea-formaldehyde and\\/or phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. However, the former is considerably toxic and environmentally damaging, while the latter is expen- sive, thus motivating the search for alternative raw materials in plywood production. The castor oil- based polyurethane adhesive developed at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, is an environmentally friendly vegetal oil-based polymer

Fabricio Moura Dias; Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr

237

Full-scale transmission testing to evaluate advanced lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500 hp helicopter transmission test stand. The testing was part of a lubrication program. The objectives are to develop and show a separate lubricant for gearboxes with improved performance in life and load carrying capacity. The goal was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 based reference oil and then to run identical tests with improved lubricants and show improved performance. The tests were directed at parts that failed due to marginal lubrication from Navy field experience. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hrs of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

1992-01-01

238

Full-scale transmission testing to evaluate advanced lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500 hp helicopter transmission test stand. The testing was part of a lubrication program. The objectives are to develop and show a separate lubricant for gearboxes with improved performance in life and load carrying capacity. The goal was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 based reference oil and then to run identical tests with improved lubricants and show improved performance. The tests were directed at parts that failed due to marginal lubrication from Navy field experience. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hrs of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

239

High performance solid and liquid lubricants: An industrial guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

1987-01-01

240

Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter presents an introduction and historical background to the field of tribology, especially solid lubrication and lubricants and sets them in the perspective of techniques and materials in lubrication. Also, solid and liquid lubrication films ar...

K. Miyoshi

1996-01-01

241

Estimation of refractive index and density of lubricants under high pressure by Brillouin scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing a diamond-anvil cell, Brillouin scattering spectra of 90° and 180° angles for synthetic lubricants (paraffinic and naphthenic oils) were measured and sound velocity, density, and refractive index under high pressure were obtained. The density obtained from the thermodynamic relation was compared with that from Lorentz-Lorentz's formula. The density was also compared with Dowson's density-pressure equation of lubricants, and density-pressure characteristics of the paraffinic oil and naphthenic oil were described considering the molecular structure for solidified lubricants. The effect of such physical properties of lubricants on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of ball bearings, gears and traction drives was considered.

Nakamura, Y.; Fujishiro, I.; Kawakami, H.

1994-07-01

242

Influence of Lubricant Additives on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Compressor parts under the Alternative Refrigerant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the standpoint of lubricative deficit under the alternative refrigerant/lubricants coexistence, the influence of additives on friction and wear characteristics for compressor parts have been investigated by the wear tester reappeared on friction condition similarly to actual compressor. It has been shown that an ester type base oil containing TCP (tricresyl phosphate) as an extreme pressure agents indicates satisfactory lubrication because of its EP effect. However owning to the deterioration of base oil caused by a cresol which is a reactant of TCP, a hydrolysis inhibitor must be necessary. The results indicates that a hydrolysis inhibitor added to POE is able to not only prevent the base oil from deteriorating but also feed the strength into oil films. On the other hands, in such a case that TCP concentration added in an alkylbenzen type base oil is excess or wear track temperature is higher, wear amounts of compressor parts are increased on account of corrosion wear. The reactivity of TCP depends on wear track temperature and its concentration. Consequently, it is possible that EP effect of TCP has been considered in terms of its concentration and temperature to be appropriated.

Yamaguchi, Hidehiro; Imai, Hachiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Ueki, Yutaka; Takizawa, Kikuo; Fukushima, Kiyoshi

243

Liquid-Solid Self-Lubricated Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Self-lubricated coatings obtained by thermal spray are exclusively based on solid lubricants (PTFE, h-BN, graphite, MoS2, etc.) embedded in the matrix. Production of thermal spray coatings containing liquid lubricants has not yet been achieved because of the complexity of keeping a liquid in a solid matrix during the spraying process. In the present article, the first liquid-solid self-lubricating thermal spray coatings are presented. The coatings are produced by inserting lubricant-filled capsules inside a polymeric matrix. The goal of the coating is to release lubricant to the system when needed. The first produced coatings consisted solely of capsules for confirming the feasibility of the process. For obtaining such a coating, the liquid-filled capsules were injected in the thermal spray flame without any other feedstock material. Once the concept and the idea were proven, a polymer was co-sprayed together with the capsules to obtain a coating containing the lubricant-filled capsules distributed in the solid polymeric matrix. The coatings and the self-lubricated properties have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and tribological tests.

Armada, S.; Schmid, R.; Equey, S.; Fagoaga, I.; Espallargas, N.

2013-02-01

244

Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

1993-03-01

245

Development of special lubricants for ball bearings operating in vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ball bearing life test program was performed to obtain data on the efficiencies of various lubricated and self-lubricating ball retainer systems for instrument bearings in a vacuum environment. The program utilized light to moderate radial loads at relatively low speeds on a NASA-GSFC designed and supplied test rig. Several systems were found which gave acceptable bearing life under the test conditions used, but the most consistent low running torques after testing resulted from oil lubrication.

1973-01-01

246

Study on Effect of Hydroxyl Group on Lubrication Properties of Palm Based Trimethylolpropane Esters: Development of Synthesis Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some concerns have been raised regarding the oxidative stability of vegetable oil-base fluids. Thus, wide ranges of palm-based trimethylolpropane esters, which contain different percentages of partial esters, were synthesized. The palm-based TMP were esterified from Palm Oil Methyl Esters (POME) with trimethylolpropane [2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol;TMP] and sodium methoxide (CH3ONa) as catalyst. Quantification of methyl esters, mono, di- and tri-TMP esters were performed using a gas chromatography (GC), with a high temperature capillary column (SGE HT5), operated at a temperature gradient of 6°C min-1 starting from 80 to 340°C. The influence of operating variables (temperature, pressure, molar ratio of palm methyl esters to TMP and catalyst amount) on diesters formation was studied and analyzed. Palm oil TMP ester containing 10-30% partial esters (monoesters and diesters) was successfully synthesized.

Abu Bakar, Anita; Yunus, Robiah; Luqman Chuah, A.; Fakhru`L-Razi, A.

247

Titanium dithiophosphates: A new class of multifunctional lubricant additives  

SciTech Connect

Three oil-soluble trisopropoxytitanium dialkyphosphorodithioates and an oil-insoluble diisopropoxytitanium alkylenephosphorodithioate were synthesized in nearly quantitative yields. These titanium complexes were evaluated for their antifriction, extreme pressure, antiwear and antioxidant properties in lubricating base oils and greases. The results show that at 0.5% w/w level, these complexes reduce the coefficient of friction by 20 to 25 percent, increase weld load by 45 to 110 percent, decrease metallic wear by 25 to 45 percent and considerably improve resistance of oil towards oxidation. The performance of these newly developed multifunctional additives has been compared with commercially established additives like molybdenum dithiophosphates and zinc dithiophosphates. 23 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Sarin, R.; Tuli, D.K.; Rai, M.M. [Indian Oil Corporation, Faridabad (India)] [and others

1995-04-01

248

Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Truhan, John J. [Caterpillar Inc.

2009-01-01

249

High temperature solid lubricants: When and where to use them  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F) is reviewed. Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include the layer lattice compounds: MoS2, WS2, graphite and graphite fluoride, the high temperature polyimide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coating and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearing, and journal bearings.

Sliney, H. E.

1973-01-01

250

High temperature solid lubricants - When and where to use them.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F). Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include MoS2, WS2, graphite, graphite fluoride, the high temperature polymide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coatings and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearings, and journal bearings.

Sliney, H. E.

1973-01-01

251

Rapid analysis of lubricants by atmospheric solid analysis probe-ion mobility mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Formulated lubricants are complex mixtures composed of base oil(s) and additives with various functions (detergents, corrosion inhibiter, antioxidant, viscosity modifiers, etc.). Because of the aliphatic nature of base oil and the chemical diversity of additives, the characterization of lubricant is currently a long and complex process. The comprehensive analysis of lubricant samples involves several techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The coupling of atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) with ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has been shown to be an efficient tool for the characterization of complex mixture containing vaporizable polar to non-polar compounds. This approach affords the coupling of a direct ionization technique that does not require sample preparation, with a bi-dimensional separation method with high peak capacity. In this work, we show that ASAP-IM-MS is a suitable method for rapid and direct characterization of lubricant samples. Indeed, base oil and additives yielded, by ASAP, ions series which could be separated by IM-MS. Molecular additives such as Zn-dithiocarbamate, phosphite, thiophosphate and Alkyl diphenylamine were ionized as molecular ions [M](+•) or protonated molecules [M?+?H](+), depending of their polarity. In some cases, fragment ions were observed, confirming the additive identification. In addition, high molecular weight polymeric additives such as poly(alkyl methacrylate) (PAM) were pyrolized in the ASAP source leading to characteristic fragment ions. ASAP-IM-MS is shown to be a powerful tool for studying complex mixtures, allowing the first comprehensive analysis of lubricants in just a few minutes. PMID:25044898

Barrère, Caroline; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Afonso, Carlos; Racaud, Amandine

2014-08-01

252

Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress.

Alice Mae Pendleton

2008-01-01

253

Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.  

SciTech Connect

During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1999-03-30

254

Lubrication in a corner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model for the evolution of a thin film in an interior corner region is presented. The model is based on the idea that the film can be considered thin everywhere in the ?-direction if viewed in the new coordinate system ? = x^2 - y^2, ? = 2xy. Lubrication theory is applied to the governing equations written in this coordinate system. The exact integration of the mass conservation equation for a no-slip boundary condition yields a single evolution equation, which is integrated numerically. The evolution of a thin film driven by surface tension and gravity is predicted as a function of the Bond number and successfully compared to laboratory experiments.

Stocker, Roman; Hosoi, A. E.

2005-12-01

255

Lubricant rheology applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viscosity measurements in a high pressure rheometer, elastohydrodynamic simulator studies (including the development of a temperature measuring technique), and analytical fluid modeling for elastohydrodynamic contacts are described. The more recent research which is described concerns infrared temperature measurements in elastohydrodynamic contacts and the exploration of the glassy state of lubricants. A correlation, of engineering significance, was made between transient surface temperature measurements and surface roughness profiles. Measurements of glass transitions of lubricants and the study of the effect of rate processes on materials lead to the conclusion that typical lubricants go into the glassy state as they pass through the contact region of typical elastohydrodynamic contacts.

Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

1977-01-01

256

Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

2013-05-01

257

Operating limitations of high speed jet lubricated ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 degrees. The bearings had either an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage, and lubrication was by recirculating oil jets which had either a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN, and bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets, but under-race lubrication produced lower bearing temperatures under all conditions of operation with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

1975-01-01

258

Tribological Properties of a Pennzane(Registered Trademark)-Based Liquid Lubricant (Disubstituted Alkylated Cyclopentane) for Low Temperature Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tribological properties of a disubstituted alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane (registered) Synthesized Hydrocarbon Fluid X-1000, are presented. This compound is a lower molecular weight version of the commonly used multiply alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane X-2000, currently used in many space mechanisms. New, lower temperature applications will require liquid lubricants with lower viscosities and pour points and acceptable vapor pressures. Properties reported include: friction and wear studies and lubricated lifetime in vacuum; additionally, typical physical properties (i.e., viscosity-temperature, pour point, flash and fire point, specific gravity, refractive index, thermal properties, volatility and vapor pressure) are reported.

Venier, Clifford; Casserly, Edward W.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Marchetti, Mario; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

2002-01-01

259

Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

1971-01-01

260

Simulation of Submarine Pipeline Oil Spill Based on Wave Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the motion law of oil spill to conduct cleaning, simulation for submarine oil spill based on wave motion is carried out by user defined function and volume of fluid in FLUENT, and the dispersion and diffusion of oil spill in deep sea is simulated dynamically. Also the oil spill processes with different wavelength and current velocity

Ming Xiao; Qingjun Gao; Jianguo Lin; Wei Li; Xiao Liang

2010-01-01

261

Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.  

PubMed

The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks. PMID:21178313

Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

2011-01-01

262

Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect

A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

Perez, J. M.

2000-07-06

263

Desorption or `Surface Melting' of Lubricant Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RECENT communication1 has described the effect of temperature on the lubricating properties of mineral oils. The apparatus used for the experiments was that devised by Bowden and Leben for analysing the frictional force between sliding surfaces. In this apparatus the bottom surface is driven steadily forward, but the upper surface is mounted on a bifilar suspension so that it

D. Tabor

1941-01-01

264

The Effect of Using Water-based Gel Lubricant During a Speculum Exam On Pap Smear Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical cancer is a pervasive yet preventable killer. Although routine screening exams are available to aid in the early detection of cervical cancer, women often avoid getting their routine annual screening exams. One explanation of this could be due to the discomfort of speculum exams. One way to minimize the discomfort of the speculum exam is to use gel-lubricant.

Jessica L. Wright

2010-01-01

265

Boundary lubrication: Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on boundary lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of boundary surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the boundary lubrication regime are considered.

Jones, W. R., Jr.

1982-01-01

266

Lubrication of Machine Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

Hamrock, B. J.

1984-01-01

267

Fundamentals of fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

Hamrock, Bernard J.

1991-01-01

268

Micro-Bubble Phenomenon in Nanoscale Water-based Lubricating Film Induced by External Electric Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an external electric field (EEF) on water-based thin films has been investigated. Some micro-bubbles emerging\\u000a around the edge of the Hertz contact region in the films of deioned water and polyethylene glycols (PEG) aqueous solutions\\u000a have been observed. A higher EEF intensity is needed at which the micro-bubbles begin to emerge after the EEF is applied on

Guoxin Xie; Jianbin Luo; Shuhai Liu; Chenhui Zhang; Xinchun Lu

2008-01-01

269

A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

2014-09-01

270

Evaluation of antifriction bearing lubrication methods on motor life-cycle cost  

SciTech Connect

The number 1 cause of induction motor failures is bearing failure. Antifriction bearing failures most commonly are the consequences of inadequate lubrication. Antifriction motor bearings are found in four lubrication configurations: regreasable, sealed, oil mist, and oil lubricated. Bearings are oil lubricated when the operating conditions (i.e., bearing size, speed, thrust, etc.) require it. However, there is much debate about the best lubrication configuration, given a choice between regreasable, sealed, or oil-misted bearings. Within their own rights, all three methods have their advantages. Selection of the proper configuration is dependent upon many factors, such as motor size/type (i.e., bearing size/type), plant maintenance practice, bearing replacement availability/cost, duty cycle, environmental conditions, and downtime cost. This paper discusses the relationship between these factors and lubrication configuration, and presents an analysis of the subsequent impact on bearing life and system cost.

Hodowanec, M.M.

1999-12-01

271

Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints  

E-print Network

. [33]. It is comprised of three areas as follows: lubrication, friction, and wear. In the natural human joint during lubrication, the same principle applies. The frictional patterns of bearing are adapted by the existence of a lubricant [33.... [33]. It is comprised of three areas as follows: lubrication, friction, and wear. In the natural human joint during lubrication, the same principle applies. The frictional patterns of bearing are adapted by the existence of a lubricant [33...

Pendelton, Alice Mae

2009-05-15

272

Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricants was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricant tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwar additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt pct sulfur and 0.1 wt pct phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

1986-01-01

273

Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

1985-01-01

274

Physico-chemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils.  

PubMed

Palm-based diacylglycerol (P-DAG) oils were produced through enzymatic glycerolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil (PO), palm olein (POL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and palm stearin (PS). High purity DAG (83-90%, w/w) was obtained and compared to palm-based oils (P-oil) had significantly (P<0.05) different fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV) and slip melting point (SMP). Solid fat content (SFC) profiles of P-DAG oils as compared to P-oils had less steep curves with lower SFC at low temperature range (5-10°C) and the higher complete melting temperatures. Also, P-DAG oils in contrast with P-oils showed endothermic as well as exothermic peaks with higher transition temperatures and significantly (P<0.05) higher crystallisation onsets, heats of fusion, and heats of crystallisation. Crystal forms for P-DAG oils were mostly in the ? form. PMID:25214093

Saberi, Amir Hossein; Kee, Beh Boon; Oi-Ming, Lai; Miskandar, Mat Sahri

2011-08-01

275

Rust inhibiting additive compositions for oils  

SciTech Connect

Compositions which include mixtures of a calcium hydroxide overbased oil-soluble calcium sulfonate, hexylene glycol and a surfactant consisting of an ethoxylated aliphatic amine, particularly, diethoxylated cocoamine or diethoxylated soyamine, are useful as rust inhibiting additives for oils and the like. By incorporating these compositions in petroleum based oils such as petroleum based oils of lubricating oil quality which come into contact with metal surfaces under conditions such that the metal surfaces tend to rust or otherwise be subject to deterioration it is possible to inhibit rust formation on such metal surfaces.

Haugen, H.

1980-09-23

276

Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the bearing was turned at a rate of 200 RPM. The lubricator control was turned on at the beginning of the test, turned off for about 800 seconds, then turned on again. As shown in Figure 2, the controlled lubricator stabilized the torque in a low range, starting immediately after initial turn-on and immediately after resumption of the lubricator control.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

2005-01-01

277

Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

278

Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

1980-01-01

279

Tribological properties of MoS 2 nano-balls as filler in polyoxymethylene-based composite layer of three-layer self-lubrication bearing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

POM\\/MoS2 nano-balls composite was prepared by adding MoS2 nano-balls synthesized from Na2MoO4 and CH3CSNH2 into polyoxymethylene (POM). The comparative POM-based composite blended with micro-MoS2 particles was also prepared. The obtained POM\\/MoS2 composites were used as the polymerical layer in the three-layer self-lubrication materials. The results of tribological tests showed that the POM with MoS2 nano-balls presented better tribological properties than

K. H. HU

2009-01-01

280

New immiscible refrigeration lubricant for HFCs  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the capability of a family of very low-viscosity alkylbenzenes (AB) used in high-side rotary compressors for HFCs. In the development of refrigeration lubricants for HFCs, miscibility is one of the most important problems to be solved. Therefore, PAG (polyalkylene glycols) and POE (polyol esters), which have good miscibility, have been applied in new HFC applications. However, it is difficult for these lubricants to maintain long-term durability in high-side rotary compressors. In friction tests under high HFC pressure, ABs with much lower viscosities than mineral oil maintained a much stronger oil film than the combination of mineral oil/R-12 or POE/HFCs. These results were also proven by compressor durability tests. From the study of the solubility of ABs and HFCs, it is suggested that the total amount of refrigerant can be reduced because HFCs are barely soluble with ABs inside the high-side shell.

Sunami, Motoshi [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Lubricant Marketing and Product Engineering Dept.; Takigawa, Katsuya; Suda, Satoshi; Sasaki, Umekichi [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Central Technical Research Lab.

1995-12-31

281

Solid/liquid lubrication of ceramics at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effect of solid and liquid lubrication on friction and wear performance of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and cast iron. The solid lubricant was a thin silver film ({approx}2 {mu}m thick) produced on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by ion-beam-assisted deposition. A high-temperature polyol-ester-base synthetic oil served as the liquid lubricant. Friction and wear tests were performed with pin-on-disk and oscillating-slider wear test machines at temperatures up to 300{degrees}C. Without the silver films, the friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} test pairs were 0.05 to 0.14, and the average wear rates of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins were {approx}5 x 10{sup -8} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1}. The friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/cast iron test pairs ranged from 0.08 to 0.11, depending on test temperature. The average specific wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}3 x 10{sup -7} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}. However, simultaneous use of the solid-lubricant silver and synthetic oil on the sliding surfaces reduced friction coefficients to 0.02 to 0.08. Moreover, the wear of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins and silver-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} disks was so low that it was difficult to assess by a surface profilometer. The wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}7 x 10{sup -9} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1} up to 250{degrees}C, but showed a tendency to increase slightly at much higher temperatures. In general, the test results demonstrated that the solid/liquid lubrication of ceramic and/or metallic components is both feasible and effective in controlling friction and wear.

Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hong, H. [Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH (United States)

1996-04-01

282

Oil-return characteristics of refrigerant oils in split heat pump system  

SciTech Connect

Currently, HFC substitute refrigerants for R-22 are being evaluated in air-conditioning and heat pump applications. The oil return characteristics and heat transfer effects of the lubricants are being studied again. Based on commercial refrigeration experience POEs are the lubricants of choice for HFC refrigerants. POEs have two major drawbacks: hygroscopicity and high cost. Thus the question is raised to what extent is it possible to replace POEs with a lower cost, but immiscible, oil such as mineral oil. It is the purpose of this study to experimentally investigate the oil return behavior of R-407C with mineral oil in a split three-ton heat pump in comparison to R407C/POE and R-22/Mineral Oil.

Sundaresan, S.G. [Copeland Corp., Sidney, OH (United States). Materials Engineering and Systems Chemistry; Radermacher, R.

1996-08-01

283

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

284

Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems. Volume 1: Description of technical effort and results; Final technical report, March 1995--April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to determine lubricant circulation characteristics of new HFC/POE pairs and HFC/mineral oil pairs in a representative central residential HVAC system and to compare their behavior with the traditional HCFC-22/mineral oil (refrigerant/lubricant) pair. A dynamic test facility was designed and built to conduct the experimental efforts. This facility provided a unique capability to visually and physically measure oil circulation rates, on-line, in operating systems. A unique on-line ultraviolet-based measurement device was used to obtain detailed data on the rate and level of lubricant oil circulated within the operating heat pump system. The experimental and analytical data developed during the program are presented as a function of vapor velocity, refrigerant/lubricant viscosity, system features and equipment. Both visual observations and instrumentation were used to understand ``worst case`` oil circulation situations. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 contains a complete description of the program scope, objective, test results summary, conclusions, description of test facility and recommendations for future effort. Volume 2 contains all of the program test data essentially as taken from the laboratory dynamic test facility during the sequence of runs.

Biancardi, F.R.; Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.; Pandy, D.R.

1996-10-01

285

2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses  

E-print Network

2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses Yu-Lin Chang & Leo Oey # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill

286

Evaluation of sensor arrays for engine oils using artificial oil alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With respect to varying operation conditions, only sensors directly installed in the engine can detect the current oil condition hence enabling to get the right time for the oil change. Usually, only one parameter is not sufficient to obtain reliable information about the current oil condition. For this reason, appropriate sensor principles were evaluated for the design of sensor arrays for the measurement of critical lubricant parameters. In this contribution, we report on the development of a sensor array for engine oils using laboratory analyses of used engine oils for the correlation with sensor signals. The sensor array comprises the measurement of conductivity, permittivity, viscosity and temperature as well as oil corrosiveness as a consequence of acidification of the lubricant. As a key method, rapid evaluation of the sensors was done by short term simulation of entire oil change intervals based on artificial oil alteration. Thereby, the compatibility of the sensor array to the lubricant and the oil deterioration during the artificial alteration process was observed by the sensors and confirmed by additional laboratory analyses of oil samples take.

Sen, Sedat; Schneidhofer, Christoph; Dörr, Nicole; Vellekoop, Michael J.

2011-06-01

287

Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible\\/near

D. Streett; C. Warren

2010-01-01

288

Solubility modeling of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A general model for predicting the solubility properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of non-ideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing non-ideal liquid effects, the Wohl-suffix equations, which have been extensively utilized in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a POE lubricant. In the present study we have analyzed several POEs where structural and thermophysical property data were available. Data were also collected from several sources on the solubility of refrigerant/lubricant binary pairs. We have developed a computer code (NISC), based on the Wohl model, that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature. Our present analysis covers mixtures containing up to three refrigerant molecules and one lubricant. The present code can be used to analyze the properties of R-410a and R-407c in mixtures with a POE lubricant. Comparisons with other models, such as the Wilson or modified Wilson equations, indicate that the Wohl-suffix equations yield more reliable predictions for HFC/POE mixtures.

Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.

1996-12-31

289

An analytical method for lubricant quality control by NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The excellent compatibility of polyol esters (POEs) with general fluids coolants such as CO(2) and non-chlorinated coolants (e.g. hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs) in terms of solubility, miscibility and chemical stability has fostered their use as lubricants by the refrigeration industry. The most widely used POEs bases consist of esters of polyalcohols - such as pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol and neopentylglycol - with mixtures of carboxylic acids of 4-10 carbon atoms. Their thermophysical properties (viscosity mainly) are crucial with a view to producing efficient lubricants for specific applications. Usually, POE formulations, which usually contain several bases, are characterized in terms of global indices. In this work, we developed a methodology based on NIR spectroscopy for the characterization and analysis of lubricant formulations. The products, including lubricant bases and lubricant formulations, are characterized by reference to two spectral libraries that are used to identify as the starting lubricant bases as well as the lubricant formulations. It has been proposed to build libraries in cascade for the differentiation of lubricant formulations without and with low content in additives. Once the identification of the formulation is applied PLS multivariate models are used to determine the components of a lubricant formulation and its viscosity. PMID:22284520

Zamora, David; Blanco, Marcelo; Bautista, Manel; Mulero, Rufí; Mir, Miquel

2012-01-30

290

Molecular simulations of hydrocarbon lubricants: Impact of molecular architecture on performance properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increased power of modern computers, molecular modeling has been used widely and proven to be a valuable tool for elucidating the physical processes important in many industrial and engineering problems. Of particular interest to us is the rheology and physical chemistry of complex fluids, such as hydrocarbon lubricants and polymers. The goal is to provide qualitative and quantitative molecular-level explanations for the behavior of such fluids, and provide guidance in the development of new improved materials. For example, during the production of poly-?-olefin (PAO) synthetic lubricants, the number of the isomer skeletal structures that can be obtained is staggering. Which of the countless PAO isomers produce a lubricant with superior performance properties? How does it behave under different operational conditions of temperature, pressure, and shear rate? A fundamental understanding of the effect that molecular structure has on the oil's rheological and lubricant performance is first needed, in order to answer these questions. To serve this purpose, we have developed efficient molecular dynamics (MD) simulation programs, which utilize multiple time step algorithms and parallel computational techniques. This enables us to conduct simulations of typical PAO isomers and compute the viscosity, as well as several other dynamic and static properties, as a function of temperature, pressure, and shear rate. The key molecular mechanisms that determine important macroscopic properties, such as viscosity index, viscosity-pressure coefficient, traction coefficient, and shear thinning behavior are discussed. Based on this analysis, lubricant and traction fluid structures that have a high likelihood of having desirable properties are proposed. In addition, studies on simple alkane mixtures are presented, in an attempt to understand the more complex polydisperse lubricant fluids, their blends, and their interaction with additives.

Kioupis, Loukas I.

2000-07-01

291

Linear Motion Guide with Molybdenum Disulfide Composite Solid Lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical trend of solid lubricant rolling bearing and linear motion guide was reviewed. Especially, a newly developed oil-free solid lubricant linear motion guide by authors was also reported in details in this present. The rolling ball of the guide was coated by sputtering molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and some special transition metal simultaneously, while the spacer ball made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was also applied to the guide. By this way, a composite solid lubricant with excellent wear resistance properties was provided and there has been no any organic solvent and binder added, resulting in lower particle generation and low lever of out gas. It is expected that the oil-free solid lubricant linear motion guide could be applied to high temperature, high vacuum, radiation and space utilizations.

Yang, Hong; Takahashi, Tohru

292

Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

1984-01-01

293

Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are discussed in Chapter V, followed by summary and conclusions in Chapter VI.

Pendleton, Alice Mae

294

Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Boundary films are formed by physisorption, chemisorption, and chemical reaction. A good boundary boundary film physisorption\\u000a chemisorption lubricant should have a high degree of interaction between its molecules and the solid surface. As a general\\u000a rule, liquids are good lubricants when they are polar and thus able to grip solid surfaces perfluoropolyether (PFPE) (or be\\u000a adsorbed). In this chapter, we

Bharat Bhushan

295

Effects of lubrication on the performance of high speed spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental analysis was conducted to determine power loss and gear noise of high speed spur gears with long addendum under various conditions of load, speed, and oil jet pressure for into mesh lubrication. Power losses were calculated from temperature measurements of lubricating oil, gears, gear box, and oil flow rate. Furthermore, power loss was divided into windage loss, friction loss and churning loss. The results show that windage loss and churning loss were the main components of gear power loss of high gear speed. In addition, lubricating conditions had some influences on gear noise especially under low oil temperature or high viscosity.

Mizutani, Hachiro; Isikawa, Yuuichi; Townsend, Dennis P.

1989-01-01

296

Lubrication by glycoprotein brushes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grafted polyelectrolyte brushes show excellent lubricating properties under water and have been proposed as a model to study boundary lubrication in biological system. Lubricin, a glycoprotein of the synovial fluid, is considered the major boundary lubricant of articular joints. Using the Surface Force Apparatus, we have measured normal and friction forces between model surfaces (negatively charged mica, positively charged poly-lysine and aminothiol, hydrophobic alkanethiol) bearing adsorbed layers of lubricin. Lubricin layers acts like a versatile anti-adhesive, adsorbing on all the surfaces considered and creating a repulsion similar to the force between end-grafted polymer brushes. Analogies with polymer brushes also appear from bridging experiment, where proteins molecules are end-adsorbed on two opposing surfaces at the same time. Lubricin `brushes' show good lubricating ability at low applied pressures (P<0.5MPa), especially on negatively charged surfaces like mica. At higher load, the adsorbed layers wears and fails lubricating the surfaces, while still protecting the underlying substrate from wearing. Lubricin might thus be a first example of biological polyelectrolytes providing `brush-like' lubrication and wear-protection.

Zappone, Bruno; Ruths, Marina; Greene, George W.; Israelachvili, Jacob

2006-03-01

297

Castor oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Castor oil is a yellowish liquid often used as a lubricant and in laxatives. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing a large amount (overdose) of castor oil. This is for information only and not for ...

298

Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of palm oil, palm oil based products and coconut oil: effects of scanning rate variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the thermal behaviour of coconut oil and palm oil and products based on them, by monitoring peak transition temperatures, transition enthalpies, offset- (Toff) and onset-temperatures (Ton) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different scanning rates. Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value (IV) analyses were used to compliment the DSC data. An increase in heating rate, generally, was

C. P Tan; Y. B Che Man

2002-01-01

299

Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect

This program was aimed at understanding refrigerant/lubricant circulation issues, developing test data and approximate models that can predict operating regimes where good oil management can be assured. A dynamic test facility was constructed and used to examine oil return under varying system operating conditions. The development of industry guidelines for system reliability in using the new refrigerant blends was a goal of this program. To validate the guidelines, techniques and predictions, this dynamic test facility was used to obtain data to compare to the analytical predictions. The overall program approach undertaken to meet this objective was: (1) to identify poor oil return scenarios and, therefore, the worst case oil return parameters for conventional residential HVAC systems using HCFC-22 and mineral oils, in terms of compressor, suction and exhaust line vapor velocity, and refrigerant viscosity requirements; (2) design and instrument a test apparatus that simulates such conditions, as well as those that might be achieved with HFC and POE mixtures and HFCs and mineral oils; (3) conduct tests with the range of baseline refrigerants and lubricant mixtures to provide experimental data; and (4) prepare, present and interpret the test data to provide an expanded understanding of the phenomena required for good oil circulation in split-system heat pump systems. To convert this general approach into the program specifics, three major tasks were defined and pursued. These are described briefly here and in greater detail in the report body as Task 1, Task 2, and Task 3. The report prepared for ARTI as part of the MCLR Project Number 665-53100 is described in Volumes 1 and 2, ``Study of Lubricant Circulation in the HVAC Systems,`` October 1996, from the same authors as this publication. This record consists of the overheads used in the presentation.

Biancardi, F.; Sienel, T.; Pandy, D.; Michels, H.

1997-02-01

300

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOEpatents

A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

1999-01-01

301

Development of a full-scale transmission testing procedure to evaluate advanced lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. The testing was part of a joint Navy/NASA/Army lubrication program. The objective of the program was to develop a separate lubricant for gearboxes and demonstrate an improved performance in life and load-carrying capacity. The goal of the experiments was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 base reference oil, then run identical tests with improved lubricants and demonstrate performance. The tests were directed at failing components that the Navy has had problems with due to marginal lubrication. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hours of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

1992-01-01

302

Lubrication System Failure Baseline Testing on an Aerospace Quality Gear Mesh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace drive systems are required to survive a loss-of-lubrication test for qualification. In many cases emergency lubrication systems need to be designed and utilized to permit the drive system to pass this difficult requirement. The weight of emergency systems can adversely affect the mission capabilities of the aircraft. The possibility to reduce the emergency system weight through the use of mist lubrication will be described. Mist lubrication involves the delivery of a minute amount of an organic liquid as a vapor or fine mist in flowing compressed air to rubbing surfaces. At the rubbing surface, the vapor or mist reacts to form a solid lubricating film. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline for gear behavior under oil depleted conditions. A reactive vapor-mist lubrication method is described and proposed as a candidate emergency lubrication system.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

2000-01-01

303

Industry Needs Fulfilled by Patented NASA PS300 Solid Lubricant Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1999, the NASA Glenn Research Center was awarded a patent (#5866518) for a new high-temperature solid lubricant coating material, PS300. A combination of wear-resistant metals and ceramics with solid lubricant additives, PS300 reduces friction and wear in sliding contacts from below ambient to over 650 C. This lubricant is an outgrowth of over three decades of high-temperature tribological research and was specifically developed as a shaft lubricant to protect foil air bearings used in Oil-Free turbomachinery, like gas turbines. Foil bearings are lubricated by air at high speeds but experience sliding and wear during initial startup and shut down when a lubricating film of air has not yet developed. PS300 shaft coatings have successfully lubricated foil bearings for over 100 000 cycles without wearing out.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2003-01-01

304

Emergency and microfog lubrication and cooling of bearings for Army helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once-through oil-mist (microfog) and coolant air system. A system was designed, manufactured, coupled with an existing rig and evaluation tests were performed using 46 mm bore split-inner angular-contact ball bearings under 1779N (400 lb.) thrust load. An emergency lubrication aspirator system was also manufactured and tested under lost lubricant conditions. The testing demonstrated the feasibility of using a mist oil and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed helicopter engine mainshaft bearing. The testing also demonstrated the feasibility of using an emergency aspirator lubrication system as a viable survivability concept for helicopter mainshaft engine bearing for periods as long as 30 minutes.

Rosenlieb, J. W.

1978-01-01

305

Operating limitations of high-speed jet-lubricated ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 deg. The bearings either had an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage. Lubrication was by recirculating oil jets. The oil jets either had a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN. Bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets. However, under-race lubrication produced under all conditions of operation lower bearing temperatures with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

1975-01-01

306

Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication of ball bearings and drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recently pointed out that liquids can be lubricated similarly to solids through the imposition of relative surface motion, e.g., using thermocapillarity or forced convection. Here we examine some aspects of drop lubrication that exhibit astonishing similarities, but also differences, with conventional ball bearings that undergo elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. Despite the fact that a drop, considered as a bearing, is able to carry a very small load compared with a normal ball bearing, the lubrication channels in the two cases have similar characteristics. On the other hand, a drop can only work in fully hydrodynamic regime, because boundary lubrication and what tribologists call starvation of lubricant lead to the immediate rupture of the drop and loss of the lubricating film. The idea underlying our discussion is that there is much to learn from drop lubrication because, as long as the drops remain intact, they behave somehow like ideal bearings. Numerical simulations based upon experimental data compare the performances of naturally shaped lubrication channels with those of channels that have been machined with some basic profiles.

dell'Aversana, Pasquale; Lappa, Marcello; Neitzel, G. Paul

2002-11-01

307

Space Station lubrication considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

1987-01-01

308

Performance Test of Diamond-Like Carbon Films for Lubricating ITER Blanket Maintenance Equipment under GPa-Level High Contact Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating was tested as a candidate solid lubricant for transmission gears of the maintenance equipment of the blanket of the ITER instead of an oil lubricant. The wear tests using the pin-on-disk method were performed on disks with SCM440 and SNCM420 as the base materials and coated with soft, layered, and hard DLCs. All cases satisfied the required allowable contact stress (2 GPa) and lifetime (104 cycles), and therefore the feasibility of the DLC coating was validated. Among the three types of DLCs, the soft DLC showed the best performance.

Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

309

Design and fundamental understanding of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) assisted grinding using advanced nanolubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abrasive grinding is widely used across manufacturing industry for finishing parts and components requiring smooth superficial textures and precise dimensional tolerances and accuracy. Unlike any other machining operations, the complex thermo-mechanical processes during grinding produce excessive friction-induced energy consumption, heat, and intense contact seizures. Lubrication and cooling from grinding fluids is crucial in minimizing the deleterious effects of friction and heat to maximize the output part quality and process efficiency. The conventional flood grinding approach of an uneconomical application of large quantities of chemically active fluids has been found ineffective to provide sufficient lubrication and produces waste streams and pollutants that are hazardous to human health and environment. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) that cuts the volumetric fluid consumption by 3-4 orders of magnitude have been extensively researched in grinding as a high-productivity and environmentally-sustainable alternative to the conventional flood method. However, the lubrication performance and productivity of MQL technique with current fluids has been critically challenged by the extreme thermo-mechanical conditions of abrasive grinding. In this research, an MQL system based on advanced nanolubricants has been proposed to address the current thermo-mechanical challenges of MQL grinding and improve its productivity. The nanolubricants were composed of inorganic Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles (? 200 nm) intercalated with organic macromolecules of EP/AW property, dispersed in straight (base) oils---mineral-based paraffin and vegetable-based soybean oil. After feasibility investigations into the grindability of cast iron using MQL with nanolubricants, this research focused on the fundamental understanding of tribological behavior and lubricating mechanisms of nanolubricants as a method to improve the productivity of MQL-assisted surface grinding of ductile iron and alloy steel. An extensive investigation on MQL-assisted grinding using vitrified aluminum oxide wheel under varied infeed and lubrication condition was carried out with the scope of documenting the process efficiency and lubrication mechanisms of the nanolubricants. Experimental results showed that MQL grinding with nanolubricants minimized the non-productive outputs of the grinding process by reducing frictional losses at the abrasive grain-workpiece interfaces, energy consumption, wheel wear, grinding zone temperatures, and friction-induced heat generation. Use of nanolubricants in MQL yielded superior productivity by producing surface roughness as low as 0.35 ?m and grinding efficiencies that were four times higher as compared to those obtained from flood grinding. Repeatable formation of tribochemical films of antifriction, antiwear, and extreme pressure chemical species in between the contact asperities of abrasive crystals and work material was identified with nanolubricants. The tribological behavior was characterized by this synergistic effect of the antiwear, antifriction, and load carrying chemical species that endured grain-workpiece seizures and reduced adhesion friction between the contact surfaces. Delivery of organic coated Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles by anchoring on the natural porosity of the abrasive wheel and eventually, sliding-induced interfacial deformation into tribolayers and alignment at the grinding zone were established as the lubrication mechanisms of the nanolubricants. These mechanisms were further validated from tribological evaluations of lubricated cubic boron nitride (cBN) superabrasives-1045 steel sliding pairs on a reciprocating tribotest rig resembling the tool-lubricant-workpiece interactions of MQL-assisted grinding.

Kalita, Parash

310

Assurance of lubricant supply in wet-lubricated space bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional lubrication techniques appear to be satisfactory, but rigorous proof of meeting a ten-year life requirement is lacking. One approach provides additional lubricant only when commanded from ground control, while the other passively augments lubrication at all times. Each technique has specific advantages, and selection should be related to the application to obtain optimum performance.

Glassow, F. A.

1976-01-01

311

Heat Treatment Used to Strengthen Enabling Coating Technology for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PS304 high-temperature solid lubricant coating is a key enabling technology for Oil- Free turbomachinery propulsion and power systems. Breakthroughs in the performance of advanced foil air bearings and improvements in computer-based finite element modeling techniques are the key technologies enabling the development of Oil-Free aircraft engines being pursued by the Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PS304 is a plasma spray coating applied to the surface of shafts operating against foil air bearings or in any other component requiring solid lubrication at high temperatures, where conventional materials such as graphite cannot function.

Edmonds, Brian J.; DellaCorte, Christopher

2002-01-01

312

Piezoviscous effects in nonconformal contacts lubricated hydrodynamically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis is concerned with the piezoviscous-rigid regime of lubrication for the general case of elliptical contacts. In this regime several formulas of the lubricant film thickness have been proposed by Hamrock and Dowson, by Dowson et al., and more recently by Houpert. However, either they do not include the load parameter W, which has a strong effect on film thickness, or they overestimate the film thickness by using the Barus formula for pressure-viscosity characteristics. The Roelands formula was used for the pressure-viscosity relationship. The effects of the dimensionless load, speed, and materials parameters, the radius ratio, and the lubricant entrainment direction were investigated. The dimensionless load parameter was varied over a range of one order of magnitude. The dimensionless speed parameter was varied by 5.6 times the lowest value. Conditions corresponding to the use of solid materials of steel, bronze, and silicon nitride and lubricants of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oil were considered in obtaining the exponent in the dimensionless materials parameter. The radius ratio was varied from 0.2 to 64 (a configuration approaching a line contact). Forty-one cases were used in obtaining a minimum film thickness formula. Contour plots indicate in detail the pressure developed between the contacting solids.

Jeng, Y. R.; Hamrock, B. J.; Brewe, D. E.

1985-01-01

313

Influence of minimum quantity lubrication parameters on tool wear and surface roughness in milling of forged steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL) technique is becoming increasingly more popular due to the safety of environment. Moreover, MQL technique not only leads to economical benefits by way of saving lubricant costs but also presents better machinability. However, the effect of MQL parameters on machining is still not clear, which needs to be overcome. In this paper, the effect of different modes of lubrication, i.e., conventional way using flushing, dry cutting and using the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique on the machinability in end milling of a forged steel (50CrMnMo), is investigated. The influence of MQL parameters on tool wear and surface roughness is also discussed. MQL parameters include nozzle direction in relation to feed direction, nozzle elevation angle, distance from the nozzle tip to the cutting zone, lubricant flow rate and air pressure. The investigation results show that MQL technique lowers the tool wear and surface roughness values compared with that of conventional flood cutting fluid supply and dry cutting conditions. Based on the investigations of chip morphology and color, MQL technique reduces the cutting temperature to some extent. The relative nozzle-feed position at 120°, the angle elevation of 60° and distance from nozzle tip to cutting zone at 20 mm provide the prolonged tool life and reduced surface roughness values. This fact is due to the oil mists can penetrate in the inner zones of the tool edges in a very efficient way. Improvement in tool life and surface finish could be achieved utilizing higher oil flow rate and higher compressed air pressure. Moreover, oil flow rate increased from 43.8 mL/h to 58.4 mL/h leads to a small decrease of flank wear, but it is not very significant. The results obtained in this paper can be used to determine optimal conditions for milling of forged steel under MQL conditions.

Yan, Lutao; Yuan, Songmei; Liu, Qiang

2012-05-01

314

Basic lubrication equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

315

High-Temperature Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1980's, Lewis Research Center began a program to develop high-temperature lubricants for use on future aircraft flying at three or more times the speed of sound, which can result in vehicle skin temperatures as high as 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit. A material that emerged from this research is a plasma-sprayed, self-lubricating metal- glass-fluoride coating able to reduce oxidation at very high temperatures. Technology is now in commercial use under the trade name Surf-Kote C-800, marketed by Hohman Plating and Manufacturing Inc. and manufactured under a patent license from NASA. Among its uses are lubrication for sliding contact bearings, shaft seals for turbopumps, piston rings for high performance compressors and hot glass processing machinery; it is also widely used in missile and space applications.

1984-01-01

316

Low Voltage Reversible Electrowetting Exploiting Lubricated Polymer Honeycomb Substrates  

E-print Network

Low-voltage electrowetting-on-dielectric scheme realized with lubricated honeycomb polymer surfaces is reported. Polycarbonate honeycomb reliefs manufactured with the breath-figures self-assembly were impregnated with silicone and castor oils. The onset of the reversible electrowetting for silicone oil impregnated substrates occurred at 35 V, whereas for castor oil impregnated ones it took place at 80 V. The semi-quantitative analysis of electrowetting of impregnated surfaces is proposed.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Yelena Bormashenko; Roman Grynyov; Oleg Gendelman

2014-06-16

317

Signature analysis of roller bearing vibrations - Lubrication effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the vibration signature of roller bearings, induced by the surface irregularities of components, under various lubricating conditions. The bearing vibration is modeled as the output of the bearing assembly which is subjected to the excitations of surface irregularities through the oil-film. The oil-film acts as a spring between the roller and race. The stiffness of oil-film under

Y.-T. Su; Y.-T. Sheen; M.-H. Lin

1992-01-01

318

Low voltage reversible electrowetting exploiting lubricated polymer honeycomb substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-voltage electrowetting-on-dielectric scheme realized with lubricated honeycomb polymer surfaces is reported. Polycarbonate honeycomb reliefs manufactured with the breath-figures self-assembly were impregnated with silicone and castor oils. The onset of the reversible electrowetting for silicone oil impregnated substrates occurred at 35 V, whereas for castor oil impregnated ones it took place at 80 V. The semi-quantitative analysis of electrowetting of impregnated surfaces is proposed.

Bormashenko, Edward; Pogreb, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Grynyov, Roman; Gendelman, Oleg

2014-04-01

319

Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices  

SciTech Connect

Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

320

Quantifying lubricant droplet spreading on a flat substrate using molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physical behavior of polymer-based lubricants on the nanoscale is of critical importance to a myriad of engineering applications and devices. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to quantitatively evaluate the physical mechanisms underlying perfluoropolyether lubricant spreading on a solid substrate. We quantify the effect of molecular mass, molecule length, and lubricant and substrate functional end groups on lubricant spreading. The results show that lubricant functional end groups play a critical role in lubricant spreading on the nanoscale. Lubricant spreading increases with increasing molecule length for lubricant with functional end groups, but decreases with the increase in molecule length for lubricant without functional end groups. In the former case, the fraction of the lubricant chain that is functional is the primary driving factor for lubricant spreading, while in the latter case, the molecular mass is most important. For both lubricants with and without functional end groups, spreading is inhibited by molecule entanglement beyond a critical molecule length, and spreading becomes independent of lubricant functional end groups and molecular mass.

Noble, Brooklyn; Ovcharenko, Andrey; Raeymaekers, Bart

2014-10-01

321

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVI, I--CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, II--LEARNING ABOUT BRAKES (PART I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF BRAKE SYSTEMS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THE NEED FOR OIL, (2) SERVICE CLASSIFICATION OF OILS, (3) CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (4)…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

322

Ultrahigh-vacuum linear-rotary transfer mechanism utilizing a bakable self-lubricating bearing  

SciTech Connect

An in vacuo translational-rotational motion based on a ball bearing package is described. Lubrication is accomplished by making the ball retainer from a solid dry lubricant, boron nitride (BN). This eliminates the need to separately coat the balls with lubricant prior to assembly; however, the balls are continuously coated while the bearing is in use.

Collet, G.J.; Garwin, E.L.; Kirby, R.E.

1987-03-01

323

Combustion fundamentals of pyrolysis oil based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The combustion behavior of emulsions of pyrolysis oil in commercial diesel oil was studied. The emulsions were different in terms of concentration and size of the dispersed phase. The study was carried out in a single droplet combustion chamber. The size of droplets varied between 400 {mu}m and 1200 {mu}m. They were suspended to a bare thermocouple and, hence, their temperature during combustion was measured. High-speed digital shadowgraphy was used to follow droplets evolution. The main features of the droplet combustion were recognized. The general combustion behavior of emulsions is intermediate with respect to pure PO and commercial diesel oil. Emulsion droplets underwent strong swelling and microexplosion phenomena. However, under the investigated conditions, the microexplosions were ineffective in destroying droplets. The size distribution of the dispersed PO droplets in the range 3-10 {mu}m was not effective either for determining the overall thermal behavior or for the efficacy of the microexplosions. The homogeneous combustion phase resulted identical for emulsions and diesel oil despite the emulsions composition (i.e., concentration of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, as well as the size of the oil droplets in the emulsion) and the different structure of the flame and also its time and spatial evolution. (author)

Calabria, R.; Chiariello, F.; Massoli, P. [Istituto Motori CNR, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2007-04-15

324

Ultrasonic energy effect on vegetable oil based biodiesel synthetic process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing process of vegetable oil based biodiesel was introduced in experimental manner. Ultrasonic energy was irradiated to induce the transesterification of the vegetable oil. The ultrasonic irradiation had two effects, those were heating and mixing of the reactants. We performed the experiment under various manufacturing parameters, viz. the ultrasonic irradiation time, sonic power, and irradiation type at constant reaction

Seung Bum Lee; Jae Dong Lee; In Kwon Hong

2011-01-01

325

26 CFR 1.954-8 - Foreign base company oil related income.  

... 2013-04-01 true Foreign base company oil related income. 1.954-8 Section 1...Corporations § 1.954-8 Foreign base company oil related income. (a) Foreign base company oil related income —(1) In general....

2014-04-01

326

Biocides for lubricant rancidity and biofouling prevention  

SciTech Connect

Lubricant systems provide a good environment for microbial communities. Growing most abundantly on surfaces, microbes can change lubricant performance properties by selectively depleting functional additives. Moreover, microbial metabolites can stimulate corrosion and induce invert emulsion formation. The keys to microbial contamination control are good industrial hygiene, monitoring and timely treatment. There are more than 30 USEPA registered metalworking fluid biocides. Each has an application where it provides cost-effective protection. Biocides should be selected based on performance in a particular coolant and system. Most often, biocides with limited solubility in non-polar solvents work better in lubricants. Bench tests provide a relatively inexpensive method for evaluating alternative treatments. Bench test data need to be confirmed through field evaluations. Bioresistant additives that have no obvious functionality other than replacing registered biocides should be considered with care. Properly used as one component of a complete lubricant system management program, data-driven biocide use can extend lubricant life dramatically, reduce downtime and create a healthier work environment.

Passman, F.J. [FQS Ltd., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1997-10-01

327

Performance of fuels, lubricants, and associated products used during Operation Desert Shield\\/Storm. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents all aspects of fuels, lubricants, and associated products used by US forces in Southwest Asia as reported by military organization representatives who were responsible for the procurement, storage, and handling of these products. Included are information on viscosity, the Army Oil Analysis Program (AOAP), lubricity, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses.

A. D. Rasberry; J. H. Weatherwax; W. Butler; E. A. Frame; P. I. Lacey

1992-01-01

328

Thermal and non-Newtonian analysis on mixed liquid–solid lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed liquid–solid lubrication theory is proposed which concerns the effect of solid particle, liquid lubricant and rubbing surface topography. Especially, it focuses on the circumstances when particle diameter, surface composite roughness and oil film thickness are in the same order of magnitude. A mathematical model containing Reynolds equation, particle load carrying equation, asperity contact equation and heat balance equation

Wei Wang; Kun Liu; Minghua Jiao

2007-01-01

329

Spacecraft materials guide. [including: encapsulants and conformal coatings; optical materials; lubrication; and, bonding and joining processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials which have demonstrated their suitability for space application are summarized. Common, recurring problems in encapsulants and conformal coatings, optical materials, lubrication, and bonding and joining are noted. The subjects discussed include: low density and syntactic foams, electrical encapsulants; optical glasses, interference filter, mirrors; oils, greases, lamillar lubricants; and, soldering and brazing processes.

Staugaitis, C. L. (editor)

1975-01-01

330

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

331

Measurement of rod seal lubrication for Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elastohydrodynamic behavior of sliding elastomeric seals for the Stirling engine, was analyzed using an experimental apparatus to determine the instantaneous oil film thickness throughout the cyclic reciprocating motion. Tests were conducted on two commercial elastomeric seals: a "T" seal (76 mm O.D. and 3.8 mm between backing rings) and an "O" ring (76 mm O.D. and 5.3 mm diameter). Testing conditions included seal durometers of 70 and 90, sliding velocities of 0.8, 2.0, and 3.6 m/s, and no pressure gradient across the seal. Both acrylic and aluminum cylinders were used. Measured oil film thickness profiles were compared to results of the elastohydrodynamic analysis. The comparison shows an overall qualitative agreement. Friction and oil leakage measurements were also made at these sliding speeds. The fluid used was a typical synthetic base automotive lubricant. It is concluded that this first time experimental analytical comparison for oil film thickness indicates the need for some improvements in the analytical model and in the experimental technique.

Krauter, A. I.

1980-01-01

332

Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid

Thiam Leng Chew; Subhash Bhatia

2008-01-01

333

A new solid lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction and wear life studies on burnished films of the compound graphite fluoride have demonstrated its potential as a solid lubricant material. It is effective in moist air, dry air, or in dry argon at temperatures up to approximately 400 degrees C.

Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

1969-01-01

334

Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary films are formed by physisorption, chemisorption, and chemical reaction. With physisorption, no exchange of electrons takes place between the molecules of the adsorbate and those of the adsorbant. The physisorption process typically involves van der Waals forces, which are relatively weak. In chemisorption, there is an actual sharing of electrons or electron interchange between the chemisorbed species and the solid surface. The solid surfaces bond very strongly to the adsorption species through covalent bonds. Chemically reacted films are formed by the chemical reaction of a solid surface with the environment. The physisorbed film can be either monomolecularly or polymolecularly thick. The chemisorbed films are monomolecular, but stoichiometric films formed by chemical reaction can have a large film thickness. In general, the stability and durability of surface films decrease in the following order: chemically reacted films, chemisorbed films, and physisorbed films. A good boundary lubricant should have a high degree of interaction between its molecules and the sliding surface. As a general rule, liquids are good lubricants when they are polar and, thus, able to grip solid surfaces (or be adsorbed). In this chapter, we focus on PFPEs. We first introduce details of the commonly used PFPE lubricants; then present a summary of nanodeformation, molecular conformation, and lubricant spreading studies; followed by an overview of nanotribological properties of polar and nonpolar PFPEs studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) atomic force microscope (AFM) and some concluding remarks.

Bhushan, Bharat; Liu, Huiwen

335

Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary films are formed by physisorption, chemisorption, and chemical reaction. With physisorption, no exchange of electrons takes place between the molecules of the adsorbate and those of the adsorbant. The physisorption process typically involves van der Waals forces, which are relatively weak. In chemisorption, there is an actual sharing of electrons or electron interchange between the chemisorbed species and the solid surface. The solid surfaces bond very strongly to the adsorption species through covalent bonds. Chemically reacted films are formed by the chemical reaction of a solid surface with the environment. The physisorbed film can be either monomolecularly or polymolecularly thick. The chemisorbed films are monomolecular, but stoichiometric films formed by chemical reaction can have a large film thickness. In general, the stability and durability of surface films decrease in the following order: chemically reacted films, chemisorbed films, and physisorbed films. A good boundary lubricant should have a high degree of interaction between its molecules and the sliding surface. As a general rule, liquids are good lubricants when they are polar and, thus, able to grip solid surfaces (or be adsorbed). In this chapter, we focus on perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs). We first introduce details of the commonly used PFPE lubricants; then present a summary of nanodeformation, molecular conformation, and lubricant spreading studies; followed by an overview of nanotribological properties of polar and nonpolar PFPEs studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and some concluding remarks.

Bhushan, Bharat; Liu, Huiwen

336

Formulation of soluble oils with synthetic and petroleum sulfonates  

SciTech Connect

Metalworking fluids for metal removal are formulated to provide cooling, lubrication, and rust protection when cutting and machining metals. There are basically four types of cutting fluids: straight oils, synthetics, semisynthetic fluids and soluble oils. The last type is the most widely used for metal removal operations such as cutting, drilling and grinding. Soluble oils used for metalworking operations are normally the oil-in-water type, with oil as the internal phase and water as the external phase. The soluble oils can have rather complex compositions, usually containing two or more emulsifiers and coupling agents, as well as additives to provide rust inhibition, lubricity, detergency, resistance to bacterial attack and foam control. The dominant emulsifier in a soluble oil is usually sodium sulfonate which also has the secondary benefit of being a rust inhibitor. Soluble oil emulsions based on petroleum or synthetic sulfonates have been found to improve lubrication and cleaning of metal parts and equipment. As has been done previously, a series of emulsification studies were conducted using petroleum and synthetic sulfonates. Emulsifier level, coemulsifiers and minor formulation adjustments were made to optimize each system. This study was made using naphthenic oil basestock. Formulations were evaluated using criteria including concentrate stability, hard and soft water emulsion stability, emulsibility, foaming tendency and response to defoamers, antirust properties and cost effectiveness of individual formulations. The results of these evaluations are presented in the present paper.

Eckard, A.; Riff, I.; Weaver, J. [Witco Corp., Oakland, NJ (United States)

1997-06-01

337

Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.  

PubMed

Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines. PMID:16675072

Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

2006-06-29

338

Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

2014-10-01

339

Glass microsphere lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the manufacturing of the microspheres, while sorting entails deciphering the good microspheres from the bad ones. Each process is discussed in detail.

Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

1991-01-01

340

An Evaluation of Liquid, Solid, and Grease Lubricants for Space Mechanisms Using a Spiral Orbit Tribometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the findings of the test program performed by The European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL) to evaluate the performance (friction and lifetime) of a number of space lubricants under vacuum using a Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT). Focus was given to a comparison of various popular space oils, a comparison study between the old and new MAPLUB grease formulations, and the performance of commonly used solid lubricants under various conditions. Tests demonstrated that the lifetimes of hydrocarbon NYE oils 2001 & 2001A outperformed those of the perfluroropolyalkylether (PFPE) oils Fomblin Z25 & Z60, though these pairs displayed similar behavior. This relationship was also generally seen for greases; with the lifetimes of the multiple alkylated cyclopentane (MAC)-based greases being extended in comparison to the PFPE-based greases. Testing on greases also demonstrated similar performance between the old (-a) and new (-b) formulations when considering PFPE-based MAPLUB greases, and indeed for all tested PFPE-based non-MAPLUB greases, but significantly shorter lifetimes for the new formulations when considering MAC-based MAPLUB greases. MAPLUB MAC greases containing molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) thickener were also found to display reduced lifetimes. For solid lubricants, lead displayed significantly extended lifetimes over MoS2, speculated to be caused by redistribution of lead from the ball onto all contact surfaces during the test. Friction coefficients were seen to be some 2.5x higher for lead than for MoS2 under similar conditions, a result that corresponds well with conventional bearing tests. The work described was performed under contract for the European Space Agency as part of the Tribology Applications Program, with all funding for testing and apparatus provided by European Space Agency (ESA).

Buttery, Michael

2010-01-01

341

Effect of Grease Lubrication on the Nonrepetitive Runout (NRRO) in Ball Bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonrepetitive runout (NRRO) is mainly caused by the diameter differences of balls contained in a bearing and the form errors of the raceway and balls. This paper deals with the effect of grease lubrication on NRRO. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) NRRO in the case of grease lubrication was larger than that in the case of oil lubrication. (2) The rotational frequency of cage increased with the increment of unbalance or rotational speed. In the rotational accuracy on the level of one nanometer, it was clarified that the lubricant was a very important factor in a ball bearing.

Noguchi, Shoji; Kanada, Tohru

342

Determination of physical and chemical states of lubricants in concentrated contacts, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared emission spectroscopy through a window in an operating bearing continued to provide most of the information gathered on the state of lubricants subjected to elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions. Other measurements were traction, scanning electron microscopy and elemental surface analysis X-rays. A very significant finding was the decomposition of a naphthenic oil lubricant in the presence of small concentrations of an organic chloride. Olefins and aromatics were formed in ever increasing amounts prior to total lubricant failure. An aromatic fluid also failed in the presence of chloride. A correlation was found between changes of the alignment of lubricant molecules evidence by infrared polarization and changes of traction under varying EHD stresses.

Lauer, J. L.

1981-01-01

343

Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants were selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Each test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

Huttenlocher, D. F.

1992-10-01

344

Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation discusses the synthesis and characterization of environmentally-friendly waterborne vegetable oil-based polyurethane dispersions and their resulting films. The thermal and mechanical properties of the… (more)

Garrison, Thomas Frederick

2013-01-01

345

Recycled wool-based nonwoven material as an oil sorbent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to highlight the possibility of using recycled wool-based nonwoven material as a sorbent in an oil spill cleanup. This material sorbed higher amounts of base oil SN 150 than diesel or crude oil from the surface of a demineralized or artificial seawater bath. Superficial modification of material with the biopolymer chitosan and low-temperature air plasma led to a slight decrease of sorption capacity. Loose fibers of the same origin as nonwoven material have significantly higher sorption capacities than investigated nonwoven material. White light scanning interferometry analysis of the fibers suggested that roughness of the wool fiber surface has an important role in oil sorption. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that this material is reusable. Recycled wool-based nonwoven material showed good sorption properties and adequate reusability, indicating that a material based on natural fibers could be a viable alternative to commercially available synthetic materials that have poor biodegradability. PMID:12666933

Radeti?, Maja M; Joci?, Dragan M; Iovanti?, Petar M; Petrovi?, Zoran L J; Thomas, Helga F

2003-03-01

346

Nano-based systems for oil spills control and cleanup.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of superhydrophobic nanocomposite systems which are also oleophilic. As hydrophobicity is based on low energy surface and surface roughness, the electrospinning technique was selected as the manufacturing technique. N,N' dimethylformamide (DMF) was employed as the polystyrene (PS) solvent. The "Tea-bag" (T-B) nanocomposite system is based on exfoliated graphite surrounded by PS superhydrophobic membranes. The T-B systems were tested regarding its adsorption and absorption rates. To test these properties, it was employed three different water/oil emulsions, i.e., new and used motor oil, which have physical properties (viscosity and specific gravity) similar to heavy crude oil extracted in Brazil, and vacuum pump oil (which does not form oil/water emulsion). It was observed that oil adsorption rate is dependent on oil surface tension, while the absorption rate is mainly dependent on membrane/exfoliated graphite surface area. Experimental data show that oil absorption rates ranged between 2.5g/g and 40g/g, while the adsorption rate oscillated from 0.32g/g/min to 0.80g/g/min. Furthermore, T-B systems were tested as containment barriers and sorbent materials with good results including its recyclability. PMID:24667439

Avila, Antonio F; Munhoz, Viviane C; de Oliveira, Aline M; Santos, Mayara C G; Lacerda, Glenda R B S; Gonçalves, Camila P

2014-05-15

347

Bearing elastohydrodynamic lubrication: A complex calculation made simple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness formula is reduced to a simplified form whereby only the rolling-element bearing inside and outside diameters and speed (in revolutions per minute) and the lubricant type and viscosity (in centipoise) at temperature are required for its use. Additionally, a graph is provided for the first time that is based upon experimental data giving an EHD film reduction factor as a function of contact lubricant flow number. This reduction factor accounts for lubricant starvation within the Hertzian contact. A graph relating the ratio of minimum film thickness to composite surface roughness and a lubrication-life correction factor is also provided. The life correction factor is used to determine resultant bearing life.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1990-01-01

348

Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.  

PubMed

Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration. PMID:19368214

Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

2009-03-15

349

[Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].  

PubMed

The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

2014-01-01

350

Use of FT-IR Spectrometry as a Replacement for Physical Property Testing of Railway Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The railway industry has long used physical property tests to determine the condition and suitability of lubricating oils for continued use in locomotive diesel engines and air compressors. This paper describes the adaptation and implementation of FT-IR s...

D. E. Crutcher, R. Gervais, L. A. Toms

1996-01-01

351

Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method  

E-print Network

Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

Chen, Haijie

2011-01-01

352

Effect of two synthetic lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur-gear fatigue tests were conducted with two lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The gears were case carburized and hardened to Rockwell C60. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into two groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-ester-based lubricants. One lubricant was 30 percent more viscous that the other. Both lubricants have similar pressure viscosity coefficients. Test conditions included a bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The surface fatigue life of gears tested with one lubricant was approximately 2.4 times that for gears tested with the other lubricant. The lubricant with the 30 percent higher viscosity gave a calculated elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness that was 20 percent higher than the other lubricant. This increased EHD film thickness is the most probable reason for the improvement in surface fatigue life of gears tested with this lubricant over gears tested with the less viscous lubricant.

Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

1991-01-01

353

Effects of Lubricant Starvation on Performance of  

E-print Network

Effects of Lubricant Starvation on Performance of Elasto-Hydrodynamically Lubricated Contacts G acknowledged. Effects of Lubricant Starvation on Performance of Elasto-Hydrodynamically Lubricated Contacts G-365-2270-6 Copyright c 2005 by G. Popovici, Enschede, The Netherlands #12;EFFECTS OF LUBRICANT STARVATION

Twente, Universiteit

354

Tribological evaluation of PS300: A new chrome oxide based solid lubricant coating sliding against Al2O3 From 25 to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the tribological characteristics of Al203 sliding against PS300; a chrome oxide based self lubricating coating. Al203 pins were slid against PS300 coated superalloy disks in air, under a 4.9 N load at velocities of 1 to 8 m/s. At a sliding velocity of 1 m/s, friction ranged from 0.6 at 25 C to 0.2 at 650 C. Wear factors for the Al203 pins were in the 10(exp -7) mm(exp 3)/N-m range and for the PS300 coating was in the 10(exp -5) mm(exp 3)/N-m range. The test results suggest that increased surface temperature resulting from either frictional heating, generated by increased sliding velocity, or ambient heating caused a reduction in friction and wear of the sliding couple. Based upon these results, the tested material combination is a promising candidate for high temperature wear applications.

DellaCorte, C.; Laskowski, J. A.

1996-01-01

355

Lubricant wear particle analysis by filter patch extraction  

SciTech Connect

Lubricating Oil Analysis (LOA) has become an important part of a comprehensive Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program. However, knowing the condition of the lubricant alone does not provide a complete description of equipment reliability. Condition monitoring for equipment can be accomplished through Wear Particle Analysis (WPA). This usually involves separating suspended materials and wear products from the lubricant by magnetic (ferrographic) means. This paper will present a simple, low-cost, alternate method of particle acquisition called Filter Patch Extraction (FPE). This method removes solids, regardless of their composition, from the lubricant by vacuum filtration and deposits them onto a filter for microscopic examination similar to that of analytical ferrography. A large filter pore size retains suspended materials and permits rapid filtration of large volumes of lubricant thereby increasing the accuracy of the wear and cleanliness profile that can be established for a given machine. Qualitative trending of equipment wear and lubricant system cleanliness are easily performed with FPE. Equipment condition is determined by then characterizing the metal particles which are recovered. Examined filters are easily archived in filter holders for future reference. Equipment for FPE is inexpensive and readily available. The technique is field-portable, allowing WPA to be performed on-site, eliminating delays with remote laboratories while building customer participation and support. There are numerous advantages for using FPE in a machine condition monitoring program.

Smart, C.L. [Public Service Company of Colorado, Englewood, CO (United States)

1996-07-01

356

Hydrodynamic lubrication in thrust bearings: The effect of Reynolds number  

SciTech Connect

This paper solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the flow of a lubricating oil through a slider bearing. Results for a typical bearing demonstrate how the friction force, coefficient of friction, load and velocity distribution varies as the Reynolds number increases. No basic assumptions have been made and no turbulence models used.

Kettleborough, C.F. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-07-01

357

Review of engineered tribological interfaces for improved boundary lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in smart surface engineering and coating technologies offer unique possibilities for better controlling friction and wear under boundary or marginally lubricated rolling, sliding or rotating contact conditions. Specifically, such coatings can be tailored to meet the increasingly multi-functional application needs of future engine systems by enabling them to operate in lower viscosity oils with reduced sulfur and phosphorous.

A. Erdemir

2005-01-01

358

Air-liquid lubricant and coolant aerosols in machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods for the preparation and supply of the lubricant and coolant fluid are proposed here: the use of cold air from an eddy tube; spraying of a minimum quantity of mineral oil; and the combination of air?liquid aerosol from an eddy-type sprayer and cold air from an eddy tube. In Fig. 2, the results obtained by these methods are

N. E. Kurnosov; A. V. Tarnopol’skii

2007-01-01

359

An experimental study of the oil evolution in critical piston ring pack regions and the effects of piston and ring designs in an internal combustion engine utilizing two-dimensional laser induced fluorescence and the impact on maritime economics  

E-print Network

Faced with increasing concern for lubricating, oil consumption and engine friction, it is critical to understand the oil transport mechanisms in the power cylinder system. Lubricating oil travels through distinct regions ...

Vokac, Adam, 1978-

2004-01-01

360

Studies on zinc-containing linseed oil based polyesteramide  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time the synthesis of zinc containing linseed oil based polyesteramide resins (Zn-LPEA-1 to Zn-LPERA-5) with different loadings of zinc acetate were carried out by in situ condensation polymerization reaction between linseed oil derived linseed fattyamide diol (HELA), phthalic anhydride and zinc acetate (divalent metal salt, different mole ratios) in the absence of any solvent. By-products such as

Fahmina Zafar; S. M. Ashraf; Sharif Ahmad

2007-01-01

361

Natural fiber composites with plant oil-based resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding or resin vacuum infusion process was used to make composite panels out of plant oil-based resin [acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO)] and natural fiber mats made of flax, cellulose, pulp and hemp. The composites formed by room temperature cure with natural fiber reinforcement of about 10–50 wt% increased the flexural modulus to a range between 1.5

A O'Donnell; M. A Dweib; R. P Wool

2004-01-01

362

7 CFR 3201.107 - Water turbine bearing oils.  

Lubricants that are specifically formulated for use in the bearings found in water turbines for electric power generation. Previously designated turbine drip oils are used to lubricate bearings of shaft driven water well turbine pumps. (b) Minimum biobased...

2014-01-01

363

7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to provide lubrication...on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the...preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date,...

2010-01-01

364

7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to provide lubrication...on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the...preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date,...

2011-01-01

365

21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.  

...rendering is refined. The oil is hydrogenated. (b) It is used alone or as a component of a release agent or lubricant in bakery pans. (c) The amount used does not exceed that reasonably required to accomplish the intended lubricating...

2014-04-01

366

21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rendering is refined. The oil is hydrogenated. (b) It is used alone or as a component of a release agent or lubricant in bakery pans. (c) The amount used does not exceed that reasonably required to accomplish the intended lubricating...

2012-04-01

367

21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rendering is refined. The oil is hydrogenated. (b) It is used alone or as a component of a release agent or lubricant in bakery pans. (c) The amount used does not exceed that reasonably required to accomplish the intended lubricating...

2011-04-01

368

21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rendering is refined. The oil is hydrogenated. (b) It is used alone or as a component of a release agent or lubricant in bakery pans. (c) The amount used does not exceed that reasonably required to accomplish the intended lubricating...

2010-04-01

369

21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rendering is refined. The oil is hydrogenated. (b) It is used alone or as a component of a release agent or lubricant in bakery pans. (c) The amount used does not exceed that reasonably required to accomplish the intended lubricating...

2013-04-01

370

Engineered soy oils for new value added applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

Tran, Phuong T.

371

Gear Mesh Loss-of-Lubrication Experiments and Analytical Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to determine the loss-of-lubrication (LOL) characteristics of spur gears in an aerospace simulation test facility has been completed. Tests were conducted using two different emergency lubricant types: (1) an oil mist system (two different misted lubricants) and (2) a grease injection system (two different grease types). Tests were conducted using a NASA Glenn test facility normally used for conducting contact fatigue. Tests were run at rotational speeds up to 10000 rpm using two different gear designs and two different gear materials. For the tests conducted using an air-oil misting system, a minimum lubricant injection rate was determined to permit the gear mesh to operate without failure for at least 1 hr. The tests allowed an elevated steady state temperature to be established. A basic 2-D heat transfer simulation has been developed to investigate temperatures of a simulated gear as a function of frictional behavior. The friction (heat generation source) between the meshing surfaces is related to the position in the meshing cycle, the load applied, and the amount of lubricant in the contact. Experimental conditions will be compared to those from the 2-D simulation.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Polly, Joseph; Morales, Wilfredo

2011-01-01

372

New polyurethane nanocomposites based on soya oil.  

PubMed

New polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared from a dispersion of 0 - 5% montmorillonite (MMT) clay with isocyanate and soya oil polyol that was synthesized via transesterification of triglycerides to reduce petroleum dependence. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of hydrogen bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix, whereas the exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical microscopy, mechanical and thermal analyses were done to investigate significant improvement of the nanocomposites. The results showed PU-3% nanoclay (NC) showed optimum results in mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength but the lowest in impact strength. PMID:24420063

Mohammed, Issam Ahmed; Abd Khadir, Nurul Khizrien; Jaffar Al-Mulla, Emad Abbas

2014-01-01

373

Fullerence particles as an additive to liquid lubricants and greases for low friction and wear  

SciTech Connect

Fullerene (C{sub 60}-rich) powder is tested as an additive to liquid lubricants and greases to improve their friction and wear characteristics. The coefficient of friction and wear of a 52100 steel ball sliding against a hardened M50 steel disk are measured at the contact in the presence of base petroleum oil with and without fullerene particles. For comparison, tests are also conducted in the presence of base oil with graphite and MoS{sub 2} powders (5 wt%). It was found that a 5 wt% addition of fullerene to base oil resulted in a reduction in width of the wear scar on the steel disk from 300-380 {mu}m to 120-130 {mu}m, and the diameter of the wear scar on the mating steel ball was reduced from approximately 200 {mu}m to 60 {mu}m. The coefficient of friction in the presence of oil with 5 wt% fullerene is observed to be approximately 20 percent lower than that of base oil with no additives. The improvements in friction and wear for fullerenes are comparable to those for graphite and MoS{sub 2} additives. Limited experiments conducted on diester grease with fullerene and solid lubricants demonstrate similar trends. The improvements in friction and wear are likely due to the formation of a transfer film at the contact region and the presence of C{sub 60} clusters which may act as tiny ball bearings which facilitate sliding. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Gupta, B.K.; Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1994-07-01

374

A commentary on solid lubricants and wear resistant solids for use in extreme environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for high temperature tribological coatings and self-lubricating materials in advanced technology is discussed. A qualitative model for the mechanism of solid lubrication is proposed. The model is based upon microscopic observations of the dynamics of third-body solids in lubricated contacts. In this model, the rheology of plastic flow is suggested as a more general criterion for predicting the lubricating potential of a solid material than, for example, a specific crystal structure. Some examples of layer-lattice and nonlayer-lattice solids that lubricate by virtue of their extreme plasticity, film coherence, and adhesion to the lubricated metal are described. Circumstantial evidence for the model is presented for low shear-strength solids at room temperature and for solids such as calcium fluoride that become lubricative only when their brittle-to-ductile transition temperature is exceeded. Some materials considerations in the selection of hard-coat materials for wear control are also presented.

Sliney, H. E.

1982-01-01

375

The rheology and hydrodynamics of dry powder lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper conceptualizes a powder lubrication mechanisms which closely resembles that of a hydrodynamic fluid film. Based on the observations of past investigations and on the author's experiments, it is postulated that a layered shearing of the compacted powder generates velocity, density, and temperature profiles akin to fluid film bearings. Thus, a lubricant consisting of a fine powder unserted either deliberately or one generated by the water of the mating surfaces, constitutes a viable lubricant that generates the required flows and pressures to prevent contact between the surfaces.

Heshmat, Hooshang

1991-01-01

376

Lubricant Coating Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

1989-01-01

377

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) of a point contact was analyzed numerically by simultaneously solving the elasticity and Reynolds equations. In the elasticity analysis the contact zone was divided into equal rectangular areas, and it was assumed that a uniform pressure was applied over each area. In the numerical analysis of the Reynolds equation, a phi analysis (where phi is equal to the pressure times the film thickness to the 3/2 power) was used to help the relaxation process. The EHL point contact analysis is applicable for the entire range of elliptical parameters and is valid for any combination of rolling and sliding within the contact.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1982-01-01

378

Evaluating Solid-Lubricant Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental techniques for measuring properties of solid-lubricant films. Discusses experimental parameters. Reviews basic pin-on-disk configurations and methods of preparing disks and applying solid lubricants. Techniques for constant-temperature testing, low-contact-stress testing, and temperature-versus-time testing presented. Suggests methods of measuring pin-wear volume and recommends ways of presenting data.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1988-01-01

379

24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Station Oil Tanks, view to the south. The four oil storage tanks located along the east wall (left side of photograph) are, from foreground to background: dirty transformer oil tank, clean transformer oil tank, dirty lubricating oil tank, and clean lubricating oil tank. An oil filter system is also visible in background along the far wall. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

380

Consideration of Alternate Working Fluid Properties in Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program at the NASA Glenn Research center is committed to, revolutionary improvements in performance, efficiency and reliability of turbomachinery propulsion systems. One of the key breakthroughs by which this goal is being achieved is the maturation of air lubricated foil bearing technology. Through experimental testing, foil bearings have demonstrated a variety of exceptional qualities that show them to have an important role in the future of rotordynamic lubrication. Most of the work done with foil bearings thus far has considered ambient air at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid or lubricating fluid in the bearing. However, special applications of oil-free technology require the use of air at non- standard ambient conditions or completely different working fluids altogether. The NASA Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter program presents power generation needs far beyond that of any previous space exploration effort. The proposed spacecraft will require significant power generation to provide the propulsion necessary to reach the moons of Jupiter and navigate between them. Once there, extensive scientific research will be conducted that will also present significant power requirements. Such extreme needs require exploring a new method for power generation in space. A proposed solution involves a Brayton cycle nuclear fission reactor. The nature of this application requires reliable performance of all reactor components for many years of operation under demanding conditions. This includes the bearings which will be operating with an alternative working fluid that is a combination of Helium and Xenon gases commonly known as HeXe. This fluid has transport and thermal properties that vary significantly from that of air and the effect of these property differences on bearing performance must be considered. One of the most promising applications of oil-free technology is in aircraft turbine engines. Eliminating the oil supply systems from aircraft engines will lead to significant weight and maintenance reduction. In such applications, the lubricating fluid will be high altitude air. This air will be at much lower pressure than that at sea level. Again this property change will result in a change in bearing performance, and analysis is required to quantify this effect. The study of these alternate working fluid properties will be conducted in two ways: analytically and experimentally. Analytical research will include the use of a mathematical code that can predict film thickness profiles for various ambient conditions. Estimations of load capacity can be made based upon the film thickness trends. These values will then be compared to those obtained from classical rigid bearing analysis. Experimental Research will include testing a foil bearing at a variety of ambient air pressures. The analytical and experimental data will be compared to draw conclusions on bearing performance under alternate working fluid properties.

Smith, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

381

Mechanism of frost formation on lubricant-impregnated surfaces.  

PubMed

Frost formation is a major problem affecting a variety of industries including transportation, power generation, construction, and agriculture. Currently used active chemical, thermal, and mechanical techniques of ice removal are time-consuming and costly. The use of nanotextured coatings infused with perfluorinated oil has recently been proposed as a simple passive antifrosting and anti-icing method. However, we demonstrate that the process of freezing subcooled condensate and frost formation on such lubricant-impregnated surfaces is accompanied by the migration of the lubricant from the wetting ridge and from within the textured substrate to the surface of frozen droplets. For practical applications, this mechanism can comprise the self-healing and frost-repelling characteristics of lubricant impregnated-surfaces, regardless of the underlying substrate's topography. Thus, further research is necessary to develop liquid-texture pairs that will provide a sustainable frost suppression method. PMID:23565857

Rykaczewski, Konrad; Anand, Sushant; Subramanyam, Srinivas Bengaluru; Varanasi, Kripa K

2013-04-30

382

Parametric Evaluation of a Solid-Lubricated Ball Bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric evaluations, based on analytical simulations of the dynamic performance of a solid-lubricated ball bearing, indicate that, for prescribed operating conditions and lubricant traction behavior at the ball\\/race contact, a reduction in the ball\\/cage pocket and cage\\/race guiding land clearances result in an increased frequency of collision both at the ball\\/cage and cage\\/race interfaces. The actual magnitudes of the collision

P. K. Gupta; J. F. Dill; H. E. Bandow

1985-01-01

383

Modeling Bearing and Shear Forces in Molecularly Thin Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the effects of high shear rate and confinement between solid surfaces, the behavior of a thin lubricant film deviates\\u000a from that of the bulk, resulting in significant increases of lubricant viscosity and interfacial slip. A semi-empirical model\\u000a accounting for the breakdown of continuum theory at the nanoscale is proposed—based on film morphology and chemistry from\\u000a available experimental and molecular

Antonis I. Vakis; Melih Eriten; Andreas A. Polycarpou

2011-01-01

384

Graphene and graphene oxide can "lubricate" ionic liquids based on specific surface interactions leading to improved low-temperature hypergolic performance.  

PubMed

Space-qualified lubricants: Graphene and graphene oxide (r-GO) can strongly improve the low-temperature performance of hypergolic ionic liquids by reduction of viscosity. Key to success is to match the graphene type to the specific ionic-liquid functionality. PMID:22951971

McCrary, Parker D; Beasley, Preston A; Alaniz, Spencer A; Griggs, Chris S; Frazier, Rachel M; Rogers, Robin D

2012-09-24

385

Development of micro engine oil condition sensor using multi-wall carbon nanotube films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new interdigit-type micro oil condition sensor was designed and fabricated for monitoring the deterioration of lubricating and insulating oils. The designed sensor operates based on the change of the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. In order to improve sensor performance, an oil condition sensor was fabricated using MEMS technology and multi-wall carbon nanotube film. The experiment was performed with automobile engine oils with the same brand and quality so as to ensure measurement reliability. Capacitance changes were measured according to increasing mileage and the sensors' performance was improved. These results show that the proposed sensor could measure the degree of oil deterioration with a high sensitivity and it is applicable to other lubricating systems as well as insulating systems.

Na, Dae Seok; Jung-Ho Pak, James; Kyeong Kim, Jai

2007-03-01

386

The Role of Tribology in the Development of an Oil-Free Turbocharger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas-turbine-based aeropropulsion engines are technologically mature. Thus, as with any mature technology, revolutionary approaches will be needed to achieve the significant performance gains that will keep the U.S. propulsion manufacturers well ahead of foreign competition. One such approach is the development of oil-free turbomachinery utilizing advanced foil air bearings, seals, and solid lubricants. By eliminating oil-lubricated bearings and seals and supporting an engine rotor on an air film, significant improvements can be realized. For example, the entire oil system including pipes, lines, filters, cooler, and tanks could be removed, thereby saving considerable weight. Since air has no thermal decomposition temperature, engine systems could operate without excessive cooling. Also, since air bearings have no diameter-rpm fatigue limits (D-N limits), engines could be designed to operate at much higher speeds and higher density, which would result in a smaller aeropropulsion package. Because of recent advances in compliant foil air bearings and high temperature solid lubricants, these technologies can be applied to oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to develop these technologies and to demonstrate a project along the path to an oil-free gas turbine engine, NASA has undertaken the development of an oil-free turbocharger for a heavy duty diesel engine. This turbomachine can reach 120000 rpm at a bearing temperature of 540 C (1000 F) and, in comparison to oil-lubricated bearings, can increase efficiency by 10 to 15 percent because of reduced friction. In addition, because there are no oil lubricants, there are no seal-leakage-induced emissions.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1997-01-01

387

A Case Based System for Oil and Gas Well Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case base system for a complex problem like oil field design needs to be richer than the usual case based reasoning system.\\u000a The system described in this paper contains large heterogeneous cases with metalevel knowledge. A multi level indexing scheme\\u000a with both preallocated and dynamically computed indexing capability has been implemented. A user interface allows dynamic\\u000a creation of similarity

Simon Kravis; Rosemary Irrgang

2002-01-01

388

Lubricant effects on bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1986-01-01

389

7 CFR 3201.102 - Engine crankcase oils.  

...2014-01-01 false Engine crankcase oils. 3201.102 Section 3201.102 Agriculture...Items § 3201.102 Engine crankcase oils. (a) Definition. Lubricating...for qualifying biobased engine crankcase oils. By that date, Federal agencies...

2014-01-01

390

Biodegradation of petroleum-based oil wastes through composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting of horse manure was used as a means of degradation of two oil wastes, oil sludge from petrol stations and petroleum residues from a refinery. Paraffin oil was chosen as a reference. Oil wastes decomposed to 78–93% during 4.5 months of composting. The degradation of the waste oils was higher than that of the reference paraffin oil and no

Holger Kirchmann; Wasiyhun Ewnetu

1998-01-01

391

Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

2008-07-01

392

Thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication of spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and computer program called TELSGE were developed to predict the variations of dynamic load, surface temperature, and lubricant film thickness along the contacting path during the engagement of a pair of involute spur gears. The analysis of dynamic load includes the effect of gear inertia, the effect of load sharing of adjacent teeth, and the effect of variable tooth stiffness which are obtained by a finite-element method. Results obtained from TELSGE for the dynamic load distributions along the contacting path for various speeds of a pair of test gears show patterns similar to that observed experimentally. Effects of damping ratio, contact ratio, tip relief, and tooth error on the dynamic load were examined. In addition, two dimensionless charts are included for predicting the maximum equilibrium surface temperature, which can be used to estimate directly the lubricant film thickness based on well established EHD analysis.

Wang, K. L.; Cheng, H. S.

1980-01-01

393

Geometry and starvation effects in hydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical methods were used to detemine the effects of lubricant starvation on the minimum film thickness under conditions of a hydrodynamic point contact. Starvation was effected by varying the fluid inlet level. The Reynolds boundary conditions were applied at the cavitation boundary and zero pressure was stipulated at the meniscus or inlet boundary. A minimum film thickness equation as a function of both the ratio of dimensionless load to dimensionless speed and inlet supply level was determined. By comparing the film generated under the starved inlet condition with the film generated from the fully flooded inlet, an expression for the film reduction factor was obtained. Based on this factor a starvation threshold was defined as well as a critically starved inlet. The changes in the inlet pressure buildup due to changing the available lubricant supply are presented in the form of three dimensional isometric plots and also in the form of contour plots.

Brewe, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

1982-01-01

394

Transition from elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication in highly loaded squeeze contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the highly loaded strongly non-stationary squeeze process of an oil film sandwiched between an elastic spherical ball and a rigid rough substrate. We show that the coupling between the elastic properties of the contacting solids, the oil rheology, the surface roughness and the applied load determines a wide range of lubrication conditions from fully elastohydrodynamic to mixed and even boundary lubrication. In particular we find that increasing (decreasing) the surface roughness (the applied normal load) speeds up the squeeze process, anticipates and shrinks the time interval during which the transition to mixed lubrication conditions occurs. On the contrary, the initial separation between the approaching bodies only marginally affects the transition time. We also observe that, in mixed lubrication conditions, the highest asperity-asperity contact pressure occurs in the annular region where the separation between solids takes its minimum value. One then concludes that surface damage and wear should nucleate in the outer region of the contact.

Scaraggi, M.; Carbone, G.

2010-09-01

395

Borated triazole-substituted polyalkenyl succinimides as multifunctional lubricant and fuel additives  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lubricant composition. It comprises a major proportion of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease prepared therefrom and a minor proportion of a reaction product obtained by reacting a polyalkenyl-substituted succinimide, a triazole, and an aldehyde and thereafter boronating the resultant intermediate product and wherein the polyalkenyl-substituted succinimide, aldehyde, triazole and boronating agent are reacted in a mole ratio of succinimide to aldehyde to triazole to boronating agent respectively of between about 1:0.1:0.1:0.1 and about 1:4:4:4 and wherein the reaction is conducted at a temperature of about 100{degrees} C to about 200{degrees} C at ambient pressure. This patent also describes a lubricant composition comprising a major proportion of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease prepared therefrom and a minor proportion of a reaction product obtained by reacting a polyalkenyl-substituted succinimide.

Blain, D.A.; Cardis, A.B.; Poole, R.J.

1991-09-17

396

Defining the role of elastic lubricants and micro textured surfaces in lubricated, sliding friction  

E-print Network

Solutions for reducing friction in sliding, lubricated systems include modifying lubricant rheology using polymers and adding a micro-scale texture to the sliding surfaces, but the mechanism of how lubrication properties ...

Hupp, Sara J. (Sara Jean), 1979-

2008-01-01

397

Carbon based tool coatings as an approach for environmentally friendly metal forming processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-drawing of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 provides a considerable challenge for production engineers. A major problem in such processes is adhesive tool wear which is often prevented using chlorous mineral oils. The aim of this work was to replace these hazardous lubricants with biodegradable, rape oil based fluids. For that purpose a modified triglyceride named HIGTO(I) is used

F. Klocke; T. Maßmann; K. Bobzin; E. Lugscheider; N. Bagcivan

2006-01-01

398

Lubrication of 35-millimeter-bore ball bearings of several designs to 2.5 million DN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with 35mm bore, angular contact ball bearings with either a single or double outer and guided cage. The bearings were either lubricated by oil jets or employed inner ring lubrication. Outer ring cooling was added in selected tests. Lubricant flow to the bearing ranged from 300 to 1900 cc/min. All bearings were successfully run at speeds to 2.5 million DN. Increasing the lubricant flow decreased bearing ring temperatures but increased bearing power lines. The power loss and race temperatures of a jet lubricated with double outer land guided cage were always higher than those of the single land guided design at similar test conditions. The lowest bearing operating temperatures were achieved when inner ring lubrication and outer ring cooling were combined. It is found that cage slip of a double outer land guided cage is approximately twice that of a single outer land guided cage.

Schuller, F. T.

1983-01-01

399

High-temperature seals and lubricants for geothermal rock bits. Final report  

SciTech Connect

High temperature seals (elastomeric and mechanical) and lubricants were developed specifically for journal-type rock bits to be used in geothermal well drilling. Results at simulated downhole conditions indicate that five selected elastomeric seals (L'Garde No. 267, Utex Nos. 227, 231 and HTCR, and Sandia Glow Discharge Coated Viton) are capable of 288/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) service. Two prototype mechanical seals did not achieve the life determined for the elastomeric seals. Six lubricants (Pacer PLX-024 oil, PLX-043 oil, PLX-045 oil, Geobond Oil, and Geobond Grease) demonstrated 316/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F) capability. Recommendation is made for full-scale simulated geothermal drilling tests utilizing the improved elastomeric seals and lubricants.

Hendrickson, R.R.; Winzenried, R.W.; Jones A.H.

1981-04-01

400

Design of a dry sump lubrication system for a Honda® CBR 600 F4i engine for Formula SAE applications  

E-print Network

A dry sump lubrication system for a Formula SAE race car was designed and manufactured in order to gain the various advantages this type of system affords. A dry sump system stores oil in an external tank and pumps it ...

Farkhondeh, Ehsan

2006-01-01

401

A Case-Based Reasoning System to Forecast the Presence Of Oil Slicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an oil spill it is essential to know if an area is going to be affected by the oil slicks generated. The system presented here forecasts the presence or not of oil slicks in a certain area of the open sea after an oil spill using Case-Based Reasoning methodology. CBR is a computational methodology designed to generate solutions to

Juan M. Corchado; Aitor Mata; Juan Francisco De Paz; David Del Pozo

2008-01-01

402

Biodiesel Production by Ethanolysis of Various Vegetable oils Using Calcium Ethoxide as Solid Base Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were produced from 4 different vegetable oils (sunflower, cotton seed, olive oil and used frying oil) using calcium ethoxide as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil, the molar ratio of ethanol to

G. Anastopoulos; G. S. Dodos; S. Kalligeros; F. Zannikos

2012-01-01

403

Method for lubricating contacting surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

Dugger, Michael T. (Tijeras, NM); Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Asay, David B. (Boalsburg, PA); Kim, Seong H. (State College, PA)

2011-12-06

404

Hydrodynamic journal bearings: Capacity, wear, and lubrication. January 1973-September 1989 (Citations from Fluidex data base). Report for January 1973-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Bearing load, lubrication, thermal effects, tolerance to misalignment, cavitation, and design are discussed. Studies on the effect of temperature and heat transfer on hydrodynamic films are presented. The impact of surface roughness on hydrodynamic journal bearing performance is also examined. (This updated bibliography contains 359 citations, 27 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-10-01

405

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions  

E-print Network

, which consists of small particles suspended in the air and cause air pollution, has been associated District, the California Air Resources Board, the Coordinating Research Council, and the American, and compressed natural gas. Contract Number: 50006043 Contractor: California Air Resources Board Contract

406

Dispersant additives for lubricating oils and fuels  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a product prepared by the process which comprises: (a) first reacting a polyamine with a cyclic carbonate at a temperature sufficient to cause reaction wherein the molar charge of the cyclic carbonate to the basic amine nitrogen of the polyamine is from about 0.1:1 to about 10:1; (b) contacting at a temperature sufficient to cause reaction the product of (a) above with an alkenyl or alkyl succinic anhydride wherein the molar charge of the alkenyl or alkyl succinic anhydride to the product of (a) above is from about 0.5:1 to about 5:1; and (c) reacting the product of (b) above with a boron compound selected from the group consisting of boric acid, boron oxides, boron halides and esters of boric acid employing from about 0.1 equivalent to 10 equivalents of boron compound to the product of (b) above.

Wollenberg, R.H.

1987-10-27

407

Dispersant additives for lubricating oils and fuels  

SciTech Connect

A product is described prepared by the process which comprises (a) first reacting a polyamine with a cyclic carbonate at a temperature sufficient to cause reaction wherein the molar charge of the cyclic carbonate to the basic amine nitrogen of the polyamine is from about 0.1:1 to about 10:1, (b) contacting at a temperature sufficient to cause reaction of the product of (a) above with an alkenyl or alkyl succinic anhydride wherein the molar charge of the alkenyl or alkyl succinic anhydride to the product of (a) above is from about 0.5:1 to about 5:1.

Wollenberg, R.H.

1986-04-22

408

Vapor phase lubrication of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Vapor phase lubrication of ceramics under sliding wear has been extended up to 500{degrees}C, using tricresyl phosphate as the vaporized lubricant. In order to successfully lubricate ceramics, it was necessary to first activate the surface with a metal. Different methods of activating the surface have been investigated, including in-situ reaction with metal components. Continuous vapor phase lubrication of the activated ceramic reduced the coefficient of friction from 0.7 to less than 0.1, resulting in essentially no wear. The reduction in the wear rate and friction coefficient was due to a polymeric derivative of the original TCP which was formed on the high temperature surfaces. The deposit formed on the surface was analyzed using high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC). Results have suggested that it ins an organic polymer with a molecular range of 6000 to 60000 gmole/mole and an average molecular weight of approximately 30000 gmole/mole. This method of lubrication has direct application for the continuous lubrication of ceramic engines. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Hanyaloglu, B.; Graham, E.E. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1994-10-01

409

Ageing study of the mineral oil in an oil-immersed ZnO-based surge arrester  

SciTech Connect

In this work the degradation of transformer mineral oil in oil-immersed ZnO-based surge arresters has been studied. Three different kinds of ZnO varistors: 1-non-coated, 2-resin-coated and 3-glass-coated, have been used in this study. It can be seen that the ZnO varistor and its coating have an influence on degradation of the oil.

Meshkatoddini, M.R.; Loubiere, A.; Bui, A. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Genie Electrique

1996-12-31

410

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOEpatents

A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

1999-03-30

411

Lubrication-related residue as a fundamental process scaling limit to gravure printed electronics.  

PubMed

In gravure printing, excess ink is removed from a patterned plate or roll by wiping with a doctor blade, leaving a thin lubrication film in the nonpatterned area. Reduction of this lubrication film is critical for gravure printing of electronics, since the resulting residue can lower device performance or even catastrophically impact circuit yield. We report on experiments and quantitative analysis of lubrication films in a highly scaled gravure printing process. We investigate the effects of ink viscosity, wiping speed, loading force, blade stiffness and blade angle on the lubrication film, and further, use the resulting data to investigate the relevant lubrication regimes associated with wiping during gravure printing. Based on this analysis, we are able to posit the lubrication regime associated with wiping during gravure printing, provide insight into the ultimate limits of residue reduction, and, furthermore, are able to provide process guidelines and design rules to achieve these limits. PMID:24625096

Kitsomboonloha, Rungrot; Subramanian, Vivek

2014-04-01

412

Application of hydrophilic magnetic fluid to oil seal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bearing and gear are important components in machines. Lubricant for bearing or gear is usually confined in working space by rubber retainer or mechanical seal, and its lifetime which is determined by the friction wear of sealing material is important. In this report, the basic characteristics of magnetic fluid seal applied to lubricant retainer is studied. The fluid used for this purpose is ethyleneglycol-based magnetic fluid in which silica-coated iron particles are dispersed. The lubricant oil seal set consisting of six stages of pole piece and Nd-permanent magnets (4.0 Wb/m 2) in seal housing showed an excellent pressure resistance of 618 kPa under a rotating speed of 1800 rpm.

Kim, Y. S.; Nakatsuka, K.; Fujita, T.; Atarashi, T.

1999-07-01

413

Bearing Fatigue Life Tests in Advanced Base Oil and Grease for Space Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two synthetic base oils (815Z and 2001A) and two greases (601EF and R2000) used for space applications have been studied at ground level. Rheological tests were performed in order to characterize the behavior of each of the base oils versus the pressure and the temperature. Next, the effect of base oils and greases on ball bearing fatigue life was carried

Nobuyoshi Ohno; Hidekazu Komiya; Sobahan Mia; Shigeki Morita; Naoki Satoh; Shingo Obara

2008-01-01

414

Extractors manual for Oil Shale Data Base System: Major Plants Data Base  

SciTech Connect

To date, persons working in the development of oil shale technology have found limited amounts of reference data. If data from research and development could be made publicly available, however, several functions could be served. The duplication of work could be avoided, documented test material could serve as a basis to promote further developments, and research costs could possibly be reduced. To satisfy the engineering public's need for experimental data and to assist in the study of technical uncertainties in oil shale technology, the Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the development of a data system to store the results of Government-sponsored research. A technology-specific data system consists of data that are stored for that technology in each of the specialized data bases that make up the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) data system. The Oil Shale Data System consists of oil shale data stored in the Major Plants Data Base (MPDB), Test Data Data Base (TDDB), Resource Extraction Data Base (REDB), and Math Modeling Data Base (MMDB). To capture the results of Government-sponsored oil shale research programs, documents have been written to specify the data that contractors need to report and the procedures for reporting them. The documents identify and define the data from oil shale projects to be entered into the MPDB, TDDB, REDB, and MMDB, which will meet the needs of users of the Oil Shale Data System. This document addresses what information is needed and how it must be formatted for entry to the MPDB for oil shale. The data that are most relevant to potential Oil Shale Data System users have been divided into four categories: project tracking needs; economic/commercialization needs; critical performance needs; and modeling and research and development needs. 2 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1986-08-01

415

Technical Seminar: Oil-Free Turbomachinery for Rotorcraft  

NASA Video Gallery

Rotorcraft engines are among the most demanding applications for conventional oil-lubricated bearings because they must operate with extreme reliability and the highest possible power density. Rece...

416

Optical and other properties changes of M-50 bearing steel surfaces for different lubricants and additives prior to scuffing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ester lubricant base oil containing one or more standard additives to protect against wear, corrosion, and oxidation was used in an experimental ball/plate elastohydrodynamic contact under load and speed conditions such as to induce scuffing failure in short times. Both the ball and the plate were of identically treated M-50 steel. After various periods of operating time the wear track on the plate was examined with an interference microscope of plus or minus 30 A depth resolution and sometimes also with a scanning ellipsometer and an Auger spectrometer. The optically deduced surface profiles varied with wavelength, indicating the presence of surface coatings, which were confirmed by the other instruments. As scuffing was approached, a thin (approximately A) oxide layer and a carbide layer formed in the wear track in particular when tricresylphosphate antiwear additive was present in the lubricant. The rates of the formation of these layers and their reactivity toward dilute alcoholic HCl depended strongly on the lubricant and additives. Based on these results suggestions for improved formulations and a test method for bearing reliability could be proposed.

Lauer, J. L.; Marxer, N.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

1986-01-01

417

Optical and other property changes of M-50 bearing steel surfaces for different lubricants and additive prior to scuffing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ester lubricant base oil containing one or more standard additives to protect against wear, corrosion, and oxidation was used in an experimental ball/plate elastohydrodynamic contact under load and speed conditions such as to induce scuffing failure in short times. Both the ball and the plate were of identically treated M-50 steel. After various periods of operating time the wear track on the plate was examined with an interference microscope of plus or minus 30 A depth resolution and sometimes also with a scanning ellipsometer and an Auger spectrometer. The optically deduced surface profiles varied with wavelength, indicating the presence of surface coatings, which were confirmed by the other instruments. As scuffing was approached, a thin (approximately A) oxide layer and a carbide layer formed in the wear track in particular when tricresylphosphate antiwear additive was present in the lubricant. The rates of the formation of these layers and their reactivity toward dilute alcholic HCl depended strongly on the lubricant and additives. Based on these results suggestions for improved formulations and a test method for bearing reliability could be proposed.

Lauer, J. L.; Marxer, N.

1984-01-01

418

Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

2009-07-01

419

Predictive modelling of fatigue failure in concentrated lubricated contacts.  

PubMed

Reducing frictional losses in response to the energy agenda will require use of less viscous lubricants causing hydrodynamically-lubricated bearings to operate with thinner films leading to "mixed lubrication" conditions in which a degree of direct interaction occurs between surfaces protected only by boundary tribofilms. The paper considers the consequences of thinner films and mixed lubrication for concentrated contacts such as those occurring between the teeth of power transmission gears and in rolling element bearings. Surface fatigue in gears remains a serious problem in demanding applications, and its solution will become more pressing with the tendency towards thinner oils. The particular form of failure examined here is micropitting, which is identified as a fatigue phenomenon occurring at the scale of the surface roughness asperities. It has emerged recently as a systemic difficulty in the operation of large scale wind turbines where it occurs in both power transmission gears and their support bearings. Predictive physical modelling of these contacts requires a transient mixed lubrication analysis for conditions in which the predicted lubricant film thickness is of the same order or significantly less than the height of surface roughness features. Numerical solvers have therefore been developed which are able to deal with situations in which transient solid contacts occur between surface asperity features under realistic engineering conditions. Results of the analysis, which reveal the detailed time-varying behaviour of pressure and film clearance, have been used to predict fatigue and damage accumulation at the scale of surface asperity features with the aim of improving understanding of the micropitting phenomenon. The possible consequences on fatigue of residual stress fields resulting from plastic deformation of surface asperities is also considered. PMID:23285624

Evans, H P; Snidle, R W; Sharif, K J; Bryant, M J

2012-01-01

420

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with engineering plastics  

SciTech Connect

Seven oil immersion studies were completed at both 20 and 60C. Test bars used in this study fall within the manufacturer specification limits of physical consistency and integrity. Refrigerant Immersion studies at ambient and 60C are also complete. Equilibrium refrigerant gas solubilities of the 32 ISO VG branched acid polyolester with all ten refrigerants have been determined and completed at 20C. Finally, the thermal aging of plastics at constant refrigerant pressure exposure with seventeen refrigerant lubricant combinations have been completed.

Cavestri, R.C.

1993-01-01

421

Polymeric compositions, method for their preparation, and lubricants containing them  

SciTech Connect

Compositions useful as multi-purpose lubricant and functional fluid additives and as thickeners and antisag additives for resins, paints and the like are prepared by free radical polymerization of at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer in the presence of an oil-soluble dispersant. The carboxylic dispersants are preferred, especially esters of hydrocarbonsubstituted succinic acids wherein the substituent contains at least about 30 carbon atoms and the reaction products of such acids or their derivatives with amines, usually polyalkylene polyamines.

Coleman, L.E.

1980-03-25

422

Tribological properties of WS 2 nanoparticles under mixed lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been established that WS2 and MoS2 nanoparticles (inorganic fullerene-like, IF) mixed with oil, and impregnated into porous matrix of powdered materials appear to enhance the tribological properties of mating surfaces in definite loading range in comparison to typical metal dichalcogenide solid lubricants. The main results have been obtained under relatively low pressures. It is important to evaluate

L. Rapoport; V. Leshchinsky; I. Lapsker; Yu. Volovik; O. Nepomnyashchy; M. Lvovsky; R. Popovitz-Biro; Y. Feldman; R. Tenne

2003-01-01

423

Equations For Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Of Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equation for thickness of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubricant film in rolling-element bearing reduced to simplified form involving only inside and outside diameters of bearing, speed of rotation, parameter related to type of lubricant, and viscosity of lubricant at temperature of bearing. In addition, experimentally derived graph of EHD-film-thickness-reduction factor as function of contact-lubricant-flow number. Accounts for lubricant starvation within Hertzian contact. Graph relating ratio of minimum film thickness to composite roughness of bearing surfaces and to lubrication-life correction factor also provided. Life-correction factor used to determine resultant life of bearing.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1993-01-01

424

Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications: Introduction and Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter presents an introduction and historical background to the field of tribology, especially solid lubrication and lubricants and sets them in the perspective of techniques and materials in lubrication. Also, solid and liquid lubrication films ar...

K. Miyoshi

1998-01-01

425

Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications: Introduction and Background. Revision 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter presents an introduction and historical background to the field of tribology, especially solid lubrication and lubricants and sets them in the perspective of techniques and materials in lubrication. Also, solid and liquid lubrication films are defined and described.

Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

1998-01-01

426

Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 1; Introduction and Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter presents an introduction and historical background to the field of tribology, especially solid lubrication and lubricants and sets them in the perspective of techniques and materials in lubrication. Also, solid and liquid lubrication films are defined and described.

Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

1996-01-01

427

Designing a suitable alternative to oil-based mud  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on wireline logging problems which have plagued the reservoir section of development wells in Welton oil field in the East Midlands area of England. And resulting incomplete or poor-quality logging data spurred a look at ways of improving hole conditions. Oil-based muds often are seen as the ideal solution, but they are expensive. Their use also commits the operator to additional costs from safeguarding personnel and limiting environmental impact. Such expense was initiated to develop a cheaper, more environmentally friendly, water-based alternative. A wide-ranging review was carried out to determine the most cost-effective options to obtain reservoir information. This included an examination of lithology, casing design, bit selection, hydraulics, logging requirements and techniques, and development of a suitable water-based mud. This holistic approach was seen as the most effective method of avoiding use of oil-based mud. After successful experimentation, a water-based mud was used in subsequent wells at Welton. A high-salt mud system and the drilling principles discussed here produced significant improvement in hole conditions. Application of a holistic approach led to many operational improvements. For instance, the casing shoe was deepened to case off the most troublesome zone in the local Edlington formation. There also was a better awareness of alternative logging techniques, the commercial factors that influenced their use and their operational and technical limitations. Logging problems were reduced but not eliminated. Where there were problems, application of improved techniques minimized their impact. Last, but not least, there was an unexpected spin-off in that the bit chosen to reduce hole erosion also reduced the time taken to drill the section.

Holgate, M. (Meyjes Geddes Associates (GB)); Irwin, G. (Halliburton GeoConsultants, Aberdeen (GB)); Cousins, L. (BP Exploration, Lincoln (GB))

1991-10-01

428

Hypernated supercritical fluid chromatography: potential application for car lubricant analysis.  

PubMed

Car lubricant additives are added to mineral or synthetic base stocks to improve viscosity and resistance to oxidation of the lubricant and to limit wear of engines. In previous papers related to this purpose, it was demonstrated that SFC allows the elution of common low molecular weight additives. Since their total resolution could not be achieved owing to the limited peak capacity of packed columns, the hyphenation of selective and informative detectors, atomic emission and mass spectrometry, were also carried out for identification. This paper describes the final implementation of a packed column SFC/FID-UV-AED-FTIR-MS system to contribute to the characterisation of both the base stock, mineral or semi-synthetic, and the low molecular weight additives. SFC/FID-UV-FTIR ensures the easy confirmation of the presence of esters in the base stock. Reference additives are used to demonstrate the performances of the multi hyphenated system prior to its implementation for their identification in packages and in formulated lubricants. Identification and partial structure elucidation of additives and families of additives in package and formulated car lubricants are presented: using combined information obtained from AED traces and FTIR chemigrams, chemical families of additives can be deduced. Then, the mass spectra can be interpreted in the elution zone of interest in order to go further in the determination of the additive molecular structure. The hypernated SFC system was also employed to follow the ageing of car lubricants. PMID:23200024

Lavison-Bompard, Gwenaelle; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Thiébaut, Didier; Beziau, Jean-François; Carrazé, Bernadette; Valette, Pascale; Duteurtre, Xavier

2012-12-28

429

Linseed Oil-Based Concrete Surface Treatment -for Building and Highway Structures in  

E-print Network

, Linseed Oil-Based Concrete Surface Treatment -for Building and Highway Structures in Hong Kong Y using jour Canadian linseed oil- based sealants on concrete specimens madejrom G30120 and G45120 Keywords: Unseed Oil, Concrete Surface Treatment, Salt Spray Resistance, Carbonation, Bond Strength, Ultra

430

Top-of-Rail lubricant  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

2000-07-14

431

High-speed video observation and on-line measurements of oil aeration in an internal combustion engine  

E-print Network

Along the oil's journey through the oil lube system, the oil lubricates, cools, removes impurities, supports load, and minimizes friction. At the end of the oil's journey it returns to the sump where it remains nearly ...

Manz, Devon L

2005-01-01

432

Fluid loss additives for oil base muds and low fluid loss compositions thereof  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an oil base drilling mud formulation comprising a petroleum oil, an emulsifier, a water soluble salt, a gelling agent, a weighting agent and a quebracho ammonium salt reaction product of quebracho with an alkyl quaternary ammonium salt.

Patel, A.D.; Salandanan, C.S.

1987-01-20

433

Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for polyunsaturated (?-3) oils: formation using a spontaneous emulsification method.  

PubMed

Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems are finding increasing utilization to encapsulate lipophilic bioactive components in food, personal care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, a spontaneous emulsification method was used to fabricate nanoemulsions from polyunsaturated (?-3) oils, that is, fish oil. This low-energy method relies on formation of fine oil droplets when an oil/surfactant mixture is added to an aqueous solution. The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), oil composition (lemon oil and MCT), and cosolvent composition (glycerol, ethanol, propylene glycol, and water) on the formation and stability of the systems was determined. Optically transparent nanoemulsions could be formed by controlling SOR, oil composition, and aqueous phase composition. The spontaneous emulsification method therefore has considerable potential for fabricating nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for incorporating polyunsatured oils into clear food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:24475908

Gulotta, Alessandro; Saberi, Amir Hossein; Nicoli, Maria Cristina; McClements, David Julian

2014-02-19

434

Life of Pennzane and 815Z-Lubricated Instrument Bearings Cleaned with Non-CFC Solvents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life tests were conducted on instrument scanner ball bearings cleaned with 3 types of non-ozone depleting solvents and compared with those cleaned with a conventional CFC-113 (Freon) solvent. The test bearings were lubricated with the standard space oil (Bray 815Z, Fomblin Z25) and a more recent synthetic space oil (Pennzane 2001). Lives with replacement solvents equaled or exceeded those obtained with CFC-113 baseline, indicating that alternate cleaning solvents were acceptable. Pennzane lubricated bearings enjoyed a significant life advantage (>5X) over those lubricated with Bray 815Z oil in these oscillatory gimbal bearing tests. Many of the Pennzane bearings are still exhibiting acceptable torque traces after more than 25,000 hr of test.

Loewenthal, Stuart H.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Predmore, Roamer E.

1999-01-01

435

Is Wetter Better? An Evaluation of Over-the-Counter Personal Lubricants for Safety and Anti-HIV-1 Activity  

PubMed Central

Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n?=?10), lipid- (n?=?2), and silicone-based (n?=?2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm. PMID:23144863

Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P.; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; LeBlanc, Marc-Andre; Rohan, Lisa C.

2012-01-01

436

Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results on low refrigerant concentration (70, 80, 90, and 100 weight percent lubricant) mixtures of the following fluids: CFC-12/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil; HCFC-22/ISO 32 naphthenic mineral oil; and HFC-134a/ISO 32 pentaerythritol ester mixed acid. These data have been reduced to engineering form and are presented in the form of a Daniel Chart. Scatter diagrams are given for the first fluid listed above, with the intent of illustrating the quality of data as well as providing the rationale for selecting the particular functional forms chosen to represent the experimental data. Equations are given along with statistical measures of goodness of fit.

Henderson, D.R.

1993-01-01

437

ES and H-compatible lubrication for duplex bearings  

SciTech Connect

Two ES and H-compatible lubricants (environment, safety, and health) for duplex bearing applications and one hybrid material duplex bearing were evaluated and compared against duplex bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in strong link mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid duplex bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, duplex bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and duplex bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. Bearings with electrophoretic deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings with Freon deposition of PTFE from Freon-based Vydax. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls performed worse than bearings lubricated with Vydax, but their performance would still be acceptable for most applications. Bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers had varying amounts of film on the bearings. This affected the performance of the bearings. Bearings with a uniform coating performed to acceptable levels, but bearings with no visible MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers did not perform as well as bearings with the other coatings. Unless process controls are incorporated in the sputtering process or the bearings are screened, they do not appear to be acceptable for duplex bearing applications.

Steinhoff, R.G.

1997-10-01

438

Molecular-Scale Lubricants for Micromachine Applications: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The nature of this work was to develop the physics and chemistry base for understanding molecular-scale lubricants used to reduce of friction- and adhesion-induced failure in silicon micromachines (MEMS). We acquired this new knowledge by tailoring the molecular properties of the lubricants, applying local probes that can directly monitor the response of lubricants in contact conditions, and evaluating the performance of model lubricants MEMS devices. Model lubricants under investigation were the silane coupling agents that form monolayer films on native oxide silicon surfaces, which is the substrate in MEMS. These molecules bind via strong surface bonds and produce a layer of hydro- or fluoro-carbon chains normal to the substrate. "Tailoring" the lubricants entails modifying the chain length, the chain chemical reactivity (H or F), and the density of chain structures. Thus much effort went into understanding the surface chemistry of silane-silicon oxide coupling. With proximal probes such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), interracial force microscopy (FM), and shear force microscopy in combination with IFM, we examined the frictional and adhesive properties of the silane films with very high spatial resolution (< 100 nm) and sensitivity. MEMS structures are treated with silanes under identical conditions, and examined for friction and adhesion under operating conditions. Proper assessment of the lubricants required quantitative analysis of MEMS performance at high speeds and long operating times. Our proximal probe measurements and WS performance analyses form a very important link for future molecular dynamics simulations, that, in turn, should be able to predict MEMS performance under all conditions.

Burns, A.R.; Dugger, M.T.; Houston, J.E.; Lopez, G.P.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.; Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Stevens, M.J.; Zhou, Y.

1998-12-01

439

[Research on oil atomic spectrometric data semi-supervised fuzzy C-means clustering based on Parzen window].  

PubMed

A Parzen window based semi-supervised fuzzy c-means (PSFCM) clustering algorithm was presented. The initial clustering centers of fuzzy c-means (FCM) were determined with training samples. The membership iteration of FCM was redefined after the membership degrees of testing samples relatively to each state were calculated using Parzen window. Two typical faults of gear box were simulated through the gear box bed in order to acquire the lubricant samples. Concentration of Fe, Si and B, which were the representative elements, was selected as the three-dimensional feature vectors to be analyzed with FCM and PSFCM clustering methods. The clustering results were that the correct ratio of FCM was 48.9%, while that of PSFCM was 97.4% because of integrating with supervised information. Experimental results also indicated that it can reduce the dependence of the experience and lots of faults data to introduce PSFCM into oil atomic spectrometric analysis. It was of great help in improving the wear faults diagnosis ratio. PMID:20939333

Xu, Chao; Zhang, Pei-lin; Ren, Guo-quan; Wu, Ding-hai

2010-08-01

440

Preparation and properties of copper-oil-based nanofluids  

PubMed Central

In this study, the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by surface modification method to improve their dispersion stability in hydrophobic organic media. The oil-based nanofluids were prepared with the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles. The transport properties, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids have been measured. The viscosities and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids with the surface-modified nanoparticles have higher values than the base fluids do. The composition has more significant effects on the thermal conductivity than on the viscosity. It is valuable to prepare an appropriate oil-based nanofluid for enhancing the heat-transfer capacity of a hydrophobic system. The effects of adding Cu nanoparticles on the thermal oxidation stability of the fluids were investigated by measuring the hydroperoxide concentration in the Cu/kerosene nanofluids. The hydroperoxide concentrations are observed to be clearly lower in the Cu nanofluids than in their base fluids. Appropriate amounts of metal nanoparticles added in a hydrocarbon fuel can enhance the thermal oxidation stability. PMID:21711900

2011-01-01

441

Use of temperature dependent Raman spectra to improve accuracy for analysis of complex oil-based samples: lube base oils and adulterated olive oils.  

PubMed

A simple and effective strategy to improve accuracy for Raman spectroscopic analysis of complex mixture samples by probing a measurement temperature yielding enhanced spectral selectivity has been demonstrated. For the evaluation, the determination of Kinematic Viscosity at 40 °C (KV@40) of lube base oil (LBO) samples was initially attempted. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to determine the KV@40 using Raman spectra of the samples collected at 8 different temperatures from 20 to 90 °C with 10 °C increments. Interestingly, the distinct temperature-induced spectral variation among the samples occurred at 50 °C, thereby resulting in the improved accuracy for determination of KV@40. Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was also performed to find an additional supportive rationale for the improved accuracy. The strategy was further evaluated for the identification of soybean oil-adulterated olive oils using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Similarly, the discrimination accuracy was improved around 80-90 °C due to the enhanced spectral selectivity between olive and soybean oils. In overall, these two results successfully demonstrate analytical effectiveness of the strategy. PMID:23021808

Kim, Mooeung; Lee, Sanguk; Chang, Kyeol; Chung, Hoeil; Jung, Young Mee

2012-10-20

442

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

443

Lubricant additive. [suspended spherical copper and lead particles  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a lubricant additive comprising a mixture of minute spherical copper and lead particles suspended in various lubricant bases depending upon its intended use. The minute spherical metal particles are presented to friction surfaces where they reduce friction by functioning as tiny ball bearings and platelets. In addition on the application of heat and pressure, the metal particles, particularly the copper particles, will plate on high wear areas where base metal has been removed by wear. The additive has been found to substantially reduce friction and wear between relatively moving parts.

Mack, J.E.; Mack, P.K.

1980-05-27

444

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of ball bearings and drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recently pointed out that liquids can be lubricated similarly to solids through the imposition of relative surface motion, e.g., using thermocapillarity or forced convection. Here we examine some aspects of drop lubrication that exhibit astonishing similarities, but als