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1

Effect of an Oil Base on the Lubricating Ability of Plastic Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrocarbon greases, except those prepared from isoparaffinic oils, had lubricities imilar to those of the base oil. Li greases with hydrocarbon oil base differed considerably from the base. Li soaps and surfactants reduced wear more than the nonpolar...

L. B. Gelchinskaya N. S. Smirnova R. A. Levento V. V. Vainshtok

1972-01-01

2

Fuel efficient lubricants and the effect of special base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for improved fuel economy is placing increasing pressure upon engine manufacturers world-wide. Lubricants that can provide additional fuel efficiency benefits are being vigorously sought. Such lubricants must achieve the current performance specifications that are also increasing in severity. To meet all of these requirements, passenger car lubricant formulations will need special base oils. This paper presents data on

T. E. Kiovsky; N. C. Yates; J. R. Bales

1994-01-01

3

Fuel efficient lubricants and the effect of special base oils  

SciTech Connect

The demand for improved fuel economy is placing increasing pressure upon engine manufacturers world-wide. Lubricants that can provide additional fuel efficiency benefits are being vigorously sought. Such lubricants must achieve the current performance specifications that are also increasing in severity. To meet all of these requirements, passenger car lubricant formulations will need special base oils. This paper presents data on comparable 5W-30 formulations based on either hydrogenated mineral oil, or hydrocracked or poly alpha olefin basestocks. These blends clearly demonstrate the effect of improved volatility on oil consumption and oxidation stability in a range of bench engine tests. Equivalent engine test performance is observed for the hydrocracked and polyalphaolefin blends. Both exhibit performance superior to that attained by the hydrogenated mineral oil-based blend. Predicted Sequence VI fuel savings for these blends show additional fuel efficiency benefits for hydrocracked vs. hydrogenated mineral oil-based blends. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Kiovsky, T.E. [BP Oil Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Yates, N.C.; Bales, J.R. [BP Oil International Limited, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

1994-04-01

4

Study on the Processes for Lubricant Base Oil from Oman and Cabinda Blended Crude Oil No. 3 Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dealing quantity of crude oil increases, and the lube feedstock changes frequently. Enhancing the quality and yield by optimizing the processes used for lubricant base oil is currently one of the major challenges that refineries are facing to make them profitable. Acetone-benzoyl dewaxing, furfural refining, and clay finishing are selected and optimized to process lubricant base oil. For the

L. Shaoping; D. Luoyong; D. Qingxin

2010-01-01

5

Oxidation and low temperature stability of vegetable oil-based lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, viscosity–temperature characteristics and low volatility. Their use, however, is restricted due to low thermo-oxidative stability and poor cold flow behavior. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidation behavior and low temperature fluidity of vegetable oil derivatives. Among the various possible

Sevim Z. Erhan; Brajendra K. Sharma; Joseph M. Perez

2006-01-01

6

Lubrication mechanism of solid lubricants in oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricating properties of machine oils containing such solid lubricants as (CF)n, MoS2, graphite, etc., were studied on a pin and disk machine by measuring an electric contact resistance and a friction force. After lubrication tests, solid lubricants films and transferred wear particles on worn surfaces have been observed by means of an XMA and an optical microscope. The wear mechanism

T. Hisakado; T. Tsukizoe; H. Yoshikawa

1983-01-01

7

Refrigeration lubricating oil compositions  

SciTech Connect

Oil compositions are disclosed for effective use in the lubrication of rotary-type compressor for refrigeration equipment. The composition essentially comprises a polyglycol oil blended with specified amounts of at least one of additives or compounds of the group consisting of glycidyl ether type epoxy compounds, epoxidized fatty acid monoesters and epoxidized vegetable oils.

Morikawa, Y.; Sasaki, U.; Tsunemi, M.; Yamada, K.

1981-05-12

8

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

SciTech Connect

Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, A.

1995-07-11

9

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOEpatents

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01

10

Lubricating Oil for Automotive Hypoid Gears.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lubricating oil for automotive hypoid gears is usually based on mineral oil, alkylamine, and chlorine- and sulfur-containing additives. In order to increase the operating properties of the oil the Russian patent suggests the addition of the following:...

E. I. Petyakina F. Y. Chames I. B. Gubenko I. F. Blagovidov P. P. Bagryantseva

1972-01-01

11

Lubrication mechanism of solid lubricants in oils  

SciTech Connect

Lubricating properties of machine oils containing such solid lubricants as (CF)n, MoS2, graphite, etc., were studied on a pin and disk machine by measuring an electric contact resistance and a friction force. After lubrication tests, solid lubricants films and transferred wear particles on worn surfaces have been observed by means of an XMA and an optical microscope. The wear mechanism of metals was analyzed considering a mean peak to peak distance and a mean depth of scratches on worn surfaces. The effects of particle size and concentration of (CF)n, and a suspending agent AD-6 on the friction and wear process were also discussed. It was found that when the large number of (CF)n particles can penetrate into the interface in accordance with an oil flow, they show a good performance as a lubricant but solid lubricant films were not formed on worn surfaces besides graphite particles embedded on those of a copper disk.

Hisakado, T.; Tsukizoe, T.; Yoshikawa, H.

1983-04-01

12

Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2005-01-01

13

Succinimide lubricating oil dispersant  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described exhibiting improved dispersancy in both gasoline and diesel engines comprising a major amount of lubricating oil and 0.5 to 10 weight percent of a dispersant, the dispersant being prepared in a sequential process comprising the steps of: (a) in a first step reacting an oil-soluble polyolefin succinic anhydride, the olefin being a C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ olefin and an alkylene polyamine of the formula H/sub 2/N(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/(NH(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/)/sub m/sup -// NH/sub 2/ wherein n is 2 or 3 and m is 0 to 10, in a molar ratio of about 1.0 to 2.2 moles of polyolefin succinic anhydride per mole of polyamine, and (b) reacting the product of step (a) with dicarboxylic acid anhydride selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride in sufficient molar proportions to provide a total mole ratio of about 2,3 to 3.0 moles of anhydride compounds per mole of polyamine.

Wisotsky, M.J.; Bloch, R.; Brownwell, D.W.; Chen, F.J.; Gutierrez, A.

1987-08-11

14

Evaluation of Chemical Property Test Methods for Re-Refined Lubricating Base Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several standard test methods measuring chemical properties of lubricants were evaluated for use on re-refined lubricating basestocks. The methods evaluated included total acid number (TAN), total base number (TBN), total nitrogen, basic nitrogen, saponif...

A. L. Cummings P. Pei S. M. Hsu

1984-01-01

15

Synthetic lubricant basestocks from epoxidized soybean oil and Guerbet alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are biodegradable and therefore good candidates for environmentally friendly base stocks. They have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low temperature stabilities. For this study, synthetic lubricant basestocks with oxidative stabilities and pour points comparable with commercial synthetic lubricant basestocks have been prepared by reacting epoxidized soybean oil with Guerbet alcohols. Four different Guerbet alcohols, C12-, C14-, C16-,

Hong-Sik Hwang; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

16

Lubricants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site related to lubrication is presented by SynLube.com and its relevant page is entitled Basics: What You Need to Know About Lubrication (1). Visitors can learn why lubrication is so important to mechanical devices, why oil needs to be changed in your car, what synthetic oils can do, and more. Although the site is for a manufacturer of synthetic oil, there is a good amount of interesting physical science information. The second site provides an educational resource activity by The Explorer, called Slippery Substances -- Lubricants (2). Students in grades 5 through 8 get to compare the "slipperiness" of various substances tested, read how a lubricant works, and identify objects that need lubricants to work correctly. All information needed to complete the activity is provided, including a short list of easily attained materials. Next, from NASA's Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program Web site, comes the High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings page (3). Visitors can read about a new chrome oxide based coating, which has been shown to provide good friction and wear properties to very high temperatures. The page contains descriptions, photographs, and even a link that shows the US patent for the "Self-Lubricating Composite Containing Chromium Oxide." The fourth site, About Lubrication (4), is maintained by Machine Care Systems. The page contains an informative explanation on the definition of energy release and lubricated components, and answers the questions what energy release is and if oil ever wears out. The next site, offered by the lubrication manufacturer Lubrizol, is called Lubrication Theory and Practice (5). As the title states, the site gives detailed explanations of friction reduction, lubricant viscosity, heat removal, suspension of contaminants, and other lubrication topics. InnerAuto.com offers the next site, which is an interactive animation of an Engine Lubrication System (6). As you move your mouse over the various parts of the engine, the lubrication critical part names reveal themselves and can then be clicked for additional information. If you happen to be in the market for a lubricant, the seventh site can definitely help you out. The Lubricants EZ Search (7) page, offered by ThomasRegister.com, contains 99 categories of lubricant manufacturers, descriptions of what they offer, and direct links to their Web sites. The last site related to lubricants, Lubrication Recommendations (8), is maintained by Infomedia. Here, visitors can choose from more than a dozen of machine categories and specific models to find out the type of lubrication they require as well as any notes related to that machinery such as crankcase capacity.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

17

Characterization of the Lubricating Action of Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyalphaolefin (PAO) and polypropylene glycol (PPG)-based lubricants as well as mineral oils were tested to characterize their wear reducing performance under boundary lubrication conditions, using the ISO 7148 test method, which was originally developed for the characterization of bearing materials.This test method has practical value with respect to developing lubricants for use in sliding contacts, such as occur in worm

A. W. J. De Gee; C. M. Lossie; W. Stoop

1995-01-01

18

Performance of Perfluoropolyalkylether Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPE) oils and oil-based greases are being used with increasing frequency on spacecraft as a result of their purported outstanding properties. We demonstrated that, under boundary lubrication, these materials degrade by way of an ...

D. J. Carre

1988-01-01

19

Synergistic antioxidant lubricating oil additive composition  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a lubricating oil additive composition which imparts improved oxidation properties to internal combustion engine crankcase lubricants. The additive consists of: (1) an antioxidant selected from aromatic or alkyl sulfides and polysulfides, sulfurized olefins, sulfurized carboxylic acid esters and sulfurized ester-olefins, and (2) an oil-soluble chlorinated hydrocarbon containing at least 6 carbon atoms. Lubricating oil compositions containing this additive composition are also disclosed. Particularly preferred are compositions which also contain an oil-soluble zinc salt.

Liston, T.V.; Lowe, W.

1980-04-29

20

Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

2012-06-01

21

Viscosity modification of different vegetable oils with EVA copolymer for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During these last years, special attention has been paid to the protection of the environment against pollution exerted by lubricants and hydraulic fluids based on mineral oils. Thus, vegetable oil-based lubricants are being actively demanded for many green industrial activities. Although vegetable oils have some excellent properties for their potential use as lubricants, some inconveniences should be technologically improved, i.e.

L. A. Quinchia; M. A. Delgado; C. Valencia; J. M. Franco; C. Gallegos

2010-01-01

22

Lubricant additive concentrate containing isomerized jojoba oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a crankcase motor oil additive concentrate intended to be added to a conventional crankcase motor oil to improve its ability to lubricate and protect the engine. The additive concentrate comprises the following components: A petroleum base stock of lubricating quality and viscosity. The base stock comprises from about 13.5 to 90 weight percent of the additive concentrate; a detergent-inhibitor package. The package is present at from about 7 to about 40 weight percent of the concentrate; a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the salts of dialkyl dithiophosporic acids. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate; and a supplemental antiwear additive selected from the class of sulfurized olefins. The additive is present at a level of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of the concentrate.

Arndt, G.

1987-05-12

23

Characterization of the lubricating action of oils under boundary lubrication conditions  

SciTech Connect

Polyalphaolefin (PAO) and polypropylene glycol (PPG)-based lubricants as well as mineral oils were tested to characterize their wear reducing performance under boundary lubrication conditions, using the ISO 7148 test method, which was originally developed for the characterization of bearing materials. This test method has practical value with respect to developing lubricants for use in sliding contacts, such as occur in worm gear drives. It is found that the wear reducing action of PAO-based lubricants is significantly better than that of mineral oils. PPG fluids perform equally well or slightly better than PAOs. Provided that viscosities are in line and additives are compatible, contamination of PAOs with mineral oils has no or only marginal effect on wear reduction.

De Gee, A.W.J.; Lossie, C.M.; Stoop, W. [Univ. of Technology Delft and Univ. of Twente, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[TNO Institute of Production and Logistics Research, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

1995-07-01

24

Data on Radiation Resistance of Lubricating Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents data of radiation resistance of commercial lubricating oils. Data included are the radiation induced change of properties such as kinematic viscosity, total acid number, flash point, pour point, specific gravity and color, and the res...

H. Nakanishi K. Arakawa N. Hayakawa N. Morishita S. Machi

1987-01-01

25

Lubrication Properties of Vegetable Oils Combined with Boric Acid and Determination of Their Effects on Wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubrication is essential in increasing a mechanical component's service duration and minimizing wear. Though synthetic and petrol-based oils are generally used in lubricants today, natural oils which are environment-friendly, biologically decomposable, and whose waste does not give harm to the environment have also begun to be used as lubricants recently thanks to an increasing awareness of the environment. In the

H. Düzcüko?lu; M. Acaro?lu

2009-01-01

26

Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. PMID:19716696

Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

2010-01-01

27

Corrosivity Monitoring of Crankcase Lubricating Oils for Marine Diesel Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For qualification of crankcase lubrication oils in ship diesel engines the total acid number, strong acid number and total base number were determined. It is shown that these numbers have a low degree of reproducibility. A more rapid and reliable method f...

L. M. Rientsma H. Zeilmaker

1974-01-01

28

Microbiological Lubricant as a Palm Oil Substitute for Cold Rolling of Steel Strips.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described is a lubricant based on oil synthesized microbiologically from diesel fuel, paraffins, kerosene, natural gas, and peat and shale fractions. It is close in composition and properties (slightly more volatile at 300C) to palm oil. It reduced fricti...

A. A. Petrovskii E. V. Dyatlovitskaya I. A. Chamin L. D. Bergelson

1972-01-01

29

Oil soluble antioxidant polymetharylates for lubricants  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of oil soluble, antioxidant bound polymethacrylates used as viscosity index improver lubricant additives, is described herein. They were synthesized by copolymerization of the antioxidant-dispersant monomer and alkyl methacrylates. Oxidative stability was determined by oxidative pressure differential scanning calorimetry, thin film oxidation uptake test and aluminum beaker oxidation text. These tests show that lubricants containing these polymers show performance advantages over commercial polymethacrylates, with additional benefits in other viscometric properties such as shear stability and Brookfield viscosity. The antioxidant monomer also serves as a dispersant moiety, thus improving the polymer disperancy. Binding the antioxidant to the polymer ensures the solubility of the antioxidant while eliminating the possibility of its volatilization in high temperature environments. The current results suggest that antioxidant-dispersant polymethacrylates have excellent potential as additives in lubricants such as automatic transmission fluids. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Shirodkar, S.M.; Benfaremo, N. [Texaco Additive Company, Beacon, NY (United States); Skarlos, L. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

1994-08-01

30

Application of thermography in analysis of lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

The possibilities of differential thermal analysis (DTA) in registering thermal conversions of organic compounds are such that this technique is quite suitable for use in the qualitative investigation of lubricating oils. Explains that based on the fact that the individual parameters of TG and DTG curves are subject to the additivity rule, an analogous tests was performed in application to DTA. Establishes that the basic parameters of the peaks of the DTA curves can be classed as additive indexes by using a methodological approach that includes successive thermal analysis of the original oil and its hydrocarbon groups obtained by liquid adsorption separation. Concludes that by correlating the parameters of the DTA peaks and indexes of hydrocarbon composition of lubricating oils, the development of new methodological variants that will expand the possibilities for the use of thermal analysis in qualitative characterization of oils can now be predicted.

Tiunova, I.M.; Badyshtova, K.M.; Diskina, D.E.

1983-01-01

31

Waste Automotive Lubricating Oil as a Municipal Incinerator Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical, economic and environmental impact of using waste automotive lubricating oils to improve the municipal incineration combustion process was examined. Laboratory analyses of selected physical properties of waste oil and a waste oil burner test...

S. Chansky B. McCoy N. Surprenant

1973-01-01

32

Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

1984-01-01

33

Boundary Lubrication by Pure Crystalline Zinc Orthophosphate Powder in Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the tribological behavior of pure crystalline zinc orthophosphate under boundary lubrication\\u000a in order to model zinc phosphate-based anti-wear additives. Boundary films were generated from ?-Zn3(PO4)2 powder dispersed in poly-alpha-olefin oil, at ambient temperature, by means of a steel sphere-on-flat contact in reciprocating\\u000a motion. Electrical contact resistance and friction coefficient evolutions enable an

M. Gauvin; F. Dassenoy; M. Belin; C. Minfray; C. Guerret-Piécourt; S. Bec; J. M. Martin; G. Montagnac; B. Reynard

2008-01-01

34

Lubricating Oil Compositions Containing Calcium Acetate and Lubricating Solids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extreme pressure additive for greases and lubricating compositions for internal combustion engines and metalworking operations combines graphite, stannic sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide with anhydrous calcium acetate. Substantially equal amounts are e...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

35

Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

Lee, F.

1978-01-01

36

Additive for the Protection of Lubricants and Lubricating Oils from Microbiological Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lubricants and oils resistant to tropical conditions must provide reliable and long-term anticorrosion protection to metal parts under all types of atmospheric precipitation and be resistant to biological activity, particularly that of mould fungi and bac...

V. N. Poddubnyi R. A. Gulo G. A. Novikova E. G. Toropova V. Z. Shumakov

1970-01-01

37

Water-based lubricants for metalworking  

SciTech Connect

Metalworking fluids currently constitute 17% of the total US industrial lubricant market. Market forces favor semisynthetic and synthetic formulations because they are more economical, and trends differ substantially from those of other lubricant markets as demand patterns shift. Lubricant manufacturers continue to reduce the use of mineral oil as a component in their formulations because synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are more cost-effective. The introduction of new engineering materials also has increased the demand for tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications. Synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are favored for cutting and metalworking applications because they perform better than the existing commercial product does. The literature strongly supports the development of environmentally friendly synthetic and semisynthetic metalworking lubricants that have longer useful lives, therefore decreasing the amount of fluid for disposal. Future lubricant formulations will focus on environmental issues, process compatibility, and worker health and safety. Biological control of fluids, in use and in disposal, will also draw attention.

Shukla, D.S.; Jain, V.K. [Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

1997-05-01

38

Lubricating oils for cold forward extrusion of aluminum  

SciTech Connect

In cold metal-forming applications, where processing is carried out continuously at high speeds, the die temperature rises due to accumulation of heat generated by friction and deformation. This heat leads to lubricant film breakdown and, subsequently, to seizure between the die and the workpiece. Actual process conditions were taken into consideration in evaluating antiseizure properties of lubricants by their maximum workable die temperature (MWT), where workpieces were formed without seizure. MWTs of lubricating oils were as follows: mineral oils: 100{degrees}-120{degrees}C; poly-{alpha}-olefin oils: 160{degrees}-170{degrees}C; polybutene oil: 150{degrees}C; ester oils: 90{degrees}C. MWTs of mineral oils or poly-{alpha}-olefins could be enhanced to around 300{degrees}C by combining them with phosphorous extreme pressure (EP) agents. An ordinary chemical conversion film, the lubricating film formed on the workpiece surface prior to working, was examined for reference. This film had an MWT of over 360{degrees}C. In addition to good antiseizure properties than lubricating oils, it had an unavoidable drawback of a color change to dark gray. With lubricating oils, the products had good luster, as long as seizure did not occur. However, in the case of oils containing phosphorus EP agents, surface degradation was recognized when the die temperature was over 250{degrees}C due to the reaction between the EP agent and the workpieces. 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Komatsuzaki, S.; Uematsu, T. [Hitachi Research Lab. (Japan)

1995-08-01

39

Characterization of Worn Surface of Bearing Materials Under Palm Oil Methyl Ester Added Lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, wear test of ball-plate pair was carried out using a modified universal wear and friction machine under three different percentages of palm oil methyl ester (POME) added lubricants. The plain mineral-based lube oil was also used as a comparison purposes. The present authors previous study has shown that POME can act as an additive in mineral oil

M. A. Maleque; H. H. Masjuki; M. Hamidullah

40

Talc as friction reducing additive to lubricating oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction of friction and wear by colloidal suspensions of ceramic powders in lubricating oils is an approach that can allow to formulate environment friendly energy saving lubricants. Commercial talc powder was evaluated as an extreme pressure additive to a lubricating oil under different temperatures and concentrations. The best lubricity was achieved at the temperature of 100 °C and the concentration of 0.15 wt% when dynamic and static friction coefficients were reduced by over 30% in comparison to reference lubricating oil alone. At high temperature, talc forms transfer film on metal surface, which reduce both friction and wear behavior in mating surfaces. However, at room temperature, film formation was not observed. Results are explained using pressure and temperature induced lamellar dehydration mechanism when products of dehydration form oxide transfer films on the friction surface.

Rudenko, Pavlo; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2013-07-01

41

Smoereolier til gear i vindmoeller. (Lubricating oils for windmill gears).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a part of the Danish energy research project: Designgrundlag for gearkasser til vindmoeller (Basis for the design of gearboxes for windmills) and specifically concerns the use of lubricating oils for windmill gears. The concept of tribology ...

H. Moeller P. Friis

1994-01-01

42

Gravimetric Determination of Sediment in Turbine Engine Lubricating Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program was conducted to establish the usefulness of gravimetric filtration for the quantitative determination of the total combustible and noncombustible sediment present in aircraft turbine engine lubricating oils. Both MIL-L-7808 and MIL-L-23699 l...

W. R. Craig

1975-01-01

43

Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

44

Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of the engines and compressors. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

45

DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

46

Synthetic Lubricating Oils Comprising Dehydrocondensation Products of MonoESTERS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mono-esters derived from aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and aliphatic monohydroxy alcohols each having up to 18 carbon atoms are treated with tertiary alkyl peroxides to form a lubricating oil for aviation and automotive engines. Suitable peroxides are di...

H. L. Hepplewhite E. A. Oberright A. L. Williams

1965-01-01

47

Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.  

PubMed

Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

2005-05-01

48

Standard method for estimating apparent vapor pressures and molecular weights of lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

This method provides a calculation procedure for converting data obtained by ASTM Method D 972, Test for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils, to apparent vapor pressures and molecular weights. It has been demonstrated to be applicable to petroleum based and synthetic ester lubricating oils, at temperatures of 394 to 533 K (250 to 500/sup 0/F). However, its applicability to lubricating greases has not been established. The test is run at the selected temperature for a sufficient time to give the selected amount of evaporation, which is 5 +- 1 percent unless otherwise specified. This evaporation rate is compared with a standard value for pure m-terphenyl to yield the apparent vapor pressure and molecular weight of the lubricating oil.

Not Available

1980-01-01

49

The Influence of Temperature on the Lubricating Effectiveness of MoS2 Dispersed in Mineral Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with

R. J. Rolek; C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

1985-01-01

50

Effect of base oil polarity on micro and nanofriction behaviour of base oil + ZDDP solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ball-on-disc tribo tests and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the effect of base oil polarity on the friction behaviour of steel-steel contacts lubricated with base oil + zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) solutions. Understanding the lubrication properties of the first chemisorbed layer of additives on work pieces yields important information for the optimization of lubrication in various solutions, in

A. Tomala; A. Naveira-Suarez; I. C. Gebeshuber; R. Pasaribu

2009-01-01

51

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

52

Characteristics of lubricating grease produced from Nigerian tarsand-derived heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study involving the laboratory production of lubricating grease from heavy oil extracted from the Nigerian tarsands are reported. Toluene-extracted oil from the tarsands was used in making a soap-based grease and a clay-based grease. The grease produced was then tested in accordance with the standard National Laboratory for Grease Institute (NLGI) specifications. The two types of grease produced from the tarsands oil conformed with the NLGI specifications and were in the category of grease suitable for use as lubricant for plain and roller bearings and as sealants.

Ogunsola, O.I.; Agoi-George, S.O. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt (NG))

1990-01-01

53

Base Oils from Petroleum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

Prince, R. J.

54

Development of engine oil using palm oil as a base stock for four-stroke engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of palm oil as a base stock for an environmentally friendly lubricant for small four-stroke motorcycle engines is investigated. Palm oil was blended with mineral oil at different compositions to the viscosity requirement of commercial lubricant. A liquid additive package was added to improve the viscosity of the lubricant. A blend that meets the viscosity requirement was then

Kraipat Cheenkachorn; Bundit Fungtammasan

2010-01-01

55

Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies  

SciTech Connect

As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

Everett, G.L. [Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Channelview, TX (United States); Suchanek, A. [Criterion Catalyst Co. L.P., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01

56

Oil Lubricated and Water Lubricated Pin-on-Disc Wear Tests with Engineering Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Friction and wear tests with ceramics and steels, lubricated with oil and with water, were carried out using a sliding spherical pin-on-disc geometry. In parallel with the sliding tests, the materials of the specimens were characterized by mechanical test...

P. Salonen P. Andersson P. Lintula

1990-01-01

57

76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils AGENCY...Circular (AC) 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils. This AC...or APUs to operate with specified propulsion fuels and lubricating oils....

2011-08-10

58

Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel  

SciTech Connect

The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1992-02-01

59

Detonation nanodiamonds in oils and lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main findings of the investigation into the potential of using detonation nanodiamonds and diamond-containing\\u000a soot (an intermediate product of the nanodiamond synthesis) as high-performance antifriction and wear-preventive additives\\u000a to oil-based compounds. The application of these products is demonstrated to offer great benefits: the lifetime of tools and\\u000a parts is extended 1.5–4.0 times and the ultimate load

V. Yu. Dolmatov

2010-01-01

60

Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

1992-01-01

61

Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

1992-04-01

62

Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

Mcgrogan, F.

1976-01-01

63

39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

64

Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.  

PubMed

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality. PMID:22248297

Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

2012-02-01

65

Measurements of bubble point pressure for CO 2 + decane and CO 2 + lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of experimental apparatus were designed to measure bubble point pressure for supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) + lubricating oil. One was based on a synthetic method, and the other was on a recirculating method. An oscillation U-tube densimeter was also equipped with the recirculating type apparatus to measure the liquid density. Ensuring the reliability of the experimental data, bubble

Tomoya Tsuji; Shuichiro Tanaka; Toshihiko Hiaki; Rei Saito

2004-01-01

66

Boundary Lubrication. Experiments with Boundary Lubrication and Plain Bearings at +60...-60 Deg C Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boundary lubrication properties of different hydraulic oils and industrial transmission oils were compared. The lubricants consisted mainly of two mineral base oils (viscosity classes ISO VG 32 and ISO VG 150), with different wear inhibitors. Vegetable oi...

P. Koponen M. Kytoe E. Kuusisto O. Yloestalo

1987-01-01

67

Experimental Investigation of Lubrication Failure of Polyalphaolefin Oil Film at High Slide\\/Roll Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubrication failure of polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil film at high slide\\/roll ratios of more than 1.9 has been experimentally investigated\\u000a based on a ball-on-disc configuration. The central film thickness and the oil pool shape in the contact were determined by\\u000a optical interferometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively, and the traction coefficient and surface profiles of the\\u000a tribopairs were measured using a tension-compression

Shanhua Qian; Dan Guo; Shuhai Liu; Xinchun Lu

68

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

SciTech Connect

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

2000-01-20

69

Aviation Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within\\u000a short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively,\\u000a with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient\\u000a heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol

A. R. Lansdown; S. Lee

2010-01-01

70

Effect of corrosive contaminants on lubricating properties of turbine oil  

SciTech Connect

In the operation of centrifugal and piston compressors on natural gas transmission lines, it is found that air, moisture, and hydrogen sulfide get into the lubricating oil. These contaminants, especially hydrogen sulfide, affect the lubricating properties of the oil to a great degree; however, this problem, which is directly related to the operating reliability of the moving parts of compressors, has not been studied adequately. Oxygen dissolved in the oil forms an iron oxide film on rubbing metal surfaces, protecting them from wear. When no oxygen is present, the wear becomes much more severe, all the way up to grabbing of the rubbing surfaces and pitting. Oil contaminants that form surface films with a different composition and structure, for example oxysulfide films, have received less attention. Using a procedure that we had developed, in which the oil can be saturated with hydrogen sulfide or other gases, we investigated the effects on wear rate and coefficient of friction from the presence of corrosive contaminants that find their way into turbine oil in the process of natural gas transmission.

Spirkin, V.G.; Gil`mutdinov, Sh.K.

1995-01-01

71

Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

2009-01-01

72

A nucleonic oil debris monitor for detecting metal in recirculating lubricating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic debris sensors have been developed for recirculating oil lubrication systems. The in-line monitors apply the principle of X-ray fluorescence. The nucleonic oil debris monitors (ODM's) have been designed and fabricated for use with test cell operations involving aircraft transmissions and gear boxes. ODM's were tested to evaluate their sensitivity, accuracy, and response to lubricant temperature over the range of

R. W. Harman

1974-01-01

73

Stimulated Biodegradation of Used Lubricating Oil in Soil Using Organic Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biostimulation studies of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil was undertaken with three organic wastes (Banana skin BS, Brewery spent grain BSG and Spent mushroom compost SMC) used as sources of nutrient to enhance biodegradation of used lubricating oil in soil for a period of 84 days under laboratory conditions. The hydrocarbon loss in the soil shows positive linear correlation

Abdul Aziz

74

Study of Fuel Dilution of Diesel Lubricating Oil by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for the detection and identification of fuel components in diesel lubricating oil is described. The method uses a capillary gas chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to separate, detect and identify diluents in the oil. A typica...

D. E. Veinot J. A. Hiltz R. D. Haggett

1989-01-01

75

High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

1999-01-01

76

Alkyl Polyglucosides as Components of Water Based Lubricants.  

PubMed

Water can be used as an ecological lubricant base if it is possible to select additives which can beneficially modify its tribological and corrosion properties. Additionally, those additives should not be harmful to human health and the natural environment. These conditions limit or even eliminate the possibility for the application of the additives used in traditional oil bases as they are insoluble in water and often toxic. Alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) have been suggested as additives improving lubricating properties of water. They are biodegradable and do not have to be recycled. They exhibit surface activity. They produce micelles at low concentration and lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentration. Two types of alkyl polyglucosides differing in alkyl chain lengths and degrees of polymerization were used in this investigation. Tribological tests were carried out using a ball-on-disc T-11 tester. The balls were made of steel, whereas the discs were made of steel, aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, polyamide and poly(methyl methacrylate). The description of the device and the methods has been given in the literature (Szczerek and Tuszy?ski in TriboTest 8:273-284, 2002). The addition of APGs improves the lubricating properties of water. The relative decrease in motion resistance and wear depends both on the type of friction couple and on the kind of alkyl polyglucoside used. The tribological test results obtained were correlated with the activity of APGs measured as wettability of friction couples by their solutions. PMID:23606804

Su?ek, Marian W?odzimierz; Ogorza?ek, Marta; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Klimaszewska, Emilia

2013-05-01

77

A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

2002-01-01

78

The plasma generated and photons emitted in an oil-lubricated sliding contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive work has long been going on to find out the unknown origin that sets off curious tribo-physicochemical phenomena and that causes various kinds of problems in oil-lubricated sliding contacts in mechanical and processing systems. The strange tribochemical reaction is one of the such curious chemical phenomena observed in the degradation of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricating oil film in a hard disk drive. Plasma (triboplasma) (Nakayama and Mirza 2006 Tribol. Trans. 49 17) would be one of the most probable origins of the problems if it were generated sufficiently intensely in oil-lubricated sliding contacts, as it is in such a highly energetic state. The generation of plasma was predicted in both dry and oil-lubricated sliding (Nakayama 1997 Japan. J. Tribol. 42 1077, Nakayama 2004 Surf. Coat. Technol. 188-189 599). However, plasma generation in industrially important oil-lubricated contacts has not yet been proven, though it has been found in dry sliding (Nakayama and Nevshupa 2002 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 L53). Here the author reports the discovery of the predicted plasma generated in the rear part of an oil-lubricated sliding contact, together with a new finding on photon emission phenomena from inside and outside of the sliding contact in the tribosystem of a diamond pin sliding against a sapphire disc. The plasma in oil-lubricated sliding has a simple ellipse shape, while that in dry sliding has a horseshoe pattern. Visible and infrared (IR) photons are emitted from oil-lubricated sliding contact, while ultraviolet (UV), visible and IR photons are emitted from the region of plasma generation as well as from dry sliding. The UV photon spectra emitted under oil-lubrication completely coincided with those in dry sliding and air discharge, demonstrating that plasma is generated by air discharge even under oil-lubrication. Two kinds of new concepts have been proposed. One is plasma generation by discharge of air through bubble formation in decompressed oil in the rear part of the sliding contact. The other is photon emission from surface atoms and oil molecules excited by the attack of electrons accelerated in the intense tribocharge-induced electric field of the asperity gap inside the sliding contact under dry and oil-lubricated slidings. The size and intensity of the plasma and photon emission from the sliding contact under oil-lubrication increases greatly with the applied normal force and the sliding velocity.

Nakayama, Keiji

2007-02-01

79

Tribological studies of thermally and chemically modified vegetable oils for use as environmentally friendly lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boundary lubrication in a dynamic mechanical system is primarily governed by the formation of a stable tribochemical film. Polar functional groups in the triacylglycerol molecule of vegetable oil in conjunction with oil–additive–metal interaction during the metal rubbing process can significantly improve the wear resistance and extreme-pressure lubrication. Increasing the polar functionality of vegetable oil structure has a positive impact on

A Adhvaryu; S. Z Erhan; J. M Perez

2004-01-01

80

Thermogravimetric and principal component analyses in quality assessment of lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of the derivative thermogravimetric and principal component analyses for the assessment of service performance\\u000a of lubricating oils has been studied. A total sum of 179 samples has been examined, including M-20 Bp, MS-20 p, Marinol CB\\u000a SAE-30 and DS-11 oils. The results indicate that principal component analysis greatly assisted in the analysis of the quality\\u000a of lubricating oils

1995-01-01

81

Practical contaminant analysis of lubricating oil in a steam turbine-generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the level of contamination of lubricating oil in a turbine-generator at a local power plant, contaminant analysis was conducted. The contaminant analysis was also used to assess the condition of tribo-components such as bearings, gears and bearing deflectors. Oil samples were taken and the debris in the used lubricating oil were analysed off-line to provide information

H. S. Ahn; E. S. Yoon; D. G. Sohn; O. K. Kwon; K. S. Shin; C. H. Nam

1996-01-01

82

Oil lubricant tribological behaviour improvement through dispersion of few layer graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Few layer graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by a very fast modified Hummers method and widely characterized. Avoiding further chemical reactions, trying to take advantage of the easy exfoliation of GO favoring the formation of a tribofilm, and using a methodology well known to the lubricant industry, they were added to a mineral oil by the help of a dispersant. The tribological behaviour of GO in mineral oil was investigated under a wide spectrum of conditions, from boundary and mixed lubrication to elastohydrodynamic regimes. A ball on disc setup tribometer has been used to verify the friction reduction due to nanosheets dispersed in mineral oil. Their good friction and anti-wear properties may possibly be attributed to the small and extremely thin laminated structure, which offer lower shear stress and prevent interaction between metal interfaces. Furthermore, the results clearly prove that graphene platelets in oil easily form a protective film to prevent the direct contact between steel surfaces and, thereby, improving the frictional behaviour of the base oil. This evidence is also related to the frictional coefficient trend in boundary regime. PMID:24757967

Sarno, Maria; Senatore, Adolfo; Cirillo, Claudia; Petrone, Vincenzo; Ciambelli, Paolo

2014-07-01

83

Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive  

SciTech Connect

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01

84

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

85

Environmental assessment of ester-based lubricants after application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Lubricants based on renewable resources are an environmentally friendly alternative to petrochemical products due to their\\u000a better ecotoxicological performance and their excellent biodegradability. To improve the technical performance of lubricants,\\u000a and to reduce friction and wear, the use of additives is nowadays obligatory. The collaborative research center SFB 442 aims\\u000a at developing environmentally acceptable lubricants that facilitate

Bibiane Erlenkaemper; Christoph Bugiel; Christian Brecher; Sabrina Werth; Adolf Eisentraeger

2008-01-01

86

Lubricating oil compositions containing poly(oxyalkylene) aminoether carbamates as dispersing agents  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lubricating oil composition comprising a major portion of oil of lubrication viscosity, and a minor amount of poly(oxyalkylene) aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl carbamate having a molecular weight of about 500 to 10,000; wherein the poly(oxyalkylene) moiety of the carbamate is comprised of oxyalkylene units selected from C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ oxyalkylene units which a sufficient number are branched-chain oxyalkylene units to render the carbamates soluble in lubricating oil; and the aminohydrocarbyloxyhydrocarbyl moiety of the carbamate being derived from a diaminoether having from 2 to 60 carbon atoms.

Plavac, F.

1988-03-01

87

Effects of lubricating oil on hydrocarbon emissions in an Si engine  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lubricant composition on hydrocarbon emissions from a SI engine have been experimentally investigated. In this paper results based on measurements of solubilities of different fuel components in different types of lubricants are presented. The results indicate that the lubricant plays a contributing, but not dominating role in hydrocarbon emissions from gasoline engines.

Schramm, J.; Sorenson, S.C.

1989-01-01

88

Wear surface characteristics study of tribo-materials under palm oil methyl ester added lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wear properties of tribo-materials are strongly influenced by the use of lubricants and their additives. The presence of additive in the lubricating oil causes changes in the material surface characteristics by the formation of protective boundary films which result in increased wear resistance of the mating surfaces. In this investigation, wear tests for a segmented piston ring-plate pair and

M. A. Maleque; H. H. Masjuki

2002-01-01

89

Antioxidant combinations of molybdenum complexes and organic sulfur compounds for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

An antioxidant additive combination for lubricating oils is prepared by combining (a) a sulfur containing molybdenum compound prepared by reacting an ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and a basic nitrogen compound, with (b) an organic sulfur compound.

deVries, L.; King, J.M.

1983-09-06

90

Marine Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

91

Determination of wear metals in lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid and reliable method was developed for the determination of copper, nickel, iron and lead in fresh and used\\u000a lubricating oil samples by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). In the present study, a mixture of organic solvents containing propionic acid and iso-butylmethyl ketone (1: 1) was used to extract the metals from lubricating oil samples followed by FAAS

W. Yawar

2010-01-01

92

Phytotreatment of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Hibiscus cannabinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil contamination by hydrocarbons, especially by used lubricating oil, is a growing problem in developing countries, which\\u000a poses a serious threat to the environment. Phytoremediation of these contaminated soils offers environmental friendly and\\u000a a cost effective method for their remediation. Hibiscus cannabinus was studied for the remediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% used lubricating oil and treated with

O. P. Abioye; P. Agamuthu; A. R. Abdul Aziz

93

Tribological properties of oleic acid-modified graphene as lubricant oil additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid phase exfoliated graphene sheets were modified by oleic acid and dispersed in lubricant oils as additives. The tribological behaviours of graphene-contained oils were investigated using a four-ball tribometer. The lubricant with optimized graphene concentrations of 0.02-0.06 wt% showed enhanced friction and anti-wear performance, with friction coefficient and wear scar diameter reduced by 17% and 14%, respectively.

Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Ming; Zhu, Hongwei; Tian, Yu; Wang, Kunlin; Wei, Jinquan; Ji, Fei; Li, Xiao; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Dehai

2011-05-01

94

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compa...

S. I. Pinel H. R. Signer E. V. Zaretsky

2001-01-01

95

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the influence of the quantity of oil supply in hobbing with minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) of cutting oil, compared with that using dry cutting and flooded oil, in terms of flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness, for various types of coating films of the hob. Experiments were carried out using a fly tool. The

Hironori Matsuoka; Satoshi Suda; Hideo Yokota; Yoshihiro Tsuda

2006-01-01

96

Perfluoropolyalkylether Lubricants under Boundary Conditions: Iron Catalysis of Lubricant Degradation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPE) oils and oil-based greases exhibit significant degradation under boundary lubrication conditions. In the absence of significant concentrations of oxygen, as in the case of spacecraft orbital environments, the degradation mec...

D. J. Carre

1988-01-01

97

Lubrication characteristics of nano-oil with different degrees of surface hardness of sliding members.  

PubMed

In this study, the lubrication characteristics of sliding members were compared with the changes in the hardness of friction surfaces and the application of nano-oil. The materials of the specimens were gray cast iron (AISI 35 and AISI 60) and nickel chromium molybdenum steel (AISI 4320). The friction coefficients and the temperature variations of the frictional surfaces were measured with a disk-on-disk tribotester under a fixed rotation speed. The friction surfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The friction coefficients of the plate surface increased as the hardness difference increased. The friction coefficient after the lubrication with nano-oil was less than that after lubrication with mineral oil. This is because a spherical nanoparticle plays the role of a tiny ball bearing between the frictional surfaces that improve the lubrication characteristics. PMID:21446459

Ku, Boncheol; Han, Youngcheol; Lee, Kwangho; Choi, Youngmin; Koo, Bonyoung; Hwang, Yujin; Lee, Jaekeun

2011-01-01

98

Lubricating Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Didecyl pentaerythritol diphosphite, or similar dialkyl pentaerthritol diphosphites having 7 to 20 carbon atoms in the dialkyl radical, improves lubricity and inhibits corrosion in electrical generating and railway diesel engine lubricating oils. The addi...

R. Q. Little S. S. Deluga

1965-01-01

99

Quantitative Analysis for Monitoring Formulation of Lubricating Oil Using Terahertz Time-Domain Transmission Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative analysis of zinc isopropyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T204) mixed with lube base oil from Korea with viscosity index 70 (T204-Korea70) is presented by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Compared with the middle-infrared spectra of zinc n-butyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T202) and T204, THz spectra of T202 and T204 show the weak broad absorption bands. Then, the absorption coefficients of the T204-Korea70 system follow Beer's law at the concentration from 0.124 to 4.024%. The experimental absorption spectra of T204-Korea70 agree with the calculated ones based on the standard absorption coefficients of T204 and Korea70. The quantitative analysis enables a strategy to monitor the formulation of lubricating oil in real time.

Tian, Lu; Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Qing-Li; Shi, Yu-Lei; Zhang, Cun-Lin

2012-04-01

100

Super low friction of DLC applied to engine cam follower lubricated with ester-containing oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a material combination that reduces the friction coefficient markedly to a superlow friction regime (below 0.01) under boundary lubrication. A state approaching superlubricity was obtained by sliding hardened steel pins on a hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) film (ta-C) lubricated with a poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) oil containing 1 mass% of an ester additive. This ta-C\\/steel material combination showed a

Makoto Kano

2006-01-01

101

Multifunctional Application of a Synthetic Ester to Machine Tool Lubrication Based on MQL Machining Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine tools generally necessitate a variety of lubricants. Since some of those lubricants are often contaminated with cutting fluids and disposed without adequate separation treatments, it must certainly be convenient to prepare a multifunctional fluid applicable to both machining and other lubricating parts. In minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, synthetic polyol esters are the successful cutting lubricant. This study therefore

S. Suda; T. Wakabayashi; I. Inasaki; H. Yokota

2004-01-01

102

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

103

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

104

Scuffing and lubricant film breakdown in FZG gears Part II. New PV scuffing criteria, lubricant and temperature dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of experimental and theoretical results, from constant temperature scuffing tests with FZG type A gears lubricated with base oils, show a good agreement between the scuffing loads and the scuffing lubricant film thickness, meaning that a close relation exists between scuffing failure and lubricant film breakdown, for a base oil tested in the FZG rig. This relation is

J. Castro; J. Seabra

1998-01-01

105

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

106

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

107

Evaluation of the Effects of Pollution with Spent Lubricating Oil on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of spent lubricating oil on the physical and chemical properties of soil. Five medium sized plastic planting pots were filled with the topsoil collected from 4-year old fallowed plot and 500ml spent lubricating oil was added to each pot and allowed to drain through the soil. The planting pots were labeled as Treatment GA, GB,

J. Kayode; A. A. Oyedeji

2009-01-01

108

Thermally stable derivatives of propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in

V. A. Trofimov; I. S. Panidi; V. G. Spirkin; L. V. Leonidova; E. A. Kozhekina; M. I. Yakushkin; I. A. Makarovskii

1995-01-01

109

Correlation of Emission and Atomic Absorption Techniques for Accuracy and Precision in Relation to Lubricating Oil Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the spectrometric oil analysis programs being used, mainly emission and atomic absorption equipment are used. Fifty lubricating oil samples were sent to 12 laboratories for analysis. The data collected from these 50 samples were evaluated for accuracy,...

D. C. Kittinger

1968-01-01

110

Practical feasibility evaluation of combusting waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants in existing heating plant boilers. Final report, 5 Jan1 Jul 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has begun to evaluate the practical feasibility of combusting waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL's) in existing heating plant boilers at three Air Force bases. The three bases are Seymour-Johnson, Loring, and McConnell AFB. This report describes the heating plants at the three bases, the types and quantities of waste POL's generated, and the waste POL transfer systems that

R. H. Kroop; H. Elkin

1975-01-01

111

Friction and wear performance of low-friction carbon coatings under oil lubrication.  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous carbon coatings with very low friction properties were recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These coatings have shown good promise in mitigating excessive wear and scuffing problems associated with low-lubricity diesel fuels. To reduce the negative effect of sulfur and other lubricant additives in poisoning the after-treatment catalyst, a lubricant formulation with a low level of sulfur may be needed. Exclusion of proven sulfur-containing extreme pressure (EP) and antiwear additives from oils will require other measures to ensure durability of critical lubricated components. The low-friction carbon coating has the potential for such applications. In the present study, we evaluated the friction and wear attributes of three variations of the coating under a boundary lubrication regime. Tests were conducted with both synthetic and mineral oil lubricants using a ball-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding. Although the three variations of the coating provided modest reductions in friction coefficient, they all reduced wear substantially compared to an uncoated surface. The degradation mode of oxidative wear on the uncoated surface was replaced by a polishing wear mode on the coated surfaces.

Kovalchenko, A.; Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

2001-12-11

112

Applications of Electrostatic Sensor for Wear Debris Detecting in the Lubricating Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an advanced monitoring technology has been presented based on the electrostatic induction principle to monitor timely wear fault on-line. The paper begins with the principle of the electrostatic monitoring technology, then we focus on the electrostatic sensor, the most important component in the electrostatic monitoring system, establish a measurement model for an electrostatic sensor with the given structure parameters. Based on the measurement model, we use the finite element method to analyze the characteristics of an electrostatic sensor for wear debris detecting in lubricating oil. Lastly we build an experiment platform to validate the feasibility of the electrostatic monitoring method. The experiment results show, to some extent, that the electrostatic signal can reflect the relative density of wear debris, and the sensor proposed can satisfy the primary demand of wear debris on-line monitoring.

Wen, Z.; Yin, X.; Jiang, Z.

2013-10-01

113

Investigation of zinc additives in coliquefaction of waste lubricating oil and a bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The behavior and fate of a zinc additive to lubricating oil in the coliquefaction of waste lubricating oil and a bituminous coal have been investigated by means of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS)spectroscopy. Although the zinc additive appears to remain largely unaltered during use as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), it is readily converted to solid zinc sulfide and effectively separated from the desired liquid hydrocarbon products during the coliquefaction process. It is anticipated that similar behavior will be shown by most other environmentally important elements. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Huggins, F.E.; Zhao, J.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky,Lexington, KY (United States); Kuo, C.H.; Tarrer, A.R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

1996-08-01

114

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

115

Investigation into sliding wear performance of zinc-based alloy reinforced with SiC particles in dry and lubricated conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present investigation was to assess the influence of SiC particle dispersion in the alloy matrix, applied load, and the presence of oil and oil plus graphite lubricants on the wear behaviour of a zinc-based alloy. Sliding wear performance of the zinc-based alloy and its composite containing SiC particles has been investigated in dry and lubricated conditions.

B. K. Prasad

2007-01-01

116

Analysis of hydrodynamic journal bearings lubricated with a binary water-based lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the steady, one-dimensional flow of a binary water-based lubricant within an infinite breadth hydrodynamic journal bearing is described. The method uses the Newton-Raphson iterative technique to obtain the interface layer in the flooded clearance along the bearing. The implementation of the Simpson rule of integration technique into the equation set allows pressures,

M. B. W. Nabhan; G. A. Ibrahim; M. Z. Anabtawi

1997-01-01

117

New nanotechnology solid lubricants for superior dry lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new commercial breakthrough for advanced anti-friction materials based on unique inorganic nanospheres that can be used as dry lubricants, coatings, and for impregnating parts. The new material reduces friction and wear significantly better than other layered solid lubricants and is especially useful in self-lubricating, maintenance-free, and oil-free applications of the types encountered in aerospace markets. The

N. Fleischer; M. Genut; L. Rapoport; R. Tenne

2003-01-01

118

A review of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPS): characterisation and role in the lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the additive, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which is found commonly in lubricating oil where it plays a role as both an antioxidant and an antiwear additive. This zinc complex is highly effective but its mechanisms of action have not been definitively reported. This review covers work pertaining to the characterisation and mechanisms of action of ZDDP

Allyson M. Barnes; Keith D. Bartle; Vincent R. A. Thibon

2001-01-01

119

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently

O. O. Ajayi; M. Alzoubi; A. Erdemir; G. R. Fenske; O. L. Eryilmaz; S. Zimmerman

2000-01-01

120

Influence of lubricants on plain bearing performance: Evaluation of bearing performance with polymer-containing oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of fuel efficiency has been required even for automotive engine oil. Polymers are wideldy to reduce the friction in hydrodynamic lubrication in engines. On the other hand, the regulation of Pb in bearing materials has begun with the goal of preventing heavy metal pollution. In order to analyze the effect of polymers with different kinds of bearing materials,

Moritsugu Kasai; Michel Fillon; Jean Bouyer; Sebastien Jarny

121

Liquid–liquid equilibrium in the systems furfural + light lubricating oils using UNIFAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lubricating oil manufacturing process, the aromatic content of vacuum distillates is reduced by solvent extraction, frequently with furfural. The complex composition of such mixtures makes the description of the liquid–liquid equilibrium involved difficult. In previous studies, the possibility to describe such equilibrium by using a reduced number of pseudo-components and the NRTL model has been stated. In this

Juan J. Espada; Baudilio Coto; José L. Peña

2007-01-01

122

Using a closed loop system to cool generator and lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operators at the 12-MW Koma Kulshan Project in northern Washington State have come up with an innovative way to cool the generator and bearing lubrication oil in the hydro plant. The new cooling system works much like an automobile's cooling system. Koma Kulshan is owned by Koma Kulshan Associates, a partnership that includes Pacific Energy and Utilico Group. The project

1993-01-01

123

Research on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Lubricating-Oil Cooler with Mixing Integral Pin-Fin Tubes and Plain Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design A lot of comparison experimental researches have been done to the lubricating-oil cooler with mixing integral pin-fin tubes and plain tubes double-flowing from an plain tubes lubricating-oil cooler. It is discovered that when oil volume flowing rate is same, exchanged heat per volume by the former is higher, and the pressure is lower, and the ability to transferred

Guang-lin Niu; Chang-qi Yan; Shuai Shi

2010-01-01

124

The Effect of Oil Pockets Shape and Distribution on Seizure Resistance in Lubricated Sliding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental investigations on the effect of the oil pockets existence on seizure resistance of sliding elements\\u000a are presented. Seizure tests were conducted with block-on-ring apparatus at increasing pressure. The stationary block (counter\\u000a specimen) contacted the rotating steel ring (specimen). The tested assemblies were lubricated by oil L-AN 46, which was heated\\u000a to 30 °C before each experiment. The

Lidia Galda; Andrzej Dzierwa; Jaroslaw Sep; Pawel Pawlus

2010-01-01

125

CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE  

SciTech Connect

Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2011-01-01

126

Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Narayna Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

2014-05-30

127

NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

Weaver, Harold F.

2003-01-01

128

Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

1996-01-01

129

Kuehlschmierstoffe. (Cooling lubricants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in que...

W. Pfeiffer D. Breuer H. Blome C. Deininger J. U. Hahn

1996-01-01

130

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

131

The effect of palm oil diesel fuel contaminated lubricant on sliding wear of cast irons against mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various percentages of palm oil diesel (POD) fuel contaminated lubricants on the wear characteristics of cast irons during sliding contact was investigated. This was done on three types of cast iron, namely spheroidal graphite, flake graphite and chilled cast iron against a mild steel disc configuration using a pin-on-disc type of friction and wear apparatus. The lubricants

H. H. Masjuki; M. A. Maleque

1996-01-01

132

Determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a three-component solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricating oils are used to decrease wear and friction of movable parts of engines and turbines, being in that way essential for the performance and the increase of that equipment lifespan. The presence of some metals shows the addition of specific additives such as detergents, dispersals and antioxidants that improve the performance of these lubricants. In this work, a method

Ariane V. Zmozinski; Alexandre de Jesus; Maria G. R. Vale; Márcia M. Silva

2010-01-01

133

Quantitative multielement determination of metallic wear species in lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method for the particle size independent determination of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti, and Zn in lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids by atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry is presented. Improved analyses of Ag, Cd, and Na were also accomplished. Metal powder suspensions in hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils were reacted with a small amount of an acid mixture containing hydrofluoric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids and analyzed by a DCP emission spectrometer. The recoveries of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti, and Zn ranged from 89% to 102% with relative standard deviations from 2% to 12%. In addition to the metal powder suspensions, aircraft, automobile, and diesel truck engine oils and aircraft hydraulic fluids were analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Kauffmam, R.E. (Univ. of Dayton, OH); Saba, C.S.; Rhine, W.E.; Eisentraut, K.J.

1982-05-01

134

Quantitative multielement determination of metallic wear species in lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method for the particle size independent determination of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti, and Zn in lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids by atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry is presented. Improved analyses of Ag, Cd, and Na were also accomplished. Metal powder suspensions in hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils were reacted with a small amount of an acid mixture containing hydrofluoric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids and analyzed by a DCP emission specrometer. The recoveries of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti, and Zn ranged from 89% to 102% with relative standard devlations from 2% to 12%. In addition to the metal powder suspensions, aircraft, automobile, and diesel truck engine oils and aircraft hydraulic fluids were analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 4 figures, 6 tables.

Kauffman, R.E.; Saba, C.S.; Rhine, W.E.; Eisentraut, K.J.

1982-05-01

135

Waste Automotive Lubricating Oil Reuse as a Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of automotive waste oil reuse as a fuel. The supply and potential marketability of waste oil fuel is considered in relationship to existing and projected fossil fuel usage in the U...

B. Kincannon J. Carroll J. Sahagian N. Surprenant S. Chansky

1974-01-01

136

Lubricating Oil and Fuel Contributions to Particulate Matter Emissions From Light Duty Gasoline and Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) operated under realistic driving cycles were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Measured hopane and sterane size distributions did not match the total carbon size distribution in most cases, suggesting that lubricating oil was not the dominant source of particulate carbon in the vehicle exhaust. Regression analysis using 17?(H)- 21?(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and benzo[ghi]perylene as a tracer for gasoline showed that gasoline fuel and lubricating oil both make significant contributions to particulate EC and OC emissions from LDGVs. A similar regression analysis performed using 17?(H)-21?(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and flouranthene as a tracer for diesel fuel was able to explain the size distribution of particulate EC and OC emissions from HDDVs. The size- and composition-resolved analysis showed that EC emitted from all diesel vehicles operated under relatively high load conditions was dominated by diesel fuel contributions with little EC attributed to lubricating oil. Particulate OC emitted from diesel vehicles was more evenly apportioned between fuel and oil contributions. EC emitted from LDGVs operated under fuel-rich conditions was dominated by gasoline fuel contributions. OC emitted from visibly smoking LDGVs was mostly associated with lubricating oil, but OC emitted from all other categories of LDGVs was dominated by gasoline fuel. The results of the current study clearly illustrate that fuel and lubricating oil make separate and distinct contributions to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. These particles should be tracked separately during ambient source apportionment studies since the atmospheric evolution and ultimate health effects of these particles may be different. The source profiles for fuel and lubricating oil contributions to EC and OC emissions derived in this study provide a foundation for future ambient source apportionment calculations.

Kleeman, M.; Riddle, S.; Robert, M.; Jakober, C.

2007-12-01

137

Measuring Additive Concentrations in Lubricating Oils: Nuclear magnetic resonance provides qualitative and quantitative information on key additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A report describes a new spectroscopic method for measuring the amounts of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) in lubricating oil. ZDDP's are added to engine lubrican...

1984-01-01

138

The Influence of a Liquid Medium on the Service Life and the Friction Coefficients of Lubricating Lacquers Based on Molybdenum Disulfide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The practicality of simultaneously using lubricating lacquers and a liquid lubricant was investigated. Water and oil (viscosity at 50 degrees 4.2 centistokes) were used as liquid phases. The lubricating lacquers were mixed with such adhesives as polysilox...

L. N. Sentyurichina E. M. Oparina V. A. Listov

1969-01-01

139

Computational Chemistry of Soluble Additives for Perfluoropolyalkylether Liquid Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational chemistry has been applied in a practical manner to a perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) liquid lubricant research and development program. Additives have been previously shown to be effective in a PFPAE liquid lubricant candidate gas turbine engine oil base fluid as oxidation inhibitors\\/metal deactivators, lubricity additives and antirust additives. In this effort, low energy configuration computer models of the base fluid

Lois Gschwender; Carl E. Snyder Jr; Mary Oleksiuk; Michael Koehler

1996-01-01

140

Rheological properties and lubricity of poly-alpha-olefin oils  

SciTech Connect

Oils were obtained by polymerization of alpha-olefins with a complex aluminum chloride catalyst, followed by neutralization of the polymerized product, distillation, and hydrogenation. Materials were tested to determine the kinematic viscosity at above- and below-freezing temperatures and dynamic viscosity at below-freezing temperatures. Poly-alpha-olefin oils were obtained at different levels of average molecular weight by varying the conditions of polymerization and distillation. The antiwear properties of petroleum, PAOO, and alkylbenzene oils having equal viscosities and an addition of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate were compared. The dialkylbenzene oil had strong associative-solvation properties with respect to the additive.

Tsvetkov, O.N.; Kolesova, G.E.; Bogdanov, S.K.; Toporishcheva, R.I.

1988-01-01

141

Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

Bertrand, P. A.

1995-01-01

142

Water-In-Oil Emulsion Lubricant and Hydraulic Fluid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A readily emulsified hydraulic fluid yields a product which is stable, non-toxic, fire-resistant to deterioration, inhibits corrosion and does not cause wear. Oil concentrates are emulsified with 20 to 45 percent water to form a water-in-oil emulsion part...

C. E. Francis

1965-01-01

143

The Composition of Reaction Layers on Rolling Bearings Lubricated with Gear Oils and Its Correlation with Rolling Bearing Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various commercially available gear oils with similar viscosity were subjected to bearing life tests under identical mixed lubrication conditions. The test results revealed that bearing performance varied significantly depending on the chemistry of the gear oil used. Surface analysis with secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) techniques showed that the best-performing gear oil with respect to bearing life formed a reaction

H. R. Pasaribu; P. M. Lugt

2012-01-01

144

Using a closed loop system to cool generator and lubricating oil  

SciTech Connect

Operators at the 12-MW Koma Kulshan Project in northern Washington State have come up with an innovative way to cool the generator and bearing lubrication oil in the hydro plant. The new cooling system works much like an automobile's cooling system. Koma Kulshan is owned by Koma Kulshan Associates, a partnership that includes Pacific Energy and Utilico Group. The project is operated by another partner, Independent Hydro Developers Inc. Electricity generated is sold to Puget Sound Power and Light Co. In the fall of 1991, workers installed a closed loop system at the project that uses water form the tailrace to cool the generator and the bearing lubrication oil. The new cooling water system features keel coolers (of the same standard design as those mounted to the outside of boat hulls) anchored in the project's tailrace and a dual pump system for circulating the water.

Hudson, E.E. (Independent Hydro Developers Inc., Redding, CA (United States))

1993-02-01

145

Electrostatic monitoring of oil lubricated sliding point contacts for early detection of scuffing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrostatic sensors have been used to investigate scuffing events in oil lubricated sliding point contacts. A pin-on-disc and a reciprocating laboratory wear rig have been used for this investigation in a fixed ball-on-disc configuration. Electrostatic charging events have been detected up to 1200 s prior to severe scuffing and have been shown to coincide with microstructural changes in the contact

O. D Tasbaz; R. J. K Wood; M Browne; H. E. G Powrie; G Denuault

1999-01-01

146

Depression of pour points of vegetable oils by blending with diluents used for biodegradable lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature properties need improvement before vegetable oils can receive wider recognition as biodegradable lubricants.\\u000a Effects of dilution with major biodegradable fluids, namely poly alpha olefin (PAO 2), diisodecyl adipate (DIDA), and oleates,\\u000a as well as impact of pour point depressant (PPD), were investigated. Since solidification of mixed unsaturated triacylglycerols\\u000a is a complex thermodynamic process, the study was limited to pour

Svajus Asadauskas; Sevim Z. Erhan

1999-01-01

147

Characterisation of tars from the co-pyrolysis of waste lubricating oils with coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of a lubricating oil waste with or without coal yields important quantities of valuable products such as C1–C3 alkanes, C2–C4 olefins and BTX. However, information on molecular structures of tars obtained is only available in terms of analyses in the GC–MS ranges. This range corresponds to an upper limit of approximately 300u; aromatics of mass greater than 300u do

M.-J Lazaro; R Moliner; I Suelves; A. A Herod; R Kandiyoti

2001-01-01

148

Enhanced utilization of used lubricating oil recycling process by-products. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc. and its subcontractor, Chromaspec Corporation, conducted a study of possible utilization options for the process by-products generated in the re-refining of used lubrication oils. By-product samples from six re-refineries utilizing four re-refining processes were taken. Detailed physical and chemical characterization data on the sample streams and their components were compiled by means of comprehensive laboratory

K. D. Weinstein; T. D. Myers; S. R. Craft

1982-01-01

149

n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.  

PubMed

As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM. PMID:17547199

Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

2007-05-15

150

Preparation and properties of lubricant basestocks from epoxidized soybean oil and 2-ethylhexanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic lubricant basestocks were prepared from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH) to be used alone\\u000a or with polyalphaolefin (PAO). Sulfuric acid-catalyzed reaction of ESO with 2-EH involves a ring-opening reaction at the epoxy\\u000a group followed by transesterification at the ester group. Reaction with other catalysts including p-toluenesulfonic acid, Dowex 50W-8X, boron trifluoride, and sodium methoxide was also examined.

Hong-Sik Hwang; Atanu Adhvaryu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2003-01-01

151

Lubricant composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricating compositions and shaped articles composed thereof are described which consist essentially of about 30 to about 60% by weight of an oil of lubricating viscosity, about 20 to about 50% by weight of a high molecular weight polymer, and about 20 about 50% by weight of a heat conductive agent capable of conducting heat away from a bearing surface

Baile

1980-01-01

152

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...provided. (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided...engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven propulsion and auxiliary...or appreciable leakage. (i) Steam driven propulsion machinery...

2013-10-01

153

Rheological properties and lubricity of poly-alpha-olefin oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils were obtained by polymerization of alpha-olefins with a complex aluminum chloride catalyst, followed by neutralization of the polymerized product, distillation, and hydrogenation. Materials were tested to determine the kinematic viscosity at above- and below-freezing temperatures and dynamic viscosity at below-freezing temperatures. Poly-alpha-olefin oils were obtained at different levels of average molecular weight by varying the conditions of polymerization and

O. N. Tsvetkov; G. E. Kolesova; S. K. Bogdanov; R. I. Toporishcheva

1988-01-01

154

Determination of wear metals in lubrication oils: a comparison study of ICP-OES and FAAS.  

PubMed

Certain wear metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) of various lubrication oils were determined by means of ICP-OES and FAAS. The kerosene dilution method, which is used widely together with ICP-OES, was applied with both methods here. Calibration standards were made from a commercial organo-metallic standard. Our aim was to clarify the possibility of using the quick kerosene dilution method together with FAAS for a rapid check for certain indicator metals. Metal determinations with FAAS were accurate enough for quantitative work in machine condition diagnostics and waste oil characterization, when compared with those with ICP-OES. PMID:16317907

Vähäoja, Pekka; Välimäki, Ilkka; Heino, Katri; Perämäki, Paavo; Kuokkanen, Toivo

2005-11-01

155

Biodegradation of Lubricating Oil in Wastewater with Zoogloea sp. 1 1 Project supported by the Natural Science and Technology Program of Lanzhou University (Nos. 582402 and 582403)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify microbial strains that have a strong ability to biodegrade lubricating oil. No. 20 lubricating oil was used as the sole carbon source in an isolation medium to screen bacteria from sludge that had been contaminated with crude oil. Through both morphological and biochemical methods, the bacterial strain that had the highest biodegrading

Liang JIN; Xiao-Juan WANG; Zong-Lian GU; De-Zhi ZHOU; Si-Qin XIE

2006-01-01

156

Esters of dicarboxylic acids as additives for lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five samples of dibasic acid esters with varied chemical structures were synthesized. These included didecyl carbonate, didecyl adipate and didecyl sebacate as well as modern oligomeric esters of adipic acid and sebacic acid. These esters were tested in terms of their suitability as additives of fully synthetic engine oils. It was noted that an addition of 10% of the respective

S. Gryglewicz; M. Stankiewicz; F. A. Oko; I. Surawska

2006-01-01

157

Synthesis and evaluation of novel acyl derivatives from jatropha oil as potential lubricant basestocks.  

PubMed

A novel class of jatropha oil-based acylated derivatives from hydroxy alkyl esters of jatropha fatty acids (C1, C3, C4, and C8) and various anhydrides (C2, C3, C4, and C6) were synthesized and their physicochemical and lubricant properties reported. Jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were dihydroxylated using the in situ performic acid method and further acylated with different anhydrides to produce acylated derivatives. Acylated derivatives of dihydroxy jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were charaterized by NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC-MS analysis and were evaluated for their viscosity, viscosity index, pour and flash points, and oxidation stability. Most of the derivatives are either in ISO VG 22 or 32 viscosity grade with good viscosity index. It was observed that increase in acyl chain length and branching in the end-chain ester improved the pour point of the diacyl derivatives. All of the hexanoylated esters exhibited better oxidation stability compared to other acylated products, and their pour points are comparable to those of synthetic esters such as TMP trioleates. In general, isoalcohol esters with longer acyl chains showed promise as potential candidates for hydraulic fluids and metal-working fluids in ISO VG 22 and 32 viscosity range. PMID:24798988

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

2014-05-21

158

The effect of base oil oxidation on scuffing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of base oil oxidation on scuffing was investigated. It was found that under mixed lubrication conditions\\u000a there is a direct relationship between the level of base oil oxidation and the onset of scuffing, i.e., the greater the oxidation\\u000a the lower the likelihood of scuffing. An oxidised base oil forms, among other products, carboxylic acids, which

W. F. Bowman; G. W. Stachowiak

1998-01-01

159

Ethylene polymer useful as a lubricating oil viscosity modifier E-25  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lubricating oil composition comprising a lubricating fluid and an amount, effective for improving viscosity, of a thickening agent. The agent comprises a substantially saturated, long chain, branched ethylene tetrapolymer comprising ethylene, an alpha-olefin, a non-conjugated diene monomer having a first site of unsaturation which is coordination catalyst polymerizable and a second site of unsaturation which is cationically polymerizable, and a cationically polymerizable mono-olefin. The monomer has a bulk viscosity at 100/sup 0/C and strain rate less than 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ which is at least 3 times that of a linear ethylene-propylene polymer having the same intrinsic viscosity and ethylene content.

Kresge, E.N.; Ver Strate, G.W.

1987-05-19

160

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidificat...

B. Lauer G. A. Lutz M. Jungk

2012-01-01

161

Determination of molybdenum wear metal in lubricating oils by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with a particle size independent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particle size independent procedure for the quantitative determination of molybdenum wear metal in used lubricating oils using conventional flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. The oil sample containing molybdenum was treated with a mixture containing hydrofluoric and nitric acids and shaken for 2 minutes before dillution with methyl isobutyl ketone. The effect of the type and amount of acid

Costandy S. Saba; Kent J. Eisentraut

1979-01-01

162

Evaluation of kinetic parameters of thermal and oxidative decomposition of base oils by conventional, isothermal and modulated TGA, and pressure DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multigrade engine oils used in today’s sophisticated engines are carefully engineered products. Different ingredients, such as viscosity index improvers, dispersants, antioxidants, detergents, antiwear agents, pour point depressants, etc. are added to the base oils to improve their performance as lubricants, significantly. However, the ultimate performance of the lubricant principally depends on the quality of the base oil. Therefore, understanding the

C. D Gamlin; N. K Dutta; N Roy Choudhury; D Kehoe; J Matisons

2002-01-01

163

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the influence of the quantity of oil supply in hobbing with minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) of cutting oil, compared with that using dry cutting and flooded oil, in terms of flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness, for various types of coating films of the hob. Experiments were carried out using a fly tool. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1) The flank wear obtained with a quantity of oil supply of only 1mL/h showed almost the same value as that obtained by dry cutting, when using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. However, it is a result of great interest that flank wear increases with increasing quantity of oil supply, and the largest value was obtained when the oil was flooded. (2) The crater wear and finished surface roughness with the MQL system are smaller than those using dry cutting and flooded oil. (3) The quantities of oil supply of 1mL/h to 15mL/h in the MQL system are suitable for hobbing in terms of reducing flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness.

Matsuoka, Hironori; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo; Tsuda, Yoshihiro

164

Lubricants and Their Environmental Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental considerations have increased in importance in the last two decades and lubricants are part of that. The REACH Regulations apply to the components of lubricants. About 50% of a lubricant can be reclaimed using refining processes ranging from acid/clay treatment through to distillation/hydrogenation to produce up to Gp. II quality re-refined base oils. The major possible contaminants are the PAHs, which are effectively removed by optimised distillation/hydrogenation, metals, remnants of VI improvers, water and untreated acids. Sulphur contents of these base oils must be viewed differently from those of virgin mineral base oils. Certain PAHs are recognised carcinogens and pose a health and safety risk and must be controlled. The use of re-refined base oils is driven by the concept of 'sustainability', to minimise pollution and maximise the use of resources.

Betton, C. I.

165

Antioxidant consumption and oxidative degradation of lubricants  

SciTech Connect

A general method for the determination of chain stopping antioxidants in new and used lubricants is described. The method is based upon the titration of diluted lubricant samples with peroxy radicals. In contrast to standard determinations of viscosity, acid number, and insolubles, the method provides information on lubricant oxidative degradation in the earliest periods of testing. Examples of the application of the method in various correlation and mechanistic studies of engine oil deterioration in spark ignited internal combustion engines are given.

Korcek, S.; Mahoney, L.R.; Johnson, M.D.; Otto, K.

1980-11-01

166

Chemical deactivation of V 2O 5\\/WO 3–TiO 2 SCR catalysts by additives and impurities from fuels, lubrication oils, and urea solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the combustion products of different lubrication oil additives (Ca, Mg, Zn, P, B, Mo) and impurities in Diesel fuel (K from raps methyl ester) or urea solution (Ca, K) on the activity and selectivity of vanadia-based SCR catalysts were investigated. Standard V2O5\\/WO3–TiO2 catalysts coated on metal substrates (400cpsi) were impregnated with water soluble compounds of these elements

Oliver Kröcher; Martin Elsener

2008-01-01

167

Consider synthetic lubricants for process machinery  

SciTech Connect

Judicious application of properly formulated synthetic lubricants can benefit a wide spectrum of process machinery. This informed usage is very likely to drive down overall maintenance and downtime expenditures and can markedly improve plant efficiency. The paper describes the origin of synthetic lubricants, then explains the principal features and attributes of the six base fluids: synthetic hydrocarbon fluids; organic esters; polyglycols; phosphate esters; silicones; and blends of the synthetic lubricants. The paper discusses the properties and advantages and gives brief highlights of successful case histories of the use of synthetic lubricants. These include: circulating oil system for furnace air preheaters; Right angle gear drives for fin fan coolers; plant-wide oil mist systems; and pulverizing mills in coal-fired generating plant. In the last case, an economic analysis is done to point out the savings possible in lubricant consumption cost, reduced maintenance cost, lubricant disposal cost, and reduction in power consumption.

Bloch, H.P. (Bloch, (Heinz P.), Montgomery, TX (United States)); Pate, A.R. Jr. (Summit Industrial Products, Tyler, TX (United States))

1995-01-01

168

Tribology of steel/steel interaction in oil-in-water emulsion; a rationale for lubricity.  

PubMed

Oil droplets are dispersed in water by an anionic surfactant to form an emulsion. The lubricity of this emulsion in steel/steel interaction is explored in a ball on flat nanotribometer. The droplet size and charge are measured using dynamic light scattering, while the substrate charge density is estimated using the pH titration method. These data are combined to calculate the DLVO forces for the droplets generated for a range of surfactant concentration and two oil to water volume ratios. The droplets have a clear bi-modal size distribution. The study shows that the smaller droplets which experience weak repulsion are situated (at the highest DLVO barrier) much closer to the substrate than the bigger droplets, which experience the same DLVO force, are. We suggest that the smaller droplets thus play a more important role in lubricity than what the bigger droplets do. The largest volume of such small droplets occurs in the 0.5 mM-1 mM range of surfactant concentration and 1% oil to water volume ratio, where the coefficient of friction is also observed to be the least. PMID:20171646

Kumar, Deepak; Daniel, Jency; Biswas, S K

2010-05-15

169

An analysis of lubricating system of automobile gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influences of oil-flow and oil temperature on frictional torques of whole engine and main lubricating components were determined by motoring method. Oil-flow rate, temperature and pressure in main lubricating paths were directly measured under the same conditions. Oil-flow rate and frictional coefficient and crankshaft system were estimated by theoretically analysing Reynolds' equation. Experimental data were discussed based on oil-flow analyses

P. Tran; T. Yamamoto; Y. Baba; M. Hoshi

1987-01-01

170

Infrared Spectroscopic Methods for the Study of Lubricant Oxidation Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data processing techniques have been developed for the manipulation and enhancement of spectroscopic data. They have been applied to the infrared spectra of degraded base oils and lubricants to provide information on oxidation processes and additive depletion. Samples have been acquired from oils that have been subjected to laboratory scale oxidation and from lubricants during standard engine tests. Results are

John P. Coates; Lynn C. Setti

1986-01-01

171

Application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 in the biodegradation of used lubricating oil.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 using molasses as a substrate and fertilizer to enhance the biodegradation of used lubricating oil (ULO). The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria, the emulsification activity, and the biodegradation efficiency of ULO were measured. The bacterial adhesion in the hydrocarbon test was used to denote the cell surface hydrophobicity of the used bacterial species. The results indicate a strong correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity, emulsification activity, and the degree of ULO biodegradation. The maximum degradation of ULO (62 %) was observed when either 1.5 % (w/v) of biosurfactant or fertilizer was added. The results also revealed that biosurfactants alone are capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizer. The data indicate the potential for biosurfactant production by using low-cost substrate for application in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or oils. PMID:24590892

Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

2014-04-01

172

The Effect of Three Mineral Base Oils on Roller Bearing Fatigue Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three mineral base oils on roller bearing fatigue life has been studied. Life performance tests were conducted, using a specially controlled group of 45-mm bore cylindrical roller bearings. The results indicate that base oil stock affects bearing performance. Of the highly naphthenic, naphthenic, and paraffinic mineral oils studied, bearings lubricated with the latter achieved superior lives. The

Irwin Koved

1966-01-01

173

Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2007-01-01

174

Experimental investigation of porous bearings under different lubricant and lubricating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of porous bearing under different lubricants and lubricating conditions was experimentally investigated in\\u000a this study. In order to carry out the experiments, a new test rig was designed to determine the tribological properties of\\u000a based sintered bronze journal bearings that were manufactured by powder metallurgy (P\\/M) techniques. To determine the effects\\u000a of lubricating conditions with and without oil

Ertu?rul DURAK

2003-01-01

175

Prediction of biodegradability of mineral base oils from chemical composition using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradability studies of base oils are important for designing and development of environment-friendly lubricants. Biodegradability of base oils and lubricants have been determined by a large number of test methods. Among these, the 21 day test developed by Coordinating European Council and designated as CEC-L-33-A-93 has been accepted worldwide. In this work, artificial neural network (ANN) technique has been used

B Basu; M. P Singh; G. S Kapur; Nazakat Ali; M. I. S Sastry; S. K Jain; S. P Srivastava; A. K Bhatnagar

1998-01-01

176

Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes  

SciTech Connect

A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

1983-10-01

177

Lubrication with solids.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

1972-01-01

178

Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

Hill, Pamela

179

Characterization of Motor Lubricating Oils and Their Oil–Water Partition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the investigation was to determine the difference in chemical composition for unused and used (waste) motor oils and to understand their partitioning effect in water. Three brands of motor oil (unused and used) were selected for this study. Our analytical results show that the chemical composition of unused and used motor oil is significantly different, due in

Shan-Tan Lu; Isaac R. Kaplan

2008-01-01

180

Variable resistance constant tension and lubrication device. [using oil-saturated leather wiper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable resistance device is described which includes a cylindrical housing having elongated resistance wires. A movable arm having a supporting block carried on the outer end is rotatably carried by the cylindrical housing. An arcuate steel spring member is pivotally supported by the movable arm. A leather wiper member is carried adjacent to one end of the spring steel member, and an electrically conductive surface is carried adjacent to the other end. The supporting block maintains the spring steel member in compression so that a constant pressure is applied to the conductive end of the spring steel member and the leather wiper. The leather wiper is saturated with a lubricating oil for maintaining the resistance wire clean as the movable arm is manipulated.

Smith, H. J. (inventor)

1974-01-01

181

Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa  

PubMed Central

Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming.

Geibel, Scott

2013-01-01

182

Low-Cost Oil Quality Sensor Based on Changes in Complex Permittivity  

PubMed Central

Real time oil quality monitoring techniques help to protect important industry assets, minimize downtime and reduce maintenance costs. The measurement of a lubricant’s complex permittivity is an effective indicator of the oil degradation process and it can be useful in condition based maintenance (CBM) to select the most adequate oil replacement maintenance schedules. A discussion of the working principles of an oil quality sensor based on a marginal oscillator to monitor the losses of the dielectric at high frequencies (>1 MHz) is presented. An electronic design procedure is covered which results in a low cost, effective and ruggedized sensor implementation suitable for use in harsh environments.

Perez, Angel Torres; Hadfield, Mark

2011-01-01

183

Friction and wear performance of low-friction carbon coatings under oil lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous carbon coatings with very low friction properties were recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These coatings have shown good promise in mitigating excessive wear and scuffing problems associated with low-lubricity diesel fuels. To reduce the negative effect of sulfur and other lubricant additives in poisoning the after-treatment catalyst, a lubricant formulation with a low level of sulfur may be

A. Kovalchenko; O. O. Ajayi; A. Erdemir; G. R. Fenske

2001-01-01

184

Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics and Space Lubrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tribology program at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is investigating carbon based nano-particles for their potential in advanced concept lubrication products. Service conditions range from high temperature atmospheric to low temperatur...

2007-01-01

185

Tribology and energy efficiency: from molecules to lubricated contacts to complete machines.  

PubMed

The impact of lubricants on energy efficiency is considered. Molecular details of base oils used in lubricants can have a great impact on the lubricant's physical properties which will affect the energy efficiency performance of a lubricant. In addition, molecular details of lubricant additives can result in significant differences in measured friction coefficients for machine elements operating in the mixed/boundary lubrication regime. In single machine elements, these differences will result in lower friction losses, and for complete systems (such as cars, trucks, hydraulic circuits, industrial gearboxes etc.) lower fuel consumption or lower electricity consumption can result. PMID:23285639

Taylor, Robert Ian

2012-01-01

186

MEMS lubricants based on bound and mobile phases of hydrocarbon compounds: film deposition and performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a thin layer of mobile hydrocarbon-based lubricant providing protection by replenishment to a surface already protected by a chemically bound material has been explored for the first time, for application to silicon-based microelectromechanical (MEMS) systems. Several bound\\/mobile pairs of lubricants were evaluated to study the effects of bound phase end group and mobile phase chemical functionality on

Kalathil C. Eapen; Steven T. Patton; Steven A. Smallwood; Benjamin S. Phillips; Jeffrey S. Zabinski

2005-01-01

187

Influence of boric acid additive size on green lubricant performance.  

PubMed

As the industrial community moves towards green manufacturing processes, there is an increased demand for multi-functional, environmentally friendly lubricants with enhanced tribological performance. In the present investigation, green (environmentally benign) lubricant combinations were prepared by homogeneously mixing nano- (20 nm), sub-micrometre- (600 nm average size) and micrometre-scale (4 ?m average size) boric acid powder additives with canola oil in a vortex generator. As a basis for comparison, lubricants of base canola oil and canola oil mixed with MoS(2) powder (ranging from 0.5 to 10 ?m) were also prepared. Friction and wear experiments were carried out on the prepared lubricants using a pin-on-disc apparatus under ambient conditions. Based on the experiments, the nanoscale (20 nm) particle boric acid additive lubricants significantly outperformed all of the other lubricants with respect to frictional and wear performance. In fact, the nanoscale boric acid powder-based lubricants exhibited a wear rate more than an order of magnitude lower than the MoS(2) and larger sized boric acid additive-based lubricants. It was also discovered that the oil mixed with a combination of sub-micrometre- and micrometre-scale boric acid powder additives exhibited better friction and wear performance than the canola oil mixed with sub-micrometre- or micrometre-scale boric acid additives alone. PMID:20855323

Lovell, Michael R; Kabir, M A; Menezes, Pradeep L; Higgs, C Fred

2010-10-28

188

Lubrication of Nitinol 60  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

2010-01-01

189

Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide.  

PubMed

To ascertain whether used and re-refined lubricant oil absorbed through the skin can produce a genotoxic effect or cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, we examined the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes of peripheral blood after cutaneous application. Both re-refined and used lubricant oils showed a weak but significant induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with control, while virgin oil did not show micronucleus induction. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used not only as positive control but also to compare the sensitivity between intraperitoneal and dermal routes of administration of the test compounds in mice. The efficacy of intraperitoneal injection of CP is well known. On the other hand, dermal exposure is not so common and when CP was diluted in glycerin statistically significant values (P = 0.0036) of micronuclei were also found. Topically applied lubricant oils (virgin, re-refined and used) have the capacity to interfere with mouse bone marrow hematopoiesis evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Physical and chemical analysis revealed that used oil is more viscous than other lubricants, suggesting the presence of insoluble compounds, oxidized products and water as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Used oil differs from other lubricant oils in metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Re-refined oil revealed a neutral value typical of pure mineral oil. This assay is an important tool to evaluate environmental pollutants that cause genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity through skin exposure. PMID:17985309

Oliveira-Martins, C R; Grisolia, C K

2007-01-01

190

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

Not Available

2006-06-01

191

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on

Glenn A. Lutz; Manfred Jungk; Jonathan J. Bryant; Rebecca S. Lauer; Anthony Chobot; Tyler Mayer; Shane Palmer; Robert E. Kauffman

2012-01-01

192

New Lubricant for Pressure Die Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three lubricant formulations for the pressure die casting of large and complex castings were developed. The lubricants include mineral oils, synthetic acids, finely dispersed graphite preparations, etc. The new lubricants are not inferior in their propert...

B. P. Khrenov L. A. Tabanov L. Y. Kisilenko V. V. Romanov

1972-01-01

193

Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, effects of diesel-like fuel (DLF) on engine performance and exhaust emission are investigated experimentally. The DLF is produced from waste engine lubrication oil purified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metal particles, gum-type materials and other impurities. A fuel production system mainly consisting of a waste oil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, a product storage tank,

Orhan Arpa; Recep Yumruta?; Zeki Argunhan

2010-01-01

194

Scuffing Performance of M50 Bearing Steel Lubricated with a Gas Turbine Engine Oil at High Sliding Speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the results of scuffing tests carried out in a special high speed rig using M50 bearing steel rollers prepared to simulate the ball and raceway elements of gas turbine angular contact thrust bearings. The lubricant was Mobiljet2, a typical 5 cSt gas turbine engine oil, and sliding speeds of up to 30 m\\/s were simulated. It was

M. J. Martin; M. P. Alanou; H. P. Evans; R. W. Snidle; H. Kawamura; A. Dodd

2001-01-01

195

Model of scuffing based on the vulnerability of an elastohydrodynamic oil film to chemical degradation catalyzed by the contacting surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of scuffing is developed based on the premise that metallic surfaces can catalyze degradation of the lubricant film in situ. A failure mechanism for elastohydrodynamic films based on rapid decomposition of mineral and synthetic oils involving chemical reaction between entrapped oil and the containing surfaces is proposed. It is suggested that this destruction of the elastohydrodynamic oil film

Andrew W. Batchelor; Gwidon W. Stachowiak

1995-01-01

196

Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

1988-01-01

197

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

198

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

199

Biodegradation of a synthetic lubricant by Micrococcus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of large quantities of lubricants, both synthetic and mineral oil based, is causing increasing concern because they are not only an unquantified hazard to the environment, but also a potential hazard to the long-term health of people. This study examines the metabolic pathways and eventual fate of synthetic lubricants in micoorganisms involved in biodegradation. The synthetic ester Emkarate

M. A. Wright; F. Taylor; D. E. Brown; I. J. Higgins; S. J. Randles

1993-01-01

200

Influence of surface roughness and oil viscosity on the transition in mixed lubricated sliding steel contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moving surfaces in all high performance machines are functionally potential critical points, which rely on mild running conditions with low friction and no or insignificant wear. However, sometimes a transformation from a mild to a severe state may occur which will lead to a rise in friction and a catastrophic increase in wear. This severe situation is often known as scoring, galling, scuffing, or seizure depending on the appearance of the surfaces. In this study the influence of surface roughness and oil viscosity on the transition from the mild to the severe sliding condition is studied. It is found that the transition in lubricated sliding steel contacts running under mixed conditions is strongly dependent on surface roughness. The loading capability of a sliding contact may be increased considerably by smoothing the surface. Even marginal flattening of the asperities may give considerable effects. However, single scratches may change the situation, since a scratch on a smooth surface will increase the risk for transition to a local seizure or scoring sometimes ending in a total seizure.

Andersson, Soren; Salas-Russo, Edwin

1994-05-01

201

Isolation and application of Gordonia sp. JC11 for removal of boat lubricants.  

PubMed

Boat lubricants are continuously released into the marine environment and thereby cause chronic oil pollution. This study aims to isolate lubricant-degrading microorganisms from Thai coastal areas as well as to apply a selected strain for removal of boat lubricants. Ten microorganisms in the genera of Gordonia, Microbacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Enterococcus and Candida were initially isolated by crude oil enrichment culture techniques. The lubricant-removal activity of these isolates was investigated with mineral-based lubricants that had been manufactured for the 4-stroke diesel engines of fishing boats. Gordonia sp. JC11, the most effective strain was able to degrade 25-55% of 1,000 mg L(-1) total hydrocarbons in six tested lubricants, while only 0-15% of the lubricants was abiotically removed. The bacterium had many characteristics that promoted lubricant degradation such as hydrocarbon utilization ability, emulsification activity and cell surface hydrophobicity. For bioaugmentation treatment of lubricant contaminated seawater, the inoculum of Gordonia sp. JC11 was prepared by immobilizing the bacterium on polyurethane foam (PUF). PUF-immobilized Gordonia sp. JC11 was able to remove 42-56% of 100-1,000 mg L(-1) waste lubricant No. 2 within 5 days. This lubricant removal efficiency was higher than those of free cells and PUF without bacterial cells. The bioaugmentation treatment significantly increased the number of lubricant-degrading microorganisms in the fishery port seawater microcosm and resulted in rapid removal of waste lubricant No. 2. PMID:22449747

Chanthamalee, Jirapat; Luepromchai, Ekawan

2012-01-01

202

Organoxycyclotriphosphazenes as additives to lubricants based on polysiloxane liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic liquid is KhS-2-1VV poly(methyldichlorophenylsiloxane), which contains 17% of LiSt soap thickener (ultimate strength 170 Pa). The additives were used at the rate of 3 mass %. The viability of the lubricants with additives was tested with a fiveball friction machine (PMT) at a load of i00 N, temperature 150~ and rotational speed 2800 min -l Table 1 shows

I. A. Novikova; A. D. Apryatkin; N. V. Taranova; E. M. Nikonorov; S. G. Fedorov; S. F. Kravtsova

1991-01-01

203

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: molybdenum disulfide  

SciTech Connect

A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H.E.

1981-01-01

204

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

205

Oil film thickness measurement and analysis for an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. M.S. Thesis. Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capacitance method is used to estimate the oil film thickness in the Hertzian contact zone of an angular contact ball bearing operating in parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication. The parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime is characterized by a transient film thickness and basic speed ratio (ball spin rate over combined race speed) and the formation of a friction polymer. The experimental apparatus tests 40 mm 108 H ball bearings in the counter rotating race mode at loads of 200 and 300 lb, a film parameter of 1.6 and nominal inner and outer race speeds of 38 and 26 rps, respectively. Experimental results are presented for the capacitance, thickness, and conductance of the oil film as functions of elapsed time and for the basic speed ratios as a function of elapsed time, load, and amount of lubricant applied to the test bearing. Results indicate that a friction polymer formed from the initial lubricant has an effect on the capacitance and basic speed ratio measurements.

Hunter, Scott D.

1986-01-01

206

Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

2009-07-01

207

Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. 2: For Jet Velocities Equal to or Greater Than Great Velocity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or greater than gear pitch line velocity. Equations were developed for mini...

L. S. Akin D. P. Townsend

1982-01-01

208

Heat- and Radiation-Resistant Lubricants for Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protective and lubricating coatings formed in situ. Orthophthalonitrile reacts with metal-surface asperities at high frictional temperatures to form lubricating films of metal phthalocyanine. Compounds also formed with hot metal fragments torn from asperities. Bearing surfaces better protected from scoring, and fragments rendered less harmful to base fluids. Lubricants useful as additives to oils and greases in gears, transmissions, motors, and other machines where rubbing loads between metal parts may be severe. Because of their low volatility and lack of requirement for air or moisture, lubricants also useful in vacuums.

Lawton, E. A.

1986-01-01

209

The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant. Unlike previous work in this field, this approach is based on the postulate of the quasi-hydrodynamic nature of powder lubrication. This postulate is deduced from past observation and present verification that there are a number of basic features of powder flow in narrow interfaces that have the characteristic behavior of fluid film lubrication. In addition to corroborating the basic mechanism of powder lubrication, the conceptual and experimental work performed in this program provides guidelines for selection of the proper geometries, materials, and powders suitable for this tribological process. The present investigation describes the fundamentals of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication and defines the rationale underlying the design of the test facility. The performance and the results of the experimental program present conclusions reached regarding design requirements as well as the formulation of a proper model of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication.

Heshmat, H.; Walton, J.F. (Mechanical Technology Inc., Latham, NY (United States))

1993-04-01

210

Thermal conductivity and lubrication characteristics of nanofluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofluid is a kind of new engineering material consisting of nanometer-sized particles dispersed in base fluid. In this study, various nanoparticles, such as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), fullerene, copper oxide, silicon dioxide and silver, are used to produce nanofluids for enhancing thermal conductivity and lubrication. As base fluids, DI water, ethylene glycol, oil, silicon oil and poly-?-olefin oil (PAO) are

Y. Hwang; H. S. Park; J. K. Lee; W. H. Jung

2006-01-01

211

Experimental and analytical determination of gear tooth temperatures with oil jet lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gear tooth average and instantaneous surface temperatures were measured with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope, while operating at arious speeds, loads and oil jet pressures. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface temperatures at all test conditions, increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface temperatures of gear teeth. A gear tooth temperature analysis was conducted by a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input and oil jet impingment depth with estimated heat transfer coefficients based on the experimental data. It is concluded that oil jet pressures required for adequate cooling at high load and speed conditions must be high enough to get full penetration depth of the teeth.

Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.

1982-01-01

212

Friction and wear performance of low-friction carbon coatings under oil lubrication..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Amorphous carbon coatings with very low friction properties were recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These coatings have shown good promise in mitigating excessive wear and scuffing problems associated with low-lubricity diesel fuels. To re...

A. Kovalchenko O. O. Ajayi A. Erdemir G. R. Fenske

2001-01-01

213

Positive lubrication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

1990-01-01

214

Experimental Evaluation of Chromium-Carbide-Based Solid Lubricant Coatings for Use to 760 C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemica...

C. Dellacorte

1987-01-01

215

LUBRICANTS RESISTANT TO ATOMIC RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of radiation-resistant lubricants containing substantial ; proportions of materials having high gamma absorption coefficients and large ; capture cross sections for thermal neutrons is described\\/su The lubricants are ; comprised of 20 to 95 wt% lunbricating oil having a viscosity of 2 to ; 60 centistokes at 210 F selected from mineral oils and synthetic oils. The ;

1962-01-01

216

New nanotechnology solid lubricants for superior dry lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new commercial breakthrough for advanced anti-friction materials based on unique inorganic nanospheres that can be used as dry lubricants, coatings, and for impregnating parts. The new material reduces friction and wear significantly better than other layered solid lubricants and is especially useful in self-lubricating, maintenance-free, and oil-free applications of the types encountered in aerospace markets. The material, NanoLubTM, is the world's first commercial lubricant based on spherical inorganic nanoparticles. NanoLub's particles have a unique structure of hollow nested spheres of about only 0.1 micron in diameter. This paper presents tribological evaluations of tungsten and molybdenum disulphide NanoLubTM. The material reduces friction and wear under conditions that are especially relevant for space such as ultra-high vacuum, UV radiation, and high loads. Suitable applications could include rotors, bearings, robots, planetary rovers, space vehicles and transport devices. Extensive testing by a number of independent groups clearly shows that these special nanoparticles improve considerably the tribological properties of different contact pairs in comparison to other solid lubricants.

Fleischer, N.; Genut, M.; Rapoport, L.; Tenne, R.

2003-09-01

217

Development of a lubricity test based on the transition from boundary lubrication to severe adhesive wear in fuels  

SciTech Connect

Severe refinery practices to remove naturally occurring sulfur compounds affect fuel lubricity, and a laboratory wear test that accurately defines the lubricating qualities of diesel and kerosene fuels is urgently needed. This paper details the development of two closely related laboratory test procedures that predict fuel-related wear, cognizant of the the contact conditions in full-scale equipment. Most preceding methodologies measure the wear scar produced under conditions of boundary lubrication in continuous sliding. In contrast, the tests described in the present study rely on the transition from mild boundary-lubricated wear to adhesive scuffing to define the lubricating qualities of the fuel. The resulting procedures allow the fuels to be either ranked using a continuous scale, or separated using a simple pass/fail criteria. Careful selection of the test parameters produced a sharp change in both friction and a wear at the mechanism transition and wide separation between acceptable and unacceptable fluids. Both procedures were sensitive to the addition of trace quantities of lubricity additives and also showed directional correlation with refinery severity, as measured by sulfur and aromatic content. As a result, excellent correlation was achieved with full-scale equipment tests performed at a number of locations. However, the correlation achieved between laboratory wear tests and full-scale equipment fell below a critical viscosity. 24 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Lacey, P.I. [Army Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-10-01

218

Carbon Residue Studies of Polyphenyl Ethers and Ester-Based Lubricants Using a Microcarbon Residue Tester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A commercial microcarbon residue tester (MCRT) was used to measure the amount of carbon residue generated from ester-based lubricants with viscosities of 4 and 7.5 cSt and from the polyphenyl ethers 5P4E, 5P4E with an antioxidant additive, 4P3E and 3E2E. ...

D. R. Flentge

1987-01-01

219

Spectrophotometric Determination of Antimony in Sebacate-Base Semi-Fluid Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of antimony in sebacate-base semi-fluid lubricants by the use of the yellow iodide complex obtained using a potassium iodide-sodium hypophosphite reagent. In the method, the organic matter is d...

G. Norwitz M. Galan

1972-01-01

220

Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1985-01-01

221

The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt% NiCr binder, 20 wt% Cr2O3 hardener, and 10 wt% each Ag, and BaF2/CaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc foil bearing. The test load was 10 KPa (1.5 psi) and the bearings were run under start/stop cyclic conditions. The data show good wear performance of the bearing, especially at temperatures above 25 deg. C. Bearing friction was moderate (micron approx. or equal to 0.4) over the entire temperature range. Based upon the results obtained, the PS304 coating has promise for high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

DellaCorte, Chris

1998-01-01

222

Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

Ku, P. M. (editor)

1973-01-01

223

PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec(®) cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 - 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine. PMID:22670159

Xin, H; Shepherd, Det; Dearn, Kd

2012-01-01

224

PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec® cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 – 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine.

Xin, H; Shepherd, DET; Dearn, KD

2012-01-01

225

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the effect of cutting speed on flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness during hobbing using an uncoated tool, and TiN- and (Al, Ti)N- coated tools with a minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) system. The experiments were conducted by simulating hobbing by fly tool cutting on a milling machine. The results helped clarify the following

Hironori Matsuoka; Yoshihiro Tsuda; Satoshi Suda; Hideo Yokota

2006-01-01

226

Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

1993-01-01

227

Determination of Performance of the Soybean Oil in Farm Tractors as Hydraulic Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils include an environmentally compatible lubricant and alternative fuels. To base such a lubricant and hydraulic fluids on a vegetable oil creates a product environmentally friendly and nontoxic. They have a high viscosity index and flammable point. This study describes vegetable oil-based use possibilities as hydraulic fluids on farm tractors. Mineral and soybean oils were tested as hydraulic fluid

H. O?uz; M. Acaro?lu; H. Ö?üt; B. ?lban

2009-01-01

228

A study on colloidal PSt — a new type of water-based lubrication additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of water-based lubrication additive — colloidal polystyrene (PSt) was prepared. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the PSt is spherical particles in submicron scale. Four-ball test results indicate that these particles can greatly improve the base fluid's anti-wear (AW) and extreme pressure (EP) performances. It was also found that the EP and AW capabilities of the fluid

Biao Duan

1999-01-01

229

On the elastohydrodynamic lubrication performance of crankshaft bearing based on the effect of whole engine block deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The elastic deformation of crankshaft bearing surface will be caused when acted by oil film pressure, which will affect the lubrication performance of crankshaft bearing. The model of the single bearing housing was usually used in the calculation of the elastic deformation of bearing surface. In actual internal combustion engine, the main bearing housing is combined together with

Jun Sun; Xiaoxia Cai; Liping Liu

2012-01-01

230

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Analysis of Antiwear Tribofilms Produced on Boundary-Lubricated Steel Surfaces from Sulfur and Phosphorus-Containing Additives and Metal Deactivator Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed on AISI 52100 steel surfaces subjected to sliding in the boundary lubrication regime at 32 and 100°C. The specimens were lubricated with base oil blended with individual additives containing sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), or metal deactivator, as well as base oil with all the previous additives in the same amounts as in the single

K. KOMVOPOULOS; E. S. YAMAGUCHI; S. W. YEH; P. R. RYASON

2004-01-01

231

Microwave irradiation effects on the structure, viscosity, thermal properties and lubricity of soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean oil is a highly valuable agricultural commodity for the United States. To further add value to soybean oil, chemical and physical modifications, as well as additives, have been extensively used to change the oil characteristics and properties, broadening the potential industrial applications. Heat treatments such as heat-bodying have been implemented to change soybean oil properties, but no research has

Atanu Biswas; Atanu Adhvaryu; David G. Stevenson; Brajendra K. Sharma; J. L. Willet; Sevim Z. Erhan

2007-01-01

232

Experimental investigation of surface quality for minimum quantity oil–water lubrication grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective lubrication and cooling is necessary to ensure grinding temperature levels not to become excessive during grinding\\u000a process. Conventional grinding fluid has negative influences on the working environment in terms of the health of the machine\\u000a operator. Furthermore, the using of grinding fluid is seen to increase production cost due to fluid purchase and disposal.\\u000a One attractive alternative is the

Cong Mao; Xiaojun Tang; Hongfu Zou; ZhiXiong Zhou; Wangwu Yin

233

Composition Optimization of Self-Lubricating Chromium Carbide-Based Composite Coatings for Use to 760 deg C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives...

C. Dellacorte H. E. Sliney

1986-01-01

234

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

235

Method of Preparing a Lubricating Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lubricating compositions prepared by mixing hydrocarbon lubricating oil with an alkaline earth metal salt, e.g., calcium sulphonate, are prepared more easily by emulsifying the mixture with an aqueous solution of calcium acetate, progressively boiling off...

A. B. de Godlen H. Roche

1970-01-01

236

Metalworking corrosion inhibition/drawing lubricant  

SciTech Connect

A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

Lipinski, H.F.; Wantling, S.J.

1980-05-06

237

The effectiveness of PTFE nanoparticle powder as an EP additive to mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experiments using a four-ball tester to evaluate the extreme pressure (EP) and wear reduction properties of AISI 52100 steel balls with several mineral oils with and without additive. The lubricants studied include PTFE nanoparticle powder as an additive in different percentages with SN-350 and Bright Stock as mineral base oils with very different viscosities (9 and 32.4cSt,

E. Fernández Rico; I. Minondo; D. García Cuervo

2007-01-01

238

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow

1993-01-01

239

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01

240

Tribological properties of Fe 7Mo 6-based-alloy lubricated with poly-alpha-olefin containing PN additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribological properties of Fe–Mo type disk specimens were investigated against ASTM 52100 steel balls under the lubrication of poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and PAO containing 1.5mass% alkyl-phosphonic acid-triazole-methanamine (PN additive). Both the Fe7Mo6-based alloy and Mo disk specimens exhibited lower friction and lower wear rates than the Fe and gray cast iron disk specimens under the lubrication of PAO. The friction coefficients

T. Murakami; K. Kaneda; M. Nakano; Y. Xia; S. Sasaki

2010-01-01

241

Lubricating Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Silicone and diester oil base greases having a thickener of a copper or nickel chelate of substituted 2hydroxyazobenzenes possess a high dropping point, high oxidation and corrosion resistance, and low oil separation and evaporation properties. The grease...

M. J. Wisotsky N. R. Odell

1965-01-01

242

Bioalternatives for four stroke motorcycle engine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate alternatives for four stroke 10w40 motorcycle engine oils. Today, mineral and synthetic-based lubricants are widely used but because of ecological aspects, which are gaining in importance nowadays and limited resources of mineral oils, environmentally-friendly biobased lubricants are gaining in importance. Biobased lubricants are also important for using national resources rather

Asl? I?ler; Onursal Yakaboylu; Tamer Alyakut; Filiz Karaosmano?lu

2012-01-01

243

Determination of lubricant selection based on elastohydrodynamic film thickness and traction measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project was conducted to aid in the development of an elastohydrodynamic specification for military lubricants. Experiments were conducted with a rolling disk apparatus designed to simulate a bearing or gear type contact. Measurements included lubricant film thickness, lubricant breakdown and traction for a range of loads, speeds, temperatures, and surface roughnesses. Several lubricants were used in the investigations including a traction fluid, two synthetic paraffinic lubricants and several lubricants conforming to MIL-L 7808 and 23699 specifications. Recommendations regarding an EHD specification are included.

Dow, T. A.; Kannel, J. W.

1979-01-01

244

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

Lagow, R.J.

1992-03-01

245

Engine oils: Rheology and tribology  

SciTech Connect

This publication focuses on experimental methods, environmental issues, and friction and wear studies. A variety of problems are considered, including valve train friction, bearing lubrication, testing of piston materials, and transfer pump wear. Contents include: Experimental study on viscosity-shear characteristics of lubricating oils; Effects of lubricant composition on fuel efficiency in modern engines; Oxidation and corrosion characteristics of vegetable-base biodegradable hydraulic oils; Analysis of cam/roller follower friction and slippage in valve train systems; Tribological analysis of the transfer pump vane/bore interface using a mixed lubrication model; and more.

NONE

1995-12-31

246

(31)P-NMR analysis of zinc dialkyl(diaryl)-dithiophosphate in lubricating oil. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To assure that the oils furnished the government are of the same formulations as the oils originally qualified, a new method has been developed to examine zinc dialkyl(diaryl)dithiophosphate (ZDDP) additives by using P-NMR. Two finished oils and primary alkyl-ZDDP, secondary alkyl-ZDDP, and aryl-ZDDP were examined. P-NMR was found to be a better method than other existing analytical methods to analyze the change of ZDDP additives in full formulated oil without pre-separation.

Chen, S.

1982-11-01

247

Measurments of the Vapor Pressure for the Solutions of HFC-134a and Ester Based Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents measurements of the vapor pressure for the solutions of HFC-134a and ester based oil. The oil employed is eater based synthetic lubricant that is thought to be one of the lubricants compatible with alternative refrigerant HFC-134a.The measurements have been carried out for the range of temperatures between 263.15 K and 323.15 K for the HFC134a/ester based oil solutions. The uncertainty of the measurments is estimated as ±10mK in temperature, ±5kPa in pressure and ±0.5% in concentration,respectively. Correlations that interpolate the experimental vapor pressure as a function of temperature and concentration are presented for practical use.

Takaishi, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Hajime; Oguchi, Kosei

248

Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

Mcmurtrey, E. L.

1985-01-01

249

Determination of Heavy Metals in Waste Lubricating Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with EU strategy on waste, the utilization of waste oils as a fuel in local power plants has become an interesting choice in hazardous waste treatment planning. The present requirement in Finland is that all oil batches to be burned in power plants must be analyzed for six heavy metals. Thus rapid and cheap methods are needed for

Toivo Kuokkanen; Paavo Perämäki; Ilkka Välimäki; Hannu Rönkkömäki

2001-01-01

250

A study of annulus lubrication for oil well completion using scale model tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an oil reservoir reaches the end of its production life the well which has been drilled to extract the oil must undergo completion or ldquowell abandonmentrdquo. Abandonment is the process whereby all the productive zones within the well are isolated with cement, removing some or all of the production tubing and setting a surface plug in the well with

M. Adams; N. Turner; P. Pollard

2008-01-01

251

Optimization of Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication in Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil Using Design of Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of experiment (DOE) analysis was used to study the desirability factor between contact loads, oil quantity, and surface roughness. The analysis developed a series of interactions between factors to get the best correlations between contact loads and oil quantity that leads to the stabilization of the tribofilm. A closed-loop boundary condition test was developed to examine the behavior of

Gabi N. Nehme; Micheline Dib

2011-01-01

252

TG-FTIR methods for the evaluation on lubricant contamination  

SciTech Connect

A typical Air Force base will produce several thousand gallons per year of used turbine engine lubricants. The potential for contamination of the collected lubricants, particularly with halogenated, compounds such as decreasing solvents and other fluids, reduces the effectiveness of a previously developed reclamation process. In this project, the feasibility of using two different thermally analysis methods in combination with advanced data analysis techniques to detect contamination in used turbine engine lubricants was investigated. The first method, TG/FT-IR combined with advanced data analysis routines, was shown to be capable of detecting the presence of several different types of contaminants in synthetic lubricants at concentrations of about 5%. It was demonstrated that data analysis routines based on factor analysis (SIMCA) and neural networks could be used for identifying the presence of a contaminant. The second method, TG/secondary oxidation/FT-IR, was developed specifically for detecting trace levels of chlorinated contaminants in lubricants. Optimization of this method using existing instrumentation led to a detection limit of about 300 ppm (w/w) organic chlorine in the lubricant. Further improvements in hardware and software components could lead to detection limits of <10 ppm. This instrumentation could also be used to characterize used motor oils, cooking oils or pyrolysis oils.

Bonanno, A.S.; Bassilakis, R.; Serio, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)

1996-12-31

253

Dynamic characterization of viscoelastic polymer solutions in a lubricated cylinder - Plate apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization of several viscoelastic lubricants which are oil or water based has been studied in an apparatus consisting of a lubricated cylinder-plate contact. The friction loads were measured as a function of speed. The experimental results show the influence of the molecular weight and of the concentration of the polymeric additive as well as the influence of the viscosity of the oil-base on the load and friction coefficient. Also a test for mechanical degradation was performed on the polymer solutions. Several additives can favor a viscoelastic lubrication.

Doremus, P.; Piau, J. M.; Altman, R. L.

1987-01-01

254

Lubricant Effects on Transmission Power Loss: Several lubricants are evaluated for mechanical efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Efficiency tests were conducted on 11 different lubricants to determine various effects physical and chemical properties of lubricating oils have on power loss in tr...

1984-01-01

255

Study on the viscosity properties of bubbly oil and the static characteristics of journal bearing lubricated with bubbly oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new device, rotatory viscometer, for measuring viscosity of bubbly oil was proposed. Using this device, a new viscosity model, which is better than the others in many aspects was established. By the new model, a numerical method for studying the influences of bubbly oil on static characteristics of the journal bearing, which were verified by use of the remade

An Qi; Zhou Yinsheng; Quan Yongxin

1997-01-01

256

FLUIDS, LUBRICANTS, FUELS AND RELATED MATERIALS. Period covered January through December 1957  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive laboratory evaluation studies are presented for a series of ; mineral oils and hydrocarbons which have been super-refined by a pilot plant ; hydrogenation over nickel catalyst. Advantages of hydrogenated and exhaustively ; acid-refined mineral oils and hydrocarbons over conventionally refined mineral ; oils are demonstrated for application as base stocks for hydraulic fluids and ; lubricants. Completed hydraulic

E. E. Klaus; M. R. Fenske

1958-01-01

257

Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

Kinard, J. T.

1975-01-01

258

A Novel Application of Egyptian Oil Shale as a Filler in the Production of Lithium Lubricating Grease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the preparation and characterization of six formulations of grease based on soybean soapstock and aromatic extracts using oil shale as a filler. The oil shale that occurs within the Quseir–Safaga district is subjected to a detailed petrography, size distribution, mineralogy, and chemical studies. The total extracted hydrocarbon content, using an organic solvent, is analyzed for molecular

Mohamed I. Al-Wakeel; R. A. El-Adly

2005-01-01

259

Lubricant rheology in concentrated contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant behavior in highly stressed situtations shows that a Newtonian model for lubricant rheology is insufficient for explanation of traction behavior. The oil film build up is predicted by using a Newtonian lubricant model except at high slide to roll ratios and at very high loads, where the nonNewtonian behavior starts to be important already outside the Hertzian contact area. Static and dynamic experiments are reported. In static experiments the pressure is applied to the lubricant more than a million times longer than in an EHD contact. Depending on the pressure-temperature history of the experiment the lubricant will become a crystallized or amorphous solid at high pressures. In dynamic experiments, the oil is in an amorphous solid state. Depending on the viscosity, time scale, elasticity of the oil and the bearing surfaces, the oil film pressure, shear strain rate and the type of lubricant, different properties of the oil are important for prediction of shear stresses in the oil. The different proposed models for the lubricant, which describe it to a Newtonian liquid, an elastic liquid, a plastic liquid and an elastic-plastic solid.

Jacobson, B. O.

1984-01-01

260

A tribological study of the hybrid lubrication of DLC films with oil and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of a tribological study that compared the friction coefficient and wear volume of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and 316L stainless steel samples, with and without DLC films, in contact with humidity, water and oils. Distilled water (DW), and synthetic motor oil (SO) were applied to some of the sample surfaces, while others were left uncoated

R. P. C. C. Statuti; P. A. Radi; L. V. Santos; V. J. Trava-Airoldi

2009-01-01

261

Industrial Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

Kajdas, C.; Karpi?ska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

262

Industrial Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ‘Industrial lubricant’ gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used\\u000a combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing\\u000a film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications\\u000a are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are

C. Kajdas; A. Karpinska; A. Kulczycki

2010-01-01

263

Molecular dynamics simulation of surface energy and ZDDP effects on friction in nano-scale lubricated contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the tribological performance of a lubricant mixture containing hexadecane base oil and 5% zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) under molecular confinement conditions. The influence of ZDDP additive and the surface–lubricant interaction on the mechanical and thermal interfacial response are studied in detail. Results show that mechanical and thermal slips are reduced by increasing the surface

Hassan Berro; Nicolas Fillot; Philippe Vergne

2010-01-01

264

Standardization and selection of a method for evaluating shear resistance of lubricating oils with polymer additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wide use of polymer additives increasing the viscosity index of mineral oils justified the usefulness of selecting a standard laboratory method for evaluating the shear resistance of this kind of oils. The suitability of a particular method was analyzed on the basis of comparative tests performed in Poland and abroad using mechanical methods (in a laboratory and on stands), operational tests, and ultrasonic methods, including the method developed in the Institute of Aeronautics. The ultrasonic method described and incorporated in branch standard BN-70/0535 was accepted as the most advantageous method from the standpoint of standardization requirements.

Wislicki, B.

1984-01-01

265

Status and new directions for solid lubricant coatings and composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At one time, solid lubricants were used almost entirely in aerospace applications. Today there is a pronounced trend to use them over a much broader range of applications. For example, self-lubricating polymer-based composites have displaced traditional oil-lubricated, metallic composites for many journal bearings and thrust washers in applications as diverse as earth-moving machinery and snow blowers to aircraft applications. For moderate temperatures below 200 C, glass filament-wound epoxy bearings with PTFE lubricating liners are usefl; for temperatures up to 350 C, graphite fiber reinforced polyimide bearing materials are finding applications. Advanced technology engines have severe lubrication and wear problems at temperatures beyond the capabilities of any of these lubricants. Here, self-lubricating ceramics and inorganic composites for use at 1000 C or higher are of interest. However, perhaps the most significant new direction for solid lubricant coatings and self-lubricating composites is their steadily increasing use in dry bearings for large volume, moderate temperature applications. This can be attributed to their simplicity of use (no supporting lubricant system needed), light weight, convenience, and general cost effectiveness.

Sliney, H. E.

1984-01-01

266

KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

1973-01-01

267

NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are...

H. F. Weaver

2003-01-01

268

Alkyl phenol-sulfur condensates as fuel and lubricating oil additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymer composition is described capable of improving the low temperature flow properties and oxidation stability of hydrocarbon oil comprising the condensation reaction product of reactants comprising alkylated phenol, comprising at least 80 mole percent difunctional alkylated phenol, and sulfurizing agent wherein: (a) said polymer composition has a number average molecular weight of at least about 3,000 and a molecular

D. J. Martella; J. J. Jaruzelski

1993-01-01

269

Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760 C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant additives acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1987-01-01

270

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the effect of cutting speed on flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness during hobbing using an uncoated tool, and TiN- and (Al, Ti)N- coated tools with a minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) system. The experiments were conducted by simulating hobbing by fly tool cutting on a milling machine. The results helped clarify the following points. (1) With the uncoated tool and the TiN-coated tool, the flank wear increases upon increasing in the cutting speed from 47m/min to 86m/min. Conversely, flank wear decreases at the higher speed of 117m/min. It was impossible to cut at 159m/min owing to the failure of the cutting edge. With the (Al, Ti)N-coated tool, the flank wear showed nearly the same small value, irrespective of cutting speed. (2) The cutting speed also has a large effect on crater wear, particularly for the TiN-and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. The cutting speed of 117m/min is suitable for decreasing crater wear. (3) The finished surface roughness is small for all the tools used in this test for cutting speeds less than 86m/min, after which it becomes large because of the adhesion of deposited metal at cutting speeds more than 117m/min. When using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools, there is a critical cutting groove length, at which the surface roughness decreases rapidly.

Matsuoka, Hironori; Tsuda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo

271

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

272

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

2012-02-28

273

Preparation of Lubricating Oils by the Alpha-Olefin Alkylation of Heavy Gas Oil from Catalytic Cracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article gives the results of an investigation of the influence of different factors (temperature, ratio of reagents and contact period) on the alkylation reaction of heavy gas oil from catalytic cracking by alpha-olefins, a 30-350C fraction obtained b...

B. A. Sadykhova N. S. Pudnitskaya R. S. Kuliev R. Z. Gasanova

1972-01-01

274

Cement-lined pipes for water lubricated transport of heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents different strategies for preventing oil from fouling the walls of core-annular flow pipelines and also for restart from an unexpected pipeline shut-down. The most promising of these strategies is to use cement-lined pipes. Experiments presented here show that hydrated cement-lined pipes are highly oleophobic and therefore resist fouling for long term. A pilot scale cement-lined core-annular flow

Michael S. Arney; Geraldo S. Ribeiro; Emilio Guevara; Runyan Bai; Daniel D. Joseph

1996-01-01

275

Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

1972-01-01

276

Bearing Lubrication Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent described apparatus for lubrication of anti-friction bearings which uses the oil bleeding characteristics of grease. The apparatus consists of a housing for attachment to a bearing and a grease reservoir wherein the grease is retained in a slop...

K. H. Warren

1970-01-01

277

Amine bearing polymeric particles as acid neutralizers for engine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a lubricating oil composition consisting of a major proportion of a lubricating base oil and about 0.1 to 15 weight percent of an acid neutralizing additive which consists of polymer particles (a) bearing pendant amine groups, and (b) having a diameter of about 500 A and 10,000 A. The amine functional particles are formed by reacting polymer

A. N. Theodore; M. S. Chattha

1986-01-01

278

Solid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

Sliney, Harold E.

1991-01-01

279

Characterization of the Skin Penetration of a Hydrocarbon-Based Weapons Maintenance Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Break-Free CLP is a commercial petroleum-based liquid used for cleaning, lubricating, and protecting firearms that is used in the United States by military personnel, police, and individual gun owners for maintaining a wide variety of firearms. According to its material safety data sheet (MSDS), Break-Free CLP is predominately polyalphaolefin oil but also contains dibasic ester and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; all of

Darryl P. Arfsten; Carol M. Garrett; Warren W. Jederberg; Erin R. Wilfong; James N. McDougal

2006-01-01

280

Micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional elastohydrodynamics, which is based on assumption of smooth surfaces, is reviewed to show its insufficiency for explaining the failure processes in these contacts. For conditions approaching failure, lubrication breakdown occurs locally at asperity contacts where the lubrication behavior is controlled by microelastohydrodynamic lubrication (micro-EHL). The film formation mechanisms in micro-EHL conjunctions is described. The level of film thickness due to normal approach and sliding of a single asperity and due to asperity-asperity collision between two asperities is assessed. Possible influence of the micro-EHL to incipient scuffing failure, surface crack propagation and wear are discussed.

Cheng, H. S.

1984-01-01

281

Lubricants in conveyor applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper looks at four critical lubricants used in the conveyor systems of the northern Albertan oil sand facility. The requirements for the lubricants used in the electric motors and gear boxes of the drive systems, the pulley bearings and the idler bearings are discussed in terms of the application and the environment. A number of developments that have occurred in recent years are presented. Data from the field and from custom designed testing in the laboratory are used to support the role of simulation testing in problem solving in this area of technology. 9 refs., 21 figs.

Paton, C.G.; Bland, S.B.; Melley, R.E. [Edmonton Research Center, Alberta (Canada)

1995-01-01

282

High-Melting Lubricants Based on Complex Calcium Soaps of Commercial Synthetic Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthetic fatty acids can be used in the production of high-quality complex calcium lubricants which can be used in a wide range of temperatures. The best calcium lubricants are obtained when using the wide heat-treated and distilled fraction of acids C10...

M. B. Nakonechnaya N. S. Goshko V. V. Sinitsyn Y. L. Ishchuk

1969-01-01

283

Tribological properties of transition metal di-chalcogenide based lubricant coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition metal di-chalcogenides MX2 (X = S, Se, Te; and M= W, Mo, Nb, Ta) are one kind of solid lubricant materials that have been widely used in industry. The lubricant properties of such lubricant coatings are dependent not only on microstructure, orientation, morphology, and composition of the coatings, but also on the substrate, the interface between substrate and lubricant coatings, and the specific application environment. In this review, the effects of parameters on tribological properties of such kind of lubricant coatings were summarized. By comparing advantages and disadvantages of those coatings, the special treatments such as doping, structural modulation and post-treatment were suggested, aiming to improve the tribological performance under severe test conditions (e.g. high temperature, oxidizing atmosphere or humid condition).

Yang, Jun-Feng; Parakash, Braham; Hardell, Jens; Fang, Qian-Feng

2012-06-01

284

Tribological Behavior of Some Candidate Advanced Space Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of a variety of space lubricants was compared under boundary and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). The types of fluids studied were naphthenic mineral oil, paraffinic mineral oil, polyalphaolefin, and silahydrocarbon. The silahydrocarbon and the polyalphaolefin lubricants exhibited lower traction under similar conditions. A specific additive package increased the traction of the polyalphaolefin. Volatility characteristics of some of these fluids were

Shashi K. Sharma; Carl E. Snyder Jr; Lois J. Gschwender

1993-01-01

285

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01

286

Service bases for offshore oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1978, the U.S. Department of the Interior will sell leases allowing drilling for oil and gas in an area of the North Atlantic called Georges Bank, which is approximately 200 miles south east of Maine. The first onshore facilities established to support offshore drilling operations are Service Bases, which serve as the logistical link between onshore suppliers and

C. S. Colgan; J. Lindvall

1977-01-01

287

The effect of lubricant traction of scuffing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a disc machine gear simulation investigating the influence of lubricant traction characteristics and formulation on the load at which scuffing occurs. Scuffing theories in general link the onset of scuffing to the amount of heat generated in the contact and the authors hypothesized that reduced heat generation with low traction lubricants should lead to an increase in scuffing load. The study compared low traction poly alpha olefin (PAO)-based lubricants with mineral oils in basestock, antiwear and EP formulations and at both high (greater than 6) and moderate (approximately 1.2) specific film thickness, lambda. At lambda greater than 6, the benefits of the synthetics over their mineral counterparts ranged from 25 percent to 220 percent and at lambda approximately = 1.2, the benefits were a uniform 40 percent. It was particularly interesting to observe that the antiwear PAO-based oil gave a similar scuff load per unit contact width to an EP mineral gear oil. In addition, it was shown that scuffing load decreased with increasing traction coefficient to the power of approximately -1.85, close to the -2.00 power predicted by the frictional power intensity concept. The agreement with flash temperature theory, with a predicted power of -1.33, was less close.

Jackson, A.; Webster, M. N.; Enthoven, J. C.

1994-04-01

288

Lubricants at low temperatures. Technical digest  

SciTech Connect

Lubricants represent the single most critical problem encountered by vehicles in cold regions. A vehicle lubricated for use in temperature regions will simply not operate in an extremely cold environment. A chunk of heavy gear oil can be used to pound nails at -40C. Thus it is of the utmost importance to ensure that all lubricants used in the vehicle be chosen with low-temperature operation in mind, including engine oil, gear oil, grease transmission fluid, hydraulic fluid and brake fluid. Lubricants must have a sufficiently low viscosity for low-temperature use and must also be able to diffuse over all surfaces requiring lubrication and to permeate the pores and surface cracks of metals. The use of unsuitable lubricants may result in channeling, dry gears and bearings, difficult starting and shifting, quick wear, and deterioration of engines, engine attachments and chassis.

Diemand, D.

1990-12-01

289

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL] [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company] [General Motors Company

2013-10-31

290

Experimental Investigation of Lubrication Properties at High Contact Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new test rig with an ability to obtain clear interference images at high pressure contacts has been developed. The technique\\u000a of relative optical interference intensity has been used to obtain film thickness profiles and then lubrication properties\\u000a of some base oils including six kinds of polyalphaolefin and four kinds of silicone oil have been studied at different pressures\\u000a ranging

Huaping XiaoDan; Dan Guo; Shuhai Liu; Xinchun Lu; Jianbin Luo

2010-01-01

291

Method of recovering oil-based fluid  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

Brinkley, H.E.

1993-07-13

292

Boundary cartilage lubrication: review of current concepts.  

PubMed

Effective lubrication of synovial joints is important to prevent cartilage degeneration and to keep the joints healthy. This paper sets out the basics of engineering lubrication with respect to the composition and properties of synovial fluid constituents. Two basic types of boundary lubrication are discussed: the presence of highly hydrophilic proteoglycans that provide a water liquid film, and the existence of multilamellar phospholipids lubricating layers at the surface ofarticular cartilage. Based on current knowledge, we may conclude that no single mechanism of boundary lubrication exists, and that effective boundary lubrication of synovial joints is maintained by the synergic effect of all synovial fluid constituents. PMID:24081750

Daniel, Matej

2014-03-01

293

New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications  

SciTech Connect

In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

Haider, Julfikar [School of CEIS, Ellison Building, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of MME, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland)

2011-01-17

294

Lubricating Grease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Grease lubrication is a complex mixture of science and engineering, requires an interdisciplinary approach, and is applied\\u000a to the majority of bearings worldwide. Grease can be more than a lubricant; it is often expected to perform as a seal, corrosion\\u000a inhibitor, shock absorber and a noise suppressant. It is a viscoelastic plastic solid, therefore, a liquid or solid, dependent\\u000a upon

G. Gow

2010-01-01

295

Transesterification Reaction for Synthesis of Palm-based Ethylhexyl Ester and Formulation as Base Oil for Synthetic Drilling Fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s(-1) and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol(-1). The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-04-26

296

Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible to dramatically improve the performance, reliability, and maintainability of vehicles and other similarly complex equipment if improved sensing and diagnostics systems are available. Each year military and commercial maintenance personnel unnecessarily replace, at scheduled intervals, significant amounts of lubricant fluids in vehicles, weapon systems, and supporting equipment. Personnel draw samples of fluids and send them to test labs for analysis to determine if replacement is necessary. Systematic use of either on-board (embedded) lubricant quality analysis capabilities will save millions of dollars each year in avoided fluid changes, saved labor, prevented damage to mechanical components while providing associated environmental benefits. This paper discusses the design, the manufacturing, and the evaluation of robust optical sensors designed to monitor the condition of industrial fluids. The sensors reported are manufactured from bulk fused silica substrates. They incorporate three-dimensional micro fluidic circuitry side-by-side with three-dimensional wave guided optical networks. The manufacturing of the optical waveguides are completed using a direct-write process based on the use of femtosecond laser pulses to locally alter the structure of the glass substrate at the nano-level. The microfluidic circuitry is produced using the same femtosecond laser based process, followed by an anisotropic wet chemical etching step. Data will be presented regarding the use of these sensors to monitor the quality of engine oil and possibly some other vehicle lubricants such as hydraulic oil.

Scott, Andrew J.; Mabesa, Jose R., Jr.; Gorsich, David; Rathgeb, Brian; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Haddock, Tom F.; Bado, Philippe W.

2004-12-01

297

Lubricant for Pressure Casting Molds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lubricant for hot working of metals based on secondary alkylsulfates, graphite, and water is known. In the proposed lubricant, sodium formate and sodium carbonate are added to the given formula which makes it possible to decrease the amount of scrap whi...

G. I. Mikhailenko A. I. Slepushkin N. L. Altshuler M. I. Peisin E. P. Kruglyak

1970-01-01

298

Influence of Steel Type on the Propensity for Tribochemical Wear in Boundary Lubrication with a Wind Turbine Gear Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribochemical wear may occur at the interface between a surface and a lubricant as a result of chemical and mechanical interactions\\u000a in a tribological contact. Understanding the onset of tribochemical wear damage on component surfaces requires the use of\\u000a high resolution techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, two steel types, case carburized\\u000a AISI 3310 and through-hardened

Ryan D. Evans; Gary L. Doll; C. H. Hager; Jane Y Howe

2010-01-01

299

Research on liquid lubricants for space mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four research areas at the NASA Lewis Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes, and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

1998-01-01

300

Research on Liquid Lubricants for Space Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four research areas at the NASA Glenn Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

1999-01-01

301

Thermodynamics of Boundary Lubrication and Scuffing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical temperature of scuffing found in some lubrication systems is identified with desorption of the surface active agent in the lubricating oil. The thermodynamics of the system are considered and then applied to the chain matching of carrier and additives. Chemisorption takes place more readily on a martensitic steel, which is reactive, than on austenite, and thus masks the

W. J. S. Grew; A. Cameron

1972-01-01

302

Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces was studied. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

James, G. E.

1977-01-01

303

Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study showed that on-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings can be accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented, in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

James, G. E.

1977-01-01

304

Lubricating Holes for Corroded Nuts and Bolts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corroded fasteners taken apart more easily. Lubricating holes bored to thread from three of flats. Holes facilitate application of penetrating oil to help loosen nut when rusted onto bolt. Holes make it possible to apply lubricants and rust removers directly to more of thread than otherwise reachable.

Penn, B. G.; Clemons, J. M.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III

1986-01-01

305

Thermal and oxidative stabilities of liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental processes which occur during the thermal and oxidation degradation of hydrocarbons is reviewed. Various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers are emphasized. Techniques to determine thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is examined.

Jones, W. R., Jr.

1984-01-01

306

Study on preparation of modified lubricant containing nano-Schiff base and Schiff base copper complex in W\\/O microemulsion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful preparation of Schiff base and Schiff base copper complex was carried out directly in polar base oil (vegetable\\u000a oil) using a water\\/oil microemulsion reactor. The prepared nanometer sized Schiff base and Schiff base copper complex dispersed\\u000a uniformly and spontaneously in the oil. The nanometer sized particles of the Cu(II) chelate of bissalicylaldehyde-ethylenediamine\\u000a and the bissalicylaldehyde-ethylenediamine in oil were

Xinlei Gao; Jian Li; Wanzhen Gao

2009-01-01

307

Computational Chemistry and Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

Zehe, Michael J.

1998-01-01

308

Advanced Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three Sun Coast Chemicals (SCC) of Daytona, Inc. products were derived from NASA technology: Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. NASA contractor Lockheed Martin Space Operations contacted SCC about joining forces to develop an environmentally safe spray lubricant for the Shuttle Crawler. The formula was developed over an eight-month period resulting in new products which are cost effective and environmentally friendly. Meeting all Environmental Protection Agency requirements, the SCC products are used for applications from train tracks to bicycle chains.

1996-01-01

309

Lubricating Properties of Lead-Monoxide-Base Coatings of Various Compositions at Temperatures to 1250 F  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of ceramic coatings of different compositions containing lead monoxide (PbO) were studied to determine their relative merits as dry-film lubricants. Lead monoxide is known to be an effective solid lubricant at elevated temperatures, and this oxide was the main component in all compositions studied. Friction and wear properties were determined at temperatures from 750 to 1250 F, at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute, and at a normal load of 1 kilogram. In all of the coatings, PbO was the component primarily responsible for the lubricating properties. Oxides other than PbO had an indirect effect on lubrication by influencing such properties as adhesion, hardness, vitrifying or glaze-forming tendency, melting or softening point, and chemical stability of the coatings. Notable among these oxides were magnetite (Fe3O4.), which had generally a beneficial influence on ceramic- to-metal adhesion, and silica (SiO2), which inhibited the oxidation of PbO and enhanced the tendency for glaze formation on the sliding surfaces. Several of the compositions studied provided protection against metal-to-metal adhesive wear, galling, or seizure at test temperatures from 750 to 1250 F. Coating friction coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 at 75 F but were around 0.08 to 0.20 at temperatures of 1250 F.

Sliney, Harold E.

1959-01-01

310

A review of lubrication and preformance issues in refrigeration systems using an HFC (R-134a) refrigerant  

SciTech Connect

It has been considered critical for refrigerant and compressor lubricant to be miscible with each other over part of the range of operating conditions of refrigerant systems. Adequate miscibility, many believe, provides oil return to the compressor. Presently, synthetic polyol esters have been selected for use with HFC refrigerants, such as R-134a, which are considered appropriate alternatives to CFCs. The authors will review the mechanical issues in miscible vs non-miscible naphthenic hydrocarbon oil-based lubricants. Extensive lab, test stand and cabinet testing has been conducted and data will be presented which show responsible and predictable performance based on the chemical and physical properties of the lubricant and refrigerant. Many non-miscible systems show satisfactory performance with the proper selection of lubricant, additives and mechanical configuration. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.; Eckard, A.; Flak, T.; Tritak, T. [Witco Corporation, Oakland, NJ (United States)

1996-04-01

311

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992March 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow

1993-01-01

312

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01

313

Extreme pressure properties of multi-component oil-based nanofluids.  

PubMed

Multi-component oil-based nanofluids were prepared by dispersing two different carbons and silver nanoparticles in lubricating oil; then, their tribological properties were investigated using a four-ball tribotester and FZG machine. Each nanofluid demonstrated excellent wear resistance or extreme pressure (EP) properties, but not both properties simultaneously. Therefore, a new concept of a mixed nanofluid was developed to satisfy the wear and EP properties. The multi-component mixed nanofluids containing graphite and Ag nanoparticles not only demonstrated enhanced load carrying and anti-wear properties, but also reduced the electric power consumption by more than 4.8% compared with the base oil in the FZG test. PMID:22849096

Choi, Cheol; Jung, Mihee

2012-04-01

314

Response surface methodology for eicosanoic acid triboproperties in castor oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology with Box–Benhken (BB) design of experiment is utilized to study the antiwear (AW) and lubricity properties of eicosanoic acid in biodegradable castor oil base-stock and the results were compared with those of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDTP) and octadecanoic acid. The designs utilize load, additive concentration and temperature to develop models for the antiwear and lubricity response in a

C. V. Ossia; H. G. Han; H. Kong

2009-01-01

315

TECHNICAL NOTE: Capacitive Coulter counting: detection of metal wear particles in lubricant using a microfluidic device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microfluidic device based on the capacitance Coulter counting principle to detect metal debris particles in lubricant oil is presented. The device scans each individual metal debris particle as they pass through a microfluidic channel by monitoring the capacitance change. We first proved the feasibility of using the capacitance Coulter counting principle for detecting metal particles in a fluidic channel. Next, we tested the microfluidic device with aluminum abrasive particles ranging from 10 to 25 µm the testing results show the microfluidic device is capable of detecting metal wear particles in low-conductive lubricant oil. The design concept demonstrated here can be extended to a device with multiple microchannels for rapid detection of metal wear particles in a large volume of lubricant oil.

Murali, Srinidhi; Xia, Xingao; Jagtiani, Ashish V.; Carletta, Joan; Zhe, Jiang

2009-03-01

316

Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

1986-01-01

317

Phosphate based oil well cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

Natarajan, Ramkumar

318

New Vapor/Mist Phase Lubricant Formulated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet the increased thermal stresses of future advanced aircraft engines, new lubricants will have to be developed to replace the currently used ester-based liquid lubricants. If a suitable conventional replacement cannot be found, a different lubrication method will have to be used. The conventional method circulates bulk lubricant (stored in a sump) through a lubricating system containing cooling and filtering elements. Solid lubricants have been studied as a replacement for bulk liquid lubricants, and have been found to provide reasonable lubrication for lightly loaded systems. Solid lubricants, however, have proved inadequate for highly loaded, high-speed applications. Vapor/mist phase lubrication (VMPL), on the other hand, may be a viable alternative. VMPL has been used successfully to lubricate high-temperature bearings or gears. It can be used as an emergency backup system or as the primary source of lubrication. With VMPL, minimal weight is added to the system and minimal debris is formed. It works over a wide temperature range.

Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

1999-01-01

319

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, June 1991--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

Lagow, R.J.

1992-03-01

320

The influence of viscosity on the friction in lubricated DLC contacts at various sliding velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings are one of the promising types of protective coatings for various mechanical applications, including those under lubricated conditions. In recent years the research focus of lubricated DLC contacts has been primarily on the chemical aspects of lubrication, while the physical properties of the oils and the other physical lubrication aspects were to a large extent neglected. In

I. Velkavrh; M. Kalin; J. Vižintin

2009-01-01

321

Scuffling modeling and experiments for heavily loaded elastohydrodynamic lubrication contacts  

SciTech Connect

The Lubrication breakdown leading to rapid adhesive wear in rolling and sliding contacts is known as scuffing. This breakdown occurs when the asperity oil film, surface film, and oxide film on the asperities cease to be effective. Scuffing experiments were conducted on a twin disk machine using straight mineral oil. The experimental results were correlated with a new scuffing model based on adsorption and desorption theory. They were also correlated with the existing theories based on the breakdown of the hydrodynamics lubrication film and protective surface film. In order to test out the validity of the scuffing models, the partial ehl (elastohydrodynamic lubrication) for line contacts was solved using a newly developed concept, average gap. The effect of surface roughness on lubrication was taken into account by digitizing the actual profiles of the mating surfaces and mathematically simulating the contacts between them. A method of calculating the asperity flash temperature distributions in partial ehl contacts is formulated- I the necessary inputs for the flash temperature calculations are taken from the results of rough surface contact simulations and partial ehl calculations. Both the flash temperatures and partial ehl solutions are necessary in testing out the validity of the scuffing theories.

Lee, S.C.

1989-01-01

322

Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

2005-01-01

323

Linear variable filter based oil condition monitoring systems for offshore windturbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major part of future renewable energy will be generated in offshore wind farms. The used turbines of the 5 MW class and beyond, often feature a planetary gear with 1000 liters lubricating oil or even more. Monitoring the oil aging process provides early indication of necessary maintenance and oil change. Thus maintenance is no longer time-scheduled but becomes wear

Benjamin R. Wiesent; Daniel G. Dorigo; Özlem Simsek; Alexander W. Koch

2011-01-01

324

Tethered Lubricants  

SciTech Connect

We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

Archer, Lynden

2010-09-15

325

Lubricating Grease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grease lubrication is a complex mixture of science and engineering, requires an interdisciplinary approach, and is applied to the majority of bearings worldwide. Grease can be more than a lubricant; it is often expected to perform as a seal, corrosion inhibitor, shock absorber and a noise suppressant. It is a viscoelastic plastic solid, therefore, a liquid or solid, dependent upon the applied physical conditions of stress and/or temperature, with a yield value, ? o. It has a coarse structure of filaments within a matrix. The suitability of flow properties of a grease for an application is best determined using a controlled stress rheometer for the frequency response of parameters such as yield, ? o, complex shear modulus, G * , phase angle, ?, and the complex viscosity, ? *.

Gow, G.

326

Radiolysis of synthetic oils based on polyalphaolefins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiolysis of a number of synthetic oils based on polyalphaolefins (WM-5, PAO-2, PAO-4, PAO-6, and PAO-8) has been studied.\\u000a The radiation-chemical yields of hydrogen, low-and high-molecular-weight products (up to C100) are reported. So, for PAO-4 oil (composition of the oil: 80 % of C30, 13 % of C40, 3 % of C50) the yields of products of radiolysis (1\\/100 eV)

A. Olejniczak; A. G. Shostenko; S. Truszkowski; J. Fall

2008-01-01

327

Oil-based mud reduces borehole problems  

SciTech Connect

Esso Resources Canada Ltd. used a low-toxicity, oil-based drilling fluid to drill a directional delineation well in the Beaufort Sea in the Spring of 1985. Because of virtual elimination of severe hole problems that were encountered previously with water-based mud, the company drilled three more with oil-based muds. Experience to date indicates that, although significant hole condition improvements will be realized with oil mud, hole stability may continue to be a problem in Beaufort drilling. The case history of these wells drilled with oil-based mud is highlighted with insights into the regulatory process in this first of two articles on Beaufort drilling. The second will focus on a technical review of oil retention on cuttings and solids control equipment and operation.

Johancsik, C.A.; Grieve, W.R.

1987-04-27

328

Synthetic metallic dialkydithiocarbamates as antiwear and extreme-pressure additives for lubricating oils: Role of metal on their effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Dialkydithiocarbamates of five metals have been synthesized in pure form by following a simple general method. The alkyl chain in each of these compounds has been kept the same so as to observe the performance variations due to metal ions. The EP properties expressed as load wear index and weld load indicated the highest performance by Bi followed by Pb, Sb, Zn and Mo. The antiwear properties in terms of wear scar diameter, relative anti-wear effectiveness and mean average wear scar diameter show a performance order of Bi > Pb > Sb > Zn > Mo. The large ionic radius metals (Bi, Pb & Sb) had the best overall load-carrying performance and their effectiveness increased substantially when the additive concentration was more than 0.004 gm atom/Kg. The results suggest that Bi has good potential to replace toxic Pb and Sb from existing lubrication systems. 18 refs., 7 refs., 1 tab.

Tuli, D.K.; Sarin, R.; Gupta, A.K. [Indian Oil Corporation, Faridabad (India)] [and others

1995-04-01

329

Preparation and tribological properties of water-soluble copper/silica nanocomposite as a water-based lubricant additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and its ultraviolet-visible light spectrum was measured in relation to surface plasmon excitation of Cu particles. The tribological properties of as-synthesized Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite as an additive in distilled water were investigated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that as-synthesized Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite as a lubricant additive is able to significantly improve the tribological properties of distilled water. A protective and lubricious film composed of Cu and a small amount of FeS, FeSO4 and SiO2 is formed on steel sliding surfaces lubricated by distilled water containing Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite. During friction process Cu nanoparticles can be released from Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite to fill up micro-pits and grooves of steel sliding surfaces, resulting in greatly reduced friction and wear of steel frictional pair via self-repairing. The state and thickness of the film formed on the worn surface is closely related to applied load; and Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite might be a promising water-based lubricant additive for steel-steel contact subjected to moderate load.

Zhang, Chunli; Zhang, Shengmao; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Pingyu

2012-10-01

330

Fuels, combustion, and lubrication  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceeding of this ASME in fuels, combustion, and lubrication. Topics covered include: combustion efficiency on residual fuels; marine diesel lubricants; uses and abuses; synthetic lubricants for high output medium-speed diesels.

Goyal, M.R. (John Deere Product Engineering Center (US))

1990-01-01

331

Lubricant Evaluation and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort involved the development of improved methods for defining and measuring turbine engine lubricant performance and the development of improved techniques for lubricant monitoring, lubrication system health monitoring, investigating antiwear char...

C. S. Saba H. A. Smith M. A. Keller R. E. Kauffman V. K. Jain

1989-01-01

332

An investigation into the molecular stability of zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphates (ZDDPs) in relation to their use as anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives in lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic energies and structures of the monomeric, neutral and basic forms of the important lubricating oil additive zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphate (ZDDP) are examined by molecular optimisation techniques using semi-empirical quantum chemistry calculations (MNDO). The optimised geometries reveal good agreement with known crystallographic data. The molecular stability is found to be highest for the basic form of ZDDP. For all forms,

D. R Armstrong; E. S Ferrari; K. J Roberts; D Adams

1997-01-01

333

Gearing up for synthetic lubricants  

SciTech Connect

Much of today's plant machinery operates at faster speeds, closer tolerances and higher temperatures than ever before. Without the help of lubricants to reduce wear, remove heat, and prevent corrosion, the chemical process industries would grind to a halt. Traditional, petroleum-derived products--called mineral oils-- have long starred in these roles. But today, synthetics, such as polyalphaolefins, carboxylic acid esters, phosphate esters and polyglycols are stealing the limelight, thanks to their inherent resistance to oxidation and hydrolysis and their extended range of service temperatures. The paper reviews the advantages of the synthetic lubricants.

Shelley, S.

1993-07-01

334

Formation mechanism of electrical damage on sliding lubricated contacts for steel pair under DC electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic electrical pitting tester has been developed to investigate the effects of supply voltage, supply current, and oil film thickness on the electrical behavior, the normal and frictional forces, and the formation mechanism of electric damage for the sliding lubricated contacts of steel pair under DC electric field. Based on the experimental results for the normal and frictional forces,

Yuang-Cherng Chiou; Rong-Tsong Lee; Sing-Ming Lin

2009-01-01

335

Evaluation of High-Temperature Lubricant Under Cyclic Operating Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of a candidate high-temperature lubricant was determined under cyclic operating conditions of idle, maximum torque, and maximum power at intermediate and high oil temperatures. The results were compared with previous oil performance result...

E. A. Frame D. M. Yost

1995-01-01

336

MSTD CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-08-1715, Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and for Lubricant Additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and mos...

J. Qu M. B. Viola

2013-01-01

337

Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced. PMID:18163578

Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

2008-02-01

338

An investigation of fretting behaviour of several synthetic base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and physical properties are quite different for mineral oil and synthetic oil. Compared to the investigation of mineral oil, less work on fretting behaviour of synthetic oils was reported. In this paper, a study of typical synthetic base oils such as polyalkylene glycol (PAG), polyalphaolefin (PAO) and silicone oil has been conducted. The contact consisted of a fixed

Z. A. Wang; Z. R. Zhou

2009-01-01

339

Engine Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

1993-01-01

340

Influence of lubricant properties on elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hard EHL, encountered in, e.g., gears, rolling element bearings etc. the properties of the lubricant play a significant role in the forming of a lubricating film and reducing friction between the contacting surfaces. The influence of pressure and temperature on viscosity, limiting shear stress and density, has to be taken into account when creating lubricant models to be used

Erik Höglund

1999-01-01

341

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the Shell staff who thought that esters of perfluoro salicylic acid might be an excellent antifriction additive for motor oil fuels. One of the best additives currently used in motor oils is the hydrocarbon ester of salicylic acid.

Lagow, Richard J.

1993-04-08

342

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 deg C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1986-01-01

343

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium-carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, Chris; Sliney, Harold E.

1987-01-01

344

Phosphate based oil well cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement

Ramkumar Natarajan

2005-01-01

345

Subchronic Delayed Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Jet Engine Lubricants Containing Phosphorus Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic polyol-based lubricating oils containing 3% of either commercial tricresyl phosphate (TCP), triphenylphosphorothionate (TPPT), or butylated triphenyl phosphate (BTP) additive were evaluated for neurotoxicity in the adult hen using clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological endpoints. Groups of 17–20 hens were administered the oils by oral gavage at a “limit dose” of 1 g\\/kg, 5 days a week for 13 weeks. A

Wayne Daughtrey; Robert Biles; Bernard Jortner; Marion Ehrich

1996-01-01

346

Lubrication of space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1994-01-01

347

Engine-Fuel-Lubricant Compatibility Tests on MIL-L-2104C Oils Using Engine Model 6V53T and NATO F-54 Diesel Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final three tests in a series of 13 engine-fuel-lubricant compatibility tests were completed using the Army's high-output two-cycle diesel engine model 6V53T. In the earlier tests in this series, two MIL-L-2104C lubricants (low and mid-ash level) prod...

S. J. Lestz J. N. Bowden

1975-01-01

348

Rheology and elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

SciTech Connect

This book summarizes progress in this field during the last 25 years. The author intends `a description of a large part of the current knowledge about lubricant rheology, elastohydrodynamic lubrication and the effects of surface roughness and particulate contamination in the lubricant on the overall behavior of a heavily loaded lubricated contact.` Jacobson reviews specialized theological models for shearing flows of liquid lubricants and discusses their role in analyses of elastohydrodynamic lubrication. However, the author succeeds best while drawing heavily on his own research to measure lubricant behavior at elevated pressures and to describe wear processes in rolling bearings.

Jacobson, B.O.

1991-12-31

349

Physical and chemical properties of refrigeration lubricants  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of refrigeration lubricants are discussed. Although much attention has been focused on the performance of candidate lubricants for use with hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in order to obtain satisfactory lubrication performance in compressors, the properties of the lubricants themselves have not been well discussed. In this paper, the properties of refrigeration lube base stocks and of lube-refrigerant mixtures are described, specifically the viscosity, density, and refrigerant solubility, the change in viscosity and density due to solution with HFCs, and the insulation properties of the base stocks and the refrigerant mixture.

Sunami, Motoshi

1999-07-01

350

Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

Rosenlieb, J. W.

1976-01-01

351

Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

Townsend, D. P.

1985-01-01

352

Future Issues and Approaches to Health Monitoring and Failure Prevention for Oil-Free Gas Turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent technology advances in foil air bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of small Oil-Free gas turbines. These turbomachines are currently commercialized as small (<100 kW) microturbine ...

C. DellaCorte

2004-01-01

353

Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

Sliney, Harold E.

1962-01-01

354

An accelerated life test model for solid lubricated bearings based on dependence analysis and proportional hazard effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid lubricated bearings are important mechanical components in space, and accelerated life tests (ALT) of them are widely conducted. ALT model is needed to give the lifetime of solid lubricated bearings with ALT data, and former accelerated life test models of solid lubricated models are mainly statistical models, while physical models can imply an understanding of the failure mechanism and are preferred whenever possible. This paper proposes a physical model, which is called copula dependent proportional hazards model. A solid lubricated bearing is considered as a system consisting of several dependent items and Clayton copula function is used to describe the dependence. Proportional hazard effect is also considered to build the model. An ALT of solid lubricated bearing is carried out and the results show that this model is effective.

Zhang, Chao; Wang, Shaoping; Bai, Guanghan

2014-02-01

355

The Elastohydrodynamic Traction of Synthetic Base Oil Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) properties of lubricant blends. Three base fluids of very similar viscosities, a polyalphaolefin, a diester and an alky lated aromatic, have been obtained and their EHD film thickness and traction behavior measured at a range of pressures. Blends of these fluids have been prepared and the influence of blending

A. R. Lafountain; G. J. Johnston; H. A. Spikes

2001-01-01

356

Enhanced oil recovery projects data base  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

1992-04-01

357

Effect of fuel and lubricant composition on engine deposit formation  

SciTech Connect

All primary chemical reactants, including fuel, base oil, lubricant additives and air, were evaluated and considered as possible sources or causes of deposits. Tendencies of deposit formation could be determined in a 48-hour test using a modified single cylinder CLR oil test engine under conditions which had been found to give a high blow-by rate and produce a crankcase atmosphere rich in nitrogen oxides and incompletely burned or raw fuel. In the engine tests of this study, incomplete combustion of fuel was found to contribute more to deposits than decomposition of lubricant. Olefins caused heavier deposits than other types of fuel hydrocarbons. Deposits were formed in oxidations and condensations where nitrogen oxides acted as radical initiators but the structure and elemental composition of the polymeric deposits showed that low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in blow-by are more readily included in their formation than nitrated intermediates. The crankcase oil is a reaction medium for the blow-by components. The oxidatively stable synthetic oils minimized varnish but esters accumulated much more pentane-insolubles than polyalphaolefins or alkylbenzenes. The relatively less stable mineral oils are mixtures of many different hydrocarbon types, where the oxidative stability is determined by the least stable components. They reacted first and promoted further oxidation. Consequently, a used oil may be considered to consist of a small amount of less stable hydrocarbons which have been oxidized and a bulk of relatively stable unchanged hydrocarbons. Thus, used oils could be purified, distilled and hydrofinished to give recycled oils which were oxidatively more stable than the virgin 240 neutral mineral base oil.

Spilners, I.J.; Hedenburg, J.F.

1981-03-01

358

Fire-retardant lubricant for turbine generators. Final report. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The use of a fire resistant fluid in steam turbine generator lubrication systems would reduce the fire risks associated with current mineral lubricating oils. This project was directed toward determining the fesibility of modifying an existing Westinghouse lubrication system to use a phosphate ester lubricating fluid. The effects of the fluid on major components of the lubrication system including oil supply system, bearings, and generator hydrogen seal system were investigated. Performance and material compatibility impact on system components are identified and modifications recommended where required. Estimates of major modification costs are presented. The results of this study indicate that, with appropriate system modifications, a phosphate ester fluid can be an effective and reliable steam turbine generator lubricant. Recommendations are presented for component verification testing.

Pankowiecki, J.

1983-01-01

359

Influence of Lubricant Additives on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Compressor parts under the Alternative Refrigerant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the standpoint of lubricative deficit under the alternative refrigerant/lubricants coexistence, the influence of additives on friction and wear characteristics for compressor parts have been investigated by the wear tester reappeared on friction condition similarly to actual compressor. It has been shown that an ester type base oil containing TCP (tricresyl phosphate) as an extreme pressure agents indicates satisfactory lubrication because of its EP effect. However owning to the deterioration of base oil caused by a cresol which is a reactant of TCP, a hydrolysis inhibitor must be necessary. The results indicates that a hydrolysis inhibitor added to POE is able to not only prevent the base oil from deteriorating but also feed the strength into oil films. On the other hands, in such a case that TCP concentration added in an alkylbenzen type base oil is excess or wear track temperature is higher, wear amounts of compressor parts are increased on account of corrosion wear. The reactivity of TCP depends on wear track temperature and its concentration. Consequently, it is possible that EP effect of TCP has been considered in terms of its concentration and temperature to be appropriated.

Yamaguchi, Hidehiro; Imai, Hachiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Ueki, Yutaka; Takizawa, Kikuo; Fukushima, Kiyoshi

360

New generalized rheological model for lubrication of a ball spinning in a nonconforming groove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elastohydrodynamic theory for predicting the spinning friction of a ball in a nonconforming groove was modified to incorporate a rheological model. The rheological model is based on the exponential pressure viscosity relation for low shear stresses, but at high shear rates and pressures, the relation is altered to one in which the shear stress is porportional to the normal stress. The model was fitted to experimental spinning torques for four different lubricants: a synthetic paraffinic lubricant, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate, a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil, and a polyphenyl ether (5P4E). Good agreement between the model and experiment was found.

Allen, C. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

361

Self lubricating composites for medium temperatures in space based on polyimide SINTIMID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is surveying the results of an ESA-project on a polyimide composite named "SINTIMID". The main target was to find a self lubricating composite (SLC) which is suitable for missions to the inner solar system, where operating temperatures up to 300°C in vacuum are expected. The paper comprises a short introduction into the requirements derived from ECSS for SLC material intended for use in journal bearings working in space. It covers a brief description of new equipments for medium temperatures "vacuum tribometer" and "Journal Bearing Test rig". The presented results will cover mainly the friction and wear behaviour and component test performance. The influences of parameters like load, speed, atmosphere and temperature are discussed and compared to other already known materials, e.g. Vespel SP3. The verification procedure included three phases: a screening on several compositions with different fillers and combinations, a detailed friction test campaign on two best compositions (15M and 30M) and a final bush testing on only the best (15M=15w% MoS2). All material properties in relation to ECSS E30 were verified. No objections to the requirements were identified. Finally, a recommendation for design of bushes was set up on the results.

Merstallinger, A.; Bieringer, H.; Kubinger, E.; Gaillard, L.; Brenner, J.; Mozdzen, G.

2005-07-01

362

Lubricant Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of their thermal stability, perfluorinated polyalkylether fluids possess a great potential for use as engine oils, hydraulic fluids and greases. However, a serious drawback in their use results from the fact that metals, e.g., certain ones present...

K. J. L. Paciorek

1979-01-01

363

Vegetable based cutting fluid - an environmental alternative to grinding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of lubricants like, cutting fluids was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base Fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited

Salete Martins Alves

364

Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Truhan, John J. [Caterpillar Inc.

2009-01-01

365

Tribological behaviour of an elastomer aged in different oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the influence of aging the nitrile rubber, the most popular seal material, in various base fluids on sliding friction and abrasive wear. The lubricants used are synthetic esters, natural esters, different types of mineral base oils, poly-?-olefins and very high viscosity index oils. Friction has been studied for two directions of motion with respect to lay on

Mohammadreza Mofidi; Elisabet Kassfeldt; Braham Prakash

2008-01-01

366

Optimizing the sound radiation of oil pan based on ANSYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on FEM\\/BEM method, the oil pan models on the finite element and the semi-anechoic chamber boundary element were established. Based on the oil pan models and the engine operating conditions, the oil pan structure had been improved. Using ANSYS software, the oil pan models were optimized, the effect on reducing vibration and sound radiation were predicted by increasing the

Hu Ming-jiang; Qi Li-qiao

2010-01-01

367

Rapid analysis of lubricants by atmospheric solid analysis probe-ion mobility mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Formulated lubricants are complex mixtures composed of base oil(s) and additives with various functions (detergents, corrosion inhibiter, antioxidant, viscosity modifiers, etc.). Because of the aliphatic nature of base oil and the chemical diversity of additives, the characterization of lubricant is currently a long and complex process. The comprehensive analysis of lubricant samples involves several techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The coupling of atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) with ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has been shown to be an efficient tool for the characterization of complex mixture containing vaporizable polar to non-polar compounds. This approach affords the coupling of a direct ionization technique that does not require sample preparation, with a bi-dimensional separation method with high peak capacity. In this work, we show that ASAP-IM-MS is a suitable method for rapid and direct characterization of lubricant samples. Indeed, base oil and additives yielded, by ASAP, ions series which could be separated by IM-MS. Molecular additives such as Zn-dithiocarbamate, phosphite, thiophosphate and Alkyl diphenylamine were ionized as molecular ions [M](+•) or protonated molecules [M?+?H](+) , depending of their polarity. In some cases, fragment ions were observed, confirming the additive identification. In addition, high molecular weight polymeric additives such as poly(alkyl methacrylate) (PAM) were pyrolized in the ASAP source leading to characteristic fragment ions. ASAP-IM-MS is shown to be a powerful tool for studying complex mixtures, allowing the first comprehensive analysis of lubricants in just a few minutes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044898

Barrère, Caroline; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Afonso, Carlos; Racaud, Amandine

2014-08-01

368

Semisynthetic motor oils derived from high paraffinic petroleum base stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To prepare semi-synthetic oils satisfying the classification API SF\\/CC and SAE 10W30 from mineral base oils derived from high paraffinic petroleum, synthetic alkylbenzenes base oils, and suitable additives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The mixtures of base mineral oils of deep hydro-isomerization derived from high-paraffinic petroleum (viscosity at 100°C is 12.5 cSt) and the mixtures of the synthetic alkyl aromatics oils

F. T. Sejidov; Y. Mansoori

2007-01-01

369

Biodegradation of a synthetic lubricant by Micrococcus roseus  

SciTech Connect

The loss of large quantities of lubricants, both synthetic and mineral oil based, is causing increasing concern because they are not only an unquantified hazard to the environment, but also a potential hazard to the long-term health of people. This study examines the metabolic pathways and eventual fate of synthetic lubricants in micoorganisms involved in biodegradation. The synthetic ester Emkarate 1550 (E1550), which includes a tertiary alcohol (TMP), and the bacterium, Micrococcus roseus were used in the experiments. The results indicate that M. roseus cleaves the E1550 ester by the action of esterases bound to the surface of the cell, with the products released into the surrounding medium. The organic acids, octaoate and decanoate, are taken up and metabolized, whereas the TMP (1,1,1-tri(hydroxymethyl)propane) component is not metabolized and accumulates in the medium. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Wright, M.A.; Taylor, F.; Brown, D.E.; Higgins, I.J. (Cranfield Inst. of Technology (United Kingdom)); Randles, S.J. (ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd., Middlesbrough (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01

370

Shielded Bearing Lubrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precise quantities of lubricant under automatic control are injected through chambers of housings into shielded rolling element bearings. Separate feed line conduits directly deliver the lubricant to the shielded critical surfaces of such bearings and ins...

J. A. Wong T. L. Daugherty G. D. Huntzberry

1996-01-01

371

Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

1986-01-01

372

Vegetable-oil-based dielectric coolants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical transformer insulation systems are evaluated based on economic, safety, and environmental standpoints using total life cycle analysis. Because of the inherent high efficiency of liquid-cooled transformer designs, new developments focus on improving the environmental and safety properties of fire resistant (less-flammable, high fire point) fluids. This article reports the latest findings on dielectric systems using natural ester (vegetable oil)

C. P. McShane

2002-01-01

373

Powder-lubricated piston ring development. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder l...

H. Heshmat

1991-01-01

374

Review of liquid lubricant thermal\\/oxidative degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers. Experimental techniques for determining thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is also covered.

W. R. Jr

1983-01-01

375

Lubricating Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thickener for transformer, gear, cylinder, and turbine oils is composed of the neutral salts of N-tallow-1, 3-diaminopropane and dicarboxylic acid, N-tallow-1,3diaminopropane and a mixed mono- and dialkyl acid orthophosphate, and a phenolic antioxidant....

E. J. Latos A. J. Guarnaccio

1965-01-01

376

Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.  

SciTech Connect

During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1999-03-30

377

Polymeric particle acid neutralizers with reactive epoxy core for engine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a lubricating oil composition which consist of a major proportion of a lubricating base oil and about 0.1 to 15 weight percent of an acid neutralizing additive which is made up of polymer particles (a) bearing pendant epoxide groups, and (b) having a diameter of about 500-10,000 A. The particles are formed by the free radical addition

A. N. Theodore; M. S. Chattha

1986-01-01

378

Water as a lubricant for Stirling air engines: design considerations and operating experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air is favoured as the working fluid for large, slow-running Stirling engines. Lubricating oil entering the working space could combine with compressed, heated air to form a mixture capable of spontaneous combustion. To preclude this possibility, water may be used as the lubricant in Stirling air engines. This paper reviews the lubrication requirements of Stirling air engines and the potential

O. R. Fauvel; J. van Benthem; G. Walker

1983-01-01

379

Lubricants and greases: Properties and evaluation. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning a variety of lubricants, including synthetic oils and greases. Topics include properties characterization, additives, rheological studies, and uses. Bearing and gear lubricants are discussed, and lubricant testing methods are described. Some attention is given to specific applications in industry. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1998-02-01

380

Tribological Characteristics and Cutting Performance of Lubricant Esters for Semidry Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semi-dry machining, such as minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, a very small amount of a lubricant plays an Important role to achieve a successful operation. This study investigates the tribological behavior of lubricants for semi-dry application in connection with their cutting performance. In MQL turning, synthetic biodegradable esters are superior to a vegetable oil and provide the satisfactory cutting

T. Wakabayashi; I. Inasaki; S. Suda; H. Yokota

2003-01-01

381

Effect of lubricant viscosity grade on mechanical vibration of roller bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to characterize vibration behavior of roller bearings as a function of lubricant viscosity. Experimental tests were performed in NU205 roller bearings, lubricated with mineral oil of three different viscosity grades (ISO 10, 32 and 68). The mechanical vibration was determined through the processing and analysis of bearing radial vibration data, obtained from each of the lubrication conditions,

R. Serrato; M. M. Maru; L. R. Padovese

2007-01-01

382

Solid Lubricant For Alumina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outer layer of silver lubricates, while intermediate layer of titanium ensures adhesion. Lubricating outer films of silver deposited on thin intermediate films of titanium on alumina substrates found to reduce sliding friction and wear. Films provide effective lubrication for ceramic seals, bearings, and other hot sliding components in advanced high-temperature engines.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

1993-01-01

383

Composition optimization of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program to determine the optimum composition of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for compliant gas bearings is described. The friction and wear properties of the coatings are evaluated using a foil gas bearing test apparatus. The various coatings were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized nickel-chromium alloy foils. The test bearings were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14 kPa (2 psi) bearing unit load. The bearings were tested for 9000 start/stop cycles or until the specimen wear reached a predetermined failure level. In general, the addition of silver and eutectic to the chromium carbide base stock significantly reduced foil wear and increased journal coating wear. The optimum coating composition, PS212 (70 wt% metal bonded Cr3C2, 15 wt% Ag, 15% BaF2/CaF2 eutectic), reduced foil wear by a factor of two and displayed coating wear well within acceptable limits. The load capacity of the bearing using the plasma-sprayed coating prior to and after a run-in period was ascertained and compared to polished Inconel 718 specimens.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1987-01-01

384

Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

2013-05-01

385

Vegetable oil-based printing inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 75 black and 25 colored inks consisting of 100% vegetable oil-based vehicles were formulated. The physical properties\\u000a of these inks met or exceeded the industry standards for lithographic and letterpress newsprint applications. In addition,\\u000a elimination of petroleum-based resin and reduced pigment usage, due to the light vehicle color, provided a competitively priced\\u000a alternative to petroleumbased inks.

S. Z. Erhan; M. O. Bagby; H. W. Cunningham

1992-01-01

386

Prediction of scuffing failure based on competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal: Application to lubricated sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for predicting scuffing failure based on the competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal has been developed and applied to the sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel with poly-alpha-olefin as the lubricant. Oxide formation rates were determining using static oxidation tests on coupons of 52100 steel covered with poly-alpha-olefin at temperatures of 140 C to 250 C.

Eric C. Cutiongco; Yip-Wah Chung

1994-01-01

387

Lubricant degradation and related wear of a steel pin in lubricated sliding against a steel disc.  

PubMed

In lubricated sliding contacts, components wear out and the lubricating oil ages with time. The present work explores the interactive influence between lubricant aging and component wear. The flat face of a steel pin is slid against a rotating steel disk under near isothermal conditions while the contact is immersed in a reservoir of lubricant (hexadecane). The chemical changes in the oil with time are measured by vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The corresponding chemistry of the pin surface is recorded using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy while the morphology of the worn pins; surface and subsurface, are observed using a combination of focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy. When compared to thermal auto-oxidation of the lubricant alone, steel on steel friction and wear are found to accentuate the decomposition of oil and to reduce the beneficial impact of antioxidants. The catalytic action of nascent iron, an outcome of pin wear and disk wear, is shown to contribute to this detrimental effect. Over long periods of sliding, the decomposition products of lubricant aging on their own, as well as in conjunction with their products of reaction with iron, generate a thick tribofilm that is highly protective in terms of friction and wear. PMID:21682303

Singh, Archana; Gandra, Ravi T; Schneider, Eric W; Biswas, Sanjay K

2011-07-01

388

Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.  

PubMed

The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks. PMID:21178313

Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

2011-01-01

389

Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.  

PubMed

Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C?C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed. PMID:21428293

Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

2011-05-11

390

Microcomputer Simulation of Lubricant Degradation in Turbine Engines Using Laboratory Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FORTRAN, MS-DOS operating system algorithm was constructed and implemented to predict ester-based lubricant behavior in a turbine engine. Input data consists of selected lubricant flow rates, bulk lubricant and bearing temperatures, and laboratory generated data. Execution of the program uses lubricant property data as a function of time at several temperatures to produce mathematical functions describing total acid number,

F. Dean Price; Phillip W. Centers

1989-01-01

391

Review of Liquid Lubricant Thermal/Oxidative Degradation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated ...

W. R. Jones

1983-01-01

392

Synthetic Base Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated\\u000a aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and\\u000a phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene\\u000a ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance

M. Brown; J. D. Fotheringham; T. J. Hoyes; R. M. Mortier; S. T. Orszulik; S. J. Randles; P. M. Stroud

393

The effect of lubricant additives on fretting wear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of lubricant additives on fretting wear has been investigated using a ball-on-plate machine. The test results confirm that the antiwear additives, e.g. phospho-sulphurized terpene, sulphurized esters and sulphurized paraffins, are effective in reducing friction and wear. Examination of worn surfaces by optical and electron microscope inspection indicated the presence of thin films which had been deposited under fretting action when using oils containing these additives. Unlubricated fretting wear occurred in the scuffing region. In contrast, the lubricated fretting wear with the lubricating oils containing the antiwear additives took place in the mixed lubrication region. In lubricated fretting wear, the size of the wear particles was smaller than with dry fretting wear.

Qiu, Y.; Roylance, B. J.

1992-10-01

394

Lubricant Effects on Efficiency of a Helicopter Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven different lubricants were used in efficiency tests conducted on the OH-58A helicopter main transmission using the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 hp torque regenerative helicopter transmission test stand. Tests were run at oil-in temperatures of 355 K and 372 K. The efficiency was calculated from a heat balance on the water running through an oil to water heat exchanger which the transmission was heavily insulated. Results show an efficiency range from 98.3% to 98.8% which is a 50% variation relative to the losses associated with the maximum efficiency measured. For a given lubricant, the efficiency increased as temperature increased and viscosity decreased. There were two exceptions which could not be explained. Between lubricants, efficiency was not correlated with viscosity. There were relatively large variations in efficiency with the different lubricants whose viscosity generally fell in the 5 to 7 centistoke range. The lubricants had no significant effect on the vibration signature of the transmission.

Mitchell, A. M.; Coy, J. J.

1982-01-01

395

Lubricant rheology applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viscosity measurements in a high pressure rheometer, elastohydrodynamic simulator studies (including the development of a temperature measuring technique), and analytical fluid modeling for elastohydrodynamic contacts are described. The more recent research which is described concerns infrared temperature measurements in elastohydrodynamic contacts and the exploration of the glassy state of lubricants. A correlation, of engineering significance, was made between transient surface temperature measurements and surface roughness profiles. Measurements of glass transitions of lubricants and the study of the effect of rate processes on materials lead to the conclusion that typical lubricants go into the glassy state as they pass through the contact region of typical elastohydrodynamic contacts.

Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

1977-01-01

396

Effect of Minimal Quantities of Lubricant in Micro Milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental, health, and waste disposal problems, which are associated with the conventional cooling technique, leads the\\u000a interest switched to minimum quantities of lubricant (MQL) in machining. In this study the consumption rate of cutting oil\\u000a is restricted to 1 mlh?1 against a benchmark flow rate of 42.0 lmin?1 in conventional cooling. The lubricating action of the cutting oil with extremely

J. R. S. Prakash; M. Rahman; A. Senthil Kumar; S. C. Lim

397

Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage  

PubMed Central

Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage that begins to explore and incorporate methods of lubrication.

McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

2012-01-01

398

Engineering lubrication in articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage that begins to explore and incorporate methods of lubrication. PMID:21955119

McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

2012-04-01

399

The Biodegradabilities of Different Oil-Based Fatliquors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradabilities of different oil-based fatliquors derived from rape oil, fish oil, castor oil or mineral oil variants\\u000a were investigated by evaluating the respiration curves, BOD5\\/COD values, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) removal ratios. Simultaneously, degradation kinetics\\u000a of the fatliquors were also studied. The results indicated that the BOD5\\/COD values and the COD and TOC removal

Zhaoyang Luo; Chunchun Xia; Haojun Fan; Xin Chen; Biyu Peng

2011-01-01

400

Tribological Properties of a Pennzane(Registered Trademark)-Based Liquid Lubricant (Disubstituted Alkylated Cyclopentane) for Low Temperature Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tribological properties of a disubstituted alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane (registered) Synthesized Hydrocarbon Fluid X-1000, are presented. This compound is a lower molecular weight version of the commonly used multiply alkylated cyclopentane, Pennzane X-2000, currently used in many space mechanisms. New, lower temperature applications will require liquid lubricants with lower viscosities and pour points and acceptable vapor pressures. Properties reported include: friction and wear studies and lubricated lifetime in vacuum; additionally, typical physical properties (i.e., viscosity-temperature, pour point, flash and fire point, specific gravity, refractive index, thermal properties, volatility and vapor pressure) are reported.

Venier, Clifford; Casserly, Edward W.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Marchetti, Mario; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

2002-01-01

401

Performance of Metal Cutting on Endmills Manufactured by Cooling-Air and Minimum Quantity Lubrication Grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grinding fluids have been commonly used during the grinding of tools for their cooling and lubricating effect since the hard, robust materials used for cutting tools are difficult to grind. Grinding fluids help prevent a drop in hardness due to burning of the cutting edge and keep chipping to an absolute minimum. However, there is a heightened awareness of the need to improve the work environment and protect the global environment. Thus, the present study is aimed at applying dry grinding, cooling-air grinding, cooling-air grinding with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and oil-based fluid grinding to manufacturing actual endmills (HSS-Co). Cutting tests were performed by a vertical machining center. The results indicated that the lowest surface inclination values and longest tool life were obtained by cooling-air grinding with MQL. Thus, cooling-air grinding with MQL has been demonstrated to be at least as effective as oil-based fluid grinding.

Inoue, Shigeru; Aoyama, Tojiro

402

Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Porous Self Lubricating Bearings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors made an experimental study of the conditions of lubrication in porous bearings manufactured by methods of powder metallurgy. The results are confronted with conclusions of other authors, and at the same time special attention is paid to proble...

J. Olexa L. Janicek S. Schenk

1972-01-01

403

Power ultrasound in fatliquor preparation based on vegetable oil for leather application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, power ultrasound has taken a significant place in chemical and physical activities of the process industries as an effective and non-polluting method of activation. Oil in water emulsions known as fatliquors are used for the lubrication of tanned leather fibres to get softness and also to improve the strength properties. In the present study, ultrasound has been

V. Sivakumar; R. Poorna Prakash; P. G. Rao; B. V. Ramabrahmam; G. Swaminathan

2008-01-01

404

Fabrication of novel graphene-fullerene hybrid lubricating films based on self-assembly for MEMS applications.  

PubMed

The novel graphene-C60 hybrid films have been fabricated successfully on silicon surfaces by a multistep self-assembly process, and showed synergistic effects beyond individual performance in micro/nano-tribological behaviors. It is expected that the graphene-C60 hybrid films may find wide applications as high performance lubricating films in MEMS. PMID:24257346

Pu, Jibin; Mo, Yufei; Wan, Shanhong; Wang, Liping

2014-01-14

405

Lubrication and Physical Properties of Fluorocarbon Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nine fluorocarbon fluids representing four classes of fluorinated organic liquids were compared with the base fluids for the present specification weapons lubricants. Wear, friction, load-carrying capacity, and physical property data show that several of ...

G. P. Murphy C. J. Quilty

1969-01-01

406

Qualification of oil-based tracer particles for heated Ludwieg tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation, insertion, pressurization and use of oil-based tracer particles is qualified for the application in heated flow facilities, typically hypersonic facilities such as Ludwieg tubes. The operative challenges are to ensure a sub-critical amount of seeding material in the heated part, to qualify the methods that are used to generate the seeding, pressurize it to storage tube pressure, as well as to test specific oil types. The mass of the seeding material is held below the lower explosion limit such that operation is safe. The basis for the tracers is qualified in off-situ particle size measurements. In the main part different methods and operational procedures are tested with respect to their ability to generate a suitable amount of seeding in the test section. For the best method the relaxation time of the tracers is qualified by the oblique shock wave test. The results show that the use of a special temperature resistant lubricant oil "Plantfluid" is feasible under the conditions of a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube with heated storage tube. The method gives high-quality tracers with high seeding densities. Although the experimental results of the oblique shock wave test differ from theoretical predictions of relaxation time, still the relaxation time of 3.2 ?s under the more dense tunnel conditions with 18 bar storage tube pressure is low enough to allow the use of the seeding for meaningful particle image velocimetry studies.

Casper, Marcus; Stephan, Sören; Scholz, Peter; Radespiel, Rolf

2014-06-01

407

Boundary lubrication: Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on boundary lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of boundary surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the boundary lubrication regime are considered.

Jones, W. R., Jr.

1982-01-01

408

Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

1985-01-01

409

Influence of service temperature on tribological characteristics of self-lubricant coatings: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-lubricating coatings have been widely used to reduce friction in moving machine assemblies. However, the tribological performance of these coatings is strongly dependent on the service temperature. In this paper, an extensive review pertaining to the influence of operating service temperature on tribological performance of self-lubricating coatings has been carried out. Based on the effective lubricating temperature range, the self-lubricating coatings developed in the past have been divided into three groups: low temperature lubricant coating (from -200°C to room temperature), moderate temperature lubricant coating (from room temperature to 500°C) and high temperature lubricant coating (> 500°C). Ideas concerning possible ways to extend the operating temperature range of self-lubricating coatings have been presented as follows: hybridized tribological coating, adaptive tribological coatings, and diffusion rate limited solid lubricant coating. In addition, a new self-lubricating coating formulation for potential application at a wide operating temperature range has been proposed.

Yang, Jun-Feng; Jiang, Yan; Hardell, Jens; Prakash, Braham; Fang, Qian-Feng

2013-03-01

410

DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION  

SciTech Connect

The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

Qu, Jun [ORNL

2012-01-01

411

Lubrication of gears. III  

SciTech Connect

An equation is presented for the calculation of that lubricant film thickness which determines whether lubricated gears will be operating in the boundary, elastohydrodynamic, or full-film lubrication regimes. This film thickness is essentially determined by the entraining velocity, lubricant viscosity, and pressure-viscosity coefficient, while the elastic properties of the gear teeth and its load have a relatively minor effect. The risk of scuffing incurred in a given case is also addressed by an equation for Block's (1937, 1970) flash temperature. 25 refs.

Errichello, R. (Geartech, Albany, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

412

Lubrication of Machine Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

Hamrock, B. J.

1984-01-01

413

Synthesis of UV-curable tung oil and UV-curable tung oil based alkyd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two UV-curable tung oil-based resins were synthesized via a Diels–Alder cycloaddition. An UV-curable tung oil (UVTO) was prepared from bodied tung oil and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA). An inhibitor, phenothiazine, was added to avoid homopolymerization of TMPTMA. The UV-curable tung oil alkyd (UVTA) was prepared from the monoglyceride process and then reacted with TMPTMA via the Diels–Alder reaction similar to the

Narin Thanamongkollit; Kent R. Miller; Mark D. Soucek

414

Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

1980-01-01

415

Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the bearing was turned at a rate of 200 RPM. The lubricator control was turned on at the beginning of the test, turned off for about 800 seconds, then turned on again. As shown in Figure 2, the controlled lubricator stabilized the torque in a low range, starting immediately after initial turn-on and immediately after resumption of the lubricator control.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

2005-01-01

416

Effect of Deaeration and Controlled Environments on the Performance of Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oxygen in lubricants on the wear of camshaft lobes and followers was investigated under air and either argon or nitrogen environments. The motored valve train wear tester was used as a wear tester. White oil, white oil containing Zinc Dithiophosphate (ZDP), and REO 200 were used as lubricants. Hydroperoxide was used as a contaminant for the tests

Hyun-Soo Hong

1992-01-01

417

Development of a new lean lubrication system for near dry machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimal quantity of lubricant supply (MQL) technique has been applied to environment friendly machining processes. However, in the MQL technique, a large volume of oil mist is discharged to the environment. In this paper, a new lean lubrication system for a near dry machining process called “direct oil drop supply system (DOS)” is proposed. The performance of the DOS

T. Aoyama; Y. Kakinuma; M. Yamashita; M. Aoki

2008-01-01

418

TECHNICAL NOTE: Inductive Coulter counting: detection and differentiation of metal wear particles in lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device based on an inductive Coulter counting principle for detecting metal particles in lubrication oil is presented. The device detects the passage of ferrous and nonferrous particles by monitoring the inductance change in a coil. First, the sensing principle is demonstrated at the mesoscale using a solenoid. Next, a small planar coil suitable for use in a microscale device is tested. Static tests are conducted on the planar coil using iron and aluminum particles ranging from 80 to 500 µm. The testing results show that the coil can be used to detect and distinguish ferrous and nonferrous metal particles in lubrication oil; such particles can be indicative of potential machine faults in rotating and reciprocating machinery. The design concept demonstrated here can be extended to a microfluidic device for real-time monitoring of ferrous and nonferrous wear debris particles.

Du, L.; Zhe, J.; Carletta, J. E.; Veillette, R. J.

2010-05-01

419

Commercialization of NASA PS304 Solid Lubricant Coating Enhanced by Fundamental Powder Flow Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a patented high-temperature solid lubricant coating, designated PS304, for reducing friction and wear in bearing systems. The material used to produce the coating is initially a blend of metallic and ceramic powders that are deposited on the bearing surface by the plasma spray process. PS304 was developed to lubricate foil air bearings in Oil-Free turbomachinery, where the moving surfaces are coated with a hydrodynamic air film except at the beginning and end of an operation cycle when the air film is not present. The coating has been successful in several applications including turbochargers, land-based turbines, and industrial drying furnace conveyor components, with current development activities directed at implementation in Oil-Free aeropropulsion engines.

Stanford, Malcolm K.

2003-01-01

420

Analysis of Reproducibility and Repeatability of Bearing-Lubricant Deposition Ratings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High temperature deposit and oil degradation characteristics of a series of turbojet lubricants were statistically analyzed. Intra-laboratory tests with three oils gave relatively large standard deviation values, but at the 95% probability level showed th...

J. C. Harris J. R. Gibson

1968-01-01

421

Upgrading fuel fractions in a re-refined oil process  

SciTech Connect

In a process for the re-refinement of used lubricating oil containing fuel fraction, an upgraded fuel fraction is provided by combining fuel fraction with demetallized lubricating oil prior to the hydrotreatment stage.

Tabler, D.T.; Howell, J.A.

1984-02-14

422

Inlet shear heating in elastohydrodynamic lubrication.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In elastohydrodynamic lubrication, the oil film thickness of rollers is controlled by the rate at which the oil is drawn into the conjunction of the disks by the moving surfaces of the rollers. The theory often assumes isothermal conditions in the inlet, although it can be shown that the maximum shear rate often exceeds 1,000,000 per sec, even in pure rolling. A theoretical analysis is presented for the oil temperature rise in the inlet of rollers, and the result is applied to predict the consequent film thickness. It is found that thermal effects on film thickness are only negligible at low rolling speeds. A comparison with experiment supports the conclusion that the thinning of the film thickness below that predicted by isothermal theory is substantially explained by inlet shear heating of the lubricant.

Greenwood, J. A.; Kauzlarich, J. J.

1972-01-01

423

Tribological properties of MoS 2 nano-balls as filler in polyoxymethylene-based composite layer of three-layer self-lubrication bearing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

POM\\/MoS2 nano-balls composite was prepared by adding MoS2 nano-balls synthesized from Na2MoO4 and CH3CSNH2 into polyoxymethylene (POM). The comparative POM-based composite blended with micro-MoS2 particles was also prepared. The obtained POM\\/MoS2 composites were used as the polymerical layer in the three-layer self-lubrication materials. The results of tribological tests showed that the POM with MoS2 nano-balls presented better tribological properties than

K. H. HU

2009-01-01

424

Blended Ester Lubricant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A synthetic lubricant containing from 15 to 30 percent of diisooctyl azelate and 70 to 85 percent of a complex ester is useful for lubricating engines subjected to high temperatures such as combustion turbine engines. The complex ester is produced by este...

E. B. Ovist M. Kjonaas

1965-01-01

425

Lubricant Performance and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Task I, Arrhenius plots were developed to describe the effective lives of six MIL-L-7808 lubricants as a function of temperature for selected limiting values of changes in total acid numbers, viscosities and weight losses. Relative ranking of lubricant...

C. S. Saba H. A. Smith M. A. Keller R. E. Kauffman V. K. Jain

1987-01-01

426

Lubricants for Separable Connectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

About two dozen lubricating fluids were tested for use on electrical contacts on card edge or pin-and-socket connectors. The lubricants selected for screening represented a cross section of thewide variety of natural and synthetic materials available on the market. Among them were polyphenyl ethers, natural and synthetic hydrocarbons, several types of esters, polygiycols, some fluorinated materials, a few silicones, and

W. Freitag; S. T. L. Harlow

1977-01-01

427

Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

428

Additives for high-temperature liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary research program was conducted to demonstrate a new concept for additives to liquid lubricants. It was demonstrated that suspensions of o-phthalonitrile and a substituted 1,2-maleonitrile in mineral oil and dilute solutions of o-phthalonitrile and tetrafluoro-o-phthalonitrile extended the lifetime of bearings under boundary lubricating conditions. The solutions exhibited coefficients of friction under high loads of 0.02-0.03. These results were consistent with the hypothesis that these compounds react with the hot metal surface to form a planar lubricating film by means of a metal or metal oxide template reaction. Also, the adherence was very strong due to the chelating action of the planar macrocycles postulated to form under the experimental conditions.

Lawton, Emil A.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Repar, John

1988-01-01

429

Formulation of Automotive Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formulation of lubricants for current light- and heavy-duty vehicles (passenger cars and trucks) and also motorcycles/small engines is described in terms of engine types and meeting European, US and Japanese emission control requirements. Trends in the formulation of lubricants are discussed and the importance of high and low 'SAPS' for future developments emphasised. Specification and evaluation of lubricant performance for light-vehicle gasoline and diesel, and also heavy-duty diesel engines are described. Emphasis is given to diesel engine cleanliness by soot and deposit control and the effect of emission controls on lubricant formulation. The lubricant requirements for motorcycle and small engines, primarily two-stroke cycle, and their specifications are described.

Atkinson, D.; Brown, A. J.; Jilbert, D.; Lamb, G.

430

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

431

Ice adhesion on lubricant-impregnated textured surfaces.  

PubMed

Ice accretion is an important problem and passive approaches for reducing ice-adhesion are of great interest in various systems such as aircrafts, power lines, wind turbines, and oil platforms. Here, we study the ice-adhesion properties of lubricant-impregnated textured surfaces. Force measurements show ice adhesion strength on textured surfaces impregnated with thermodynamically stable lubricant films to be higher than that on surfaces with excess lubricant. Systematic ice-adhesion measurements indicate that the ice-adhesion strength is dependent on texture and decreases with increasing texture density. Direct cryogenic SEM imaging of the fractured ice surface and the interface between ice and lubricant-impregnated textured surface reveal stress concentrators and crack initiation sites that can increase with texture density and result in lowering adhesion strength. Thus, lubricant-impregnated surfaces have to be optimized to outperform state-of-the-art icephobic treatments. PMID:24070257

Subramanyam, Srinivas Bengaluru; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Varanasi, Kripa K

2013-11-01

432

Study of ball bearing torque under elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spinning and rolling torques were measured in an angular-contact ball bearing with and without a cage under several lubrication regimes in a modified NASA spinning torque apparatus. Two lubricants were used - a di-2 ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil, at shaft speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm and bearing loads from 45 newtons (10 lb) to 403 newtons (90 lb). An analytical model was developed from previous spinning friction models to include rolling with spinning under lubrication regimes from thin film to flooded conditions. The bearing torque values have a wide variation, under any condition of speed and load, depending on the amount of lubricant present in the bearing. The analytical model compared favorably with experimental results under several lubrication regimes.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Allen, C. W.

1973-01-01

433

Study of ball bearing torque under elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spinning and rolling torques were measured in an angular-contact ball bearing with and without a cage under several lubrication regimes in a modified NASA spinning torque apparatus. Two lubricants were used, a di-2 ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil, at shaft speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm and bearing loads from 10 lbs to 90 lbs. An analytical model was developed from previous spinning friction models to include rolling with spinning under lubrication regimes from thin film to flooded conditions. The bearing torque values have a wide variation, under any condition of speed and load, depending on the amount of lubricant present in the bearing. The analytical model compared favorably with experimental results under several lubrication regimes.

Townsend, D. P.; Allen, C. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

434

Mesophase from anthracene oil-based pitches  

SciTech Connect

This work deals with the preparation of the mesophase from two pitch-like materials obtained from anthracene oil by oxidative thermal condensation (AOP-1) and the subsequent thermal treatment and distillation of AOP-1 (AOP-2). The mesophase was obtained by the controlled pyrolysis (440-470{degree}C and different periods of residence times) and subsequent sedimentation of the samples. In the case of the pitch prepared by oxidative thermal condensation, a dynamic pressure of 5 bar was applied during the pyrolysis. The pressure was a critical parameter, and its influence was also investigated. The results show that AOP-1 requires higher temperatures and/or residence times to develop mesophase than AOP-2. After sedimentation, a sample consisting of mainly mesophase was produced in all of the cases. The characterization of the mesophases by means of techniques, such as elemental and thermogravimetric analysis and optical microscopy, showed that anthracene oil-based derivatives are appropriate precursors for producing QI-free mesophase with suitable properties for the fabrication of a wide range of carbon materials. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

P. Alvarez; J. Sutil; R. Santamaria; C. Blanco; R. Menendez; M. Granda [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2008-11-15

435

Combination oil pressure regulator and low oil pressure detector for refrigerant compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an oil pressure regulator and low oil pressure indicator for regulating and monitoring the oil pressure of a compressor oil pump operatively associated with a compressor having a low pressure crank case containing compressor lubricating oil to be distributed at higher pressure to compressor lubricating points. It comprises: an elongated regulator housing having first and second ends,

Havemann

1990-01-01

436

Molecular simulations of hydrocarbon lubricants: Impact of molecular architecture on performance properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increased power of modern computers, molecular modeling has been used widely and proven to be a valuable tool for elucidating the physical processes important in many industrial and engineering problems. Of particular interest to us is the rheology and physical chemistry of complex fluids, such as hydrocarbon lubricants and polymers. The goal is to provide qualitative and quantitative molecular-level explanations for the behavior of such fluids, and provide guidance in the development of new improved materials. For example, during the production of poly-?-olefin (PAO) synthetic lubricants, the number of the isomer skeletal structures that can be obtained is staggering. Which of the countless PAO isomers produce a lubricant with superior performance properties? How does it behave under different operational conditions of temperature, pressure, and shear rate? A fundamental understanding of the effect that molecular structure has on the oil's rheological and lubricant performance is first needed, in order to answer these questions. To serve this purpose, we have developed efficient molecular dynamics (MD) simulation programs, which utilize multiple time step algorithms and parallel computational techniques. This enables us to conduct simulations of typical PAO isomers and compute the viscosity, as well as several other dynamic and static properties, as a function of temperature, pressure, and shear rate. The key molecular mechanisms that determine important macroscopic properties, such as viscosity index, viscosity-pressure coefficient, traction coefficient, and shear thinning behavior are discussed. Based on this analysis, lubricant and traction fluid structures that have a high likelihood of having desirable properties are proposed. In addition, studies on simple alkane mixtures are presented, in an attempt to understand the more complex polydisperse lubricant fluids, their blends, and their interaction with additives.

Kioupis, Loukas I.

2000-07-01

437

Hydrogen sulfide stabilized oil-soluble sulfurized organic compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metal working fluid is described comprising: a major amount of an oil of lubrication viscosity; an oil-soluble sulfurized organic compound present in an amount of about 0.1% to about 10% by weight based on the weight of the fluid; an oil-soluble hindered organic amine structured so as to provide stearic hinderance, the hindered organic amine being selected from the

S. A. Di Biase; J. N. Vinci

1987-01-01

438

An analytical method for lubricant quality control by NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The excellent compatibility of polyol esters (POEs) with general fluids coolants such as CO(2) and non-chlorinated coolants (e.g. hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs) in terms of solubility, miscibility and chemical stability has fostered their use as lubricants by the refrigeration industry. The most widely used POEs bases consist of esters of polyalcohols - such as pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol and neopentylglycol - with mixtures of carboxylic acids of 4-10 carbon atoms. Their thermophysical properties (viscosity mainly) are crucial with a view to producing efficient lubricants for specific applications. Usually, POE formulations, which usually contain several bases, are characterized in terms of global indices. In this work, we developed a methodology based on NIR spectroscopy for the characterization and analysis of lubricant formulations. The products, including lubricant bases and lubricant formulations, are characterized by reference to two spectral libraries that are used to identify as the starting lubricant bases as well as the lubricant formulations. It has been proposed to build libraries in cascade for the differentiation of lubricant formulations without and with low content in additives. Once the identification of the formulation is applied PLS multivariate models are used to determine the components of a lubricant formulation and its viscosity. PMID:22284520

Zamora, David; Blanco, Marcelo; Bautista, Manel; Mulero, Rufí; Mir, Miquel

2012-01-30

439

Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

1984-01-01

440

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

441

Fluid film lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this book is to review the fundamentals of fluid lubricating films and to serve as a reference by applying these fundamentals to a variety of examples. Theory and anaysis are emphasized, and important equations, design fundamentals, and some design data are presented. Experimental results are introduced chiefly to corroborate the theory. Normalized notation is used whenever practical to stress the common characteristics of lubricating films and to simplify comparison. This presentation has the additional advantage of saving the reader the labor of confronting the wide range of terminology now in use. Tribology, the theory and practice of lubrication, is a broad subject, the exhaustive treatment of which would include thorough consideration both of the variety of mechanisms of lubrication and of bearing types. The treatment here is limited to those continuum fluid films, called simply ''films,'' which are associated with slider, journal, and sector thrust bearings. Considerable attention is given to incompressible films because films are often effectively incompressible. Thin film and boundary lubrication, the other important mechanisms of lubrication, are not examined here. There is a special focus upon gas lubrication.

Gross, W.A.; Matsch, L.A.; Castelli, V.; Eshel, A.; Vohr, J.H.; Wildmann, M.

1980-01-01

442

Effect of lubricant environment on saw damage in silicon wafers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemomechanical effect of lubricant environments on the inner diameter (ID) sawing induced surface damage in Si wafers was tested for four different lubricants: water, dielectric oil, and two commercial cutting solutions. The effects of applying different potential on Si crystals during the sawing were also tested. It is indicated that the number and depth of surface damage are sensitive to the chemical nature of the saw lubricant. It is determined that the lubricants that are good catalysts for breaking Si bonds can dampen the out of plane blade vibration more effectively and produce less surface damage. Correlations between the applied potential and the depth of damage in the dielectric oil and one of the commercial cutting solutions and possible mechanisms involved are discussed.

Kuan, T. S.; Shih, K. K.; Vanvechten, J. A.; Westdorp, W. A.

1982-01-01

443

Characterization of biomass-based flash pyrolysis oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical scheme for the characterization of biomass-based flash pyrolysis oils was developed. The scheme was based on fractionation of the oils with water and on further extraction of the water-soluble fraction with diethylether. The chemical composition of the fractions was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The physical and chemical nature of straw, pine and hardwood pyrolysis oils was determined

Kai Sipilä; Eeva Kuoppala; Leena Fagernäs; Anja Oasmaa

1998-01-01

444

Effects of lubrication on the performance of high speed spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental analysis was conducted to determine power loss and gear noise of high speed spur gears with long addendum under various conditions of load, speed, and oil jet pressure for into mesh lubrication. Power losses were calculated from temperature measurements of lubricating oil, gears, gear box, and oil flow rate. Furthermore, power loss was divided into windage loss, friction loss and churning loss. The results show that windage loss and churning loss were the main components of gear power loss of high gear speed. In addition, lubricating conditions had some influences on gear noise especially under low oil temperature or high viscosity.

Mizutani, H.; Isikawa, Y.; Townsend, D. P.

1989-01-01

445

The Effect of Lubricant Viscosity in High Pressure Forming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the effects of viscosity of lubricant in cold work extrusion process were investigated. The experimental evaluation was carried out by using cold work plane strain extrusion apparatus with a pair of 45-degree die half angle and a symmetrical workpiece (billet). The billet material was annealed pure aluminum, A1100. The analytical evaluation was carried out using a visioplasticity method. The testing lubricant is RBD palm olein, RBD palm stearin and palm fatty acid distillate. The results were compared with the additive free paraffinic mineral oil. The result shows that palm oil has advantage in reducing the extrusion load. We confirmed that palm oil showed satisfactory lubrication performance, as compared to additive free paraffinic mineral oil.

Syahrullail, S.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Seah, W. B.

2010-06-01

446

Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant  

SciTech Connect

Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Centers, P.W. [Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

1995-05-01

447

Lubricating system for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, crankcase, a crankshaft, a balancer shaft rotated by the crankshaft through gears, and an oil pump, comprising: a cover secured to the crankcase to form a part of the crankcase, the crankshaft being supported by a first bearing provided in the cover and by a second bearing provided in the crankcase; a first oil passage provided in the crankcase and cover and extending from an opening at a bottom of the crankcase to an inlet of the oil pump; a second oil passage provided in the cover and extending from an outlet of the oil pump to a first opening which opens to a journal of the crankshaft; a third oil passage provided in the crankshaft and extending from a second opening corresponding to the first opening to third openings which open to the first and second bearings and to connecting rods at crankpins of the crankshaft.

Ishikawa, T.

1988-12-27

448

Driveline Fundamentals and Lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various gear types and automotive transmissions in drive trains are described. The need for automotive differential axle gears is demonstrated. SAE gear lubricant classifications are related to performance specifications. Automatic transmission fluids, ATFs, are described together with agricultural and off-highway fluids. Generic formulations of driveline fluids are discussed in terms of their tribology and performance and also the contribution of various additive classes to that performance. The main functions of manual gearbox, automatic transmission and axle lubricants are described. General trends and emerging technologies in drive train components are discussed in terms of the requirements placed on the lubricant, evolution in transmission technologies and relative market penetration.

Joseph, I.

449

The Role of Surface Chemistry in Lubrication and Scuffing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent, of railways, the main work in lubrication has been towards understanding the formation of the oil film. The emphasis is now changing. Interest, is concentrated on film breakdown. While hydrodynamic theory can calculate the film thickness between surfaces, it cannot predict the critical, oil-film thickness for failure. This is the task of surface chemistry and metallurgy. In

A. Cameron

1980-01-01

450

Energy-efficient lubricants reduce plant energy costs  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how specially formulated synthetic lubricants can improve gear drive efficiency, extend maintenance cycles and enhance equipment durability. Energy-efficient synthetic gear oils, formulated to optimize viscometric and friction characteristics, can significantly reduce the power-consumption requirements of gear-driven equipment, while enhancing gear drive durability and significantly lowering energy costs. Unfortunately energy-efficient lubricants are not widely understood and appreciated.

Scharf, C.; Lockett, A. [C and C Oil Partners (United States)

1997-09-01

451

Fretting corrosion of lubricated tin-plated contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this paper is to study the effect of a commercial lubricant, which contains a 50-50 mixture of zinc diamyldithiocarbamate and petroleum oil, on the fretting corrosion of tin-plated copper alloy contacts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The change in contact resistance as a function of fretting cycles was used to assess the effectiveness of the lubricant in preventing

T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan; Young Woo Park; Kang Yong Lee

2008-01-01

452

Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are discussed in Chapter V, followed by summary and conclusions in Chapter VI.

Pendleton, Alice Mae

453

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

SciTech Connect

A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

1999-01-01

454

Development of a full-scale transmission testing procedure to evaluate advanced lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. The testing was part of a joint Navy/NASA/Army lubrication program. The objective of the program was to develop a separate lubricant for gearboxes and demonstrate an improved performance in life and load-carrying capacity. The goal of the experiments was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 base reference oil, then run identical tests with improved lubricants and demonstrate performance. The tests were directed at failing components that the Navy has had problems with due to marginal lubrication. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hours of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

1992-01-01

455

Multifunctional additives for lubricants  

SciTech Connect

Condensation product is prepared by condensing diphenylamine and 2-octanone in the presence of acid catalyst. The produce is formulated with p,p'-dioctyldiphenylamine antioxidant and incorporated in lubricants for inhibition of degradation due to oxidation and corrosion.

Brooks, L.A.; Doe, L.A.

1980-05-13

456

Antioxidant stabilized lubricant compositions  

SciTech Connect

Lubricant compositions are stabilized against oxidative degradation by incorporating therein a minor effective amount of a reaction product produced from singlet oxygen and a hindered bis-p-methylphenol.

Brandes, S.D.; Farcasiu, M.

1981-01-06

457

Lubrication of Fretting Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance and optimum application domains of antifretting lubricants were assessed, using a specially designed test apparatus. Over 70 tests were carried out on 5, 11 and 18 mm samples, with steel, titanium and aluminum substrates. Results show that...

M. Maillat H. E. Hintermann H. Boving H. R. Kocher G. Mondin

1983-01-01

458

Liquid lubrication in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1990-01-01

459

Steady-State Wear and Friction in Boundary Lubrication Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A friction and wear study was made at 20 C to obtain improved reproducibility and reliability in boundary lubrication testing. Ester-base and C-ether-base fluids were used to lubricate a pure iron rider in sliding contact with a rotating M-50 steel disk i...

W. R. Jones W. R. Loomis

1980-01-01

460

Adamantane dicarboxylic acid esters as possible additives to semisolid lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high efficiency of adamantane carboxylic acid esters as antiwear additives to lubricating compounds based on polysiloxane liquids has been demonstrated. Dibutyl and dihexyl esters of 5,7-dimethyl-1,3-adainantane dicarboxylic acid, increasing by several factors the efficiency of a semisolid lubricant based on liquid methyldichlorophenylsiloxane, have been synthesized and characterized.

I. A. Novikova; T. N. Dolgopolova; A. D. Apryatkin

1993-01-01

461

Heat Treatment Used to Strengthen Enabling Coating Technology for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PS304 high-temperature solid lubricant coating is a key enabling technology for Oil- Free turbomachinery propulsion and power systems. Breakthroughs in the performance of advanced foil air bearings and improvements in computer-based finite element modeling techniques are the key technologies enabling the development of Oil-Free aircraft engines being pursued by the Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PS304 is a plasma spray coating applied to the surface of shafts operating against foil air bearings or in any other component requiring solid lubrication at high temperatures, where conventional materials such as graphite cannot function.

Edmonds, Brian J.; DellaCorte, Christopher

2002-01-01

462

Lubrication System Failure Baseline Testing on an Aerospace Quality Gear Mesh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace drive systems are required to survive a loss-of-lubrication test for qualification. In many cases emergency lubrication systems need to be designed and utilized to permit the drive system to pass this difficult requirement. The weight of emergency systems can adversely affect the mission capabilities of the aircraft. The possibility to reduce the emergency system weight through the use of mist lubrication will be described. Mist lubrication involves the delivery of a minute amount of an organic liquid as a vapor or fine mist in flowing compressed air to rubbing surfaces. At the rubbing surface, the vapor or mist reacts to form a solid lubricating film. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline for gear behavior under oil depleted conditions. A reactive vapor-mist lubrication method is described and proposed as a candidate emergency lubrication system.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

2000-01-01

463

Industry Needs Fulfilled by Patented NASA PS300 Solid Lubricant Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1999, the NASA Glenn Research Center was awarded a patent (#5866518) for a new high-temperature solid lubricant coating material, PS300. A combination of wear-resistant metals and ceramics with solid lubricant additives, PS300 reduces friction and wear in sliding contacts from below ambient to over 650 C. This lubricant is an outgrowth of over three decades of high-temperature tribological research and was specifically developed as a shaft lubricant to protect foil air bearings used in Oil-Free turbomachinery, like gas turbines. Foil bearings are lubricated by air at high speeds but experience sliding and wear during initial startup and shut down when a lubricating film of air has not yet developed. PS300 shaft coatings have successfully lubricated foil bearings for over 100 000 cycles without wearing out.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2003-01-01

464

Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect

This program was aimed at understanding refrigerant/lubricant circulation issues, developing test data and approximate models that can predict operating regimes where good oil management can be assured. A dynamic test facility was constructed and used to examine oil return under varying system operating conditions. The development of industry guidelines for system reliability in using the new refrigerant blends was a goal of this program. To validate the guidelines, techniques and predictions, this dynamic test facility was used to obtain data to compare to the analytical predictions. The overall program approach undertaken to meet this objective was: (1) to identify poor oil return scenarios and, therefore, the worst case oil return parameters for conventional residential HVAC systems using HCFC-22 and mineral oils, in terms of compressor, suction and exhaust line vapor velocity, and refrigerant viscosity requirements; (2) design and instrument a test apparatus that simulates such conditions, as well as those that might be achieved with HFC and POE mixtures and HFCs and mineral oils; (3) conduct tests with the range of baseline refrigerants and lubricant mixtures to provide experimental data; and (4) prepare, present and interpret the test data to provide an expanded understanding of the phenomena required for good oil circulation in split-system heat pump systems. To convert this general approach into the program specifics, three major tasks were defined and pursued. These are described briefly here and in greater detail in the report body as Task 1, Task 2, and Task 3. The report prepared for ARTI as part of the MCLR Project Number 665-53100 is described in Volumes 1 and 2, ``Study of Lubricant Circulation in the HVAC Systems,`` October 1996, from the same authors as this publication. This record consists of the overheads used in the presentation.

Biancardi, F.; Sienel, T.; Pandy, D.; Michels, H.

1997-02-01

465

Emergency and microfog lubrication and cooling of bearings for Army helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once-through oil-mist (microfog) and coolant air system. A system was designed, manufactured, coupled with an existing rig and evaluation tests were performed using 46 mm bore split-inner angular-contact ball bearings under 1779N (400 lb.) thrust load. An emergency lubrication aspirator system was also manufactured and tested under lost lubricant conditions. The testing demonstrated the feasibility of using a mist oil and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed helicopter engine mainshaft bearing. The testing also demonstrated the feasibility of using an emergency aspirator lubrication system as a viable survivability concept for helicopter mainshaft engine bearing for periods as long as 30 minutes.

Rosenlieb, J. W.

1978-01-01

466

Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit  

DOEpatents

A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL) [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL) [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL) [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL) [Washington, IL; Lane, William H. (Chillicothe, IL) [Chillicothe, IL

2009-11-10

467

Effects of CFC and HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants on polyester insulation materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three polyester motor insulation films-“standard” poly ethylene terephthlate (PET), “low oligomer” PET, and poly ethylene naphthalate (PEN)-have been examined for compatibility with a range of ozone benign HFC refrigerants and mixed acid polyolester lubricants. The results indicate that the R134a\\/ester lubricant mixture is considerably more aggressive in terms of oligomer extraction than CFC 12\\/mineral oil standard refrigerant\\/lubricant mixtures. However, low

D. W. Anderson; M. Handa

1995-01-01

468

Design and fundamental understanding of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) assisted grinding using advanced nanolubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abrasive grinding is widely used across manufacturing industry for finishing parts and components requiring smooth superficial textures and precise dimensional tolerances and accuracy. Unlike any other machining operations, the complex thermo-mechanical processes during grinding produce excessive friction-induced energy consumption, heat, and intense contact seizures. Lubrication and cooling from grinding fluids is crucial in minimizing the deleterious effects of friction and heat to maximize the output part quality and process efficiency. The conventional flood grinding approach of an uneconomical application of large quantities of chemically active fluids has been found ineffective to provide sufficient lubrication and produces waste streams and pollutants that are hazardous to human health and environment. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) that cuts the volumetric fluid consumption by 3-4 orders of magnitude have been extensively researched in grinding as a high-productivity and environmentally-sustainable alternative to the conventional flood method. However, the lubrication performance and productivity of MQL technique with current fluids has been critically challenged by the extreme thermo-mechanical conditions of abrasive grinding. In this research, an MQL system based on advanced nanolubricants has been proposed to address the current thermo-mechanical challenges of MQL grinding and improve its productivity. The nanolubricants were composed of inorganic Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles (? 200 nm) intercalated with organic macromolecules of EP/AW property, dispersed in straight (base) oils---mineral-based paraffin and vegetable-based soybean oil. After feasibility investigations into the grindability of cast iron using MQL with nanolubricants, this research focused on the fundamental understanding of tribological behavior and lubricating mechanisms of nanolubricants as a method to improve the productivity of MQL-assisted surface grinding of ductile iron and alloy steel. An extensive investigation on MQL-assisted grinding using vitrified aluminum oxide wheel under varied infeed and lubrication condition was carried out with the scope of documenting the process efficiency and lubrication mechanisms of the nanolubricants. Experimental results showed that MQL grinding with nanolubricants minimized the non-productive outputs of the grinding process by reducing frictional losses at the abrasive grain-workpiece interfaces, energy consumption, wheel wear, grinding zone temperatures, and friction-induced heat generation. Use of nanolubricants in MQL yielded superior productivity by producing surface roughness as low as 0.35 ?m and grinding efficiencies that were four times higher as compared to those obtained from flood grinding. Repeatable formation of tribochemical films of antifriction, antiwear, and extreme pressure chemical species in between the contact asperities of abrasive crystals and work material was identified with nanolubricants. The tribological behavior was characterized by this synergistic effect of the antiwear, antifriction, and load carrying chemical species that endured grain-workpiece seizures and reduced adhesion friction between the contact surfaces. Delivery of organic coated Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles by anchoring on the natural porosity of the abrasive wheel and eventually, sliding-induced interfacial deformation into tribolayers and alignment at the grinding zone were established as the lubrication mechanisms of the nanolubricants. These mechanisms were further validated from tribological evaluations of lubricated cubic boron nitride (cBN) superabrasives-1045 steel sliding pairs on a reciprocating tribotest rig resembling the tool-lubricant-workpiece interactions of MQL-assisted grinding.

Kalita, Parash

469

Preparation of Fat-Liquor Based on Jojoba Oil Under Phase Transfer Catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jojoba oil is of immense importance for industrial applications. There are a lot of published articles concerning its various\\u000a uses in cosmetics, detergents, surfactants and lubricants. Therefore, this work was devoted to exploring its application for\\u000a further use in the leather industry as a fat-liquoring agent. The fat-liquoring process is one important step in leather manufacturing,\\u000a with the intention of

El-Shahat H. A. NashyM; M. G. Megahed; M. A. Abd EL-Ghaffar

470

Lubrication of Space Systems (c)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article presents an overview of the current state-of-the-art tribology, some current and future perceived space lubrication problem areas, and some potential new lubrication technologies. It is the author's opinion that tribology technology, in general, has not significantly advanced over the last 20 to 30 years, even though some incremental improvements in the technology have occurred. There is a better understanding of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, some new lubricating and wear theories have been developed, and some new liquid and solid lubricants have been formulated. However, the important problems of being able to lubricate reliably at high temperatures or at cryogenic temperatures have not been adequately address.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1995-01-01

471

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01

472

Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In