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1

LUBRICANT BASE STOCKS FROM MODIFIED SOYBEAN OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Lubricant Base Stocks from Modified Soybean Oil" discusses a variety of potential lubricant base fluids prepared by chemical modification of epoxidized soybean oil. The opening of the epoxy-ring structure allows for the addition of substituents to enhance low-temperature properties and improve the...

2

Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

3

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

4

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

5

Fuel efficient lubricants and the effect of special base oils  

SciTech Connect

The demand for improved fuel economy is placing increasing pressure upon engine manufacturers world-wide. Lubricants that can provide additional fuel efficiency benefits are being vigorously sought. Such lubricants must achieve the current performance specifications that are also increasing in severity. To meet all of these requirements, passenger car lubricant formulations will need special base oils. This paper presents data on comparable 5W-30 formulations based on either hydrogenated mineral oil, or hydrocracked or poly alpha olefin basestocks. These blends clearly demonstrate the effect of improved volatility on oil consumption and oxidation stability in a range of bench engine tests. Equivalent engine test performance is observed for the hydrocracked and polyalphaolefin blends. Both exhibit performance superior to that attained by the hydrogenated mineral oil-based blend. Predicted Sequence VI fuel savings for these blends show additional fuel efficiency benefits for hydrocracked vs. hydrogenated mineral oil-based blends. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Kiovsky, T.E. [BP Oil Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Yates, N.C.; Bales, J.R. [BP Oil International Limited, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

1994-04-01

6

Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

7

Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M. [Moscow State Technical University 'MAMI', Department of Autobody making and metal forging, B.Semenovskaya 38, 107023, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-05-04

8

Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

9

VEGETABLE OIL BASED BIODEGRADABLE LUBRICANTS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Until recently, mineral oil had a significant cost advantage over vegetable oils and so petroleum has been the base oil of economic choice. A recent rise in oil prices along with the low vegetable oil prices has narrowed the price difference to close to $0.05/lb, and there is now more interest in v...

10

Natural oils as lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

11

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOEpatents

Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, A.

1995-07-11

12

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOEpatents

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01

13

Lubricants based on renewable resources – an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the

Andreas Willing

2001-01-01

14

MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

15

Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

16

Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2005-01-01

17

Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.  

PubMed

The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchfür Praktiker, H. Ziolkowsky (Ed.), Verlag für chemische Industrie GmbH, 1996, pp. 348-361. This article will focus on the ecological properties of oleochemical (synthetic) esters. The environmental relevance of oleochemicals in comparison to petrochemicals is discussed, and then the principles of an ecological assessment are described. The ecotoxicological properties and the biodegradability of oleochemical esters are presented. Finally, the ecological properties of the oleochemical esters are discussed with regard to existing environmental classification and labeling systems. PMID:11233830

Willing, A

2001-04-01

18

Engine lubrication oil aeration  

E-print Network

The lubrication system of an internal combustion engine serves many purposes. It lubricates moving parts, cools the engine, removes impurities, supports loads, and minimizes friction. The entrapment of air in the lubricating ...

Baran, Bridget A. (Bridget Anne)

2007-01-01

19

Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

1983-01-01

20

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

21

Lubricants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site related to lubrication is presented by SynLube.com and its relevant page is entitled Basics: What You Need to Know About Lubrication (1). Visitors can learn why lubrication is so important to mechanical devices, why oil needs to be changed in your car, what synthetic oils can do, and more. Although the site is for a manufacturer of synthetic oil, there is a good amount of interesting physical science information. The second site provides an educational resource activity by The Explorer, called Slippery Substances -- Lubricants (2). Students in grades 5 through 8 get to compare the "slipperiness" of various substances tested, read how a lubricant works, and identify objects that need lubricants to work correctly. All information needed to complete the activity is provided, including a short list of easily attained materials. Next, from NASA's Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program Web site, comes the High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings page (3). Visitors can read about a new chrome oxide based coating, which has been shown to provide good friction and wear properties to very high temperatures. The page contains descriptions, photographs, and even a link that shows the US patent for the "Self-Lubricating Composite Containing Chromium Oxide." The fourth site, About Lubrication (4), is maintained by Machine Care Systems. The page contains an informative explanation on the definition of energy release and lubricated components, and answers the questions what energy release is and if oil ever wears out. The next site, offered by the lubrication manufacturer Lubrizol, is called Lubrication Theory and Practice (5). As the title states, the site gives detailed explanations of friction reduction, lubricant viscosity, heat removal, suspension of contaminants, and other lubrication topics. InnerAuto.com offers the next site, which is an interactive animation of an Engine Lubrication System (6). As you move your mouse over the various parts of the engine, the lubrication critical part names reveal themselves and can then be clicked for additional information. If you happen to be in the market for a lubricant, the seventh site can definitely help you out. The Lubricants EZ Search (7) page, offered by ThomasRegister.com, contains 99 categories of lubricant manufacturers, descriptions of what they offer, and direct links to their Web sites. The last site related to lubricants, Lubrication Recommendations (8), is maintained by Infomedia. Here, visitors can choose from more than a dozen of machine categories and specific models to find out the type of lubrication they require as well as any notes related to that machinery such as crankcase capacity.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

22

VEGETABLE OILS IN METALWORKING LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils provide a number of advantages for application in metalworking lubricants. These include ease of biodegradablity impact, and free of any adverse health effect on operators. In addition, the fact that vegetable oils are obtained from renewable agricultural sources, makes them preferr...

23

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the\\u000a replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates\\u000a for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity,\\u000a they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here

Brajendra K. Sharma; Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

24

41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of lubricating oils, greases, and...procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and...and of aircraft engine oils on an...on or before Lubricating oils (nonaircraft...15. Aircraft engine oils 4.2...

2010-07-01

25

Standard test method for detecting glycol-base antifreeze in used lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

This method describes the qualitative determination of glycol-base antifreeze in used lubricating oils (mineral-base) by two procedures, one employing reagents in tablet form and the other employing laboratory shelf reagents. Principally the method detects ethylene glycol but will also detect other 1,2-glycols that may be present. The tablet procedure is sensitive to about 100 ppM and the shelf reagent procedure to about 300 ppM of ethylene glycol. Field kits: both procedures are adaptable to field kit use, and brief descriptions for converting to field kit form are given. The ethylene glycol is extracted from the sample with an acid solution and oxidized to formaldehyde with periodic acid which is detected colorimetrically with decolorized fuchsin.

Not Available

1980-01-01

26

New Method to Produce an Industrial Lubrication Fluid from Vegetable Oil-based Materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The projected demand for industrial and automotive lubricants in the U.S. is ~2.6 billion gallons by 2017, where bio-based lubricants will play an increasing role, from a share of 0.6% today to a possible 1.2% by 2017. This is accompanied by the expected price increase to >$7.00/gallon which will g...

27

Acute, subchronic, and developmental toxicological properties of lubricating oil base stocks.  

PubMed

Lubricating oil base stocks (LOBs) are substances used in the manufacture of finished lubricants and greases. They are produced from residue remaining after atmospheric distillation of crude oil that is subsequently fractionated by vacuum distillation and additional refining steps. Initial LOB streams that have been produced by vacuum distillation but not further refined may contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and may present carcinogenic hazards. In modern refineries, LOBs are further refined by multistep processes including solvent extraction and/or hydrogen treatment to reduce the levels of PACs and other undesirable constituents. Thus, mildly (insufficiently) refined LOBs are potentially more hazardous than more severely (sufficiently) refined LOBs. This article discusses the evaluation of LOBs using statistical models based on content of PACs; these models indicate that insufficiently refined LOBs (potentially carcinogenic LOBs) can also produce systemic and developmental effects with repeated dermal exposure. Experimental data were also obtained in ten 13-week dermal studies in rats, eight 4-week dermal studies in rabbits, and seven dermal developmental toxicity studies with sufficiently refined LOBs (noncarcinogenic and commonly marketed) in which no observed adverse effect levels for systemic toxicity and developmental toxicity were 1000 to 2000 mg/kg/d with dermal exposures, typically the highest dose tested. Results in both oral and inhalation developmental toxicity studies were similar. This absence of toxicologically relevant findings was consistent with lower PAC content of sufficiently refined LOBs. Based on data on reproductive organs with repeated dosing and parameters in developmental toxicity studies, sufficiently refined LOBs are likely to have little, if any, effect on reproductive parameters. PMID:24567344

Dalbey, Walden E; McKee, Richard H; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky; Biles, Robert W; Murray, Jay; White, Russell

2014-01-01

28

Evaluation of PS 212 Coatings Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions with an Ester-based Oil to 300 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High friction and wear of turbine engine components occur during high temperature excursions above the oxidation threshold of the liquid lubricant. This paper reports on research to study the use of a high temperature self lubricating coating, PS 212 for back-up lubrication in the event of failure of the liquid lubricant. Pin on disk tests were performed under dry and boundary-lubricated conditions at disk temperatures up to 300 C. The liquid lubricant was a formulated polyol ester qualified under MIL L-23699. At test temperatures above the oil's thermal degradation level, the use of PS 212 reduced wear, providing a back-up lubricant effect.

Sliney, Harold E.; Loomis, William R.; Dellacorte, Christopher

1994-01-01

29

Chemical modification of vegetable oils for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the unfavorable impact on the environment of mineral oil-based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the\\u000a demand for biodegradable, environment-friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace\\u000a or partially substitute conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable\\u000a and are thus promising candidates as base fluids

Brajendra K. Sharma; Atanu Adhvaryu; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

30

Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

2012-06-01

31

INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISM OF LUBRICATION BY STARCH-OIL COMPOSITE DRY FILM LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The boundary coefficient of friction (COF) of FanteskTM starch-oil composite dry film lubricants was investigated as a function of starch chemistry (waxy vs. normal purified food grade corn starch), oil chemistry (hexadecane vs. oleic acid and various vegetable oils), and starch-to-oil ratio. Based...

32

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 89.330 Section 89.330 ...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.330 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil....

2010-07-01

33

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.  

PubMed

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1). PMID:14987805

Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

2004-05-01

34

ESTOLIDES OVERCOME TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE BASED LUBRICANT SHORTFALLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable based lubricants face many challenges in their development as potential lubricants. The three biggest hurdles are cost, oxidative stability and cold temperature properties (pour point, cloud point and cold temperature storage). Distinct advantages of vegetable oils are their excellent lu...

35

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.  

PubMed

An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. PMID:14987804

Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

2004-05-01

36

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03

37

Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

38

Rheological and mechanical properties of oleogels based on castor oil and cellulosic derivatives potentially applicable as bio-lubricating greases: Influence of cellulosic derivatives concentration ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays the lubricating market is demanding new biodegradable or more environmentally acceptable products based on renewable resources as a consequence of progressively more strict environmental regulations. In this framework, this study deals with the design of gel-like dispersions potentially applicable as environmentally friendly lubricating greases. These dispersions were formulated using castor oil and ethyl cellulose\\/?-cellulose or ethyl cellulose\\/methyl cellulose blends.

R. Sánchez; J. M. Franco; M. A. Delgado; C. Valencia; C. Gallegos

2011-01-01

39

Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils  

SciTech Connect

In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01

40

Screening of natural oil basestocks for lubricant applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural oils offer significant advantages, such as resource renewability, biodegradability, and performance properties, compared to petroleum-based products. Their amphiphilic character makes them excellent lubricant candidates. The wide use of vegetable oils is restricted due to low thermo-oxidativ...

41

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANT BASESTOCKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of vegetable oil based lubricants will reduce petroleum imports and have a favorable environmental impact. The vegetable oils are derived from renewable sources, biodegradable, non-toxic, possess high flash points and have low volatility. Inadequate oxidative stability and poor low-temperature...

42

Lubricant base fluids based on renewable raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricants based on renewable raw materials and their derivatives are drawing increased attraction in various applications. Here, the environmental awareness is the key factor of success. The use of such rapidly biodegradable materials is especially favourable in loss-lubrication and hydraulic systems with increased risk of damage. Environmentally friendly, biodegradable alternatives are available for a large variety of mineral oil based

Helena Wagner; Rolf Luther; Theo Mang

2001-01-01

43

STARCH-LUBRICANT COMPOSITION FOR IMPROVED LUBRICITY AND FLUID LOSS IN WATER-BASED DRILLING MUDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-based mud systems that approach the performance of oil-based muds are an ongoing effort. Starch-lubricant compositons were developed as environmentally safe, non-toxic, stable dispersions in water-based drilling muds. Starch-lubricant compositions were prepared by jet cooking mixtures of wat...

44

STARCH-LUBRICANT COMPOSITIONS FOR IMPROVED LUBRICITY AND FLUID LOSS IN WATER-BASED DRILLING MUDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of water-based mud systems that approach the performance of oil-based muds in lubricity, rate of penetration and borehole stability is an ongoing effort. The use of starch-lubricant compositions as environmentally safe, non-toxic, stable dispersions in water-based drilling muds was ...

45

New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

46

Modification of Vegetable Oils for Lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current talk deals with a partial review of research for developing improved lubricants from vegetable oils through modifications of the chemical structure. The typical vegetable oil is a mixture of triesters of glycerin with linear fatty acids, most of them with one or more double bonds. The ...

47

Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. PMID:19716696

Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

2010-01-01

48

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil...emergency oil supply must be adequate to provide lubrication until the equipment...

2010-10-01

49

Petroleum biomarkers as tracers of lubricating oil contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the use of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes, trace constituents of lubricating oils, as indicators of the origin of diffuse lubricating oil contamination in plankton and sediments around St John's, Newfoundland, Canada. Different types of lubricating oils and motor exhausts were found to consistently feature distinct terpane distributions. Differences in the relative contribution of automotive and two-stroke outboard

Tilman Bieger; Jocelyne Hellou; Teofilo A. Abrajano

1996-01-01

50

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions  

E-print Network

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation, particulate matter emissions may become a significant barrier to deploying beneficial alternative fuel technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy's Gasoline/Diesel Particulate Matter Split Study1 concluded

51

Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

52

SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS FROM EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL AND 2-ETHYLHEXYL ALCOHOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Economically adaptable bio-based synthetic lubricant basestocks were prepared from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and 2-ethylhexyl alcohol in the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid. 1H NMR has shown that the ring-opening reaction occurs first and then transesterification follows under the given rea...

53

Oil Mist Lubrication for Electric Motors - Where it Stands Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil mist lubrication is a viable lubrication means for electric motor bearings. It has many advantages, particularly in the petroleum industry; however, use in refineries has been limited. Reluctance to retrofit existing motors has been caused by a lack of knowledge and to a shortage of proven performances. The advantages of oil mist lubrication, as well as motor requirements and

Charles A. Towne; David J. Sheppard

1986-01-01

54

NMR relaxometry analysis of lubricant oils degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work was undertaken in order to investigate lubricant oil degradation at the molecular level. Ageing effects, as reflected on the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate (T_1^{-1}) dispersion, were studied in two different lubricant engine oils. The proton field cycling technique was used to scan relaxation of new and aged samples of monograde and multigrade oils. Relaxation dispersions were interpreted in terms of self-diffusion and molecular rotations. Our study shows that proton T_1^{-1} could be very sensitive to degradation processes, especially at low Larmor frequencies. The analysis reveals a noticeable sensitivity of the involved correlation times. The pros and cons of the technique are also discussed.

Ballari, M.; Bonetto, F.; Anoardo, E.

2005-10-01

55

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes.  

PubMed

Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. PMID:14987803

Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew

2004-05-01

56

Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R. [Herguth Lab., Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

57

OXIDATION AND LOW TEMPERATURE STABILITY OF VEGETABLE OIL-BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The search for environmentally friendly materials that has potential to substitute mineral oil in various industrial applications is currently being considered a top priority research in the fuel and energy sector. This emphasis is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves an...

58

Manufacture of naphthenic type lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A process for making naphthenic type lubricating oils from a low viscosity waxy crude which comprises distilling said low viscosity waxy crude to 500 to 650/sup 0/F. At atmospheric pressure to separate distillable fractions therefrom, subjecting the residue to a vacuum distillation at about 25 to about 125 mm Hg absolute pressure to obtain one or more gas oil fractions, optionally hydrotreating said gas oil fractions in the presence of a Ni/Mo catalyst at 550 to 650/sup 0/F, 0.25 to 1.0 lhsv, and 700-1500 psig, and catalytically dewaxing said distillates in the presence of a H+ form mordenite catalyst containing a group VI or group VIII metal at 550 to 750/sup 0/F, 500 to 1500 psig and 0.25 to 5.0 lhsv, to obtain said naphthenic type oils having pour points of from about -60 to +20/sup 0/F.

Reynolds, R.W.

1981-02-24

59

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory Provisions...Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease shall be of...

2010-07-01

60

An integrated lubricant oil conditioning sensor using signal multiplexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One effective approach to detect signs of potential failure of a rotating or reciprocating machine is to examine the conditions of its lubrication oil. Here we present an integrated oil condition sensor for detecting both wear debris and lubricant properties. The integrated sensor consists of miniature multiplexed sensing elements for detection of wear debris and measurements of viscosity and moisture. The oil debris sensing element consists of eight sensing channels to detect wear debris in parallel; the elements for measuring oil viscosity and moisture, based on interdigital electrode sensing, were fabricated using micromachining. The integrated sensor was installed and tested in a laboratory lubricating system. Signal multiplexing was applied to the outputs of the three sensing elements such that responses from all sensing elements were obtained within two measurements, and the signal-to-noise ratio was improved. Testing results show that the integrated sensor is capable of measuring wear debris (>50?µm), moisture (>50?ppm) and viscosity (>12.4?cSt) at a high throughput (200?ml?min?1). The device can be potentially used for online health monitoring of rotating machines.

Zhu, Xiaoliang; Du, Li; Zhe, Jiang

2015-01-01

61

Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles  

E-print Network

Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles David R. Worton characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional

Cohen, Ronald C.

62

Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

63

Electrical techniques for monitoring the condition of lubrication oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lubricating oil used in engines for vehicle and other applications is renewed according to a schedule specified by the manufacturer. This timetable is, naturally, very conservative, and makes no allowance for the way in which the engine is operated. Constant-speed operation (such as motorway use) is much less harmful to the lubricant than variable-speed operation, such as urban driving, during which the oil experiences extreme variations of temperature and engine speed. The net result of the conservative lubricant replacement schedule is that most engine oil is discarded well before it has reached the end of its useful life. This paper reports a study in which changes to the dielectric and magnetic properties of the oil are assessed as methods of measuring the degradation of lubricating oil. The relationship between oil use (measured by the distance a vehicle has travelled) and oil viscosity is also measured. The conclusions from this work are that simple distance travelled (miles/kilometres) is not a good indicator of the state of an oil, as estimated by measuring its viscosity. The magnetic characteristics of lubricating oil (i.e. its magnetic permeability) do change as the oil degrades, but the measurements were poorly correlated with viscosity and do not seem to offer much promise as the basis of an oil monitoring system. The dielectric properties of lubricating oil are reasonably well correlated with viscosity, and it is proposed that this could form the basis of a useful sensing technique.

Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

2003-10-01

64

Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

Lee, F.

1978-01-01

65

Thermoreversible gel lubricants through universal supramolecular assembly of a nonionic surfactant in a variety of base lubricating liquids.  

PubMed

The present paper investigates a new type of thermoreversible gel lubricant obtained by supramolecular assembly of low-molecular-weight organic gelator (LMWG) in different base oils. The LMWG is a nonionic surfactant with polar headgroup and hydrophobic tail that can self-assemble through collective noncovalent intermolecular interactions (H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction) to form fibrous structures and trap base oils (mineral oils, synthetic oils, and water) in the as-formed cavities. The gel lubricants are fully thermoreversible upon heating-up and cooling down and exhibit thixotropic characteristics. This makes them semisolid lubricants, but they behave like oils. The tribological test results disclosed that the LMWG could also effectively reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs compared with base oils without gelator. It is expected that when being used in oil-lubricated components, such as gear, rolling bearing, and so on, gel lubricant may effectively avoid base oil leak and evaporation loss and so is a benefit to operation and lubrication failure for a long time. PMID:25111146

Yu, Qiangliang; Fan, Mingjin; Li, Dongmei; Song, Zenghong; Cai, Meirong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

2014-09-24

66

Talc as friction reducing additive to lubricating oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction of friction and wear by colloidal suspensions of ceramic powders in lubricating oils is an approach that can allow to formulate environment friendly energy saving lubricants. Commercial talc powder was evaluated as an extreme pressure additive to a lubricating oil under different temperatures and concentrations. The best lubricity was achieved at the temperature of 100 °C and the concentration of 0.15 wt% when dynamic and static friction coefficients were reduced by over 30% in comparison to reference lubricating oil alone. At high temperature, talc forms transfer film on metal surface, which reduce both friction and wear behavior in mating surfaces. However, at room temperature, film formation was not observed. Results are explained using pressure and temperature induced lamellar dehydration mechanism when products of dehydration form oxide transfer films on the friction surface.

Rudenko, Pavlo; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2013-07-01

67

BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As environmental concerns grow, vegetable oils are finding their way into total loss lubricants for military applications, and in outdoor activities such as forestry, mining, railroads, dredging, fishing and agriculture hydraulic systems. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant environment...

68

Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

69

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2010-07-01

70

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2014-07-01

71

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2011-07-01

72

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2013-07-01

73

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2012-07-01

74

DEACIDIFICATION OF DAGANG SECOND LUBRICATING OIL DISTILLATE BY COMBINED SOLVENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined solvent was used for getting rid of the acid components of lubricating oil distillates. Data indicate that this solvent can remove most of the acid matters. The deacidified oil has better light stability than hydrodeacidified oils. This solvent can be reused and recovered. The reaction conditions are easy to be fulfilled. This deacidification method is an effective technology

Yanzhen Wang; Kai Wang; Hongxia Guan; Gang Li

2001-01-01

75

Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%. PMID:22870990

Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

2012-09-01

76

Surfactant effects on bio-based emulsions used as lubrication fluids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The successful formulation of a lubricating emulsion requires carefully balancing the mixture of base oil, water and a plethora of additives. The factors that affect the performance of lubrication emulsions range from the macroscopic stability to the microscopic surface properties of the base oil. ...

77

Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

78

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

79

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were

Philip Mercurio; Kathryn A. Burns; Andrew Negri

2004-01-01

80

Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

81

Emulsification of chemically modified vegetable oils for lubricant use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several previously uncharacterized emulsions were studied in this paper, including those made form epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found to form stable emulsions i...

82

Regeneration of Used Lubricating Oils by Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration of used lubricating oils by supercritical fluid extraction were investigated. The broken-down additives and impurities were removed by the high selectivity of supercritical fluid, and high-quality lube oil was obtained. Corrosion and waste-disposal problems produced by older acid-clay process have been lessened.

Yihong Liu; Jian Cheng; Wenzhong Shen; Yanru Song

2005-01-01

83

Lubricity characteristics for seed oils modified by acylation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

84

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe  

PubMed Central

A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 ?L) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r 2 = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. PMID:18924720

Pignalosa, Gustavo; Cabrera, Noel

2005-01-01

85

76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...approve aircraft, engines, or APUs to operate...propulsion fuels and lubricating oils. DATES: The Engine and Propeller Directorate...practices employed by the Engine and Propeller Directorate...aviation fuel and lubricating oil certification...

2011-08-10

86

Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

Koh, J. L.

1981-01-01

87

Status of New Direction of Liquid Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of liquid lubricants is discussed. Liquid lubricants which continue to be the predominant form of lubrication for machinery are discussed. Petroleum base lubricants comprise a very high percentage of the liquid lubricants in use today. There is a significant movement toward synthetic lubricants driven by crude oil problems coupled with improved additive response, and low temperature performance for the synthetics. Lubricant degradation mechanisms are included for guidance in the selection of lubricant and additive types.

Klaus, E. E.

1984-01-01

88

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. I - Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact is lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contacts are optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact is formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. In contrast, under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short-term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

89

Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel  

SciTech Connect

The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1992-02-01

90

Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphosphoramidate (DBOP), 6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-ol calcium salt (ODOC) and 2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane (DOB) to generate boundary films on stainless steel AISI 316 and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Experimental results show lower friction values for the emulsions in combination with CoCrMo compared to AISI 316. The different performance of the additives is related to the composition of the adsorption and reaction film on the interacting surfaces, which was shown to be dependent on the active elements and molecular structure of the additives. The friction profile of the emulsions indicates that the emulsion appears to be broken during the rubbing process, then the additives adsorb onto the metal surface to form protecting boundary layers. The XPS analysis shows that for boundary lubrication conditions, the additive molecules in the emulsion first adsorb on the metal surface after the droplet is broken, and then decompose and react with the metal surface during the rubbing process to form stable lubricating films on the rubbed surfaces.

Yan, Jincan; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; van der Heide, Emile

2014-10-01

91

39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

92

Human intoxication following inhalation exposure to synthetic jet lubricating oil.  

PubMed

A previously healthy member of an aircraft flight crew was acutely incapacitated during flight with neurologic impairment and gastrointestinal distress. His clinical status returned to normal within 24 hr. The etiology of his symptoms was related to an inhalation exposure to aerosolized or vaporized synthetic lubricating oil arising from a jet engine of his aircraft. PMID:589955

Montgomery, M R; Wier, G T; Zieve, F J; Anders, M W

1977-01-01

93

Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

Mcgrogan, F.

1976-01-01

94

Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.  

PubMed

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality. PMID:22248297

Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

2012-02-01

95

Modeling of liner finish effects on oil control ring lubrication in internal combustion engines based on deterministic method  

E-print Network

Twin-land oil control ring is widely used in the automotive diesel engines, and is gaining more and more applications in the modern designs of gasoline engines. Its interaction with the cylinder liner surface accounts for ...

Chen, Haijie

2008-01-01

96

Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

Yu, Bo [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoqi [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01

97

Numerical study on the lubrication oil distribution in a refrigeration rotary compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a rolling piston rotary compressor, oil supply into various lubrication elements has been analytically studied. The lubrication system, consisting of centrifugal shaft pump, radial oil feeding holes, bearings with grooves and some other sliding surfaces has been modeled by employing equivalent electric circuit network. A computer simulation program has been developed to solve the network model of the lubrication

Hyun Jin Kim; Timothy W. Lancey

2003-01-01

98

LUBRICATION WITH STARCH-OIL COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aqueous starch-oil composites consist of uniformly suspended starch-coated oil droplets (1-10 µm in diameter), and find use in a wide variety of industrial, food, and agricultural applications. One of the main benefits of these starch-oil composites is that they can be drum dried and milled into a ...

99

Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

100

Palm oil derived trimethylolpropane triesters synthetic lubricants and usage in industrial metalworking fluid.  

PubMed

Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance. PMID:25748374

Chang, Teck-Sin; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Choong, Thomas S Y; Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah; Syam, Azhari M

2015-02-01

101

Lubrication properties of new crop oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

102

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

SciTech Connect

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

2000-01-20

103

An experimental investigation into oil mist lubrication  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 47 24 The test-bearing shaft is run at 1500 rpm, while the temperature of the lube oil, in the generator, is maintained at 4O C. . 48 25 The test-bearing shaft is run at 1500 rpm, while the temperature of the lube oil, in the generator... to Shamin, A. , 1990) these following sub-systems (see Fig. 1): 1. Oil-mist generation system 2. Dove system 3. Test shaft system 4. Instrumentation and data acquisition system 5. Inertial cascade impactor and dilution chamber 6. Semi-micro balance...

Kannan, Krishna

2000-01-01

104

The integrated petroleum, oil lubricants data system for the military  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a proposed system of a comprehensive database that identifies the correct petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) required to operate, maintain, and sustain all army equipment. The POL products identified by the system for each item ofequipment will represent the optimum POL basic load components. Equivalent alternative products wil be identified to account for possible shortages of the recommended materials, and compatibility data for host nation support agreements will also be available.

Purdy, E.M. [Army Belvoir Research Development and Engineering Center, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States)

1994-02-01

105

22. DETAIL TO NORTHWEST OF LUBRICATING OIL TANKS AND FILTERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL TO NORTHWEST OF LUBRICATING OIL TANKS AND FILTERS FOR UNITS 1-4 (CENTER), AND UNIT 3 GOVERNOR (RIGHT CENTER FOREGROUND) AND GATE VALVE (RIGHT CENTER BACKGROUND) CONTROLS, OLD POWERHOUSE GENERATOR FLOOR - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

106

Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

2009-01-01

107

Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

108

Lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubrication is the use of a material to improve the smoothness of movement of one surface over another, and the material which is used is called a lubricant. Lubricants are usually liquids or semi-liquids, but may be solids or gases or any combination of solids, liquids, and gases. The smoothness ...

109

Development and application of a lubricant composition model to study effects of oil transport, vaporization, fuel dilution, and soot contamination on lubricant rheology and engine friction  

E-print Network

Engine oil lubricants play a critical role in controlling mechanical friction in internal combustion engines by reducing metal-on-metal contact. This implies the importance of understanding lubricant optimization at the ...

Gu, Grace Xiang

2014-01-01

110

Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke mopeds operated with synthetic lubricating oil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke (2-S) mopeds operated with ester-based, fully synthetic lubricating oil. Exhaust particulate matter (PM) from ten 2-S, 50 cm3 mopeds belonging to three different levels of emission legislation (EURO-0, EURO-1 and EURO-2) was collected during the sampling phase of the ECE 47 driving cycle through which each mopeds was driven on a dynamometer bench. Filters containing PM were extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor and analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. The contribution of unburned lubricating oil to the PM was ascertained and quantified by exploiting characteristic ions in its mass spectrum. The experimental results show that unburned lubricating oil accounted for a significant fraction (4.7-38.7%) of the PM emitted from 2-S mopeds. Emission rates of particulate unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes from non-catalyst EURO-0 mopeds were 15.4-56.2 mg km(-1) and 1-2 mg km(-1), respectively. These emission rates were reduced of 75% and 88%, respectively, for catalyst-equipped EURO-1 mopeds. The results of the tests carried out on two EURO-2 mopeds of different technology were contrasting. A EURO-2 moped with carburettor and secondary air injection exhibited a clear reduction of 95% and 88% for unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes emission rates with respect to the average values observed for EURO-1 mopeds. On the other hand, the second EURO-2 moped, equipped with catalyst and direct injection, had unburned lubricating oil emission rates roughly in the range of EURO-0 mopeds while particulate n-alkanes were emitted at rates comparable with typical values observed for catalyst EURO-1 mopeds. PMID:19244644

Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario

2008-10-01

111

Effects of Syringe Material and Silicone Oil Lubrication on the Stability of Pharmaceutical Proteins  

PubMed Central

Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:527–535, 2015 PMID:25256796

Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

2015-01-01

112

Effects of syringe material and silicone oil lubrication on the stability of pharmaceutical proteins.  

PubMed

Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling. PMID:25256796

Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

2015-02-01

113

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Oil Film in Lubricated Point Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique using Newton's rings for mapping the oil film of lubricated point contacts is described. A theoretical value for the film thickness of such contacts in elastohydrodynamic lubrication is derived. The experimental results give the exit constriction predicted by previous theory but never shown in detail. The comparison of theoretical and experimental oil film thicknesses, which is satisfactorily accurate,

A. Cameron; R. Gohar

1966-01-01

114

Lubricants for CFC alternates  

SciTech Connect

With the recent development and introduction of environmentally preferred refrigerants as substitutes for HCFC`s, a number of new classes of companion compressor lubricants also have been offered. In contrast to the former compressor lubricants which were derived from petroleum based stocks, the new lubricants are synthetic products, initially designed to provide miscibilities and solubilities similar to the CFC/mineral oil predecessors. Rather than review the classes of lubricants being evaluated and used for different types of refrigeration machinery, this paper will address longer term benefits and challenges related to the introduction of synthetic compressor lubricants such as polyesters, polyolesters, polyalkalene glycols and polycarbonates. Within these families of synthetic fluids, large selections of chemical structures are available, each with unique physical and chemical properties. Of course all of the lubricants must meet general requirements of compressor oils with respect to flammability, pour point, volatility, toxicity, etc., but beyond these minimum requirements, there are technical options for tailoring lubricant structures to optimize certain lubricant (and thus lubricant/refrigerant) properties such as vapor pressure, solubility, viscosity, viscosity index, miscibility, moisture absorption, additive response and biodegradability. Basic studies to predict lubricant/refrigerant mixture properties based on chemical structure of the components are recommended. A number of practical challenges in the selection and application of new lubricants and new working fluids will be discussed including standards for bench screening tests and compressor tests, guidelines for lubricant handling during recovery and servicing of equipment and the potential for reprocessing compressor lubricants.

Spauschus, H.O. [Spauschus Associates, Inc., Stockbridge, GA (United States)

1995-12-01

115

Lubricating oil dominates primary organic aerosol emissions from motor vehicles.  

PubMed

Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic aerosol (POA), which is a mixture of a large number of organic compounds that have not been comprehensively characterized. In this work, we apply a recently developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry approach utilizing "soft" vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to achieve unprecedented chemical characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA was characterized by number of carbon atoms (NC), number of double bond equivalents (NDBE) and degree of molecular branching. Vehicular POA was observed to predominantly contain cycloalkanes with one or more rings and one or more branched alkyl side chains (?80%) with low abundances of n-alkanes and aromatics (<5%), similar to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring structures are most likely dominated by cyclohexane and cyclopentane rings and not larger cycloalkanes. High molecular weight combustion byproducts, that is, alkenes, oxygenates, and aromatics, were not present in significant amounts. The observed carbon number and chemical composition of motor vehicle POA was consistent with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional smaller contribution from unburned diesel fuel and a negligible contribution from unburned gasoline. PMID:24621254

Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Gentner, Drew R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Chan, Arthur W H; Ruehl, Christopher; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Wilson, Kevin R; Harley, Robert A; Goldstein, Allen H

2014-04-01

116

Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

Gardos, M. N.

1973-01-01

117

A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

2002-01-01

118

Alkyl Polyglucosides as Components of Water Based Lubricants.  

PubMed

Water can be used as an ecological lubricant base if it is possible to select additives which can beneficially modify its tribological and corrosion properties. Additionally, those additives should not be harmful to human health and the natural environment. These conditions limit or even eliminate the possibility for the application of the additives used in traditional oil bases as they are insoluble in water and often toxic. Alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) have been suggested as additives improving lubricating properties of water. They are biodegradable and do not have to be recycled. They exhibit surface activity. They produce micelles at low concentration and lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentration. Two types of alkyl polyglucosides differing in alkyl chain lengths and degrees of polymerization were used in this investigation. Tribological tests were carried out using a ball-on-disc T-11 tester. The balls were made of steel, whereas the discs were made of steel, aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, polyamide and poly(methyl methacrylate). The description of the device and the methods has been given in the literature (Szczerek and Tuszy?ski in TriboTest 8:273-284, 2002). The addition of APGs improves the lubricating properties of water. The relative decrease in motion resistance and wear depends both on the type of friction couple and on the kind of alkyl polyglucoside used. The tribological test results obtained were correlated with the activity of APGs measured as wettability of friction couples by their solutions. PMID:23606804

Su?ek, Marian W?odzimierz; Ogorza?ek, Marta; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Klimaszewska, Emilia

2013-05-01

119

Oil lubricant tribological behaviour improvement through dispersion of few layer graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Few layer graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by a very fast modified Hummers method and widely characterized. Avoiding further chemical reactions, trying to take advantage of the easy exfoliation of GO favoring the formation of a tribofilm, and using a methodology well known to the lubricant industry, they were added to a mineral oil by the help of a dispersant. The tribological behaviour of GO in mineral oil was investigated under a wide spectrum of conditions, from boundary and mixed lubrication to elastohydrodynamic regimes. A ball on disc setup tribometer has been used to verify the friction reduction due to nanosheets dispersed in mineral oil. Their good friction and anti-wear properties may possibly be attributed to the small and extremely thin laminated structure, which offer lower shear stress and prevent interaction between metal interfaces. Furthermore, the results clearly prove that graphene platelets in oil easily form a protective film to prevent the direct contact between steel surfaces and, thereby, improving the frictional behaviour of the base oil. This evidence is also related to the frictional coefficient trend in boundary regime. PMID:24757967

Sarno, Maria; Senatore, Adolfo; Cirillo, Claudia; Petrone, Vincenzo; Ciambelli, Paolo

2014-07-01

120

Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive  

SciTech Connect

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01

121

Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.  

PubMed

Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils. PMID:23618159

Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

2013-05-15

122

Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

123

Synthesis and Characterization of Amine Functionalized Vegetable Oil as Lubricant Additive  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The majority of the lubricants and additives currently used are petroleum based that are toxic to the environment, making it increasingly difficult for safe and easy disposal. There has been an increasing demand for green lubricants and lubricant additives in recent years due to concerns about thei...

124

Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency system and as a primary lubrication system. [for helicopter engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication system was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through system with auxiliary air cooling is an effective primary lubrication system at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.

Loomis, W. R.

1976-01-01

125

Aviation Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

126

Environmental assessment of ester-based lubricants after application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Lubricants based on renewable resources are an environmentally friendly alternative to petrochemical products due to their\\u000a better ecotoxicological performance and their excellent biodegradability. To improve the technical performance of lubricants,\\u000a and to reduce friction and wear, the use of additives is nowadays obligatory. The collaborative research center SFB 442 aims\\u000a at developing environmentally acceptable lubricants that facilitate

Bibiane Erlenkaemper; Christoph Bugiel; Christian Brecher; Sabrina Werth; Adolf Eisentraeger

2008-01-01

127

Lubricant oil condition monitoring using a scattering-free single-wavelength optical scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and low-cost optical setup can be used for monitoring online the condition of lubricant oil in big machineries, as an action of preventive maintenance. The total acid number and the water content, as indicators of the lubricant oil quality, can be assessed by means of an integrating sphere for achieving scattering-free absorption measurements. For each indicator, spectroscopy showed that a peculiar wavelength is enough for predicting with good accuracy the value of the indicator.

Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Adriani, G.; Paccagnini, A.; Campatelli, M.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.

2014-05-01

128

WASTE LUBRICATING OIL DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND: POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE TO COASTAL WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that approximately 35 percent changed their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular method of disposal reported by the respondents was putting the oil in the garbage ...

129

Observations of Spacecraft Bearing Lubricant Redistribution Based on Thermal Conductance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and life of precision ball bearings are critically dependent on maintaining a quantity of oil at the ball/race interface that is sufficient to support a robust protective film. In space applications, where parched conditions are intentionally the norm, harsh operating conditions can displace the small reserves of oil, resulting in reduced film thickness and premature wear. In the past, these effects have proven difficult to model or to measure experimentally. This paper describes a study addressing this challenge, where bearing thermal conductance measurements are employed to infer changes in lubricant quantity at the critical rolling interfaces. In the first part of the paper, we explain how the lubricant's presence and its quantity impacts bearing thermal conductance measurements. For a stationary bearing, we show that conductance is directly related to the lubricant quantity in the ball/race contacts. Hence, aspects of bearing performance related to oil quantity can be understood and insights improved with thermal conductance data. For a moving bearing, a different mechanism of heat transfer dominates and is dependent on lubricant film thickness on the ball. In the second part of the report, we discuss lubricant quantity observations based on bearing thermal conductance measurements. Lubricant quantity, and thus bearing thermal conductance, depends on various initial and operating conditions and is impacted further by the run-in process. A significant effect of maximum run-in speed was also observed, with less oil remaining after obtaining higher speeds. Finally, we show that some of the lubricant that is displaced between the ball and race during run-in operation can be recovered during rest, and we measure the rate of recovery for one example.

Takeuchi, Yoshimi R.; Frantz, Peter P.; Hilton, Michael R.

2014-01-01

130

Marine Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

131

STRUCTURE INDUCED THERMO-OXIDATIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIO-BASED SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental awareness has led to new generation of lubricants and fluids based on renewable resources that are nontoxic and eco-friendly. These fluids are potential replacements for mineral oil in various agricultural, marine, forestry and industrial equipment and therefore prevent polluting the ...

132

Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

1988-01-01

133

Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both

T. Tian; V. W. Wong

2000-01-01

134

Confirmation of heavy metal ions in used lubricating oil from a passenger car using chelating self-assembled monolayer.  

PubMed

In order to prevent engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties. It is necessary to monitor the actual physical and chemical condition of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change interval. Our study focuses on the condition of the lubricating oil in an operated car engine. Shear stress curves and viscosity curves as a function of the shear rate for fresh and used lubricating oil were examined. Metal nitrate was detected in the lubricating oil from the operated car engine through the use of a chelating self-assembled monolayer. PMID:16690071

Ko, Young Gun; Kim, Choong Hyun

2006-09-01

135

The use of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A report is given on the application of thin-layer chromatography to the analysis of additives in lubricating oils. The separation and identification of antioxidants, phenates, sulphonates, zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates and polymeric additives is described. A measurement of additive depletion in used oils is possible by comparison of corresponding chromatograms.

R. Amos

1968-01-01

136

Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

137

Role of the Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Mechanics of Lubricant Oil in Hermetic Reciprocating Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments regarding the influence of oil on several thermophysical phenomena in reciprocating compressors. Besides the more essential role of lubrication, the oil is responsible for several tasks in the compressor, from cooling to keeping a low system pressure while the compressor is idle. Thermodynamics dictates the number of phases in equilibrium and the amount of dissolved

Alvaro T. Prata; Jader R. Barbosa Jr

2009-01-01

138

Scuffing resistance of DLC-coated gears lubricated with ecological oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was aimed to the elaboration of a new technology for heavy-loaded machine elements, lubricated with ecological oils without or with very limited amount of usually harmful AW\\/EP additives used in gear oils. The main objective of the study was the investigation of the effect of DLC coatings on scuffing resistance of coated gears. Three kinds of DLC coatings

Remigiusz Michalczewski; Witold Piekoszewski; Marian Szczerek; Waldemar Tuszynski

2009-01-01

139

The Effect of Lubricating Oil Additives on the Properties of Fluorohydrocarbon Elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorohydrocarbon elastomers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids. However, certain additive packages in lubricating oils have been found to have a deleterious effect on the properties of these rubbers. Consequently, a study was undertaken to determine the effect of oil additive on the properties of fluorohydrocarbon rubbers under total immersion conditions. Most of the tests were

A. Nersasian

1980-01-01

140

Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

141

Variable capacity wobble plate compressor with improved means for returning lubricating oil to crankcase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a variable capacity wobble plate compressor including a high pressure chamber disposed to be supplied with discharge fluid with lubricating oil entrained therein. A crankcase has a bottom portion formed with an oil sump, and a communication passageway communicates the high pressure chamber with the crankcase. A pressure regulating valve disposed across the communication passageway selectively closes

D. L. Thomas; N. Suzuki

1986-01-01

142

A parametric study on oil\\/air lubrication of a high-speed spindle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ball-bearing is widely used on many high-speed spindles due to its low starting friction and high load capacity. However, heat generation and dynamic loading caused by high-speed rotation have been obstacles for increasing the speed limit in many high-speed ball-bearing applications. Applying an appropriate lubrication and preload cannot be overemphasized. Recently, oil\\/air lubrication has been used on high-speed spindles

Cheng-Hsien Wu; Yu-Tai Kung

2005-01-01

143

Effect of temperature on lubrication with biobased oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temperature is an important parameter affecting the performance of lubricant ingredients. It affects such important tribological characteristics as viscosity, film thickness, adsorption, desorption, friction, and wear. Temperature also promotes oxidation, polymerization, and degradation which nega...

144

Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

145

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

146

Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) 1600 m) used 100% biodiesel fuel (B100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C/ mg C. The C concentration of the exhaust C02 and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in I4C content in the PM is due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions. The slight depression in CO{sub 2} isotope content could be attributed to ambient CO{sub 2} levels and measurement uncertainty.

Cheng, A S; Rich, D; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A

2002-12-06

147

Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

2003-01-31

148

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

149

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

150

Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Jatropha curcas.  

PubMed

Soil contamination by used lubricating oil from automobiles is a growing concern in many countries, especially in Asian and African continents. Phytoremediation of this polluted soil with non-edible plant like Jatropha curcas offers an environmental friendly and cost-effective method for remediating the polluted soil. In this study, phytoremediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% (w/w) waste lubricating oil using J. curcas and enhancement with organic wastes [Banana skin (BS), brewery spent grain (BSG) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] was undertaken for a period of 180 days under room condition. 56.6% and 67.3% loss of waste lubricating oil was recorded in Jatropha remediated soil without organic amendment for 2.5% and 1% contamination, respectively. However addition of organic waste (BSG) to Jatropha remediation rapidly increases the removal of waste lubricating oil to 89.6% and 96.6% in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Jatropha root did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the soil, but the number of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere of the Jatropha plant, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was via rhizodegradation. These studies have proven that J. curcas with organic amendment has a potential in reclaiming hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. PMID:20392562

Agamuthu, P; Abioye, O P; Aziz, A Abdul

2010-07-15

151

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

152

Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we determined particle-bound paraffins in the exhaust of six light-duty diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus, and the paraffin analysis was performed using two-dimensional normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The different molecular mass of lubricant and diesel paraffins facilitated the distinction between diesel and lubricant contribution to the emission. Although all vehicles were certified according to the same emission class, there were considerable variations between vehicles. The study showed that under cold-start conditions the organic mass fraction ranged from 10% to 30% with respect to particle mass and the paraffins from 30% to 60% with respect to the organic mass. With cold engine, falling ambient temperature increased the emission of unburned diesel fuel, whereas that from unburned lubricating oil was less affected. Under warm-start conditions, the ambient temperature had less impact on the emission of paraffins. The emissions were also affected by the operating conditions of the engine: driving cycles with higher mean load tend towards higher emissions of lubricant. The operating conditions also affected the distribution of paraffins: the emission of light paraffins seemed to be lower with higher load in the driving cycle. With an urban and a highway cycle, roughly 40% and 80% w/w, respectively, of unburned paraffins were contributed by the lubricant. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lubricating oil showed lubricant to be a sink for PAHs. As lubricant significantly contributes to the organic emission, as shown in this study, it can be assumed that it is also a significant source of PAH emissions.

Brandenberger, Sandro; Mohr, Martin; Grob, Koni; Neukom, Hans Peter

153

Graphite in lubrication. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning graphite and graphite fluoride as solid lubricants for applications requiring dry lubricants or in conjunction with oils or greases to improve lubrication. Fiber graphite is discussed in the manufacture of composite materials with self-lubricating properties. Graphite as a filler in various bearing materials is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 113 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01

154

Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125?m multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a ?= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to perform reliable and clean spectral measurements from the analyzed oil samples.

Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

2014-05-01

155

Design, fabrication and testing of a bearing test rig and preliminary studies on oil mist lubrication  

E-print Network

factories have applied oil mist to web and processing equipment, conveyors, mobile equipment, shaker screens, vibrators, crushers, centrifuges, kilns, pulverizers, dryers and a host of other equipment (2). The results have been excellent. CHAPTER III... the operating characteristics of rolling element bearings in terms of operating temperature, friction and vibration, with variation of load, speed and lubrication system, is described. The design of an experimental procedure to obtain information about oil...

Shamim, Abdus

1990-01-01

156

The Effect of Oil Pockets Shape and Distribution on Seizure Resistance in Lubricated Sliding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental investigations on the effect of the oil pockets existence on seizure resistance of sliding elements\\u000a are presented. Seizure tests were conducted with block-on-ring apparatus at increasing pressure. The stationary block (counter\\u000a specimen) contacted the rotating steel ring (specimen). The tested assemblies were lubricated by oil L-AN 46, which was heated\\u000a to 30 °C before each experiment. The

Lidia Galda; Andrzej Dzierwa; Jaroslaw Sep; Pawel Pawlus

2010-01-01

157

Determination of wear metals in used lubricating oils by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of an X-ray fluorescence analytical procedure for the determination of wear metals in used lubricating oils is described. Oil saoples were collected from UH-IH type helicopter engines at regular intervals and subjected to chemical peatreatment in order to remove the high viscosity of the oil and particle size effects. The procedure was used to determine the concentration of topper and iron wear metals in oils. They were found to increase with engine operating time. The results obtained show that the XRFS procedure provides a better indication of impending machine failure than conventional methods.

Zararsiz, A.; Kirmaz, R.; Arikan, P.

1996-03-01

158

CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE  

SciTech Connect

Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2011-01-01

159

Liquid cryogenic lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluorinated polyethers are suitable lubricants for rolling-element bearings in cryogenic systems. Lubrication effectiveness is comparable to that of super-refined mineral oil lubricants operating at room temperature.

Dietrich, M. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1970-01-01

160

Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications. PMID:24829128

Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

2014-01-01

161

NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

Weaver, Harold F.

2003-01-01

162

Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

1996-01-01

163

Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

164

The effect of palm oil diesel fuel contaminated lubricant on sliding wear of cast irons against mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various percentages of palm oil diesel (POD) fuel contaminated lubricants on the wear characteristics of cast irons during sliding contact was investigated. This was done on three types of cast iron, namely spheroidal graphite, flake graphite and chilled cast iron against a mild steel disc configuration using a pin-on-disc type of friction and wear apparatus. The lubricants

H. H. Masjuki; M. A. Maleque

1996-01-01

165

Solubility, density and viscosity of mixtures of isobutane (R-600a) and a linear alkylbenzene lubricant oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobutane (R-600a) is a well established environmentally friendly substitute for hydrofluorocarbon and chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants in vapor compression refrigeration applications. In order to improve the performance and reliability of compressors and refrigerators, the behavior of the thermophysical properties of refrigerant–lubricant mixtures must be well understood, as the choice of lubricant oil plays an important role in determining the system equalizing pressure

Moisés A. Marcelino Neto; Jader R. Barbosa Jr.

2010-01-01

166

On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined.

Zheng, Lijuan; Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Gilon, Nicole; Zeng, Heping; Yu, Jin

2014-09-01

167

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

168

7 CFR 2902.47 - Gear lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. Products, such as greases or oils, that are designed...recovered content product: Lubricating oils containing re-refined...EPA-designated re-refined lubricating oils and which product should...Agency designated re-refined lubricating oils containing...

2010-01-01

169

Lubricating oil and fuel contributions to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles.  

PubMed

Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) operated under realistic driving cycles were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measured hopane and sterane size distributions did not match the total carbon size distribution in most cases, suggesting that lubricating oil was not the dominant source of particulate carbon in the vehicle exhaust. A regression analysis using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and benzo[ghi/perylene as a tracer for gasoline showed that gasoline fuel and lubricating oil both make significant contributions to particulate EC and OC emissions from LDGVs. A similar regression analysis performed using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and flouranthene as a tracerfor diesel fuel was able to explain the size distribution of particulate EC and OC emissions from HDDVs. The analysis showed that EC emitted from all HDDVs operated under relatively high load conditions was dominated by diesel fuel contributions with little EC attributed to lubricating oil. Particulate OC emitted from HDDVs was more evenly apportioned between fuel and oil contributions. EC emitted from LDGVs operated underfuel-rich conditions was dominated by gasoline fuel contributions. OC emitted from visibly smoking LDGVs was mostly associated with lubricating oil, but OC emitted from all other categories of LDGVs was dominated by gasoline fuel. The current study clearly illustrates that fuel and lubricating oil make separate and distinct contributions to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. These particles should be tracked separately during ambient source apportionment studies since the atmospheric evolution and ultimate health effects of these particles may be different. The source profiles for fuel and lubricating oil contributions to EC and OC emissions derived in this study provide a foundation for future source apportionment calculations. PMID:18350902

Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A

2008-01-01

170

The Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Lubricating Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest is growing concerning the influence of polymeric additives upon the viscosity of mineral oils at extremes of temperature, pressure, and shear. In this paper the author discusses the viscometry of mineral oils and mineral oil-polymer blends at moderate temperatures and high shear and at low temperatures and low shear.The non-Newtonian influences of two common polymeric additives, polyalkylmethacrylate and polyisobutylene,

T. W. Selby

1958-01-01

171

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

172

A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

2010-04-01

173

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect

The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

2011-10-01

174

Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

Bertrand, P. A.

1995-01-01

175

n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.  

PubMed

As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM. PMID:17547199

Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

2007-05-15

176

[The method of time series modeling and its application in the spectral analysis of lubricating oil].  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss the applications of time series modeling method in the analysis of lubricating oil of mechanical equipment. We obtained satisfactory results by applying AR model to perform time series modeling and forecasting analysis to the collected spectral analysis data of the air engine. So we have built a practical method for state monitoring and trouble forecasting of mechanical equipment. PMID:12953452

Gan, M; Zuo, H; Yang, Z; Jiang, Y

2000-02-01

177

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels. (1) Use diesel fuels for testing which are clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

2012-07-01

178

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels. (1) Use diesel fuels for testing which are clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

2011-07-01

179

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels. (1) Use diesel fuels for testing which are clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

2014-07-01

180

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2013-10-01

181

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2012-10-01

182

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2014-10-01

183

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall...For internal combustion engine installations, the...discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven...

2011-10-01

184

Determination of wear metals in lubrication oils: a comparison study of ICP-OES and FAAS.  

PubMed

Certain wear metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) of various lubrication oils were determined by means of ICP-OES and FAAS. The kerosene dilution method, which is used widely together with ICP-OES, was applied with both methods here. Calibration standards were made from a commercial organo-metallic standard. Our aim was to clarify the possibility of using the quick kerosene dilution method together with FAAS for a rapid check for certain indicator metals. Metal determinations with FAAS were accurate enough for quantitative work in machine condition diagnostics and waste oil characterization, when compared with those with ICP-OES. PMID:16317907

Vähäoja, Pekka; Välimäki, Ilkka; Heino, Katri; Perämäki, Paavo; Kuokkanen, Toivo

2005-11-01

185

Biodegradation of Lubricating Oil in Wastewater with Zoogloea sp. 1 1 Project supported by the Natural Science and Technology Program of Lanzhou University (Nos. 582402 and 582403)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify microbial strains that have a strong ability to biodegrade lubricating oil. No. 20 lubricating oil was used as the sole carbon source in an isolation medium to screen bacteria from sludge that had been contaminated with crude oil. Through both morphological and biochemical methods, the bacterial strain that had the highest biodegrading

Liang JIN; Xiao-Juan WANG; Zong-Lian GU; De-Zhi ZHOU; Si-Qin XIE

2006-01-01

186

Recycling of the used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycling process of the used mineral oils has been gaining a very important gap in the context of environmental protection. Among mineral oils from petroleum, the lubricating oils are not entirely consumed during their use; therefore, it is necessary to apply a treatment for recuperation seeking their reuse. Moreover, the environmental legislation of countries does not allow their discard in any type of soils, rivers, lakes, oceans or sewerage systems. The conventional treatment has shown certain difficulties in the recuperation process for used oils. The ionizing radiation process is renowned in the industrial effluents treatments due to its high efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds and in the removal of metals by the action of OH rad , rad H and e aq radicals. In this work, used automotive lubricating oil was treated by the ionizing radiation process for metal removal and degradation of organic compounds. The samples were irradiated with 100 and 200 kGy irradiation doses. Determination of the elements Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Nb, Cd, Sn, Ba, Bi and Pb, before and after the irradiation, was done by X-ray fluorescence technique and the organic profile was obtained by infrared spectroscopy.

Scapin, M. A.; Duarte, C.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Sato, I. M.

2007-11-01

187

Biobased lubricants and functional products from Cuphea oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cuphea (Lythraceae) is an annual plant that produces a small seed rich in saturated medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAGs). With the need for higher seed yields, oil content, and less seed shattering, Oregon State University began developing promising cuphea crosses. Cuphea PSR23 is a hybrid between C...

188

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

189

Effectiveness of liquid crystal admixtures in the lubricating oil for a multi-operational machine  

SciTech Connect

Reliable cyclic operation of modern multioperational, numerically controlled (N/C) machine tools strongly depends not only on the precision manufacturing of kinematic pairs, but also on the conditions of their maintenance and running-in periods. In the machine tool industry, the running-in of the most important newly assembled kinematic units and mechanisms of machines, i.e., spindle head units, gearboxes, ball screw paris, etc., is attained during a 2- to 36-hour period in the plant and subsequent long-term operational running-in of all units on the assembled machine. For the reduction of the running-in duration, low-viscosity oil, sulfurized lubricants and various additives are used. However, the usage of low viscosity oil may cause scoring and increase the wear due to squeezing-out of the oil and contact between mating surfaces. In other cases the low effectiveness of the additives in the running-in process is observed, as well as surface corrosion and the long duration of the run-in process itself. The influence of lubricants and their additives on the running-in process of gearboxes of metal-cutting machine tools is investigated. Theoretical and experimental analysis proved the expediency of adding liquid crystals (fatty acid esters of cholesterol) into the oil. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Vekteris, V.; Murachver, A. [Vilnius Technical Univ. (Lithuania)

1995-10-01

190

Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants  

E-print Network

disulfide based. The other materials were 440C stainless steel and tungsten carbide. The temperature, pressure, and relative humidity are independent variables. The results showed that the carbon based coating increases friction and wears out quickly due...

Sanchez, Carlos Joel

2012-10-19

191

Tribology of steel/steel interaction in oil-in-water emulsion; a rationale for lubricity.  

PubMed

Oil droplets are dispersed in water by an anionic surfactant to form an emulsion. The lubricity of this emulsion in steel/steel interaction is explored in a ball on flat nanotribometer. The droplet size and charge are measured using dynamic light scattering, while the substrate charge density is estimated using the pH titration method. These data are combined to calculate the DLVO forces for the droplets generated for a range of surfactant concentration and two oil to water volume ratios. The droplets have a clear bi-modal size distribution. The study shows that the smaller droplets which experience weak repulsion are situated (at the highest DLVO barrier) much closer to the substrate than the bigger droplets, which experience the same DLVO force, are. We suggest that the smaller droplets thus play a more important role in lubricity than what the bigger droplets do. The largest volume of such small droplets occurs in the 0.5 mM-1 mM range of surfactant concentration and 1% oil to water volume ratio, where the coefficient of friction is also observed to be the least. PMID:20171646

Kumar, Deepak; Daniel, Jency; Biswas, S K

2010-05-15

192

Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

2012-06-01

193

Graphite in lubrication. January 1970-March 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-March 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning graphite and graphite fluoride as solid lubricants for applications where dry lubricants are required or in conjunction with oils or greases to improve lubrication. Fiber graphite is discussed in manufacturing composite materials with self-lubricating properties. Graphite as a filler in various bearing materials is also considered. (This updated bibliography contains 117 citations, 11 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-03-01

194

Lubricants for HFC-134a Compatible Rotary Compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In replacing CFC-12 with HFC-134a for refrigerator compressors, the compatibility with lubricating oil, and lubrication in general, are of major concern. HFC-134a dose not have adequate solubility with current lubricating oils because of its molecular structure. Current oils also do not provide enough lubricating action when using HFC-134a. A new oil and new materials have to be utilized in order to use HFC-134a. Developing a new lubricating oil involved numerous tests of different combinations of many polyolester synthetic oils and additives. One of the pre-evaluated methods was pursued via sealed tube tests. Lubricated parts were selected by studies involving a plane-on-roller type of wear test machine and by analyzing the traces of acid material commonly created during the lubricating action. The matrices of new lubricating oils and new lubricated materials were estimated based on durability tests conducted on compressors and refrigerators. Results showed that polyolester synthetic oils having a low total acid value and including certain quantities of additives did not break down into a tar-like substance and they did not produce composite particles in the operating compressors and refrigerators. The study also found that ceramics and anti-corrosion alloy steel possessed good adrasion-reducing qualities. Based on our evaluation, we will implement compressor reliability tests and apply HFC-134a to rotary compressors for refrigerators.

Takaichi, Kenji; Sakai, Hisakazu

195

Bulk Modulus of Lubricating Oils as Predominant Factor Affecting Tractional Behavior in High-Pressure Elastohydrodynamic Contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase diagrams corresponding to transition from liquid to viscoelastic solid and that from viscoelastic solid to elastic-plastic solid of Santotrac100 (SN100), mineral oil, synthetic naphthenic oil, polybutene, and tetradecane were first made up by high-pressure density measurements and others. The bulk modulus of lubricating oils under a quasi-static condition was evaluated using a phase diagram. The results indicated that

NOBUYOSHI OHNO; M. D. ZIAUR RAHMAN; KOUICHI KAKUDA

2005-01-01

196

Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics and Space Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tribology program at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is investigating carbon based nano-particles for their potential in advanced concept lubrication products. Service conditions range from high temperature atmospheric to low temperature vacuum. Some of the lubricants and surface coatings of tribological significance that we have evaluated include neat nano-particles, both grown in-situ and as bulk material deposited on the substrate, and nano-particles dispersed in oils which are all highly substrate interactive. We discuss results of testing these systems in a spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) and a unidirectional pin-on-disc (PoD) tribometer. A nano-onions/Krytox mixture evaluated as a lubricant for angular contact bearings in air caused a marked lowering of the coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.04 to 0.05) for the mixture with an eight-fold improvement in lifetime over that of the Krytox alone. In vacuum, no effect was observed from the nano-onions. Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) and graphitized MWNT were tested under sliding friction in both air and vacuum. The MWNT which were grown in-situ oriented normal to the sliding surface exhibited low CoF (0.04) and long wear lives. Bulk MWNT also generate low CoF (0.01 to 0.04, vacuum; and 0.06, air) and long wear life (>1 million orbits, vacuum; and >3.5 million, air). Dispersed graphitized MWNT were superior to MWNT and both were superior to aligned MWNT indicating that orientation is not an issue for solid lubrication. Single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) were modified by cutting into shorter segments and by fluorination. All SWNTs exhibited low CoF in air, with good wear lives. The SWNT with slight fluorination yielded an ultra-low CoF of 0.002 although the best wear life was attributed to the nascent SWNT.

Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wal, Randy L. Vander

2007-01-01

197

Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C 2) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C 2 integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C 2 integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

Elnasharty, I. Y.; Kassem, A. K.; Sabsabi, M.; Harith, M. A.

2011-08-01

198

FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

199

Object shape-based optical sensing methodology and system for condition monitoring of contaminated engine lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presence of contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, and coolant in the engine lubricant indicates mechanical failure within the engine and significantly reduces lubricant quality. This paper describes a novel sensing system, its methodology and experimental verifications for analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The sensing methodology is based on the statistical shape analysis methodology utilizing optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium. The novelty of the proposed sensing system lies within the employed methodology which an object with a known periodic shape is introduced behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodical structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. The object, e.g. a stainless steel woven wire cloth with a mesh size of 65×65 µm2 and a circular wire diameter of 33 µm was placed behind a microfluidic channel, containing engine lubricant and optical images of flowing lubricant with stationary object were acquired and analyzed. Several parameters of acquired optical images, such as, color of lubricant and object, object shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative color, and object width non-uniformity coefficient, were proposed. Measured on-line parameters were used for optical analysis of fresh and contaminated lubricants. Estimation of contaminant presence and lubricant condition was performed by comparison of parameters for fresh and contaminated lubricants. Developed methodology was verified experimentally showing ability to distinguish lubricants with 1%, 4%, 7%, and 10% coolant, gasoline and water contamination individually and in a combination form of coolant (0%-5%) and gasoline (0%-5%).

Bordatchev, Evgueni; Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun

2014-03-01

200

Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.  

PubMed

Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft. PMID:10701290

van Netten, C; Leung, V

2000-03-01

201

Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

2007-10-01

202

Application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 in the biodegradation of used lubricating oil.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 using molasses as a substrate and fertilizer to enhance the biodegradation of used lubricating oil (ULO). The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria, the emulsification activity, and the biodegradation efficiency of ULO were measured. The bacterial adhesion in the hydrocarbon test was used to denote the cell surface hydrophobicity of the used bacterial species. The results indicate a strong correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity, emulsification activity, and the degree of ULO biodegradation. The maximum degradation of ULO (62 %) was observed when either 1.5 % (w/v) of biosurfactant or fertilizer was added. The results also revealed that biosurfactants alone are capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizer. The data indicate the potential for biosurfactant production by using low-cost substrate for application in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or oils. PMID:24590892

Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

2014-04-01

203

Isolation and characterization of novel strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens possessing high efficiency to degrade gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, and lubricating oil.  

PubMed

Bacteria possessing high capacity to degrade gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, and lubricating oil were screened from several areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Among isolates, two strains, WatG and HokM, which were identified as new strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens species, respectively, showed relatively high capacity and wide spectrum to degrade the hydrocarbons in gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil. About 90-95% of excess amount of total diesel oil and kerosene added to mineral salts media as a sole carbon source could be degraded by WatG within 2 and 3 weeks, respectively. The same amount of lubricating oil was 60% degraded within 2 weeks. Strain HokM was more capable than WatG in degrading aromatic compounds in gasoline. This strain could also degrade kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil with a capacity of 50-60%. Thus, these two isolates have potential to be useful for bioremediation of sites highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:15696617

Wongsa, Patcharaporn; Tanaka, Makiko; Ueno, Akio; Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad; Yumoto, Isao; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

2004-12-01

204

Experimental investigation of porous bearings under different lubricant and lubricating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of porous bearing under different lubricants and lubricating conditions was experimentally investigated in\\u000a this study. In order to carry out the experiments, a new test rig was designed to determine the tribological properties of\\u000a based sintered bronze journal bearings that were manufactured by powder metallurgy (P\\/M) techniques. To determine the effects\\u000a of lubricating conditions with and without oil

Ertu?rul DURAK

2003-01-01

205

THE USE AND FATE OF LUBRICANTS, OILS, GREASES, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of the use and fate of lubricants, oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids in the iron and steel industry. Data from nine integrated steel plants and two consultants with extensive steel industry experience were used to: develop correlatio...

206

Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

Hill, Pamela

207

Lubrication with solids.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

1972-01-01

208

Reaction products of organophosphorus halides with inorganic thiocyanates as load-carrying additives in lubricating oil compositions  

SciTech Connect

Reaction products of selected inorganic thiocyanates and alkyl or aryl phosphorus halides provide additive compounds which impart excellent antiwear and load-carrying protection to lubricant base stocks in which they are incorporated.

Okorodudu, A.O.

1981-02-24

209

Relationship of Viscosity, Surface Tensions, and Coefficient of Friction of Lubricating Oils  

E-print Network

Engineering Course By Earl Carson 1 9 1 4 P R E F A C E The purpose of this treatise is a study of some of the physical properties of lubricants, "but especially oT the properties which bear directly upon the problem of lubrication. A reletionshij... II. Methods of Examining Lubricants. A. Investigation of the Properties of Lubricants. 1. Characteristics of a good lubricant. 2. The Bearing of Distinctive "Qualities on Lubricants. a. Viscosity. b. Vaporizing Temperature and Flash Point. c...

Carson, Earl

1914-01-01

210

High-Efficient Production of Boron Nitride Nanosheets via an Optimized Ball Milling Process for Lubrication in Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 ?m in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hait, Samik K.; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

2014-12-01

211

Low-Cost Oil Quality Sensor Based on Changes in Complex Permittivity  

PubMed Central

Real time oil quality monitoring techniques help to protect important industry assets, minimize downtime and reduce maintenance costs. The measurement of a lubricant’s complex permittivity is an effective indicator of the oil degradation process and it can be useful in condition based maintenance (CBM) to select the most adequate oil replacement maintenance schedules. A discussion of the working principles of an oil quality sensor based on a marginal oscillator to monitor the losses of the dielectric at high frequencies (>1 MHz) is presented. An electronic design procedure is covered which results in a low cost, effective and ruggedized sensor implementation suitable for use in harsh environments. PMID:22346666

Pérez, Angel Torres; Hadfield, Mark

2011-01-01

212

Friction coefficient in FZG gears lubricated with industrial gear oils: Biodegradable ester vs. mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two industrial gear oils, a reference paraffinic mineral oil with a special additive package for extra protection against micropitting and a biodegradable non-toxic ester, were characterized in terms of their physical properties, wear properties and chemical contents and compared in terms of their power dissipation in gear applications [Höhn BR, Michaelis K, Döbereiner R. Load carrying capacity properties of fast

R. Martins; J. Seabra; A. Brito; Ch. Seyfert; R. Luther; A. Igartua

2006-01-01

213

21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of the mineral oil. Dimethylpolysiloxane... Addition to food not to exceed...preventative in mineral oil-bentonite lubricants...from animal or vegetable sources, and the hydrogenated... Addition to food not to exceed...lubricity) in mineral oil lubricants....

2014-04-01

214

21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the mineral oil. Dimethylpolysiloxane... Addition to food not to exceed...preventative in mineral oil-bentonite lubricants...from animal or vegetable sources, and the hydrogenated... Addition to food not to exceed...lubricity) in mineral oil lubricants....

2013-04-01

215

21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the mineral oil. Dimethylpolysiloxane... Addition to food not to exceed...preventative in mineral oil-bentonite lubricants...from animal or vegetable sources, and the hydrogenated... Addition to food not to exceed...lubricity) in mineral oil lubricants....

2011-04-01

216

21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the mineral oil. Dimethylpolysiloxane... Addition to food not to exceed...preventative in mineral oil-bentonite lubricants...from animal or vegetable sources, and the hydrogenated... Addition to food not to exceed...lubricity) in mineral oil lubricants....

2012-04-01

217

Modification of boundary lubrication by oil-soluble friction modifier Yingxi Zhua  

E-print Network

in lubricants of the type used at the wet clutch interface in automatic transmissions has been studied using in the boundary lubrication regime and compared to a fully-formulated automatic transmission fluid (ATF). 1 challenge. The automatic transmission fluids (ATFs) are among the most sophisticated types of lubricants

Granick, Steve

218

Bio-lubricants Derived from Waste Cooking Oil with Improved Oxidation Stability and Low-temperature Properties.  

PubMed

Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants. PMID:25766933

Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

2015-04-01

219

Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa  

PubMed Central

Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming. PMID:23841994

Geibel, Scott

2013-01-01

220

Soybean oil based greases: influence of composition on thermo-oxidative and tribochemical behavior.  

PubMed

The biodegradable properties and lubricating ability of greases depend on both the base oil and the thickener. Mineral oils are the most widely used lubricant base fluids due to their inherent lubricity and low cost, but recent environmental awareness has forced consideration of the use of biodegradable fluids such as vegetable oils and certain synthetic fluids in grease formulations. This study presents data on the thermo-oxidation behavior and tribology of biodegradable greases formulated with soybean oil and different compositions of metal soap thickener. The composition of thickener has been varied by using fatty acids with different degrees of unsaturation and fatty acids of different chain lengths. The improvement of thermo-oxidation and tribological properties as a result of changing thickener/base oil ratio and the antioxidative effect of some suitable additives have also been evaluated. PMID:15826046

Sharma, Brajendra K; Adhvaryu, Atanu; Perez, Joseph M; Erhan, Sevim Z

2005-04-20

221

Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.  

PubMed

Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%. PMID:25679531

Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

2015-03-17

222

Determination of insolubles in diesel lubricating oil by FIA-visible spectrometry.  

PubMed

Insolubles determination is one of the parameters usually recommended to evaluate the residual life of oil because their presence at elevated levels in diesel lubricating oil changes the viscosity, prematurely clogs filters and is one of the major factors in causing abrasive engine wear. The proposed method employs visible spectrophotometric detection in association with flow injection analysis. The results obtained by this method were compared with the ones obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) since this is the most employed method for insolubles determination. The proposed method presented a linear response from 0 to 3% (w/w) of insolubles in pentane (ASTM D-893). The sampling frequency was about 30 samplesh(-1), with a relative standard deviation (n=5) of 2.4% or better. Accuracy was evaluated analysing 98 real samples and the results obtained with the FIA-spectrophotometric method were plotted against those obtained by the FT-IR method by means of linear regression. Slope and intercept of the straight line obtained were compared with the theoretical values of 1 and 0 by means of the joint-confidence ellipse F-test. At the confidence level of 95% no evidence of a difference was found between both methods. PMID:18969754

Knochen, M; Sixto, A; Pignalosa, G; Domenech, S; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

2004-12-15

223

Tribological Properties of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Systems  

E-print Network

. Moreover, for brittle surfaces, it was found that beyond a certain roughness the frictional properties remain unchanged. In addition, this work is also intended to explore novel lubricants with nanoparticle additives in efforts to control friction...

Kheireddin, Bassem

2013-08-02

224

Influence of boric acid additive size on green lubricant performance.  

PubMed

As the industrial community moves towards green manufacturing processes, there is an increased demand for multi-functional, environmentally friendly lubricants with enhanced tribological performance. In the present investigation, green (environmentally benign) lubricant combinations were prepared by homogeneously mixing nano- (20 nm), sub-micrometre- (600 nm average size) and micrometre-scale (4 ?m average size) boric acid powder additives with canola oil in a vortex generator. As a basis for comparison, lubricants of base canola oil and canola oil mixed with MoS(2) powder (ranging from 0.5 to 10 ?m) were also prepared. Friction and wear experiments were carried out on the prepared lubricants using a pin-on-disc apparatus under ambient conditions. Based on the experiments, the nanoscale (20 nm) particle boric acid additive lubricants significantly outperformed all of the other lubricants with respect to frictional and wear performance. In fact, the nanoscale boric acid powder-based lubricants exhibited a wear rate more than an order of magnitude lower than the MoS(2) and larger sized boric acid additive-based lubricants. It was also discovered that the oil mixed with a combination of sub-micrometre- and micrometre-scale boric acid powder additives exhibited better friction and wear performance than the canola oil mixed with sub-micrometre- or micrometre-scale boric acid additives alone. PMID:20855323

Lovell, Michael R; Kabir, M A; Menezes, Pradeep L; Higgs, C Fred

2010-10-28

225

Automated acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.  

PubMed

The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures. PMID:25271046

Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

2014-12-01

226

Tribology and energy efficiency: from molecules to lubricated contacts to complete machines.  

PubMed

The impact of lubricants on energy efficiency is considered. Molecular details of base oils used in lubricants can have a great impact on the lubricant's physical properties which will affect the energy efficiency performance of a lubricant. In addition, molecular details of lubricant additives can result in significant differences in measured friction coefficients for machine elements operating in the mixed/boundary lubrication regime. In single machine elements, these differences will result in lower friction losses, and for complete systems (such as cars, trucks, hydraulic circuits, industrial gearboxes etc.) lower fuel consumption or lower electricity consumption can result. PMID:23285639

Taylor, Robert Ian

2012-01-01

227

Lubrication of Nitinol 60  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

2010-01-01

228

Comparing the lubricity of biofuels obtained from pyrolysis and alcoholysis of soybean oil and their blends with petroleum diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diesel-like fuel, pyrodiesel (PD), was synthesized by a pyrolysis method using soybean oil as starting material. Some physical properties of the material were studied, both neat and in blends with high-sulfur (HSD) and low-sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels, and compared with blends of biodiesel (BD) in fossil fuels. It was observed using different methods that the lubricity of biobased fuels

Paulo A. Z. Suarez; Bryan R. Moser; Brajendra K. Sharma; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

229

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

Not Available

2006-06-01

230

Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.  

PubMed

Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations. PMID:25416127

Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

2014-12-10

231

Boundary friction in liquid and dry film biobased lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farm-based raw materials such as fats, seed oils, starches, proteins, and gums can be subjected to various degrees of processing to make them suitable for use in lubrication. The resulting biobased ingredients are then blended with each other and/or with synthetic ingredients to formulate lubricant...

232

Tribological evaluation of some aluminum-based materials in lubricant\\/refrigerant mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribological characteristics of various aluminum alloys, surface treated 356 aluminum alloy and an aluminum composite are evaluated in lubricant\\/refrigerant (L\\/R) mixtures. The evaluation is based on a cylindrical pin\\/disc line contact geometry. This research program consists of two parts. The first part focuses mainly on materials screening of various aluminum\\/steel contact pairs lubricated by polyolester\\/R134a (tetrafluoroethane) and polyalkylene glycol

Hyung Yoon; Todor Sheiretov; Cris Cusano

1998-01-01

233

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

234

Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

1988-01-01

235

Multifunctional thiocyanate amine salt additive for fuels and lubricating oils and compositions containing said additive  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a hydrocarbon-soluble sulfur-nitrogen compound resulting from the reaction of a dialkyl-4-hydroxy benzyl thiocyanate and a C12-C24 alkyl primary amine which compounds have utility as multifunctional, I.E. Antioxidation, antiwear, extreme pressure and lubricity modification, additive for fuels and lubricants.

Girgenti, S.J.; Ryer, J.; Winans, E.D.

1981-04-21

236

Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

237

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

238

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1981-01-01

239

Isolation and application of Gordonia sp. JC11 for removal of boat lubricants.  

PubMed

Boat lubricants are continuously released into the marine environment and thereby cause chronic oil pollution. This study aims to isolate lubricant-degrading microorganisms from Thai coastal areas as well as to apply a selected strain for removal of boat lubricants. Ten microorganisms in the genera of Gordonia, Microbacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Enterococcus and Candida were initially isolated by crude oil enrichment culture techniques. The lubricant-removal activity of these isolates was investigated with mineral-based lubricants that had been manufactured for the 4-stroke diesel engines of fishing boats. Gordonia sp. JC11, the most effective strain was able to degrade 25-55% of 1,000 mg L(-1) total hydrocarbons in six tested lubricants, while only 0-15% of the lubricants was abiotically removed. The bacterium had many characteristics that promoted lubricant degradation such as hydrocarbon utilization ability, emulsification activity and cell surface hydrophobicity. For bioaugmentation treatment of lubricant contaminated seawater, the inoculum of Gordonia sp. JC11 was prepared by immobilizing the bacterium on polyurethane foam (PUF). PUF-immobilized Gordonia sp. JC11 was able to remove 42-56% of 100-1,000 mg L(-1) waste lubricant No. 2 within 5 days. This lubricant removal efficiency was higher than those of free cells and PUF without bacterial cells. The bioaugmentation treatment significantly increased the number of lubricant-degrading microorganisms in the fishery port seawater microcosm and resulted in rapid removal of waste lubricant No. 2. PMID:22449747

Chanthamalee, Jirapat; Luepromchai, Ekawan

2012-01-01

240

Synthetic aircraft turbine oil  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

Yaffe, R.

1982-03-16

241

Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both considered for the interaction between the flanks of the TLOCR and the ring groove. Then, the moments and axial forces from TLOCR/liner lubrication and TLOCR/groove interaction were coupled into the dynamic equations of the TLOCR. Furthermore, effects of piston dynamic tilt were considered in a quasi three-dimensional manner so that the behaviors of the TLOCR at different circumferential location could be studied. As a first step, variation of the third land pressure was neglected. The model predictions were illustrated via an SI engine. One important finding is that around thrust and anti-thrust sides, the difference between the minimum oil film thickness of two lands can be as high as several micrometers due to piston dynamic tilt. As a result, at thrust and anti-thrust sides, significant oil can pass under one land of the TLOCR along the bore, although the other land perfectly seals the bore. Then, the capabilities of the model were further explained by studying the effects of ring tension and torsional resistance on the lubrication and oil transport between the lands and the liner. The effects of oil film thickness on the flanks of the ring groove on the dynamics of the TLOCR were also studied. Friction results show that boundary lubrication contributes significantly to the total friction of the TLOCR.

Tian, T.; Wong, V.W.

2000-01-01

242

Thermal and mechanical characterization of cellulosic derivatives-based oleogels potentially applicable as bio-lubricating greases: Influence of ethyl cellulose molecular weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the design of new gel-like formulations based on blends of cellulosic derivatives and castor oil, which could be potentially applicable as environmentally-friendly lubricating greases. In particular, the influence of ethyl cellulose molecular weight, blended with ?-cellulose or methylcellulose, on the thermal and rheological properties of the resulting gel-like dispersions was explored. Thermal and rheological behaviours were

R. Sánchez; J. M. Franco; M. A. Delgado; C. Valencia; C. Gallegos

2011-01-01

243

Heat- and Radiation-Resistant Lubricants for Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protective and lubricating coatings formed in situ. Orthophthalonitrile reacts with metal-surface asperities at high frictional temperatures to form lubricating films of metal phthalocyanine. Compounds also formed with hot metal fragments torn from asperities. Bearing surfaces better protected from scoring, and fragments rendered less harmful to base fluids. Lubricants useful as additives to oils and greases in gears, transmissions, motors, and other machines where rubbing loads between metal parts may be severe. Because of their low volatility and lack of requirement for air or moisture, lubricants also useful in vacuums.

Lawton, E. A.

1986-01-01

244

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of sulfur incorporated vegetable oils for possible application as antiwear additives for biodegradable lubricants. The curr...

245

40 CFR 1065.740 - Lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) Use commercially available lubricating oil that represents the oil that will be used in your engine in use. (b) You may use lubrication additives, up to the levels that the additive manufacturer...

2011-07-01

246

Processing and Formulation of Lithium Lubricating Greases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects that soap concentration, base oil viscosity and additives exert on the rheology of lubricating greases have been studied. Also, changes in both microstructure and rheology of lithium lubricating greases during their manufacturing process have been evaluated. With this aim, different lithium lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate, base oil viscosity and processing conditions or using different polymeric additives. The manufacturing process was followed through the mixing rheometry technique by measuring the evolution of torque with processing time, and samples of incipient and finished greases were taken from the stirred tank at different processing times. Rheological (small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS)) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observations were carried out on each sample. The experimental results obtained demonstrate that the values of the linear viscoelasticity functions and the mechanical behaviour of lubricating grease strongly depend on the processing variables and grease composition. Also, it has been found that the structural skeleton (size and shape of the disperse phase particles) is highly influenced by the base oil viscosity. These results have been explained taking into account the balance between the solvency of the thickener in the base oil and the level of entanglements formed by soap fibres, which influence the lubricating grease network.

Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Moreno, G.; Gallegos, C.

2006-05-01

247

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01

248

Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system.  

PubMed

The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an "oil in water" microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil. The sonication and repetitive change of the flowing direction improved the stability of the different emulsion types (oil in water, water in oil and microemulsion). The emulsified zone was pumped to fill the sampling arm of the spectrometer with a sub-sample of 200mul. Then, 10mul of this sample solution were introduced by means of air displacement in the graphite tube atomizer. This sequence was timed to synchronize with the previous introduction of 15mug of Mg(NO(3))(2) (in a 10mul) by the spectrometer autosampler. The entire SIA system was controlled by a computer, independent of the spectrometer. The furnace program was carried out by employing a heating cycle in four steps: drying (two steps at 110 and 130 degrees C), pyrolisis (at 1500 degrees C), atomization (at 2400 degrees C) and cleaning (at 2400 degrees C). The calibration graph was linear from 7.7 to 120mugAll(-1). The characteristic mass (mo) was 33.2pg/0.0044s and the detection limit was 2.3mugAll(-1). The relative standard (RSD) of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of different lubricating oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 1.7%, and the recovery values found in the analysis of spiked samples ranged from 97.2 to 100.4%. The agreement between the observed and reference values obtained from two NIST Standard Certified Materials was good. The method was simple and satisfactory for determining aluminum in new and used lubricating oils. PMID:18970302

Burguera, José L; Burguera, Marcela; Antón, Raquel E; Salager, Jean-Louis; Arandia, María A; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo

2005-12-15

249

Lubricants and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 1% of the total mineral oil consumption is used to formulate lubricants.Everywhere the production, application, and disposal of lubricants has to cover the requirements of the best possible protection of our nature and the environment in general and of the living beings in special. Often health hazards do not follow the direct way to human beings, more often they

Wilfried J Bartz

1998-01-01

250

Process for the preparation of superalkalinized metallic detergent-dispersants for lubricating oils and products obtained therefrom  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for preparing detergent-dispersant compositions of high alkalinity by: 1. Carbonation, at a temperature of between about 100/sup 0/ C. and 250/sup 0/ C., with carbon dioxide of a reaction medium comprising a sulfurized alkylphenate of an alkaline-earth metal having a TBN of between about 1 and 170, an alkaline-earth metal alkylbenzene sulfonate having a molecular weight of more than about 300 and a TBN of less than or equal to about 150, an alkaline-earth metal compound, an alkylene glycol, and a dilution oil; 2. Removal of the alkylene glycol; and 3. Separation of the superalkalinized metallic detergent-dispersant thus obtained. The metallic detergent-dispersant compositions obtained are useful in improving the detergent-dispersant power of lubricating oils.

Demoures, B.; Le Coent, J.L.

1983-11-01

251

Multi-elemental analysis of jet engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and their implication in aircraft air quality incidents.  

PubMed

The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C, a large number of different exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements, such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out. In order to assess the potential of exposure to toxic elements a multi-elemental analysis was done on two hydraulic fluids and three lubricating oils which have been implicated in a number of air quality incidents. A secondary objective was to establish if the multi-elemental concentrations of the fluids tested are different enough to allow such an analysis to be used as a possible method of identifying the source of exposure that might have been present during aircraft air quality incidents. No significant concentrations of toxic elements were identified in any of the oils or hydraulic fluids. The elemental compositions of the samples were different enough to be used for identification purposes and the measurement of only three elements was able to achieve this. Whether these findings have an application, in aircraft air quality incident investigations, needs to be established with further studies. PMID:10418167

van Netten, C

1999-05-01

252

Comparison of parallel flow and concentric micronebulizers for elemental determination in lubricant oil, residual fuel oil and biodiesel by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two micronebulizers, PFA-100 and Miramist, were evaluated using a method for elemental determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) in lubricant and residual fuel oils diluted in xylene. The facility and speed of direct sample dilution in organic solvents, without additional pretreatment, combined with the multielemental capacity and robustness of ICP OES are advantageous. The operational conditions were optimized through factorial design. Improvement in the signal-to-background ratio was observed for Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Si, Ti and V. Higher sensitivity was obtained with the PFA-100 micronebulizer, although the limits of detection (LOD) obtained for both micronebulizers were similar, between 0.3 ?g kg -1 (Mg) and 18 ?g kg -1 (Ni). The certified reference materials NIST 1634c and NIST 1085b were used for method validation and good recoveries were obtained with values between 93% (Pb) and 102% (P) for PFA-100 and 90% (Pb) and 103% (P) for Miramist. The method was also validated for analysis of biodiesel samples by recovery tests, with results from 89% to 103%. The proposed method was employed for the analysis of crude oil, lubricant oil and biodiesel from different raw materials.

de Souza, Jefferson R.; dos Santos, Eider Fernando; Duyck, Christiane B.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

2011-05-01

253

Estolides: A developing and versatile lubricant base stock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article provides a general overview of estolide technology and compares the four major types of estolides: synthetic estolides from unsaturated fatty acids, natural estolides from hydroxy oils, synthetic estolides from hydroxy oils, and synthetic estolides from hydroxy fatty acids. The syntheti...

254

Determination of Performance of the Soybean Oil in Farm Tractors as Hydraulic Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils include an environmentally compatible lubricant and alternative fuels. To base such a lubricant and hydraulic fluids on a vegetable oil creates a product environmentally friendly and nontoxic. They have a high viscosity index and flammable point. This study describes vegetable oil-based use possibilities as hydraulic fluids on farm tractors. Mineral and soybean oils were tested as hydraulic fluid

H. O?uz; M. Acaro?lu; H. Ö?üt; B. ?lban

2009-01-01

255

Spectrophotometric flow-injection analysis of the total base number in lubricants by using acid–base buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric FIA method for the determination of the total base number (TBN) in a lubricant was proposed, which involved using an acid–base buffer solution prepared with a nonaqueous solvent. This method is based on measurements of the absorbance change of an indicator contained in the acid–base buffer solution, which is generated due to a neutralization reaction of base in

Keiko Jyonosono; Toshihiko Imato; Noriyuki Imazumi; Masayuki Nakanishi; Jun-ichi Yagi

2001-01-01

256

Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

Ku, P. M. (editor)

1973-01-01

257

Estolides: A bioderived synthetic base oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An overview of the estolide technology developed by NCAUR scientists is given in this book chapter. The goal was to synthesize a class of new lubricant compounds that would have better physical properties than normal vegetable oil. Estolides were developed, characterized, and tested in wide range of...

258

Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

1992-01-01

259

Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

1993-01-01

260

Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

1997-04-01

261

PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec® cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 – 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine. PMID:22670159

Xin, H; Shepherd, DET; Dearn, KD

2012-01-01

262

Effect of oil additives on the durability of hydrogenated DLC coating under boundary lubrication conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have became accepted non-ferrous coatings for automotive tribo-components as they offer excellent tribological properties resulting in improved fuel economy and reduced dependence on existing lubricant additives which can be harmful to catalytic converters and ultimately to the environment. Obtaining optimum durability (wear) as well as high fuel economy (low friction) using DLC-coated parts relies in part

T. Haque; A. Morina; A. Neville; R. Kapadia; S. Arrowsmith

2009-01-01

263

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

264

One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

265

MICROWAVE IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE, VISCOSITY, THERMAL PROPERTIES AND LUBRICITY OF SOYBEAN OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean oil (SBO) was heat-bodied (HB) or microwave-irradiated (MI). HB oil with Gardner bubble viscosity in the B-C range was studied as its viscosity was similar to oil MI at 200-250 deg C for 20-60 min. SBO that was HB had increased viscosity and MI further increased viscosity compared with unt...

266

Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of our environment as a result of the very slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewa...

267

BIODIESEL AND THE ISSUE OF DIESEL FUEL LUBRICITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advent of (ultra-)low sulfur diesel fuels based on petroleum has caused changes in the properties of these fuels. One of the major changes is the loss of previously inherent lubricity. Biodiesel, a diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or used frying oils, is miscible with petr...

268

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-print Network

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01

269

About Total Lubricants USA, Inc. Headquartered in Linden, New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides  

E-print Network

About Total Lubricants USA, Inc. Headquartered in Linden, New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides. A subsidiary of Total, S.A., the world's fourth largest oil company, Total Lubricants USA still fosters its. Situation Total Lubricants USA operates across multiple facilities, relying on an integrated

Fisher, Kathleen

270

Metalworking corrosion inhibition/drawing lubricant  

SciTech Connect

A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

Lipinski, H.F.; Wantling, S.J.

1980-05-06

271

High-temperature tribology of silicon nitride lubricated with cesium-based inorganic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high temperature sliding friction and wear of silicon nitride was investigated under unlubricated and solid lubricated conditions. Experiments were performed in laboratory air (18.7% +\\/- 10.0% R.H.), mostly at 600°C, using a ball-on-disk configuration. Two cesium-based inorganic films were studied; a sodium silicate bonded cesium oxythiotungstate (Cs2WOS 3) coating and a cesium silicate chemical reaction film of the form

Lewis Rosado

2001-01-01

272

In-situ, On-demand Lubrication System for Space Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of today's spacecraft have long mission lifetimes. Whatever the lubrication method selected, the initial lubricant charge is required to last the entire mission. Fluid lubricant losses are mainly due to evaporation, tribo-degradation, and oil creep out of the tribological regions. In the past, several techniques were developed to maintain the appropriate amount of oil in the system. They were based on oil reservoirs (cartridges, impregnated porous parts), barrier films, and labyrinth seals. Nevertheless, all these systems have had limited success or have not established a proven record for space missions. The system reported here provides to the ball-race contact fresh lubricant in-situ and on demand. The lubricant is stored in a porous cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing. The oil is released by heating the cartridge to eject oil, taking advantage of the greater thermal expansion of the oil compared to the porous network. The heating may be activated by torque increases that signal the depletion of oil in the contact. The low surface tension of the oil compared to the ball bearing material is utilized and the close proximity of the cartridge to the moving balls allows the lubricant to reach the ball-race contacts. This oil resupply system can be used to avoid a mechanism failure or reduce torque to an acceptable level and extend the life of the component.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

2002-01-01

273

X-ray fluorescence analysis of wear metals in used lubricating oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Used oils from several aircraft at NASA's Langley Research Center were analyzed over a three year period using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic emission spectrometry. The results of both analyses are presented and comparisons are made. Fe and Cu data for oil from four internal combustion engines are provided and XRF and atomic emission spectrometry measurements were found to be in perfect agreement. However, distributions were found in the case of oil from a jet aircraft engine whereby the latter method gave values for total iron concentration in the oil and did not distinguish between suspended particles and oil additives. XRF does not have these particle-size limitations; moreover, it is a faster process. It is concluded that XRF is the preferred method in the construction of a man-portable oil wear analysis instrument.

Maddox, W. E.; Kelliher, W. C.

1986-01-01

274

USE OF SOYBEAN OIL IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean oil has a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerides a...

275

USE OF VEGETABLE OILS IN FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils have a series of advantages which can be beneficial for a number of lubricant applications. They are readily biodegradable and essentially nontoxic, properties that are not exhibited by lubricants based on mineral oils. Volatility is very low due to high molecular weight triglycerid...

276

Determination of metallo-organic and particulate wear metals in lubricating oils associated with hybrid ceramic bearings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible to increase both the performance and operating environment of jet engines by using hybrid ceramic bearings. Our laboratory is concerned with investigating lubricating fluids for wear metals associated with silicon nitride ball bearings and steel raceways. Silicon nitride is characterized by low weight, low thermal expansion, high strength, and corrosion resistance. These attributes result in longer engine lifetimes than when metallic ball bearings are used. Before the routine use of ceramic ball bearings can be realized, the wear mechanisms of the materials should be thoroughly understood. One important variable in determining wear degradation is the concentration of metal present in the lubricating oils used with the bearings. A complete method for analyzing used lubricating oils for wear metal content must accurately determine all metal forms present. Oil samples pose problems for routine analysis due to complex organic matrices. Nebulizing these types of samples into an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer introduces many problems including clogging of the sample cone with carbon and increasing interferences. In addition, other techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry are particle size dependent. They are unable to analyze particles greater than 10 mum in size. This dissertation describes a method of analyzing lubricating oils for both metallo-organic and particulate species by ICP-MS. Microwave digestion of the oil samples eliminates the need for elaborate sample introduction schemes as well as the use of a modified carrier gas. Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Y have been determined in both aqueous and organic media. Metallo-organic solutions of these metals were successfully digested, nebulized into the ICP, and the singly charged ions measured by mass spectrometry. Metal particulates in oil matrices have also been quantitatively determined by the above method. Linear analytical curves were obtained for these elements from the detection limits (˜1 ppb) to greater than 1 ppm. Used lubricating oil samples were also analyzed by microwave digestion ICP-MS. Oil samples were collected from a Rolling Contact Fatigue tester. Two bearing systems were evaluated: M50 steel balls on an M50 steel rod, and Sisb3Nsb4 balls on an M50 steel rod. Improved operating conditions were obtained when the Sisb3Nsb4 balls were used, which corresponds to longer engine lifetimes.

Russell, Robin Ann

277

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BASE STOCKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Vegetable Oil-Based Base Stocks" is a study of a series of vegetable oils selected for potential use as base fluids for industrial and automotive applications. Their thermal-oxidative stabilities and low-temperature properties are evaluated. Effects of diluents and additives on selected vegetable...

278

Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.  

PubMed

This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source. PMID:23490355

Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

2013-06-01

279

Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory

2013-09-26

280

Solid Lubrication of Silicon Nitride with Cesium-Based Compounds: Part I — Rolling Contact Endurance, Friction and Wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high temperature rolling contact endurance, friction, and wear of 16 cesium-based compounds with solid lubricating properties were investigated on silicon nitride (Si3N4). Some were also investigated on bearing tool steels and several state-of-the-art high temperature solid lubricants were investigated for comparison. Experiments were conducted in air at temperatures up to 650°C, contact stresses up to 4.34 GPa, and a

Lewis Rosado; Nelson H. Forster; Hitesh K. Trivedi; James P. King

2000-01-01

281

Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.  

PubMed

This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of chlorine in the lubricant and that emissions did not change in response to a much greater step change in the total chlorine entering the combustion chamber due to a change in the level of chlorine in the fuel. Emissions when the engine was configured with a diesel oxidation catalyst showed a consistent pattern that appears to be unique in the experience of the authors. PMID:17254630

Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

2007-04-01

282

Environmental liability and life-cycle management of used lubricating oils.  

PubMed

Used oil handling, as a business, requires an extensive understanding by management that environmental liabilities exist through its supply chain. Findings from a review of the legal requirements of operating a used oil handling business were: understanding the transfer of ownership of used petroleum hydrocarbons is critical to any such business and how this is documented; used oil handlers are responsible for providing training to their staff, including site personnel and any third party waste contractors, and for communicating best practice procedures relating to the management of used petroleum hydrocarbons to all those individuals and organisations involved in business relationships that the used oil handling companies have; used oil handlers should audit the performance of any third party contractors that it engages to conduct work on behalf of its customers. Hypothetical situations of a company planning to enter the used oil handling market are described in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes it handles to illustrate the range of potential liabilities. Companies proposing to establish a used oil handling business should ensure that they provide accurate advice to its employees, its customer's employees and to its third party contractors, all of which may be responsible for handling used petroleum hydrocarbons as part of the service it intends to provide, and that it has a well documented system addressing how environmental issues are managed. PMID:18423855

Guerin, Turlough F

2008-12-30

283

Palm oil methyl esters as lubricant additive in a small diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysian crude palm oil has been successfully converted to methyl esters, also known as palm oil diesel (POD), which is readily\\u000a combustible in diesel engines. This paper presents and discusses the results of current studies on the performance and the\\u000a effects of POD on the wear characteristics of tribological components of a small, four-stroke diesel engine. Adding POD to\\u000a commercial

H. H. Masjuki; S. M. Sapuan

1995-01-01

284

Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

Mcmurtrey, E. L.

1985-01-01

285

Dynamic characterization of viscoelastic polymer solutions in a lubricated cylinder - Plate apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization of several viscoelastic lubricants which are oil or water based has been studied in an apparatus consisting of a lubricated cylinder-plate contact. The friction loads were measured as a function of speed. The experimental results show the influence of the molecular weight and of the concentration of the polymeric additive as well as the influence of the viscosity of the oil-base on the load and friction coefficient. Also a test for mechanical degradation was performed on the polymer solutions. Several additives can favor a viscoelastic lubrication.

Doremus, P.; Piau, J. M.; Altman, R. L.

1987-01-01

286

Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

Kinard, J. T.

1975-01-01

287

Transient Shear Flow of Model Lithium Lubricating Greases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behaviour of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of lithium grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying lithium 12-hydroxystearate concentration and base oil viscosity. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. Moreover, an asymptotic tendency has been found for the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of this parameter have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

2008-07-01

288

Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has been adopted by DFEM in design process of thrust-ring-pump and it shown that can effectively improve and guarantee the performance of the oil circulating and cooling system.

Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

2014-12-01

289

A new engine fault diagnosis method based on spectrometric oil analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to statistics, wear fault is about sixty percent to eighty percent of all the machinery faults. Spectrometric oil analysis is an important condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique for machinery maintenance. In practice, there are two existing fault diagnosis model of the engine based on spectrometric oil analysis, namely concentration model and gradient model. However, the two above models have their respective disadvantages in condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of the engine. In this paper, a new condition monitoring and fault diagnosis method, proportional model is described. Proportional model use the correlation among the elements in the lubricating oil to detect wear condition and occurring faults in the engine. Then the limit value of proportional model is established by analyzing a lot of spectrum data. In order to validate the availability and effect of proportional model, this paper apply proportional model to an engine and sampling the lubricating oil every 5 hours. Through analyzing the lubricating oil by spectrometer, we find that proportional model could find the abnormal wear information in spectrum data, give more accurate result of wear condition and give the fault form in the engine. The results from this paper prove that this method based on proportional model is applicable and available in condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of the engine.

Gao, Jingwei; Zhang, Peilin; Wang, Zhengjun; Zeng, Degui

2006-11-01

290

Standardization and selection of a method for evaluating shear resistance of lubricating oils with polymer additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wide use of polymer additives increasing the viscosity index of mineral oils justified the usefulness of selecting a standard laboratory method for evaluating the shear resistance of this kind of oils. The suitability of a particular method was analyzed on the basis of comparative tests performed in Poland and abroad using mechanical methods (in a laboratory and on stands), operational tests, and ultrasonic methods, including the method developed in the Institute of Aeronautics. The ultrasonic method described and incorporated in branch standard BN-70/0535 was accepted as the most advantageous method from the standpoint of standardization requirements.

Wislicki, B.

1984-01-01

291

Industrial Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

Kajdas, C.; Karpi?ska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

292

ADDITIVE-ADDITIVE INTERACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OIL: THE SEARCH FOR SYNERGISTIC ANTIOXIDANT USING PDSC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants based on mineral oils render unfavorable impact on the environment. Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and b...

293

Sliding contacts: Wear and lubrication. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning friction wear and the behavior and properties of sliding and sliding-roll contact lubricants. Topics include lubrication mechanism descriptions, failure reduction of mechanical components for specific contacts, and lubricant performance evaluations. Both electrical and mechanical contact applications are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01

294

Lip seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, friction wear, and lubrication of lip seals. Lubrication film thickness, friction forces, cylinder scoring, seal leakage theory, elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal lip seals, standards and specifications, and lip seal failures and strengths are considered. Geothermal, dredge pump, and rotary shaft applications are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

295

Wetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels  

E-print Network

Wetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels Thomas Cubaud Department of Mechanical, and silicone oils . Dynamic wetting transitions: a pearl flow thick lubricating film , b spider flow thin lubricating film , c ghost flow metastable dewetting patches . Droplet-decorated streams: d droplets

Cubaud, Thomas

296

SYNTHESIS OF BIODEGRADABLE LUBRICANTS FROM TALLOW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumers today are demanding more from their automobile lubricants then ever before. The use of renewable lubricants can meet these demands and at the same time lessen the demand for foreign oil. These new functional fluids, estolides, have shown great promise as a biodegradable lubricant. Estol...

297

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

298

Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated  

Cancer.gov

The name mineral oil has been used to describe many colorless, odorless liquids. Most often, the term refers to a liquid by-product of the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline and other petroleum-based products from crude oil. These oils, including lubricant base oils and products derived from them, are used in manufacturing, mining, construction, and other industries.

299

Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.  

PubMed

Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals. PMID:2225336

Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

1990-11-01

300

[Unequal interval jump grey modeling and its application to the spectral analysis of lubricating oil].  

PubMed

Unequal interval jump grey model was built for raw data series with unequal interval and jump trend in this paper. Levenberg-Marquardt arithmetic that belongs to non-linear least-square. estimation was used to recognize the parameters. The model built was used to fit spectrometric analysis values of diesel engine and the fitting precision is good. It is helpful to improve the accuracy and reliability of spectrometric analysis by revising test data after oil change with model parameter. PMID:15769063

Zhang, Hong; Li, Zhu-guo; Chen, Zhao-neng

2004-05-01

301

Status and New Directions for Solid Lubricant Coatings and Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At one time, solid lubricants were used almost entirely in aerospace applications. Today there is a pronounced trend to use them over a much broader range of applications. For example, self-lubricating polymer-based composites have displaced traditional oil-lubricated, metallic composites for many journal bearings and thrust washers in applications as diverse as earth-moving machinery and snow blowers to aircraft applications. For moderate temperatures below 200 C, glass filament-wound epoxy bearings with PTFE lubricating liners are usefl; for temperatures up to 350 C, graphite fiber reinforced polyimide bearing materials are finding applications. Advanced technology engines have severe lubrication and wear problems at temperatures beyond the capabilities of any of these lubricants. Here, self-lubricating ceramics and inorganic composites for use at 1000 C or higher are of interest. However, perhaps the most significant new direction for solid lubricant coatings and self-lubricating composites is their steadily increasing use in dry bearings for large volume, moderate temperature applications. This can be attributed to their simplicity of use (no supporting lubricant system needed), light weight, convenience, and general cost effectiveness.

Sliney, H. E.

1984-01-01

302

KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

1973-01-01

303

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

2012-02-28

304

Sporting Good Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sun Coast Chemicals was originally contracted by Lockheed Martin Space Operations to formulate a spray lubricant free of environmental drawbacks for the Mobile Launch Platform used to haul the Space Shuttle from the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building to a launch pad. From this work, Sun Coast introduced Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. Based on the original lubricant work, two more products have also been introduced. First, the X-1R Super Gun Cleaner and Lubricant protects guns from rust and corrosion caused by environmental conditions. Second, the X-1R Tackle Pack, endorsed by both fresh and saltwater guides and certain reel manufacturers, penetrates, cleans, reduces friction, lubricates, and provides extra protection against rust and corrosion.

1997-01-01

305

Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760 C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant additives acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1987-01-01

306

Relationship between wettability and lubrication characteristics of the surfaces of contacting phospholipid-based membranes.  

PubMed

The wettability of the articular surface of cartilage depends on the condition of its surface active phospholipid overlay, which is structured as multi-bilayer. Based on a hypothesis that the surface of cartilage facilitates the almost frictionless lubrication of the joint, we examined the characteristics of this membrane surface entity in both its normal and degenerated conditions using a combination of atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, and friction test methods. The observations have led to the conclusions that (1) the acid-base equilibrium condition influences the lubrication effectiveness of the surface of cartilage and (2) the friction coefficient is significantly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the surface of the tissue, thereby confirming the hypothesis tested in this paper. Both wettability angle and interfacial energy were obtained for varying conditions of the cartilage surface both in its wet, dry and lipid-depleted conditions. The interfacial energy also increased with mole fraction of the lipid species reaching an asymptotic value after 0.6. Also, the friction coefficient was found to decrease to an asymptotic level as the wettability angle increased. The result reveal that the interfacial energy increased with pH till pH = 4.0, and then decreased from pH = 4.0 to reach equilibrium at pH = 7.0. PMID:23099644

Pawlak, Zenon; Petelska, Aneta D; Urbaniak, Wieslaw; Yusuf, Kehinde Q; Oloyede, Adekunle

2013-04-01

307

Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

1972-01-01

308

A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

2006-11-01

309

Shearing stability of lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

1984-01-01

310

Tribological Performance of 6061 Aluminum Alloy\\/Graphite Materials under Oil-Lubricated and Dry Sliding Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thrust-on-washer adapter was used to stimulate flat-on-flat-type contacts under lubricated and dry sliding conditions. The upper specimens were made of a cast aluminum alloy, A356.0 Al, and the lower specimens were prepared by powder metallurgy. Fine graphite particles were mixed with 6061 aluminum alloy powders, by means of cold pressing and sintering to create a self-lubricating composite material by

Jen Fin Lin; Ying Chong Yung; Chi Yuan Tsao

1998-01-01

311

Solid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

Sliney, Harold E.

1991-01-01

312

FRICTION PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based oils in lubrication and other important application areas. Vegetable oils comprise a mixture of compounds that fall into two broad chemical categories: triesters (or triglycerides) and monoesters. Most vegeta...

313

Railway diesel crankcase lubricant  

SciTech Connect

A railway diesel crankcase lubricant composition is described comprising a diesel lubricating oil and from about 0.25 to 2.0 weight percent of minor amount of oxidation and corrosion inhibiting agent. The reaction product is of a polyoxyisopropylene diamine, diabasic acid anhydride and polyalkylene polyamine wherein: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyoxyisopropylenediamine where x is a numeral of about 2 to about 50, forming a maleamic acid; (ii) reacting the maleamic acid with a polyalkylene polyamine, forming a condensate product and; (iii) recovering the condensate product.

Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

1987-06-30

314

STARCH-OIL INTERACTION IN DRY FILM LUBRICANTS WITH CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch is one of the most abundant farm-based raw materials. It is a significant component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, rice, wheat, and barley. Because of the large surplus of these crops over demand, there is a great deal of interest in developing new uses for starch-base...

315

40 CFR 1065.740 - Lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical...Use commercially available lubricating oil that represents the oil that will be used in your engine in use. (b) You may...

2010-07-01

316

Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

2014-10-01

317

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01

318

Vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots -Lubricating action and seal action by the liquid-  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots. This system allows an adherability and low friction performance when a suction cup adheres on rough surface such as concrete wall with small vacuum pump. It utilizes a seal action and lubrication action of a liquid to make the robot body adherable and slidable on the surface. The

Tohru Miyake; Hidenori Ishihara; Tatsuya Tomino

2009-01-01

319

Tribological behavior of some candidate advanced space lubricants  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a variety of space lubricants was compared under boundary and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). The types of fluids studied were naphthenic mineral oil, paraffinic mineral oil, polyalphaolefin, and silahydrocarbon. The silahydrocarbon and the polyalphaolefin lubricants exhibited lower traction under similar conditions. A specific additive package increased the traction of the polyalphaolefin. Volatility characteristics of some of these fluids were also studied. 10 refs.

Sharma, S.K.; Snyder, C.E. Jr.; Gschwender, L.J. (USAF, Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States))

1993-04-01

320

Effect of active elements of lubricating-cooling liquids on embrittlement of iron-based alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more detailed examination of the effect of chlorine, sulfur, and phosphorus on grain boundary embrittlement of the material, cold rolling trials were carried out on iron strips with a total relative reduction of 65%. Rolling was carried out in air and with lubricants deposited with a cloth pad on the surface of the strips. Lubricants were represented by KhP-470

V. V. Tikhonovich; L. M. Sheludchenko; V. V. Gorskii

1991-01-01

321

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

2013-10-31

322

Tribological composition optimization of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the tribilogically optimum composition of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings using a foil gas bearing test apparatus is described. The coatings contain a wear resistant chromium carbide `base stock' with the lubricant additives silver and BaF2-CaF2 eutectic. The coating composition is optimized for air-lubricated foil gas bearings at temperatures ranging from 25 to 650 C. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized Ni-Cr alloy foils, and the test bearings were subjected to repeated start-stop cycles under a bearing unit of 14 kPa. Sliding contact between the coated journal and the smooth foil occurs during bearing start-up before lift-off or hydrodynamic lubrication by the air film and during bearing coast-down. The bearings were tested for 9000 start-stop cycles or until specimen reached a predetermined failure level.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1988-01-01

323

Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s?¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol?¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-01-01

324

Lubricating Greases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules for this month all come from the paper "Lubricating Grease: A Chemical Primer" by Craig Donahue. This paper is a rich source of structural examples ranging from small molecules to metal complexes to polymeric species.

325

Boundary cartilage lubrication: review of current concepts.  

PubMed

Effective lubrication of synovial joints is important to prevent cartilage degeneration and to keep the joints healthy. This paper sets out the basics of engineering lubrication with respect to the composition and properties of synovial fluid constituents. Two basic types of boundary lubrication are discussed: the presence of highly hydrophilic proteoglycans that provide a water liquid film, and the existence of multilamellar phospholipids lubricating layers at the surface ofarticular cartilage. Based on current knowledge, we may conclude that no single mechanism of boundary lubrication exists, and that effective boundary lubrication of synovial joints is maintained by the synergic effect of all synovial fluid constituents. PMID:24081750

Daniel, Matej

2014-03-01

326

Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible to dramatically improve the performance, reliability, and maintainability of vehicles and other similarly complex equipment if improved sensing and diagnostics systems are available. Each year military and commercial maintenance personnel unnecessarily replace, at scheduled intervals, significant amounts of lubricant fluids in vehicles, weapon systems, and supporting equipment. Personnel draw samples of fluids and send them to test labs for analysis to determine if replacement is necessary. Systematic use of either on-board (embedded) lubricant quality analysis capabilities will save millions of dollars each year in avoided fluid changes, saved labor, prevented damage to mechanical components while providing associated environmental benefits. This paper discusses the design, the manufacturing, and the evaluation of robust optical sensors designed to monitor the condition of industrial fluids. The sensors reported are manufactured from bulk fused silica substrates. They incorporate three-dimensional micro fluidic circuitry side-by-side with three-dimensional wave guided optical networks. The manufacturing of the optical waveguides are completed using a direct-write process based on the use of femtosecond laser pulses to locally alter the structure of the glass substrate at the nano-level. The microfluidic circuitry is produced using the same femtosecond laser based process, followed by an anisotropic wet chemical etching step. Data will be presented regarding the use of these sensors to monitor the quality of engine oil and possibly some other vehicle lubricants such as hydraulic oil.

Scott, Andrew J.; Mabesa, Jose R., Jr.; Gorsich, David; Rathgeb, Brian; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Haddock, Tom F.; Bado, Philippe W.

2004-12-01

327

Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils  

E-print Network

of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

Mandelis, Andreas

328

New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications  

SciTech Connect

In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

Haider, Julfikar [School of CEIS, Ellison Building, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of MME, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland)

2011-01-17

329

Numerical Analysis of Elastohydrodynamic Contacts Using Power-law Lubricant With Special Reference to Water-based Hydraulic Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical solution of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem for pure rolling with non-Newtonian lubricants is outlined. The non-Newtonian rheological model used is a modified power-law, ? = K · ?. At low shear rate, ? < ?b the lubricant is Newtonian, but when ? > ?b the lubricant becomes non-Newtonian, ? = K · ?. At high shear rate (?

Ove Isaksson

1986-01-01

330

32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in the skin of mice treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and exhaust condensates.  

PubMed

Samples of unused or used petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 4- to 6-week-old male Parkes mice, either as a single treatment (50 microliters/mouse) or as four consecutive daily treatments (50 microliters/application). DNA isolated from the skin 24 h after the final treatment was digested to 3'-mononucleotides and analysed by 32P-postlabelling for the presence of aromatic adducts. Enhancement of sensitivity using butanol extraction or nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA hydrolysates led to the detection of up to eight adduct spots on polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin-layer chromatograms with samples of DNA from skin treated with used engine oils, at levels of 40-150 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA. Multiple treatments with the used oils gave rise to similar patterns of adducts in lung DNA. A single treatment of mouse skin with petrol engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), or diesel engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), containing 20 and 46 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g respectively, gave rise to approximately 75 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA in skin. A significant proportion, 31 and 48% respectively, of the adducts formed by the petrol and diesel engine exhaust condensates co-chromatographed with the major BaP-DNA adduct, but with the used engine oils, only petrol engine oil, and not diesel engine oil, produced significant amounts of an adduct (22% of total) that corresponded to the BaP-DNA adduct. PMID:2473852

Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

1989-08-01

331

Bench wear and single-cylinder engine evaluations of high-temperature lubricants for US Army ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as an evaluation tool for HTL's. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247 deg C and an oil sump temperature of 166 deg C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired. A wide range of bench scale wear techniques have been developed to highlight different lubricant performance characteristics, with particular emphasis on high-temperature operation and oxidation. Based on the bench tests, Oil D would be expected to have inadequate high-temperature, long-term wear protection. Oil D passed the Allison C-4 graphite clutch friction test.

Lacey, Paul I.; Frame, Edwin A.; Yost, Douglas M.

1994-09-01

332

VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

333

Boron nitride as a lubricant additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has a graphite-like lamellar structure, but has been considered less effective than other solid lubricants except for high-temperature applications. The present paper describes a series of sliding experiments which show somewhat curious behavior of BN when added to lubricating oil, and discusses their results by comparing with the results of observation and analysis of sliding surfaces.

Yoshitsugu Kimura; Toshiaki Wakabayashi; Kazumi Okada; Tetsuya Wada; Hiroshi Nishikawa

1999-01-01

334

Lubricity studies with biodiesel and related compounds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, possesses excellent lubricity. This feature has rendered biodiesel of special interest for blending with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels with poor lubricity. However, some minor components, mainly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, of ...

335

Research on Liquid Lubricants for Space Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four research areas at the NASA Glenn Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

1999-01-01

336

Friction properties of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are a renewable and an environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based oils in lubrication and other\\u000a important application areas. Vegetable oils fall into two broad chemical categories: triesters (or TG) and monoesters. Most\\u000a vegetable oils are triesters of glycerol with FA, whose characteristics are dependent on the chemistry and composition of\\u000a the FA residues. A small percentage of vegetable

G. Biresaw; A. Adhvaryu; S. Z. Erhan

2003-01-01

337

Structured gels as lubricant and coolant mixtures in drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

91 Various lubricants are generally used to improve the performance and wear of cutting tools. They may be divided into three groups: oily liquids; aqueous emul? sions of mineral oils; and synthetic liquids [1]. Synthetic lubricants correspond to aqueous solutions of polymers, surfactants, and corrosion inhibitors [2]. At present, most researchers believe that lubrication is the most sig? nificant effect

E. V. Berezina; M. A. Shilov

2011-01-01

338

Soft lubrication  

E-print Network

We consider some basic principles of fluid-induced lubrication at soft interfaces. In particular, we show how the presence of a soft substrate leads to an increase in the physical separation between surfaces sliding past each other. By considering the model problem of a symmetric non-conforming contact moving tangentially to a thin elastic layer, we determine the normal force in the small and large deflection limit, and show that there is an optimal combination of material and geometric properties which maximizes the normal force. Our results can be generalized to a variety of other geometries which show the same qualitative behavior. Thus they are relevant in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of soft elastic and poroelastic gels and shells, and in the context of bio-lubrication in cartilaginous joints.

J. M. Skotheim; L. Mahadevan

2004-06-09

339

Advanced Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three Sun Coast Chemicals (SCC) of Daytona, Inc. products were derived from NASA technology: Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. NASA contractor Lockheed Martin Space Operations contacted SCC about joining forces to develop an environmentally safe spray lubricant for the Shuttle Crawler. The formula was developed over an eight-month period resulting in new products which are cost effective and environmentally friendly. Meeting all Environmental Protection Agency requirements, the SCC products are used for applications from train tracks to bicycle chains.

1996-01-01

340

Computational Chemistry and Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

Zehe, Michael J.

1998-01-01

341

Phosphate based oil well cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

Natarajan, Ramkumar

342

Ionic liquids as antiwear additives in base oils: influence of structure on miscibility and antiwear performance for steel on aluminum.  

PubMed

The use of ionic liquids as additives to base oil for the lubrication of steel on aluminum was investigated. The miscibility and wear performance of various phosphonium, imidazolium, and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids in a range of polar and nonpolar base oils was determined. The structure and ion pairing of the ionic liquids was found to be important in determining their miscibility in the base oils. In wear tests, some of the miscible base oil/IL blends reduced the aluminum wear depth when compared to that found with the base oil alone. The nonpolar base oil/IL blends were able to withstand higher wear-test loads than the polar base oil/IL blends. At 10 N, as little as 0.01 mol/kg of IL, or 0.7-0.9 wt %, in the nonpolar base oils was enough to drastically reduce the wear depth on the aluminum. XPS analysis of the wear surfaces suggested that the adsorbing of the IL to the surface, where it can form low-shear layers and also react to form tribofilms, is important in reducing friction and wear. The largest reductions in wear at the highest load tested were found for a mineral oil/P6,6,6,14 (i)(C8)2PO2 blend. PMID:24187923

Somers, Anthony E; Khemchandani, Bhawna; Howlett, Patrick C; Sun, Jiazeng; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

2013-11-27

343

Lubricating Properties of Lead-Monoxide-Base Coatings of Various Compositions at Temperatures to 1250 F  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of ceramic coatings of different compositions containing lead monoxide (PbO) were studied to determine their relative merits as dry-film lubricants. Lead monoxide is known to be an effective solid lubricant at elevated temperatures, and this oxide was the main component in all compositions studied. Friction and wear properties were determined at temperatures from 750 to 1250 F, at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute, and at a normal load of 1 kilogram. In all of the coatings, PbO was the component primarily responsible for the lubricating properties. Oxides other than PbO had an indirect effect on lubrication by influencing such properties as adhesion, hardness, vitrifying or glaze-forming tendency, melting or softening point, and chemical stability of the coatings. Notable among these oxides were magnetite (Fe3O4.), which had generally a beneficial influence on ceramic- to-metal adhesion, and silica (SiO2), which inhibited the oxidation of PbO and enhanced the tendency for glaze formation on the sliding surfaces. Several of the compositions studied provided protection against metal-to-metal adhesive wear, galling, or seizure at test temperatures from 750 to 1250 F. Coating friction coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 at 75 F but were around 0.08 to 0.20 at temperatures of 1250 F.

Sliney, Harold E.

1959-01-01

344

Hydrodynamic journal bearings: Capacity, wear, and lubrication. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Bearing load, lubrication, thermal effects, tolerance to misalignment, cavitation, and design are discussed. Studies on the effect of temperature and heat transfer on hydrodynamic films are presented. The impact of surface roughness on hydrodynamic journal bearing performance is also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

345

Friction and lubrication in metal rolling  

E-print Network

was found to agree reasonably with experiments. The results of these investigations are used in the analysis of lubrication in metal rolling, considering the hydrodynamic buildup of oil pressure in the entry region and the crushing of the asperities both...

Sutcliffe, Michael Patrick Forbes

1989-11-14

346

Bonded Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

1977-01-01

347

Lubrication Flows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

1989-01-01

348

Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

1986-01-01

349

Discharge of lubricant from air turbine handpieces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To demonstrate and quantify the discharge of lubricating oil from high-speed air turbine handpieces whilst running.Materials and methods Dye-marked oil (Kavospray, KaVo) was used to lubricate four handpieces (Quiet-Air, Midwest) and the air discharged from around the lower bearing was directed at the moving chart paper on a recorder whilst running for 40 minutes. Secondly, seven new handpieces (Quiet-Air,

J E Dyson; B W Darvell; A S M Pong

2005-01-01

350

Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula based on X-ray measurements with a synthetic paraffinic oil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula for heavily loaded contacts based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with a synthetic paraffinic oil is presented. The deduced relation was found to adequately reflect the high load dependence exhibited by the measured minimum film thickness data at high Hertizian contact stresses, that is, above 1.04 x 10 to the ninth N/sq m (150,000 psi). Comparisons were made with the numerical results from a theoretical isothermal film thickness formula. The effects of changes in contact geometry, material, and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

351

Analytical approach to wear rate determination for internal combustion engine condition monitoring based on oil analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wear has important, negative effects on the functioning of engine parts. Additionally, this situation is very difficult to evaluate accurately in oil analysis for engine condition monitoring. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), lubricant suppliers and oil analysis laboratories provide specific guidelines for wear metal concentrations. These limits provide good general guidelines for interpreting oil analysis data, but do not take into

V. Macián; B. Tormos; P. Olmeda; L. Montoro

2003-01-01

352

Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

2005-01-01

353

Predicting lubricant performance in refrigerant compressors: A comparison between component testing and benchtesters  

SciTech Connect

To identify the relative effectiveness of various benchtesters for screening lubricants for refrigerant compressors, a comparison is made between the wear data obtained form the high-pressure tribometer (HPT), four-ball and pin/block testers, and those obtained from accelerated component (compressor) tests. Based on these data, the rankings of the lubricants obtained from the various testers are compared to the rankings of the same lubricants obtained from the component tests. The accelerated component tests were conducted by four companies. These companies provided wear data for wrist pin/bearing and piston ring/cylinder contacts in reciprocating compressors, and a vane/piston contact in a rotary compressor. Each compressor was tested with three different lubricants. For the reciprocating compressor, all lubricants were esters and the refrigerant was R-134a. For the rotary compressor, two alkylbenzene lubricants and a mineral oil were tested with R-22. Agreement between the data obtained from each of the specimen testers and the component data is approximately 65%. The HPT data obtained also suggest that oil ranking is affected by environmental conditions.

Yoon, H.K.; Cusano, C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Poppe, C.H. [Eaton Corp., Carol Stream, IL (United States)

1996-11-01

354

Lubricating Grease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grease lubrication is a complex mixture of science and engineering, requires an interdisciplinary approach, and is applied to the majority of bearings worldwide. Grease can be more than a lubricant; it is often expected to perform as a seal, corrosion inhibitor, shock absorber and a noise suppressant. It is a viscoelastic plastic solid, therefore, a liquid or solid, dependent upon the applied physical conditions of stress and/or temperature, with a yield value, ? o. It has a coarse structure of filaments within a matrix. The suitability of flow properties of a grease for an application is best determined using a controlled stress rheometer for the frequency response of parameters such as yield, ? o, complex shear modulus, G * , phase angle, ?, and the complex viscosity, ? *.

Gow, G.

355

Tethered Lubricants  

SciTech Connect

We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

Archer, Lynden

2010-09-15

356

Preparation of tungsten disulfide motor oil and its tribological characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through using mineral oil and synthetic oil to deploy the semisynthesis base oil, modifying the surfaces of ultrafine tungsten\\u000a disulfide grains by surface chemical embellishment and adsorption embellishment to make them suspended steadily in the base\\u000a oil as solid lubricating additive, and adding some function additives, the tungsten disulfide motor oil was prepared. The\\u000a tribological characteristics of this kind motor

Chen Shi; Da-heng Mao; Hao Feng

2007-01-01

357

Friction and wear behaviors of a (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of various polyols as water-based lubricating additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction and wear behaviors of (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of water or various polyol aqueous solutions were investigated with an SRV friction and wear tester in a ball-on-disc configuration. This was conducted to simulate the effect of polyols as aqueous additive in machining sialon ceramic. The morphologies of and elemental distributions in the worn surfaces

Wenguang Zhang; Weimin Liu; Laigui Yu

2000-01-01

358

Liquid lubrication for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

359

Liquid lubrication for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

1992-01-01

360

Biobased oil structure on amphiphilic and tribological properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biobased oils are those derived from farm-based renewable raw materials. Most are vegetable oils (such as soybean, canola, corn, etc.) or chemical modifications of vegetable oils. They have a number of interesting structural features that impact their amphiphilic and lubrication properties. The basi...

361

Characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based resources that can cause pollution due to poor degradation. Seed oils, however, are both renewable and readily biodegradable, but have lower thermal stability and shorter shelf-life. This drawback can be overcome and yet retain the...

362

Lubrication fluids from branched fatty acid methyl esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have invented a new method for the synthesis of lubrication fluids using natural vegetable oils. Ordinary vegetable oils are good lubricants, but in their native form, they lack the stability necessary for many applications. Materials made using this new technology display significantly increas...

363

The effect of laser surface texturing on transitions in lubrication regimes during unidirectional sliding contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser surface texturing (LST) is an emerging effective method for improving the tribological performance of friction units lubricated with oil. In LST technology, a pulsating laser beam is used to create thousands of arranged microdimples on a surface by a material ablation process. These dimples generate hydrodynamic pressure between oil-lubricated parallel sliding surfaces. The impact of LST on lubricating-regime transitions

Andriy Kovalchenko; Oyelayo Ajayi; Ali Erdemir; George Fenske; Izhak Etsion

2005-01-01

364

Comparing the Lubricity of Biofuels Obtained from Pyrolysis and Alcoholysis of Soybean Oil and their Blends with Petroleum Diesel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A diesel-like fuel was synthesized by a pyrolysis method using only an edible soybean oil as starting material (PD). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends with both high sulfur (HSD) and low sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels, and compared with blends of biodiesel (BD) w...

365

Engine Lubricant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

1993-01-01

366

Inkjet-based deposition of polymer thin films enabled by a lubrication model incorporating nano-scale parasitics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film lubrication theory has been widely used to model multi-scale fluid phenomena. Variations of the same have also found application in fluid-based manufacturing process steps for micro- and nano-scale devices over large areas where a natural disparity in length scales exists. Here, a novel inkjet material deposition approach has been enabled by an enhanced thin film lubrication theory that accounts for nano-scale substrate parasitics. This approach includes fluid interactions with a thin flexible superstrate towards a new process called Jet and Coat of Thin-films (JCT). Numerical solutions of the model have been verified, and also validated against controlled experiments of polymer film deposition with good agreement. Understanding gleaned from the experimentally validated model has then been used to facilitate JCT process synthesis resulting in substantial reduction in the influence of parasitics and a concomitant improvement in the film thickness uniformity. Polymer films ranging from 20 to 500 nm mean thickness have been demonstrated with standard deviation of less than 2% of the mean film thickness. The JCT process offers advantages over spin coating which is not compatible with roll-to-roll processing and large area processing for displays. It also improves over techniques such as knife edge coating, slot die coating, as they are limited in the range of thicknesses of films that can be deposited without compromising uniformity.

Singhal, Shrawan; Meissl, Mario J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

2013-09-01

367

Subchronic Delayed Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Jet Engine Lubricants Containing Phosphorus Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic polyol-based lubricating oils containing 3% of either commercial tricresyl phosphate (TCP), triphenylphosphorothionate (TPPT), or butylated triphenyl phosphate (BTP) additive were evaluated for neurotoxicity in the adult hen using clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological endpoints. Groups of 17–20 hens were administered the oils by oral gavage at a “limit dose” of 1 g\\/kg, 5 days a week for 13 weeks. A

Wayne Daughtrey; Robert Biles; Bernard Jortner; Marion Ehrich

1996-01-01

368

An adaptive finite element procedure for fully-coupled point contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems  

E-print Network

An adaptive finite element procedure for fully-coupled point contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication to control adaptivity in both the elasticity and the lubrication domains. The implementation is based levels grows. KEYWORDS: elastohydrodynamic lubrication; finite element method; linear elasticity; fully

Jimack, Peter

369

Evaluation of the lubrication properties of biodegradable fluids and their potential to replace mineral oil in heavily loaded hydrostatic transmissions  

SciTech Connect

Increasing public interest in the environmental impact of technical machinery has led to the development of new hydraulic fluids. In case of leakage these fluids pose less of an environmental threat than mineral oil, because they degrade faster and are less toxic or non-toxic. The following paper describes methods and results of laboratory tests with these new, so called biodegradable fluids, in a hydrostatic transmission on a flywheel testing under high load conditions.

Feldmann, D.G.; Hinrichs, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Konstruktionstechnik 1

1997-12-31

370

Lubrication of space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1994-01-01

371

Piston-Skirt Lubrication System For Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piston-skirt lubrication system provides steady supply of oil to piston rings of gas compressor. No need for oil-filled crankcase or external oil pump. Instead, part of each piston acts as its own oil pump circulating oil from reservoir. Annular space at bottom of piston and cylinder constitutes working volume of small oil pump. Depending on application, reservoir open to atmosphere, or sealed and pressurized in bellows to prevent contact between oil and atmosphere. Filter removes particles worn away from piston rings and cylinder wall during normal operation.

Schroeder, Edgar C.; Burzynski, Marion, Jr.

1994-01-01

372

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium-carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, Chris; Sliney, Harold E.

1987-01-01

373

Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 deg C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H. E.

1986-01-01

374

Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

Rosenlieb, J. W.

1976-01-01

375

Enhanced oil recovery projects data base  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

1992-04-01

376

Basic research on vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots Measurement of lubricating action and seal action by the liquid-  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots. This system allows an adherability and low friction performance when a suction cup adheres on rough surface such as concrete wall with small vacuum pump. It utilizes a seal action and lubrication action of a liquid to make the robot body adherable and slidable on the surface. The

Tohru Miyake; Hidenori Ishihara; Tatsuya Tomino

2008-01-01

377

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.  

PubMed

To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends. PMID:25507326

Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

2014-01-01

378

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.  

PubMed

To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends. PMID:25420342

Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

2014-01-01

379

Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

380

Full-scale transmission testing to evaluate advanced lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500 hp helicopter transmission test stand. The testing was part of a lubrication program. The objectives are to develop and show a separate lubricant for gearboxes with improved performance in life and load carrying capacity. The goal was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 based reference oil and then to run identical tests with improved lubricants and show improved performance. The tests were directed at parts that failed due to marginal lubrication from Navy field experience. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hrs of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

381

Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

Sliney, Harold E.

1962-01-01

382

Advances in bio-lubricant development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bio-lubricants are those based on natural sources such as those harvested from farms. There is a great deal of interest in bio-lubricants because of their potential to provide a number of environmental, health, safety, and economic benefits over petroleum-based products. It is anticipated that wid...

383

High performance solid and liquid lubricants: An industrial guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

1987-01-01

384

Potentially useful polyolester lubricant additives an overview of antioxidants, antiwear and antiseize compounds  

SciTech Connect

Reliable service lubrication of compressors with polyolesters that do not contain additives is the optimal goal for hermetic compressor use. Chlorine derived from CFC and HCFC refrigerants is reported to have effective antiwear properties and negates the widespread use of additives in mineral oil lubricated systems. The use of antioxidants for mineral oil and polyolesters have been reported; antioxidant additive activity seems essential for polyolesters.- Antiwear and antiseize additives seem to be a short term goal for use with polyolesters. High silicone aluminum to steel wear seems to be a primary target for additive use. The interaction of specific heteroatom organic compounds with highly polar surface active synthetic polyolester lubricants is complex. Results of an extensive literature search describe results from a service base determined at ambient conditions. Known lubricant additives used in the hermetic compressor industry, the. mode of action of several types of additives and some lubricant additive chemistry that demonstrates selective thermal stability in conjunction with the chemical structure are examined.

Cavestri, R.C. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

1996-11-01

385

New generalized rheological model for lubrication of a ball spinning in a nonconforming groove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elastohydrodynamic theory for predicting the spinning friction of a ball in a nonconforming groove was modified to incorporate a rheological model. The rheological model is based on the exponential pressure viscosity relation for low shear stresses, but at high shear rates and pressures, the relation is altered to one in which the shear stress is porportional to the normal stress. The model was fitted to experimental spinning torques for four different lubricants: a synthetic paraffinic lubricant, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate, a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil, and a polyphenyl ether (5P4E). Good agreement between the model and experiment was found.

Allen, C. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

386

Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

1993-03-01

387

Boundary lubrication under water.  

PubMed

Boundary lubrication, in which the rubbing surfaces are coated with molecular monolayers, has been studied extensively for over half a century. Such monolayers generally consist of amphiphilic surfactants anchored by their polar headgroups; sliding occurs at the interface between the layers, greatly reducing friction and especially wear of the underlying substrates. This process, widespread in engineering applications, is also predicted to occur in biological lubrication via phospholipid films, though few systematic studies on friction between surfactant layers in aqueous environments have been carried out. Here we show that the frictional stress between two sliding surfaces bearing surfactant monolayers may decrease, when immersed in water, to as little as one per cent or less of its value in air (or oil). We attribute this to the shift of the slip plane from between the surfactant layers, to the surfactant/substrate interface. The low friction would then be due to the fluid hydration layers surrounding the polar head groups attached to the substrate. These results may have implications for future technological and biomedical applications. PMID:17093447

Briscoe, Wuge H; Titmuss, Simon; Tiberg, Fredrik; Thomas, Robert K; McGillivray, Duncan J; Klein, Jacob

2006-11-01

388

Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate and the viscosity of the base oil, according to a RSM statistical design. Moreover, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out. The transient stress response can be successfully described by the generalized Leider-Bird model based on two exponential terms. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. The stress overshoot, ? max , depends linearly on both variables in the whole shear rate range studied, although the effect of base oil viscosity on this parameter is opposite at low and high shear rates. Special attention has been given to the first part of the stress-growth curve. In this sense, it can be deduced that the “yielding” energy density not only depends on grease composition, but also on shear rate. Moreover, an interesting asymptotic tendency has been found for both the “yielding” energy density and the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of these parameters have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

2009-03-01

389

Development of special lubricants for ball bearings operating in vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ball bearing life test program was performed to obtain data on the efficiencies of various lubricated and self-lubricating ball retainer systems for instrument bearings in a vacuum environment. The program utilized light to moderate radial loads at relatively low speeds on a NASA-GSFC designed and supplied test rig. Several systems were found which gave acceptable bearing life under the test conditions used, but the most consistent low running torques after testing resulted from oil lubrication.

1973-01-01

390

The characterisation of commercial lubricant formulations  

SciTech Connect

Modern lubricant formulations are complex mixtures of base esters, antiwear additives, corrosion inhibitors and other modifiers. Their characterisation poses a difficult analytical challenge. A major market for these products is in the replacement of traditional CFC based refrigerants by modern alternatives. Conventional lubricants such as mineral oil are incompatible with the new refrigerants. Soft ionisation mass spectrometry (CI, LSIMS and FID), coupled with tandem mass spectrometry where required, has been used in conjunction with GC-MS and NMR in order to characterise these formulations. Statistical analysis of the soft ionisation data has provided further information regarding the detailed composition of the complex esters. This combination of experimental approaches provides a powerful method for the characterisation of these materials. A number of different types of polyol are used in the manufacture of the base esters with tetra- and hexa-esters the most common. The acids used, in general, vary in carbon number and in isomeric distribution and this leads to considerable complexity in the product.

Scrivens, J.; Yates, H.; Bunn, A. [ICI Wilton Research Centre, Cleveland (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-12-31

391

Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Truhan, John J. [Caterpillar Inc.

2009-01-01

392

Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

1986-01-01

393

VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-THICKENED WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS  

E-print Network

VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-THICKENED WATER-IN- OIL EMULSIONS MONTESI PE�A HIRASAKI PASQUALI behavior of emulsions of water dispersed in a lubricant oil base and stabilized with a nonionic surfactant concentration, emulsions with and without polyisobutylene (PIB, MW = 2.1 ± 0.2 x 106 Da) added to the oil phase

Natelson, Douglas

394

Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants. PMID:25773747

Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

2015-04-01

395

Liquid-Solid Self-Lubricated Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Self-lubricated coatings obtained by thermal spray are exclusively based on solid lubricants (PTFE, h-BN, graphite, MoS2, etc.) embedded in the matrix. Production of thermal spray coatings containing liquid lubricants has not yet been achieved because of the complexity of keeping a liquid in a solid matrix during the spraying process. In the present article, the first liquid-solid self-lubricating thermal spray coatings are presented. The coatings are produced by inserting lubricant-filled capsules inside a polymeric matrix. The goal of the coating is to release lubricant to the system when needed. The first produced coatings consisted solely of capsules for confirming the feasibility of the process. For obtaining such a coating, the liquid-filled capsules were injected in the thermal spray flame without any other feedstock material. Once the concept and the idea were proven, a polymer was co-sprayed together with the capsules to obtain a coating containing the lubricant-filled capsules distributed in the solid polymeric matrix. The coatings and the self-lubricated properties have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and tribological tests.

Armada, S.; Schmid, R.; Equey, S.; Fagoaga, I.; Espallargas, N.

2013-02-01

396

Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.  

PubMed

Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed. PMID:22574385

Mainali, Kalidas

2012-01-01

397

Base number and wetting properties of crude oils  

SciTech Connect

Oil acid and base numbers influence wetting through their effect on electrostatic interactions with the mineral surface. An improved nonaqueous potentiometric titration has been developed that correctly quantifies weak bases in crude oils. In crude-oil/silica systems, wetting behavior correlates with base/acid ratio and is consistent with wetting theories based on disjoining pressure.

Dubey, S.T.; Doe, P.H. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-08-01

398

Progress in environmentally friendly lubricant development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmentally friendly lubricants comprise ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. There is a great deal of interest in such lubricants because of their potential economic, environmental, health, and safety benefits over petroleum-based prod...

399

Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

400

Current problems: New similiquid lubricant for locomotive gears  

SciTech Connect

The development of a formula for a new, domestically manufactured, semiliquid lubricant is described. The lubricant is for traction gears of locomotives and motorized cars of multiple-unit trains that will ensure year-round operation. Scientific principles have been used in selecting additives and in increasing the effectiveness of the additives by means of oxygen-containing synthetic oils.

Shibryaev, S.B.; Nesterov, A.V.; Seregina, I.E. [and others

1995-01-01

401

A review of liquid lubricant thermal/oxidative degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers. Experimental techniques for determining thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is also covered.

Jones, W. R., Jr.

1983-01-01

402

Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

2013-05-01

403

Ionic liquids as advanced lubricant fluids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding technological applications as chemical reaction media and engineering fluids. Some emerging fields are those of lubrication, surface engineering and nanotechnology. ILs are thermally stable, non-flammable highly polar fluids with negligible volatility, these characteristics make them ideal candidates for new lubricants under severe conditions, were conventional oils and greases or solid lubricants fail. Such conditions include ultra-high vacuum and extreme temperatures. Other very promising areas which depend on the interaction between IL molecules and material surfaces are the use of ILs in the lubrication of microelectromechanic and nanoelectromechanic systems (MEMS and NEMS), the friction and wear reduction of reactive light alloys and the modification of nanophases. PMID:19701132

Bermúdez, María-Dolores; Jiménez, Ana-Eva; Sanes, José; Carrión, Francisco-José

2009-01-01

404

Iridium oxide sensors for acidity and basicity detection in industrial lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lubrication and automotive industries are seeking on-line sensors capable of determining the chemical condition and degree of degradation of industrial and automotive lubricants in order to signal the need for an oil change. Levels of acidity and basicity in non-aqueous media are parameters common to a wide variety of industrial fluids and closely related to rate of the lubricant

Matthew F. Smiechowski; Vadim F. Lvovich

2003-01-01

405

References and Notes 1. W. J. Bartz, Ed., Engines and Automotive Lubrication  

E-print Network

References and Notes 1. W. J. Bartz, Ed., Engines and Automotive Lubrication (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993). 2. I. M. Hutchings, Ed., Friction, Lubrication and Wear of Artificial Joints (Professional of Lubricating Oils (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003). 12. This has led to stricter controls on the concen- trations

Shapiro, Nikolai

406

Wormgear geometry adopted for implementing hydrostatic lubrication and formulation of the lubrication problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometrical parameters for a wormgear intended to be used as the transmission in advanced helicopters are finalized. The resulting contact pattern of the meshing tooth surfaces is suitable for the implementation of hydrostatic lubrication Fluid film lubrication of the contact is formulated considering external pressurization as well as hydrodynamic wedge and squeeze actions. The lubrication analysis is aimed at obtaining the oil supply pressure needed to separate the worm and gear surfaces by a prescribed minimum film thickness. The procedure of solving the mathematical problem is outlined.

Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

1995-01-01

407

Molecular basis of lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubrication is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years from the early days of our human civilization. The study of lubrication as a science began in the 17th century with the development of bearings and axles. In the early 21st century, the advent of automobiles and steam engines spurred the development of modern complex lubricants consisting of

Stephen M Hsu

2004-01-01

408

Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.  

PubMed

Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C?C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed. PMID:21428293

Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

2011-05-11

409

Composition optimization of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program to determine the optimum composition of chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for compliant gas bearings is described. The friction and wear properties of the coatings are evaluated using a foil gas bearing test apparatus. The various coatings were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized nickel-chromium alloy foils. The test bearings were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14 kPa (2 psi) bearing unit load. The bearings were tested for 9000 start/stop cycles or until the specimen wear reached a predetermined failure level. In general, the addition of silver and eutectic to the chromium carbide base stock significantly reduced foil wear and increased journal coating wear. The optimum coating composition, PS212 (70 wt% metal bonded Cr3C2, 15 wt% Ag, 15% BaF2/CaF2 eutectic), reduced foil wear by a factor of two and displayed coating wear well within acceptable limits. The load capacity of the bearing using the plasma-sprayed coating prior to and after a run-in period was ascertained and compared to polished Inconel 718 specimens.

Dellacorte, Christopher

1987-01-01

410

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils have several attractive features for use in lubrication. They are renewable, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly. They also have certain physical and chemical characteristics that make them potentially useful components for lubrication application. However, successful developme...

411

A study of the tribological behaviour of CrN, Graphit-iC and Dymon-iC coatings under oil lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hard ceramic coatings (e.g., TiN and CrN) in the field of machine components is now widely accepted. The development of low-friction wear-resistant coatings that can run dry or in a minimum amount of oil is becoming increasingly more important. Two recently developed carbon-based coatings (TCL Graphit-iC™ and Dymon-iC) which have already been shown to exhibit very high

J. Stallard; D. G. Teer

2004-01-01

412

Physico-chemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils.  

PubMed

Palm-based diacylglycerol (P-DAG) oils were produced through enzymatic glycerolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil (PO), palm olein (POL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and palm stearin (PS). High purity DAG (83-90%, w/w) was obtained and compared to palm-based oils (P-oil) had significantly (P<0.05) different fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV) and slip melting point (SMP). Solid fat content (SFC) profiles of P-DAG oils as compared to P-oils had less steep curves with lower SFC at low temperature range (5-10°C) and the higher complete melting temperatures. Also, P-DAG oils in contrast with P-oils showed endothermic as well as exothermic peaks with higher transition temperatures and significantly (P<0.05) higher crystallisation onsets, heats of fusion, and heats of crystallisation. Crystal forms for P-DAG oils were mostly in the ? form. PMID:25214093

Saberi, Amir Hossein; Kee, Beh Boon; Oi-Ming, Lai; Miskandar, Mat Sahri

2011-08-01

413

Signature analysis of roller bearing vibrations - Lubrication effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the vibration signature of roller bearings, induced by the surface irregularities of components, under various lubricating conditions. The bearing vibration is modeled as the output of the bearing assembly which is subjected to the excitations of surface irregularities through the oil-film. The oil-film acts as a spring between the roller and race. The stiffness of oil-film under different lubricating conditions is studied from the empirical equation of minimum oil-film thickness. It is shown that the vibration spectra of a normal roller bearing may have a pattern of equal frequency spacing distribution (EFSD) whose frequency information is similar to that of a damaged bearing. Under large loading and low running speed, the vibration energy is low if the lubricant viscosity is high. On the other hand, at high running speed, the vibration energy is high with high lubricant viscosity.

Su, Y.-T.; Sheen, Y.-T.; Lin, M.-H.

414

Reciprocating seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and practical analyses of reciprocating seal wear and lubrication. Topics include behavior, friction coefficient, cylinder wear, lubrication film thickness, friction forces, design innovations, lubricating oil viscosity, and wear modeling relative to reciprocating seal frictional wear and lifetime optimization. Applications in piston ring lubrication, internal combustion engines, and vehicle suspension systems are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

415

Operating limitations of high speed jet lubricated ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 degrees. The bearings had either an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage, and lubrication was by recirculating oil jets which had either a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN, and bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets, but under-race lubrication produced lower bearing temperatures under all conditions of operation with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

1975-01-01

416

Handling and disposal of polyol ester refrigeration lubricants  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants there has been a move away from conventional mineral oil basestocks to refrigerant lubricants based on polyol esters. As with all new applications there is an onus upon responsible manufacturers to proactively provide competent advice on the use and disposal of these new substances. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of this area. The following areas are reviewed: storage and logistical issues -- regulatory issues, storage conditions, specifications; handling of polyol ester basestocks -- toxicity, vapor inhalation, skin irritancy, protective clothing advice; addivated oils -- general review, issues around the use of phosphates; used oils -- potential breakdown products, potential toxicological concerns; and disposal and re-use -- biodegradability, ecotoxicity, disposal by incineration, recycling.

Randles, S.J.; Penman, M.G.

1995-12-31

417

Improved Efficiency of Oil Well Drilling through Case Based Reasoning  

E-print Network

1 Improved Efficiency of Oil Well Drilling through Case Based Reasoning Paal Skalle Norwegian-intensive case-based reasoning, for repair and prevention of unwanted events in the domain of offshore oil well drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during

Aamodt, Agnar

418

A cartilage-inspired lubrication system.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage is an example of a highly efficacious water-based, natural lubrication system that is optimized to provide low friction and wear protection at both low and high loads and sliding velocities. One of the secrets of cartilage's superior tribology comes from a unique, multimodal lubrication strategy consisting of both a fluid pressurization mediated lubrication mechanism and a boundary lubrication mechanism supported by surface bound macromolecules. Using a reconstituted network of highly interconnected cellulose fibers and simple modification through the immobilization of polyelectrolytes, we have recreated many of the mechanical and chemical properties of cartilage and the cartilage lubrication system to produce a purely synthetic material system that exhibits some of the same lubrication mechanisms, time dependent friction response, and high wear resistance as natural cartilage tissue. Friction and wear studies demonstrate how the properties of the cellulose fiber network can be used to control and optimize the lubrication and wear resistance of the material surfaces and highlight what key features of cartilage should be duplicated in order to produce a cartilage-mimetic lubrication system. PMID:24651960

Greene, George W; Olszewska, Anna; Osterberg, Monika; Zhu, Haijin; Horn, Roger

2014-01-14

419

Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would exhibit similar behavior. It was found that under static conditions, all three alloys formed a lubricious nodular coating when exposed to a vapor of aryl phosphate. Under dynamic sliding conditions at 500{degrees}C, these alloys were successfully lubricated with a coefficient of friction of 0.1 and no detectable wear. In order to explain these results, a direct correlation between successful vapor phase lubrication and the composition of the alloys containing aluminum has been proposed. If the ratio of copper/aluminum or iron/aluminum is greater that 100 vapor phase, lubrication will be successful. If the ratio is less than 10, a passive aluminum oxide layer will prevent vapor phase lubrication. By selecting alloys with a high iron or copper content, vapor phase lubrication can provide excellent lubrication at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Hanyaloglu, B.F.; Graham, E.E.; Oreskovic, T.; Hajj, C.G. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1995-06-01

420

Lubricant Effects on Efficiency of a Helicopter Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven different lubricants were used in efficiency tests conducted on the OH-58A helicopter main transmission using the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 hp torque regenerative helicopter transmission test stand. Tests were run at oil-in temperatures of 355 K and 372 K. The efficiency was calculated from a heat balance on the water running through an oil to water heat exchanger which the transmission was heavily insulated. Results show an efficiency range from 98.3% to 98.8% which is a 50% variation relative to the losses associated with the maximum efficiency measured. For a given lubricant, the efficiency increased as temperature increased and viscosity decreased. There were two exceptions which could not be explained. Between lubricants, efficiency was not correlated with viscosity. There were relatively large variations in efficiency with the different lubricants whose viscosity generally fell in the 5 to 7 centistoke range. The lubricants had no significant effect on the vibration signature of the transmission.

Mitchell, A. M.; Coy, J. J.

1982-01-01

421

Lubricant rheology applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viscosity measurements in a high pressure rheometer, elastohydrodynamic simulator studies (including the development of a temperature measuring technique), and analytical fluid modeling for elastohydrodynamic contacts are described. The more recent research which is described concerns infrared temperature measurements in elastohydrodynamic contacts and the exploration of the glassy state of lubricants. A correlation, of engineering significance, was made between transient surface temperature measurements and surface roughness profiles. Measurements of glass transitions of lubricants and the study of the effect of rate processes on materials lead to the conclusion that typical lubricants go into the glassy state as they pass through the contact region of typical elastohydrodynamic contacts.

Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

1977-01-01

422

Synthesis of UV-curable tung oil and UV-curable tung oil based alkyd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two UV-curable tung oil-based resins were synthesized via a Diels–Alder cycloaddition. An UV-curable tung oil (UVTO) was prepared from bodied tung oil and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA). An inhibitor, phenothiazine, was added to avoid homopolymerization of TMPTMA. The UV-curable tung oil alkyd (UVTA) was prepared from the monoglyceride process and then reacted with TMPTMA via the Diels–Alder reaction similar to the

Narin Thanamongkollit; Kent R. Miller; Mark D. Soucek

423

Desorption or `Surface Melting' of Lubricant Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RECENT communication1 has described the effect of temperature on the lubricating properties of mineral oils. The apparatus used for the experiments was that devised by Bowden and Leben for analysing the frictional force between sliding surfaces. In this apparatus the bottom surface is driven steadily forward, but the upper surface is mounted on a bifilar suspension so that it

D. Tabor

1941-01-01

424

Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect

A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

Perez, J. M.

2000-07-06

425

Oil-return characteristics of refrigerant oils in split heat pump system  

SciTech Connect

Currently, HFC substitute refrigerants for R-22 are being evaluated in air-conditioning and heat pump applications. The oil return characteristics and heat transfer effects of the lubricants are being studied again. Based on commercial refrigeration experience POEs are the lubricants of choice for HFC refrigerants. POEs have two major drawbacks: hygroscopicity and high cost. Thus the question is raised to what extent is it possible to replace POEs with a lower cost, but immiscible, oil such as mineral oil. It is the purpose of this study to experimentally investigate the oil return behavior of R-407C with mineral oil in a split three-ton heat pump in comparison to R407C/POE and R-22/Mineral Oil.

Sundaresan, S.G. [Copeland Corp., Sidney, OH (United States). Materials Engineering and Systems Chemistry; Radermacher, R.

1996-08-01

426

Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.  

PubMed

In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer performance of nano-particles, the ratio of heat delivered by grinding media was increased, leading to lower temperature in the grinding zone. Results demonstrate that nano-particle jet MQL has satisfactory cooling performance as well as a promising future of extensive application. PMID:23763268

Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

2013-06-01

427

OOO stage equipment bearing performance with a lower viscosity lubricant  

SciTech Connect

One of the Gaseous Diffusion Ultimate Potential (GDUP) projects involves a study of methods to reduce process equipment bearing power losses. In support of this effort, an analytical study has been completed which assesses the performance and expected benefits of operating the 000 stage equipment with a lower viscosity lubricant. Fluid film bearing analysis codes were employed to study 000 stage compressor and motor bearings. Correlations depicting bearing minimum film thickness and power loss with variable lubricant inlet temperature are presented for two lubricants: (1) code BG oil (310 SSU at. 100 F) and code BE oil (150 SSU at. 100 F).

Lannom, D.C.

1988-05-01

428

Qualification of oil-based tracer particles for heated Ludwieg tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation, insertion, pressurization and use of oil-based tracer particles is qualified for the application in heated flow facilities, typically hypersonic facilities such as Ludwieg tubes. The operative challenges are to ensure a sub-critical amount of seeding material in the heated part, to qualify the methods that are used to generate the seeding, pressurize it to storage tube pressure, as well as to test specific oil types. The mass of the seeding material is held below the lower explosion limit such that operation is safe. The basis for the tracers is qualified in off-situ particle size measurements. In the main part different methods and operational procedures are tested with respect to their ability to generate a suitable amount of seeding in the test section. For the best method the relaxation time of the tracers is qualified by the oblique shock wave test. The results show that the use of a special temperature resistant lubricant oil "Plantfluid" is feasible under the conditions of a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube with heated storage tube. The method gives high-quality tracers with high seeding densities. Although the experimental results of the oblique shock wave test differ from theoretical predictions of relaxation time, still the relaxation time of 3.2 ?s under the more dense tunnel conditions with 18 bar storage tube pressure is low enough to allow the use of the seeding for meaningful particle image velocimetry studies.

Casper, Marcus; Stephan, Sören; Scholz, Peter; Radespiel, Rolf

2014-06-01

429

Evaluation of antifriction bearing lubrication methods on motor life-cycle cost  

SciTech Connect

The number 1 cause of induction motor failures is bearing failure. Antifriction bearing failures most commonly are the consequences of inadequate lubrication. Antifriction motor bearings are found in four lubrication configurations: regreasable, sealed, oil mist, and oil lubricated. Bearings are oil lubricated when the operating conditions (i.e., bearing size, speed, thrust, etc.) require it. However, there is much debate about the best lubrication configuration, given a choice between regreasable, sealed, or oil-misted bearings. Within their own rights, all three methods have their advantages. Selection of the proper configuration is dependent upon many factors, such as motor size/type (i.e., bearing size/type), plant maintenance practice, bearing replacement availability/cost, duty cycle, environmental conditions, and downtime cost. This paper discusses the relationship between these factors and lubrication configuration, and presents an analysis of the subsequent impact on bearing life and system cost.

Hodowanec, M.M.

1999-12-01

430

Evaluation of sensor arrays for engine oils using artificial oil alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With respect to varying operation conditions, only sensors directly installed in the engine can detect the current oil condition hence enabling to get the right time for the oil change. Usually, only one parameter is not sufficient to obtain reliable information about the current oil condition. For this reason, appropriate sensor principles were evaluated for the design of sensor arrays for the measurement of critical lubricant parameters. In this contribution, we report on the development of a sensor array for engine oils using laboratory analyses of used engine oils for the correlation with sensor signals. The sensor array comprises the measurement of conductivity, permittivity, viscosity and temperature as well as oil corrosiveness as a consequence of acidification of the lubricant. As a key method, rapid evaluation of the sensors was done by short term simulation of entire oil change intervals based on artificial oil alteration. Thereby, the compatibility of the sensor array to the lubricant and the oil deterioration during the artificial alteration process was observed by the sensors and confirmed by additional laboratory analyses of oil samples take.

Sen, Sedat; Schneidhofer, Christoph; Dörr, Nicole; Vellekoop, Michael J.

2011-06-01

431

Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

432

Exterior, looking west Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

433

Stability of Water Lubricated Flow of Yield Stress Fluid in Sloping Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate the transport of viscous crudes in a pipe, an immiscible lubricating liquid, usually water, is added. In such configuration, the water migrates into the regions of high shear at the pipe wall where it lubricates the flow. The pumping pressures being balanced by wall shear stresses in the water, the flow therefore requires pressures comparable to pumping water alone, at the same total throughput [1]. So significant savings in pumping power can be derived from this process provided that it is well monitored. Indeed, instabilities usually take place at the oil/water interface and they constitute an important source of energy dissipation. Precisely, a core annular flow is known to undergo a long-wave instability of capillary type, modified by shear occuring at low Reynolds. Above a given critical Reynolds number, the flow is unstable to shorter waves which leads to an emulsification system of water droplets in oil. In present work, an experimental study of the stability of sloping plane Poiseuille flow of well characterized viscoplastic mineral oils lubricated by water was performed. The investigation was carried out by means of image analysis based on spatiotemporal diagrams (STD). Notably indicated are the effects of bed slope, flow rates ratio and oil rheology on flow stability.

Ahmad, A.; Nsom, B.; Decruppe, J.

2010-06-01

434

A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

2014-09-01

435

A New Type of Self-lubricated Thermal Spray Coatings: Liquid Lubricants Embedded in a Metal Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oils and greases are commonly used for lubricating, rotating and sliding systems such as bearings, gears, connectors, etc. The maintenance of such lubricated systems in some applications where access is difficult (e.g., offshore wind farms and subsea equipment) increases the operational costs. In some cases, it can be thought that the use of solid lubricants (MoS2, PTFE, graphite, etc.) embedded in coatings could be a solution for such applications; however, the mechanical and dynamic conditions of most of the systems are not appropriate for solid lubricants. Despite this, solid lubricants such as PTFE and MoS2 have been largely employed in different industries, especially in those applications where liquid lubricants cannot be used and when the dynamic conditions allow for it. Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Although the use of liquid lubricants is desirable whenever it is possible, limited research has been addressed toward the development of self-lubricated coatings containing liquid lubricants. One of the main reasons for this is due to the complexity of embedding liquid lubricant reservoirs inside the coating matrix. In the present work, a new type of liquid-solid self-lubricated coatings is presented, being the matrix a metal alloy. Three thermal spray techniques used were as follows: arc-spray, plasma spray, and HVOAF. The metal matrices were two stainless steel types and liquid lubricant-filled capsules with different liquid contents were used. No degradation of the capsules during spraying was observed and the coatings containing capsules were able to keep a low coefficient of friction. The optimal performance is found for the coatings obtained at the lowest spraying temperature and velocity.

Espallargas, N.; Armada, S.

2015-01-01

436

RFID BASED GRAIN AND OIL PRODUCTS TRACEABILITY1  

E-print Network

and oil management. The main grain and oil products have mainly three types of hazard sources, ChemicalRFID BASED GRAIN AND OIL PRODUCTS TRACEABILITY1 AND ITS COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION Haiyan Hu ,*2: +86-10-82106263, Email:huhaiyan@mail.caas.net.cn Abstract: Food safety is a widely concerned problem

Boyer, Edmond

437

2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses  

E-print Network

2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses Yu-Lin Chang & Leo Oey # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill

438

Boundary lubrication: Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on boundary lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of boundary surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the boundary lubrication regime are considered.

Jones, W. R., Jr.

1982-01-01

439

Formulation and evaluation of C-Ether fluids as lubricants useful to 260 C. [air breathing engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three base stocks were evaluated in bench and bearing tests to determine their suitability for use at bulk oil temperatures (BOT) from -40 C to +260 C. A polyol ester gave good bearing tests at a bulk temperature of 218 C, but only a partially successful run at 274 C. These results bracket the fluid's maximum operating temperature between these values. An extensive screening program selected lubrication additives for a C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) base stock. One formulation lubricated a bearing for 111 hours at 274 C (BOT), but this fluid gave many deposit related problems. Other C-ether blends produced cage wear or fatigue failures. Studies of a third fluid, a C-ether/disiloxane blend, consisted of bench oxidation and lubrication tests. These showed that some additives react differently in the blend than in pure C-ethers.

Clark, F. S.; Miller, D. R.

1980-01-01

440

The Effect of Using Water-based Gel Lubricant During a Speculum Exam On Pap Smear Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical cancer is a pervasive yet preventable killer. Although routine screening exams are available to aid in the early detection of cervical cancer, women often avoid getting their routine annual screening exams. One explanation of this could be due to the discomfort of speculum exams. One way to minimize the discomfort of the speculum exam is to use gel-lubricant.

Jessica L. Wright

2010-01-01

441

How do I dispose of aerosol cans? Aerosol cans are used to disperse a variety of chemicals, including paint, lubricants and cleaners.  

E-print Network

, including paint, lubricants and cleaners. Although aerosol cans are commonplace, they are often mishandled price break. When buying aerosol spray paint, if possible buy latex paint. Latex paint is more environmentally friendly as it is easier to cleanup (with soap and water), as compared to oil based paint, which

Maroncelli, Mark

442

NEW USES OF VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils are used in various industrial applications such as emulsifiers, lubricants, plasticizers, surfactants, plastics, solvents and resins. Research and development approaches take advantage of the natural properties of these oils. Vegetable oils have superb environmental credentials, su...

443

DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION  

SciTech Connect

The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

Qu, Jun [ORNL

2012-01-01

444

Fundamentals of fluid lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

Hamrock, Bernard J.

1991-01-01

445

Lubrication of Machine Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

Hamrock, B. J.

1984-01-01

446

Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the bearing was turned at a rate of 200 RPM. The lubricator control was turned on at the beginning of the test, turned off for about 800 seconds, then turned on again. As shown in Figure 2, the controlled lubricator stabilized the torque in a low range, starting immediately after initial turn-on and immediately after resumption of the lubricator control.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

2005-01-01

447

TECHNICAL NOTE: Inductive Coulter counting: detection and differentiation of metal wear particles in lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device based on an inductive Coulter counting principle for detecting metal particles in lubrication oil is presented. The device detects the passage of ferrous and nonferrous particles by monitoring the inductance change in a coil. First, the sensing principle is demonstrated at the mesoscale using a solenoid. Next, a small planar coil suitable for use in a microscale device is tested. Static tests are conducted on the planar coil using iron and aluminum particles ranging from 80 to 500 µm. The testing results show that the coil can be used to detect and distinguish ferrous and nonferrous metal particles in lubrication oil; such particles can be indicative of potential machine faults in rotating and reciprocating machinery. The design concept demonstrated here can be extended to a microfluidic device for real-time monitoring of ferrous and nonferrous wear debris particles.

Du, L.; Zhe, J.; Carletta, J. E.; Veillette, R. J.

2010-05-01

448

Influence of service temperature on tribological characteristics of self-lubricant coatings: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-lubricating coatings have been widely used to reduce friction in moving machine assemblies. However, the tribological performance of these coatings is strongly dependent on the service temperature. In this paper, an extensive review pertaining to the influence of operating service temperature on tribological performance of self-lubricating coatings has been carried out. Based on the effective lubricating temperature range, the self-lubricating coatings developed in the past have been divided into three groups: low temperature lubricant coating (from -200°C to room temperature), moderate temperature lubricant coating (from room temperature to 500°C) and high temperature lubricant coating (> 500°C). Ideas concerning possible ways to extend the operating temperature range of self-lubricating coatings have been presented as follows: hybridized tribological coating, adaptive tribological coatings, and diffusion rate limited solid lubricant coating. In addition, a new self-lubricating coating formulation for potential application at a wide operating temperature range has been proposed.

Yang, Jun-Feng; Jiang, Yan; Hardell, Jens; Prakash, Braham; Fang, Qian-Feng

2013-03-01

449

Castor oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Castor oil is a yellowish liquid often used as a lubricant and in laxatives. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing a large amount (overdose) of castor oil. This is for information only and not for ...

450

Used Oil Management Program  

MedlinePLUS

... to bird feathers. It?s a major source of oil contamination of waterways and can result in pollution of drinking water sources. On average, about four million people reuse motor oil as a lubricant for other equipment or take ...

451

An overview of industrial gas engines and their lubrication - part I  

SciTech Connect

A broad overview of gas engines, their applications and lubrication, with specific reference to the European market, is presented. Specific areas discussed include a description of gaseous fuels, gas engine types, applications and lubrication requirements. Major functions and characteristics of gas engine oils are covered, together with used oil analysis, oil life and drain intervals and some of the more common problems experienced with gas engine oils in service. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Zareh, A. [Texaco Research & Development, Ghent (Belgium)

1996-10-01

452

Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of palm oil, palm oil based products and coconut oil: effects of scanning rate variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the thermal behaviour of coconut oil and palm oil and products based on them, by monitoring peak transition temperatures, transition enthalpies, offset- (Toff) and onset-temperatures (Ton) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different scanning rates. Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value (IV) analyses were used to compliment the DSC data. An increase in heating rate, generally, was

C. P Tan; Y. B Che Man

2002-01-01

453

Additives for high-temperature liquid lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary research program was conducted to demonstrate a new concept for additives to liquid lubricants. It was demonstrated that suspensions of o-phthalonitrile and a substituted 1,2-maleonitrile in mineral oil and dilute solutions of o-phthalonitrile and tetrafluoro-o-phthalonitrile extended the lifetime of bearings under boundary lubricating conditions. The solutions exhibited coefficients of friction under high loads of 0.02-0.03. These results were consistent with the hypothesis that these compounds react with the hot metal surface to form a planar lubricating film by means of a metal or metal oxide template reaction. Also, the adherence was very strong due to the chelating action of the planar macrocycles postulated to form under the experimental conditions.

Lawton, Emil A.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Repar, John

1988-01-01

454

THE LUBRICITY OF BIODIESEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advent of low-sulfur petrodiesel fuels has raised concern about the inherent lubricity of these fuels. It has been shown that these fuels possess poorer lubricity than their non-desulfurized counterparts, largely due to the removal of polar oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in these fue...

455

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials  

SciTech Connect

Equipment manufacturers are challenged to replace CFC-based refrigerants and their lubricants with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Information on the compatibility of motor materials with these alternative refrigerants and lubricants is a basic requirement for reliable performance. This report presents compatibility data for 24 commercially used motor materials exposed to 17 refrigerant/lubricant combinations. This compatibility data will enable the phase out of CFC's to continue at its current fast pace and insure the continued reliable performance of refrigerant-based equipment.

Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.; Waite, T. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States))

1993-01-01

456

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

457

Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

458

Study of ball bearing torque under elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spinning and rolling torques were measured in an angular-contact ball bearing with and without a cage under several lubrication regimes in a modified NASA spinning torque apparatus. Two lubricants were used, a di-2 ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil, at shaft speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm and bearing loads from 10 lbs to 90 lbs. An analytical model was developed from previous spinning friction models to include rolling with spinning under lubrication regimes from thin film to flooded conditions. The bearing torque values have a wide variation, under any condition of speed and load, depending on the amount of lubricant present in the bearing. The analytical model compared favorably with experimental results under several lubrication regimes.

Townsend, D. P.; Allen, C. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

459

Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

1984-01-01

460

The Influence of the Lubricant Mixture into a Refrigerant on the Condensation Heat Transfer in Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a refrigerator and an air conditioner, it is a well-known fact that the contamination of lubricant into a pure refrigerant has a great influence on the heat transfer characteristics and two-phase flow behavior at the condenser and evaporator. However, up to now, in the most of heat exchanger design, the refrigerant has been regarded as a pure one. On the other hand, a recent condenser tube diameter tends to be fine to overcome the various demands on the compactness and the high performance, especially required for the alternative refrigerant. Unfortunately, quantitative studies of the tube less than 6 mm in diameter were insufficient, moreover, only few studies have been made including the effect of the oil contamination on the condensation heat transfer. In this study, we employed HFC134a as a refrigerant and PAG-oil as a lubricant and experiments with a flat tube and three kinds of circular tube which has different diameters were made. By using the flow visualization data, a new flow pattern map being applicable both of a pure and oil-lubricant mixture was proposed. Moreover, by examining the local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, the most sensitive flow pattern affected by contamination of lubricant was specified and the detailed discussion on the quantitative effect of oil contamination on condensation heat transfer including the effect of tube geometry was carried out. Finally, based on these results, new correlation for heat transfer and pressure drop was suggested, and it predicted our data successfully well up to a mass flux of 150kg/(m2•s.)

Katsuta, Masafumi; Miyai, Ryo; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Kawai, Akinari

461

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

462

Energy-efficient lubricants reduce plant energy costs  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how specially formulated synthetic lubricants can improve gear drive efficiency, extend maintenance cycles and enhance equipment durability. Energy-efficient synthetic gear oils, formulated to optimize viscometric and friction characteristics, can significantly reduce the power-consumption requirements of gear-driven equipment, while enhancing gear drive durability and significantly lowering energy costs. Unfortunately energy-efficient lubricants are not widely understood and appreciated.

Scharf, C.; Lockett, A. [C and C Oil Partners (United States)

1997-09-01

463

A self-lubricating bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved bearing structure is described which includes a permanently magnetized porous body filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant for extending the operational life of self-lubricating bearings. The bearing structure is characterized by a permanently magnetized retainer formed of a porous material and filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant, whereby the pores serve as lubricant reservoirs from which the lubricant continuously is delivered to a film disposed between contiguous bearing surfaces.

Whitaker, A. F. (inventor)

1974-01-01

464

Low-viscosity, ecologically clean oils and lubricating-cooling fluids from products obtained by hydrocatalytic treatment of raw lube distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing emphasis on environmental protection has imposed new demands on industrial oils and process fluids that are used in various types of equipment. Similarly, it has become necessary to develop ecologically clean technology for the production of highly treated white oils by the application of hydrocatalytic processes in place of the old technology~ which included sulfuric acid treating. Low-viscosity industrial

T. N. Shabalina; G. I. Filippova; Yu. T. Kalyapina; Yu. N. Zelentsov; D. V. Shekera

1993-01-01

465

New Lubricants Protect Machines and the Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1994, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Operations commissioned Sun Coast Chemicals of Daytona Inc to develop a new type of lubricant that would be safe for the environment and help "grease the wheels" of the shuttle-bearing launcher platform. Founded in 1989, Sun Coast Chemicals is known amongst the racing circuit for effective lubricants that help overcome engine and transmission problems related to heat and wear damage. In a matter of weeks, Sun Coast Chemical produced the biodegradable, high-performance X-1R Crawler Track Lube. In 1996, Sun Coast Chemical determined there was a market for this new development, and introduced three derivative products, Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lubricant, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid, and then quickly followed with a gun lubricant/cleaner and a fishing rod and reel lubricant. Just recently, Sun Coast introduced the X-1R Corporation, which folds the high-performance, environmentally safe benefits into a full line of standard automotive and specially formulated racing products. The entire X-1R automotive product line has stood up to rigorous testing by groups such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Oakland University (Rochester, Michigan), and Morgan-McClure Motorsports (Abingdon, Virginia). The X-1R Corporation also markets "handy packs" for simple jobs around the house, consisting of a multi-purpose, multi-use lubricant and grease. In 2003, The X-1R Corporation teamed up with Philadelphia-based Penn Tackle Manufacturing Co., a leading manufacturer of fishing tackle since 1932, to jointly develop and market a line of advanced lubrication products for saltwater and freshwater anglers

2007-01-01

466

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446...FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory....

2010-07-01

467

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446...FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory....

2011-07-01

468

40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447...FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory....

2010-07-01

469

40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447...FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory....

2012-07-01

470

40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447...FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory....

2011-07-01