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1

Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

2

Vegetable oil-based lubricants—A review of oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are being investigated as a potential source of environmentally favourable lubricants, due to a combination of biodegradability, renewability and excellent lubrication performance. Low oxidation and thermal stability, poor low-temperature properties and narrow range of available viscosities, however, limit their potential application as industrial lubricants. This review addresses oxidation as a limitation of vegetable oil-based lubricants. The basic mechanism

N. J. Fox; G. W. Stachowiak

2007-01-01

3

VEGETABLE OIL-BASED BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The uncertainty in petroleum supply along with pollution and environmental health concerns is making a way for vegetable oils to be used as fuel and lubricants. The vegetable oils have some advantages like naturally renewable resource, environmentally safe, good lubricity and viscosity-temperature ...

4

Vegetable-based biodegradable lubricating oil additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, much effort has been focused on research and development of new types of lubricating oil additives to reduce wear and friction in the tribological systems. It has been noted that the use of additives to improve the lubricating capacity and durability of oil plays an important role in the wear and friction process of materials. Due to the environmental

M. A. Maleque; H. H. Masjuki; S. M. Sapuan

2003-01-01

5

Effect of an Oil Base on the Lubricating Ability of Plastic Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrocarbon greases, except those prepared from isoparaffinic oils, had lubricities imilar to those of the base oil. Li greases with hydrocarbon oil base differed considerably from the base. Li soaps and surfactants reduced wear more than the nonpolar...

L. B. Gelchinskaya N. S. Smirnova R. A. Levento V. V. Vainshtok

1972-01-01

6

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

7

Experience with evaluating biodegradability of lubricating base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradability analysis of lubricants by standardised tests provides valuable information for both legislation purposes and assessment of how chemical structure influences biodegradability. The choice of an appropriate test for evaluating the ultimate biodegradability of oils raises serious problems as the majority of lubricating base oils display a poor water solubility. The paper summarises the experience gained and the results achieved

El?bieta Beran

2008-01-01

8

INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS BASED ON HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, there has been an interest in biodegradable lubricants in response to environmental concerns, particularly relating to the effect of oil leaking onto the ground and into the fresh water. Vegetable oil based lubricants are recommended for use in environmentally sensitive areas such as ...

9

Soybean oil-based lubricants: a search for synergistic antioxidants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils can contribute towards the goal of energy independence and security due to their naturally renewable resource. They are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, superior viscosity-temperature characteristic...

10

Acute Toxicity Tests Re: Lubricating Oil Base Stocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with API policy, I am enclosing seven drafts final reports from Elars Bioresearch Laboratories on acute toxicity tests with the following lubricating oil base stocks: API Sample 78-9 - 70 SUS/100 deg F Paraffinic Oil; API Sample 78-10 - 150 ...

1982-01-01

11

Palm oil and mineral oil based lubricants—their tribological and emission performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of wear, friction, viscosity, lubricant degradation and exhaust emissions was carried out on a palm oil and a mineral oil-based commercial lubricating oil. The wear and friction test was at first conducted using a reciprocating universal wear machine followed by a two-stroke gasoline Yamaha portable generator set, ET 950. The test conditions for the bench test were:

H. H Masjuki; M. A Maleque; A Kubo; T Nonaka

1999-01-01

12

Radiation-induced gas evolution from commercial lubricant base oil  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced evolved gases for 20 commercial lubricant base oils were measured at room temperature. Samples were irradiated under vacuum by /sup 60/Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h up to 1000 Mrad for mineral oils and ester lubricants, and 3000 Mrad for aromatic lubricants. The evolved gas was measured by means of gas chromatography. The G values (number of gas molecules liberated per absorbed energy of 100 eV) of total evolved gases are 2.8 for liquid paraffins, 1.4 for paraffinic neutral oils, 1.5 to 1.9 for esters, 0.26 to 0.56 for alkyl diphenyl ethers, and 0.005 for phenoxy-phenoxydiphenyl.

Kazuo, A.; Nashiro, H.

1983-06-01

13

BP based soft measurement of flash point of lubrication oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy optimal control of solvents recovery device is to minimize the stream consumption of unit product (lubrication oil), and to assure product quality at the same time. The flash point, which is the quality index of product, must be realized online real-time measurement, to assure real-time modeling and closed-loop optimal control of the ketone-benzol de-waxing device. Based on the special

Gang Xiong; T. R. Nyberg; Xiao-ming Xu

2000-01-01

14

Re-Refined Lubricating Base Oil Characterization Using Liquid Chromatographic Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A separation scheme to characterize lubricating base oils in terms of molecular compound classes has been developed with the purpose of isolating and analyzing impurities in a re-refined base oil. The lubricating base oil is first separated into three maj...

P. Pei S. M. Hsu

1984-01-01

15

Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M. [Moscow State Technical University 'MAMI', Department of Autobody making and metal forging, B.Semenovskaya 38, 107023, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-05-04

16

Thermal,spectroscopic and rheological study of mineral base lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation process of mineral base lubricating oils was\\u000a studied in this work by means of thermal, spectroscopic and rheologic analysis.\\u000a The lubricating oils were degraded at temperatures varying from 150 to 210C,\\u000a and for degradation times from 1 to 48 h. After the degradation, the lubricating\\u000a oils were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, IR and NMR spectroscopies,\\u000a rheological properties

J. C. O. Santos; L. N. Lima; Iêda M. G. Santos; A. G. Souza

2007-01-01

17

Impact of an Oil?Based Lubricant on the Effectiveness of the Sterilization Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 9 # 10 oil-based lubricant (hydraulic fluid), subjected to a sterilization pro- cess, and then samples from the instruments were cultured. We found that the oil-based lubricant did not alter the effectiveness of the sterilization process because high numbers of clinically relevant bacteria and standard test spores (which are relatively resistant to the sterilization process) were inactivated. Infect Control

William A. Rutala; Maria F. Gergen; David J. Weber

2008-01-01

18

Tribological effects of oxide based nanoparticles in lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to enhance the tribological properties of lubricating oil, suitable surfactants such as Tween-20, Tween-60, Span-20\\u000a and Sodium sodecylbenzenesulfonate were selected and lubricating oils containing CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared. The morphology and size of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tribological properties of the oils were tested\\u000a using an MRS-1J

Cai-Xiang Gu; Guan-Jun Zhu; Lei Li; Xiao-Yu Tian; Guang-Yao Zhu

2009-01-01

19

The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to

Philip Mercurio; Andrew P Negri; Kathryn A Burns; Andrew J Heyward

2004-01-01

20

Evaluation of Test Methods for Physical Properties of Re-Refined Lubricating Base Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ASTM standard test methods for determining physical characteristics of lubricating oil basestocks were selected, applied to re-refined base oils, and the results evaluated. The test methods evaluated were: color, viscosity, pour point, API gravity, densit...

S. J. Weeks S. M. Hsu

1984-01-01

21

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS: BIO-BASED LUBRICANTS AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poor oxidative and low temperature stability is considered to be the most critical problems for vegetable oil-based lubricants. These problems can only be partially relieved by lubricant additives, thus vegetable oils have to be modified. In this study, a series of structural modifications of vege...

22

Preparation and Tribological Behaviors of Lubricants—Oil Based on Modified Microbial Oil with Nano-Schiff Base Copper Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A W\\/O microemulsion reactor was used to prepare four kinds of modified lubricants: (i) modified lubricant 1, modified epoxidized microbial oil + rape oil in volume ratio of 1:1; (ii) modified lubricant 2, modified esterified microbial oil + rape oil in volume ratio of 1:3; (iii) modified lubricant 3, modified epoxidized rape oil; and (iv) modified lubricant 4, modified PAO. The individual modified lubricants

Li Wu; Meng Hua; Jian Li; Jieshong Tu; Wanzhen Gao; Xinlei Gao

2012-01-01

23

Preparation and Tribological Behaviors of Lubricants–Oil Based upon Modified Microbial Oil with Nano-Schiff Base Copper Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

W\\/O microemulsion reactor was used to prepare four kinds of modified lubricants: (i) modified lubricant 1–modified epoxidized microbial oil + rape oil in volume ratio of 1:1; (ii) modified lubricant 2 - modified esterified microbial oil + rape oil in volume ratio of 1:3; (iii) modified lubricant 3 - modified epoxidized rape oil; and (iv) modified lubricant 4–modified PAO. The individual modified lubricants were

Li Wu; Meng Hua; Jian Li; Jieshong Tu; Wanzhen Gao; Xinlei Gao

2012-01-01

24

Evaluations of vegetable oil-based as lubricants for metal-forming processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess lubricating performances of selected locally produced vegetable oil-based lubricants with a view to utilizing them as a possible alternative to petroleum-based lubricants in metal-forming processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The ring compression testing and twin disks upsetting testing methods were employed. Findings – The results obtained from these two tests showed that

Babatunde Lawal Abdulquadir; Michael Bolaji Adeyemi

2008-01-01

25

Oxidation and low temperature stability of vegetable oil-based lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, viscosity–temperature characteristics and low volatility. Their use, however, is restricted due to low thermo-oxidative stability and poor cold flow behavior. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidation behavior and low temperature fluidity of vegetable oil derivatives. Among the various possible

Sevim Z. Erhan; Brajendra K. Sharma; Joseph M. Perez

2006-01-01

26

Lubricants Containing a Schiff Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A corrosion and oxidation inhibitor for polyester lubricants employed in jet and rocket engines, diesels, and in transformer oils is a N,N'-dibenzylidenephenylenediamine compound having methylenedioxy radicals. Lubricant bases may be di- or polyesters of ...

K. L. McHugh J. O. Smith

1965-01-01

27

Lubrication mechanism of solid lubricants in oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricating properties of machine oils containing such solid lubricants as (CF)n, MoS2, graphite, etc., were studied on a pin and disk machine by measuring an electric contact resistance and a friction force. After lubrication tests, solid lubricants films and transferred wear particles on worn surfaces have been observed by means of an XMA and an optical microscope. The wear mechanism

T. Hisakado; T. Tsukizoe; H. Yoshikawa

1983-01-01

28

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOEpatents

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01

29

FRICTION BEHAVIOR OF SOME SEED OILS: BIO-BASED LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed oils are a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to mineral base oils in lubrication and other important industrial applications. They are generally triesters (Triacylglycerols, TG) having a complex distribution of fatty acid (FA) chains. All the physical and chemical properties ...

30

Lubrication mechanism of solid lubricants in oils  

SciTech Connect

Lubricating properties of machine oils containing such solid lubricants as (CF)n, MoS2, graphite, etc., were studied on a pin and disk machine by measuring an electric contact resistance and a friction force. After lubrication tests, solid lubricants films and transferred wear particles on worn surfaces have been observed by means of an XMA and an optical microscope. The wear mechanism of metals was analyzed considering a mean peak to peak distance and a mean depth of scratches on worn surfaces. The effects of particle size and concentration of (CF)n, and a suspending agent AD-6 on the friction and wear process were also discussed. It was found that when the large number of (CF)n particles can penetrate into the interface in accordance with an oil flow, they show a good performance as a lubricant but solid lubricant films were not formed on worn surfaces besides graphite particles embedded on those of a copper disk.

Hisakado, T.; Tsukizoe, T.; Yoshikawa, H.

1983-04-01

31

Lubricating oil composition  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition characterized by having a total base number from about 5 to 40 is composed of: a mineral lubricating oil, an overbased calcium sulfonate, a zinc dihydrocarbyl dithiophosphate, an ethoxylated alkylphenol, an alkenylsuccinimide, a polymethacrylate, an ethylene-propylene copolymer, an alkylated diphenylamine and an n-alkylglycine derivative. The n-alkylglycine derivative has the formula: (A) R-NH-CH/sub 2/-CO-N(-R')-R'' in which R is a hydrocarbyl radical having from about 10 to 25 carbon atoms, r' represents hydrogen or an alkyl, hydroxyalkyl or an aminoalkyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms and r'' represents an alkyl or hydroxyalkyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms or a -CH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/-NH)/sub x/H radical in which X has a value from 1 to 3, or; (B) R-NH-CH/sub 2/-C(=N-C(-R)2-CH/sub 2/-X-) in which X represents an oxygen atom or a divalent n-r' radical and R and r' have the values noted above.

Cullen, W.P.; Levine, S.A.; Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.

1982-11-09

32

Lubricating Oil for Automotive Hypoid Gears.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lubricating oil for automotive hypoid gears is usually based on mineral oil, alkylamine, and chlorine- and sulfur-containing additives. In order to increase the operating properties of the oil the Russian patent suggests the addition of the following:...

E. I. Petyakina F. Y. Chames I. B. Gubenko I. F. Blagovidov P. P. Bagryantseva

1972-01-01

33

Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils. A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order...

A. M. Kuliev K. I. Sadykhov N. M. Magerramova R. K. Mamedove S. M. Abutalybova

1971-01-01

34

Lubricating oil composition  

SciTech Connect

The reaction product of (A) high molecular weight hydrocarbon-substituted phenols, (B) aldehydes, (C) ammonia or amines having a reactive hydrogen atom, and (D) alkylene oxides are effective dispersants for lubricating oil and impart detergent properties to liquid hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline.

Malec, R.E.

1980-01-29

35

Green approach for the preparation of biodegradable lubricant base stock from epoxidized vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process for the production of biodegradable lubricant-based stocks from epoxidized vegetable oil with a lower pour point via cationic ion-exchange resins as catalysts was developed. This involves two steps, first, ring-opening reactions by alcoholysis followed by esterification of the resultant hydroxy group in the first step.The ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil with different alcohols such as n-butanol,

Piyush S. Lathi; Bo Mattiasson

2007-01-01

36

Inverse gas chromatographic study of the oxidation stability of lubricating base oils via solubility parameter calculations.  

PubMed

The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi1, 2(infinity)) and solubility parameter (delta2) and its hydrogen bonding sensing component (delta(h)) were determined using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). These parameters were successfully used in the probes of chemical changes that occur during the oxidation of naphthenic and paraffinic base oils in a GC column. Changes in chi1, 2(infinity) values reflect the different types of intermolecular interactions (dispersive, polar, hydrogen bonding) of the given lubricating base oil during oxidation. The obtained results showed that delta(h) component of solubility parameter is the most important parameter for probing the oxidative-chemical changes during the oxidation of given lubricating oils. PMID:18257308

Moustafa, Nagy Emam; Eissa, Elham Ahmed

2007-11-01

37

41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1...602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The...annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for...

2010-07-01

38

Impact of an oil-based lubricant on the effectiveness of the sterilization processes .  

PubMed

Surgical instruments, including hinged instruments, were inoculated with test microorganisms (ie, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, approximately 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units [cfu]; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, approximately 3 x 10(6) cfu; Escherichia coli, approximately 2 x 10(5) cfu; vancomycin-resistant enterococci, 1 x 10(5) cfu; Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, 2 x 10(5) cfu or more; or Bacillus atrophaeus spores, 9 x 10(4) cfu or more), coated with an oil-based lubricant (hydraulic fluid), subjected to a sterilization process, and then samples from the instruments were cultured. We found that the oil-based lubricant did not alter the effectiveness of the sterilization process because high numbers of clinically relevant bacteria and standard test spores (which are relatively resistant to the sterilization process) were inactivated. PMID:18171191

Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

2008-01-01

39

NATURAL OILS AS LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The last decade has seen a slow but steady move toward the use of 'environmentally friendly' or more readily biodegradable lubricant fluids. Biodegradability has become one of the most important design parameters both in the selection of the base fluid and in the overall formulation of the finished...

40

Organosulfur adducts as multifunctional additives for lubricating oils and fuels and as multifunctional lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved lubricant composition. It comprises a major amount of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease or other solid lubricant prepared therefrom and a minor EP\\/antiwear and antioxidant additive amount of from about 0.001 to about 10% by weight of a reaction product of a propylene based oligomerized olefin lube oil prepared in the following manner:

N. L. Avery; L. A. Benjamin; A. G. Horodysky; D. A. Law

1991-01-01

41

Lubricants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site related to lubrication is presented by SynLube.com and its relevant page is entitled Basics: What You Need to Know About Lubrication (1). Visitors can learn why lubrication is so important to mechanical devices, why oil needs to be changed in your car, what synthetic oils can do, and more. Although the site is for a manufacturer of synthetic oil, there is a good amount of interesting physical science information. The second site provides an educational resource activity by The Explorer, called Slippery Substances -- Lubricants (2). Students in grades 5 through 8 get to compare the "slipperiness" of various substances tested, read how a lubricant works, and identify objects that need lubricants to work correctly. All information needed to complete the activity is provided, including a short list of easily attained materials. Next, from NASA's Oil-Free Turbomachinery Program Web site, comes the High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings page (3). Visitors can read about a new chrome oxide based coating, which has been shown to provide good friction and wear properties to very high temperatures. The page contains descriptions, photographs, and even a link that shows the US patent for the "Self-Lubricating Composite Containing Chromium Oxide." The fourth site, About Lubrication (4), is maintained by Machine Care Systems. The page contains an informative explanation on the definition of energy release and lubricated components, and answers the questions what energy release is and if oil ever wears out. The next site, offered by the lubrication manufacturer Lubrizol, is called Lubrication Theory and Practice (5). As the title states, the site gives detailed explanations of friction reduction, lubricant viscosity, heat removal, suspension of contaminants, and other lubrication topics. InnerAuto.com offers the next site, which is an interactive animation of an Engine Lubrication System (6). As you move your mouse over the various parts of the engine, the lubrication critical part names reveal themselves and can then be clicked for additional information. If you happen to be in the market for a lubricant, the seventh site can definitely help you out. The Lubricants EZ Search (7) page, offered by ThomasRegister.com, contains 99 categories of lubricant manufacturers, descriptions of what they offer, and direct links to their Web sites. The last site related to lubricants, Lubrication Recommendations (8), is maintained by Infomedia. Here, visitors can choose from more than a dozen of machine categories and specific models to find out the type of lubrication they require as well as any notes related to that machinery such as crankcase capacity.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

42

Synthetic lubricant basestocks from epoxidized soybean oil and Guerbet alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils are biodegradable and therefore good candidates for environmentally friendly base stocks. They have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low temperature stabilities. For this study, synthetic lubricant basestocks with oxidative stabilities and pour points comparable with commercial synthetic lubricant basestocks have been prepared by reacting epoxidized soybean oil with Guerbet alcohols. Four different Guerbet alcohols, C12-, C14-, C16-,

Hong-Sik Hwang; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

43

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

44

New Method to Produce an Industrial Lubrication Fluid from Vegetable Oil-based Materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The projected demand for industrial and automotive lubricants in the U.S. is ~2.6 billion gallons by 2017, where bio-based lubricants will play an increasing role, from a share of 0.6% today to a possible 1.2% by 2017. This is accompanied by the expected price increase to >$7.00/gallon which will g...

45

Dual Filter for Lubricating Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a dual lubricating oil filter having a double-ball valve for selectively directing the flow of oil through one of a pair of filter elements. Each filter is housed in a section having a cover which cannot be removed during...

H. D. Oliver

1974-01-01

46

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the\\u000a replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates\\u000a for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity,\\u000a they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here

Brajendra K. Sharma; Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

47

Method of removing hydroperoxides from lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of decomposing hydroperoxides present in a lubricating oil. It comprises: contacting the lubricating oil with a heterogenous hydroperoxide decomposer for a period of time sufficient to cause a reduction in the amount of hydroperoxides present in the oil, the hydroperoxide decomposer being immobilized when contacting the oil so as not to pass into the oil.

Shaub, H.; Brownawell, D.W.; DiBenedetto, A.

1991-03-05

48

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANT APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to unfavorable impact on the environment by mineral oil based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the demand for biodegradable, environment friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegeta...

49

Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

2012-06-01

50

Removal of nitrogen compounds from lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anhydrous hydrogen chloride adsorbed on a solid sorbent is an effective reagent for reducing the nitrogen content of lubricating oil base stocks to very low levels. The removal of nitrogen compounds is selective and does not change the sulfur content of the stock. Color and oxidative stability are improved. Amorphous silica-alumina is the preferred solid support. It can be regenerated

Audeh

1982-01-01

51

Organometallic compositions useful as lubricating oil additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organometallic additives are many times incorporated into lubricating oils to provide lubricating compositions having special and improved properties. For example certain copper and lead compounds impart corrosion resistance to lubricating oils. Organoboron compounds provide extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction reducing properties. Organo zinc compounds are also known wear reducing additives. However, the determination of whether an organometallic compound will ''work'',

J. F. Landry; M. C. Croudace; H. P. Jr. On; S. Y. Shen

1986-01-01

52

Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used

V. N. Nikolaev; E. G. Abramov; A. I. Tenyushev

1995-01-01

53

Lubricating oil containing VII pour depressant  

SciTech Connect

Lubricating oils for internal combustion engines typically contain a multitude of additives which function as detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, pour depressants, etc. in order to improve the properties of the oil. It is found that it is particularly necessary to improve the properties exhibited by lubricating oil compositions at low temperatures. It is an object of this invention to provide a lubricating oil containing an additive which provides improved properties at low temperatures.

Hart, W.P.; Mays, D.L.

1986-08-19

54

ESTOLIDES OVERCOME TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE BASED LUBRICANT SHORTFALLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable based lubricants face many challenges in their development as potential lubricants. The three biggest hurdles are cost, oxidative stability and cold temperature properties (pour point, cloud point and cold temperature storage). Distinct advantages of vegetable oils are their excellent lu...

55

Chemical modification of vegetable oils for lubricant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the unfavorable impact on the environment of mineral oil-based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the\\u000a demand for biodegradable, environment-friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace\\u000a or partially substitute conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable\\u000a and are thus promising candidates as base fluids

Brajendra K. Sharma; Atanu Adhvaryu; Zengshe Liu; Sevim Z. Erhan

2006-01-01

56

Removal of nitrogen compounds from lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

Anhydrous hydrogen chloride adsorbed on a solid sorbent is an effective reagent for reducing the nitrogen content of lubricating oil base stocks to very low levels. The removal of nitrogen compounds is selective and does not change the sulfur content of the stock. Color and oxidative stability are improved. Amorphous silica-alumina is the preferred solid support. It can be regenerated without loss of adsorptive capacity, the adsorbed hydrogen chloride removes an equimolar amount of nitrogen compounds from the base stock. The oil to be processed is dehydrated and the processed at 100/sup 0/C. Molecular sieves are used to insure that the oil is acid free. 8 tables.

Audeh, C.A.

1982-09-01

57

Lubricating oil hydrotreating process  

SciTech Connect

A lube oil feedstock is subjected to hydrotreating in the presence of hydrogen and a fluorine-promoted catalyst comprising nickel and molybdenum on a support wherein the nickel and fluorine are derived from an ammoniacal solution of nickel fluoride. The catalyst can be prepared by contacting the support with an alkaline impregnating solution consisting essentially of NH4+, Ni++, Mo+vi and F-, said Ni++ and F- being supplied from nickel fluoride, in a single step employing the incipient wetness technique. The impregnated support is thereafter heated to drive off the alkaline component of the solution and thereby deposit the fluorine, nickel and molybdenum on the support.

Stanulonis, J.J.; Tabacek, J.A.; Vogel, R.F.

1981-08-25

58

Production of lubricating oils by hydrocracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for producing a lubricating oil base stock from a hydrocarbon feedstock which comprises: a hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock having a boiling point above about 343°C (650°F) and containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst having cracking and hydrogenation activity and comprising a layered silicate having a framework composed essentially of only tetrahedral sheets.

G. W. Kirker; P. Varghese

1989-01-01

59

Fuel detergent compositions containing lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motor fuel additive composition comprising a fuel detergent composition and a lubricating oil is disclosed. In preferred embodiments aminosuccinimide and amide-sulfonate fuel additive compositions are combined with lubricating oil in a fuel composition which exhibits reduced formation of engine deposits, particularly under additive-overdose conditions.

Bagnetto

1982-01-01

60

Fuel detergent compositions containing lubricating oil  

SciTech Connect

A motor fuel additive composition comprising a fuel detergent composition and a lubricating oil is disclosed. In preferred embodiments aminosuccinimide and amide-sulfonate fuel additive compositions are combined with lubricating oil in a fuel composition which exhibits reduced formation of engine deposits, particularly under additive-overdose conditions.

Bagnetto, L.J.

1982-04-20

61

Lubricating oil compositions containing organometallic additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention provides novel lubricating oil compositions comprising an organometallic additive, including a metal selected from Groups I, Ib, and VIII of the Periodic System of Elements, e.g. Na, K, Cu, Co, Ni or Fe, chelated with the reaction product of formaldehyde, an amino acid and a phenol, dissolved in a lubricating oil. Depending on the choice of the metal,

J. F. Landry; M. C. Croudance; H. P. On; S. Y. Shen

1987-01-01

62

Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

63

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal

Philip Mercurio; Kathryn A. Burns; Joanne Cavanagh

2004-01-01

64

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.  

PubMed

An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. PMID:14987804

Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

2004-05-01

65

Characterization of the lubricating action of oils under boundary lubrication conditions  

SciTech Connect

Polyalphaolefin (PAO) and polypropylene glycol (PPG)-based lubricants as well as mineral oils were tested to characterize their wear reducing performance under boundary lubrication conditions, using the ISO 7148 test method, which was originally developed for the characterization of bearing materials. This test method has practical value with respect to developing lubricants for use in sliding contacts, such as occur in worm gear drives. It is found that the wear reducing action of PAO-based lubricants is significantly better than that of mineral oils. PPG fluids perform equally well or slightly better than PAOs. Provided that viscosities are in line and additives are compatible, contamination of PAOs with mineral oils has no or only marginal effect on wear reduction.

De Gee, A.W.J.; Lossie, C.M.; Stoop, W. [Univ. of Technology Delft and Univ. of Twente, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[TNO Institute of Production and Logistics Research, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

1995-07-01

66

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03

67

Lubricating oil having improved rust inhibition and demulsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lubricating oil is described which comprises a major amount of a lubricating oil base stock and a synergistic additive combination comprising (a) a rust inhibiting amount of a rust inhibitor wherein the rust inhibitor contains a succinic acid derivative of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub 5])[sub 2]-C-COOH, and partially esterified alkyl succinic acid of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub

L. Z. Pillon; A. E. Asselin

1993-01-01

68

Lubricating oil filtration system for an engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil filtering system is described for an engine including a drive shaft, a lubricating system for the engine, an oil sump, a governor for controlling a throttle of the engine. The governor includes driven means drivingly interconnected with the drive shaft. The oil filtering system comprises: a housing; an oil inlet means defined in the housing in flow communication

Kronich

1987-01-01

69

Lubrication Properties of Vegetable Oils Combined with Boric Acid and Determination of Their Effects on Wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubrication is essential in increasing a mechanical component's service duration and minimizing wear. Though synthetic and petrol-based oils are generally used in lubricants today, natural oils which are environment-friendly, biologically decomposable, and whose waste does not give harm to the environment have also begun to be used as lubricants recently thanks to an increasing awareness of the environment. In the

H. Düzcüko?lu; M. Acaro?lu

2009-01-01

70

Health Aspects of Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Types, applications and composition of lubricants; Potential health hazards of mineral base oils; Potential health hazards of lubricant additives; Bacteria and biocides; Synthetic lubricants; Used oils; Reclaimed and re-refined oils; Safe handli...

M. K. B. Molyneaux J. W. Pearson J. T. Sanderson B. J. Simpson W. F. Tordoir

1983-01-01

71

Some Chemical Effects in Boundary Lubrication Part I: Base Oil-Metal Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Base fluid-metal interactions of a super-refined paraffinic mineral oil were studied. Wear debris from a Shell Four-ball wear tester was analyzed. Based on the amount of iron distributed among used oil, organic solid, iron particles, and iron oxides, one is able to interpret the wear phenomenon in terms of mechanical and chemical processes. Oxygen concentration at the wear junction controls

S. M. Hsu; E. E. Klaus

1979-01-01

72

Preventing migration of lubricating oils in friction components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the spreading tendency and thermooxidative stability of magnetic compositions based on polydimethylsiloxanes, polymethylphenylsiloxanes, polymethylchlorophenylsiloxanes, and perfluorinated alkylpolyethers. The tendency of the lubricating oils to spread on a metal surface is rated on the basis of the contact angle. An examination of the magnetite content of the spreading tendency of the oils when subjected to the magnetic field

A. A. Kuznetsov; E. P. Mizinova; T. G. Shchibrya; N. K. Volobuev

1984-01-01

73

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANT BASESTOCKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of vegetable oil based lubricants will reduce petroleum imports and have a favorable environmental impact. The vegetable oils are derived from renewable sources, biodegradable, non-toxic, possess high flash points and have low volatility. Inadequate oxidative stability and poor low-temperature...

74

40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 90.308 Section 90...308 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil...particular engine and intended usage. (1) Manufacturers must...For 2-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture ratio must...

2013-07-01

75

40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308 Section 91...308 Lubricating oil and test fuel. (a) Lubricating oil...particular engine and intended usage. Record the specifications...For two-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture ratio must...

2013-07-01

76

Optical fiber spectroscopy for measuring quality indicators of lubricant oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection of lubricant oils from different types of turbines, which were characterized by different degrees of degradation, were analyzed by means of wide-range absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and scattering measurements. All these measurements were performed by means of optical fiber-based instrumentation that made use of compact lamps or LED illumination, and miniaturized spectrometers for detection. Multivariate data analysis was used to successfully correlate the wide optical spectral signature of lubricant oils with some of the most important parameters indicating the degree of oil degradation, such as TAN, JOAP index, water content and phosphorus.

Grazia Mignani, Anna; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia; Azelio Mencaglia, Andrea; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; Francalanci, Stefano; Paccagnini, Alessandro; Pavone, Francesco S.

2009-03-01

77

Vacuum oil conditioner removes contaminants from lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal means of removing contaminants from lube oil (also used as seal oil) was sought at the Baytown Olefins Plant of Exxon Chemical Americas. These contaminants, including water, light hydrocarbons and particulate matter, lead to deterioration of the oil and subsequent malfunctioning of equipment that relies on the oil for lubrication. Three principal methods of dehydrating lube oils, centrifuging,

H. P. Bloch; M. Isaacs

1982-01-01

78

Compositional analysis of re-refined and non-conventional lubricant base oils. Correlations to sequence VE and IIIE gasoline engine tests  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, a Presidential Executive Order was issued requiring that federal agencies purchase lubricants containing at least 25% re-refined base oil. In light of this initiative, we have undertaken a program to characterize the chemical composition of re-refined base stocks, provided by a number of manufacturers, using column chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. The hydrocarbon-type distribution observed for the re-refined oils provides an index of their relative quality when benchmarked against conventionally processed `virgin` and certain non-conventional, high viscosity index (VI) base oils. Using statistical models which can predict lubricant performance in the ASTM Sequence VE and IIIE Gasoline Engine Tests from base oil compositional features and VI, it was determined that highly paraffinic synthetic and non-conventional base oils provide enhanced performance while re-refined oils generally exhibit predicted behavior comparable to an `average` `virgin` base oil, for most commercially available products. Sequence VE and IIIE test parameter predictions were found to be especially sensitive to the thioaromatic and multiring aromatic content of the base oil under evaluation. 11 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Stipanovic, A.J.; Smith, M.P.; Firmstone, G.P.; Patel, J.A.

1994-10-01

79

Inverse Gas Chromatographic Study of the Oxidation Stability of Lubricating Base Oils via Solubility Parameter Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (?1,2?) and solubility parameter (?2) and its hydrogen bonding sensing component (?h) were determined using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). These parameters were successfully used in the probes of chemical changes that occur during the oxidation of naphthenic and paraffinic base oils in a GC column. Changes in ?1,2? values reflect the different types of intermolecular interactions

MOUSTAFA Nagy Emam; EISSA Elham Ahmed

2007-01-01

80

Production of lubricating oils by hydrocracking  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing a lubricating oil base stock from a hydrocarbon feedstock which comprises: a hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock having a boiling point above about 343/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) and containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst having cracking and hydrogenation activity and comprising a layered silicate having a framework composed essentially of only tetrahedral sheets. The sheets contain interspathic polymeric silica and interspathic polymeric oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Al, B, Cr, Ga, In, Mo, No, Ni, Ti, Tl, W and Zr. The process produces a hydrocrackate having a boiling point above about 343/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) which contains a lesser proportion of polycyclics than the charge stock.

Kirker, G.W.; Varghese, P.

1989-03-14

81

Pyrolysis kinetics of waste automobile lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of waste automobile lubricating oil have been studied experimentally and modeled mathematically. Experiments were carried out in the tubing bomb microreactor at a temperature of 420–440°C and reaction times of 5–50min. Volatile pyrolysis products were identified and quantitatively determined by gas chromotography. A lump model of combined series and parallel reactions for oil formation is proposed. Conversion data

S. S. Kim; S. H. Kim

2000-01-01

82

Castor oil-based lubricant reduces smoke emission in two-stroke engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoky emissions from two-stroke gasoline engines (2T) are a problem for the environment. Use of vegetable oil (oxygenate) is one solution. A biodegradable 2T-oil was developed from castor oil, which consisted of tolyl monoesters and performance additives but no miscibility-solvent. Evaluation revealed that on one hand it reduced smoke by 50–70% at 1% oil fuel ratio and on the other

A. K. Singh

2011-01-01

83

Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

1982-12-01

84

TRIBOLOGICAL AND OXIDATION PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED VEGETABLE OILS AS LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to unfavorable impact on the environment by mineral oil based lubricants, there has been a steady increase in the demand for biodegradable, environment friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. Vegeta...

85

Corrosivity Monitoring of Crankcase Lubricating Oils for Marine Diesel Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For qualification of crankcase lubrication oils in ship diesel engines the total acid number, strong acid number and total base number were determined. It is shown that these numbers have a low degree of reproducibility. A more rapid and reliable method f...

L. M. Rientsma H. Zeilmaker

1974-01-01

86

Catalytic process for manufacture of low pour lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for hydrodewaxing a petroleum fraction having a boiling point above about 550°F., to produce a dewaxed lubricating oil base stock. The process consists of contacting a feedstock of the petroleum fraction, in the presence of hydrogen, with a supported catalyst composition comprising, in combination, about 20 to about 50 percent by weight of a support material;

A. W. Chester; W. E. Garwood; J. C. Vartuli

1986-01-01

87

Oil soluble antioxidant polymetharylates for lubricants  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of oil soluble, antioxidant bound polymethacrylates used as viscosity index improver lubricant additives, is described herein. They were synthesized by copolymerization of the antioxidant-dispersant monomer and alkyl methacrylates. Oxidative stability was determined by oxidative pressure differential scanning calorimetry, thin film oxidation uptake test and aluminum beaker oxidation text. These tests show that lubricants containing these polymers show performance advantages over commercial polymethacrylates, with additional benefits in other viscometric properties such as shear stability and Brookfield viscosity. The antioxidant monomer also serves as a dispersant moiety, thus improving the polymer disperancy. Binding the antioxidant to the polymer ensures the solubility of the antioxidant while eliminating the possibility of its volatilization in high temperature environments. The current results suggest that antioxidant-dispersant polymethacrylates have excellent potential as additives in lubricants such as automatic transmission fluids. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Shirodkar, S.M.; Benfaremo, N. [Texaco Additive Company, Beacon, NY (United States); Skarlos, L. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

1994-08-01

88

Manufacture of hydrocracked low pour lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocracked, low pour lubricating oils of good stability are manufactured by passing a suitable hydrocarbon feed and hydrogen sequentially through a hydrocracking zone, a catalytic dewaxing zone, and a hydrotreating zone, all at high pressure and in that order, with purification of the hydrogen gas prior to passage to the dewaxing zone. By maintaining all zones at high pressure, the efficiency of the process is augmented.

Garwood, W.E.; Silk, M.R.

1981-08-11

89

Manufacture of hydrocracked low pour lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocracked, low pour lubricating oils of good stability are manufactured by passing a suitable hydrocarbon feed sequentially through a hydrocracking zone, a catalytic dewaxing zone, and a hydrotreating zone, all at high pressure and in that order, and with separation of hydrocrackate from recycle hydrogen prior to dewaxing. Only clean makeup hydrogen is fed to the dewaxer, passed through the hydrotreater, and then on to the hydrocracker, thereby providing an exceptionally efficient process.

Garwood, W.E.; Silk, M.R.

1981-08-11

90

OXIDATION AND LOW TEMPERATURE STABILITY OF VEGETABLE OIL-BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The search for environmentally friendly materials that has potential to substitute mineral oil in various industrial applications is currently being considered a top priority research in the fuel and energy sector. This emphasis is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves an...

91

Radiation-resistant plastic lubricants based on sodium terephthalamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A method has been developed for obtaining plastic lubricants based on sodium terephthalamide.2.The authors have studied terephthalamide lubricants made from MS-20s or DS-11 mineral oil, MAS-35 synthetic hydrocarbon oil, and FM-1322\\/300 polymethylphenylsiloxane.3.The complex of terephthalamide and sodium benzoate has a higher thickening capacity and (in the case of a 1:0.5 molar ratio) forms systems with higher colloidal stabilities than sodium

E. D. Makheeva; G. Kh. Makhnenko; Yu. S. Zaslavskii

1966-01-01

92

A Study Concerning Lubrication of Oil Scraping Rings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the state of the lubrication oil film between the oil scraping rings and the cylinder of the internal combustion engine was conducted as a first step toward elucidation of the oil scraping action. (Author)

S. Furuhama

1976-01-01

93

Oil-Air Mist Lubrication for Helicopter Gearing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh ...

F. Mcgrogan

1976-01-01

94

Laboratory study of biodegradation of lubricating oils in aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on biodegradation of five different types of lubricating oils in aquatic environment has been completed in the laboratory and a methodology has been developed. The results show that the light oils were degraded readily; however, the removal rates were low. Up to 36% removal for the selected lubricating oils were achieved biologically after 70 days of operation. The

Xie Yongming; Sun Sien; Wang Zhenkui; Liu Xiufen; N. Biswas; J. K. Bewtra

1996-01-01

95

30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. 75.1104 Section 75.1104 Mineral...Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. [Statutory Provisions] Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease shall be of fireproof...

2010-07-01

96

Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

1984-01-01

97

Emulsification of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils for Lubricant Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil in water emulsions of several vegetable oils were studied in order to prepare a useful lubrication fluid. Several previously\\u000a uncharacterized systems were studied in this paper, including those made from epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different\\u000a surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found\\u000a to form stable oil in

Kenneth M. DollBrajendra; Brajendra K. Sharma

2011-01-01

98

Production of high v. i. lubricating oil stock  

SciTech Connect

A process for the manufacture of high quality lubricating oils having a high viscosity index and low pour point is disclosed which comprises catalytically dewaxing a lubricating oil stock by contacting the same in the presence of hydrogen over a zeolite such as zsm-5 which has been silica-modified.

Chen, N.Y.; Garwood, W.E.; Rodewald, P.G.

1983-03-08

99

MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR USE AS INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been a lot of interest in using vegetable oils (particularly soybean oil) as renewable raw materials for new industrial products including lubricants. This emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing co...

100

Lubricating Oil Compositions Containing Calcium Acetate and Lubricating Solids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extreme pressure additive for greases and lubricating compositions for internal combustion engines and metalworking operations combines graphite, stannic sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide with anhydrous calcium acetate. Substantially equal amounts are e...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

101

Water-based lubricants for metalworking  

SciTech Connect

Metalworking fluids currently constitute 17% of the total US industrial lubricant market. Market forces favor semisynthetic and synthetic formulations because they are more economical, and trends differ substantially from those of other lubricant markets as demand patterns shift. Lubricant manufacturers continue to reduce the use of mineral oil as a component in their formulations because synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are more cost-effective. The introduction of new engineering materials also has increased the demand for tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications. Synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are favored for cutting and metalworking applications because they perform better than the existing commercial product does. The literature strongly supports the development of environmentally friendly synthetic and semisynthetic metalworking lubricants that have longer useful lives, therefore decreasing the amount of fluid for disposal. Future lubricant formulations will focus on environmental issues, process compatibility, and worker health and safety. Biological control of fluids, in use and in disposal, will also draw attention.

Shukla, D.S.; Jain, V.K. [Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

1997-05-01

102

Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, althoug...

O. O. Ajayi G. R. Fenske A. Erdemir R. A. Erck J. H. Hsieh

1992-01-01

103

The Solubility of Helium in Various Lubricating Oils at High Temperatures and Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helium solubility characteristics of six low-viscosity lubricating oils have been investigated; namely, diester, aryl phosphate ester, dimethyl silicone, methyl phenyl silicone, paraffin base oil, and aromatic base oil. Solubility measurements were made over a 1000 psi pressure range and a 350 F temperature range. Results show that the solubility of helium in all fluids studied increases linearly not only

David J. Boes

1960-01-01

104

Method for detecting fuel dilution of marine lubricating oils  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Vanadium in marine diesel lubricating oils resulting from raw fuel dilution is detected and quantified by way of an analytical technique employing electron spin resonance (ESR). Dilution of the lubricating oil with residual fuel oils results in the presence of vanadium in the lubricating oil in a form which is capable of being observed by ESR; by contrast, vanadium resulting from the presence of fuel oil combustion products (pentavalent vanadium) in the lubricating oil is not observed by ESR. The method therefore enables fuel vanadium, typically present as vanadyl porphyrins, to be differentiated from vanadium resulting from blow-by in the engine so that the operating condition of the engine may be monitored.

Altman; Lawrence J. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Reischman; Paul T. (Lambertville, NJ)

1992-12-08

105

Bio-lubricant as an Alternative to Mineral Oil for a CI Engine—An Experimental Investigation with Pongamia Oil as a Lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a lubricant in a CI engine is explored in this study. The experiments have been conducted with neat pongamia oil, blend of pongamia oil and mineral oil (50% V\\/V), and neat mineral oil as lubricants; and neat pongamia oil, blends of pongamia oil, and diesel in proportions of 20, 40, and

S. Bekal; N. R. Bhat

2012-01-01

106

Using Ensembles of Regression Trees to Monitor Lubricating Oil Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work describes a new on-line sensor that includes a novel calibration process for the real-time condition monitoring\\u000a of lubricating oil. The parameter studied with this sensor has been the variation of the Total Acid Number (TAN) since the\\u000a beginning of oil’s operation, which is one of the most important laboratory parameters used to determine the degradation status\\u000a of lubricating

Andres Bustillo; Alberto Villar; Eneko Gorritxategi; Susana Ferreiro; Juan J. Rodríguez

2011-01-01

107

BIODEGRADABLE INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As environmental concerns grow, vegetable oils are finding their way into total loss lubricants for military applications, and in outdoor activities such as forestry, mining, railroads, dredging, fishing and agriculture hydraulic systems. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant environment...

108

Synergistic lubricating compositions  

SciTech Connect

A synergistic lubricating composition a lubricant selected from the group consisting of base lubricating oils and greases having admixed with the lubricant a friction reducing amount of a synergistic mixture of 1 to 99% weight molybdenum disulfide and 99 to 1% weight of a polymer of thiadiazoledithiols. The lubricant is a base lubricating grease selected from the group consisting of lithium grease, clay grease, silicone grease and aluminum complex grease.

King, J.

1980-07-08

109

Lubrication of Aluminum Rolling by Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic concentration model for lubrication by oil-in-water emulsions proposed by Wilson el al. (1) is applied to strip rolling to derive a relatively simple equation for inlet film thickness. The predictions of the new model are supported by rolling experiments using emulsions as lubricants, where the film thickness is inferred from the surface roughness that is generated on the

Steven R. Schmid; William R. D. Wilson

1995-01-01

110

Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

111

Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

112

DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

113

Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of the engines and compressors. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

114

Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were

Philip Mercurio; Kathryn A. Burns; Andrew Negri

2004-01-01

115

Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%. PMID:22870990

Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

2012-08-24

116

33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION...

2013-07-01

117

Transmission device housing construction with shaft lubricating oil shield cover generating lubricant pool  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission device including a casing elongated towards a power transfer aperture defined therein, a first bearing mounted in the power transfer aperture, a second bearing, a power output member rotatably supported in the power transfer aperture by the first bearing, and a power output shaft within the casing. An outer end of power output shaft is rotationally coupled to the power output member and an inner portion of power output shaft is supported from the casing by the second bearing. The power output shaft is formed with an axially extending aperture for receiving supply of lubricating oil and with a radially extending aperture communicating at its radially inward end to the axially extending aperture, for squirting out lubricating oil from the power output shaft in generally radial directions as the power output shaft revolves, a lubricating oil shield cover.

Morisawa, K.; Kondo, T.

1986-10-14

118

Characteristics of lubricating grease produced from Nigerian tarsand-derived heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study involving the laboratory production of lubricating grease from heavy oil extracted from the Nigerian tarsands are reported. Toluene-extracted oil from the tarsands was used in making a soap-based grease and a clay-based grease. The grease produced was then tested in accordance with the standard National Laboratory for Grease Institute (NLGI) specifications. The two types of grease produced from the tarsands oil conformed with the NLGI specifications and were in the category of grease suitable for use as lubricant for plain and roller bearings and as sealants.

Ogunsola, O.I.; Agoi-George, S.O. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt (NG))

1990-01-01

119

Numerical Analysis of Noise Radiation of Compressor Shell Considering Lubrication Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element method (FEM) was created to simulate the sound radiation of compressor shell based on fluid structural interaction (FSI), by which the structure response (displacements) could be calculated considering the influence of lubrication oil. The coupling modal of shell was stored under different volumes of oil; the structure response (displacements) and the distribution of sound pressure were calculated

Jin Tao; Meng Xiaohong; Ye Xiaoping

2006-01-01

120

Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

121

Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration effects of chlorinated paraffin and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate on boundary lubrication properties were\\u000a tested in vegetable and mineral base stocks. Solvent refined low sulfur paraffinic mineral oil (150 N oil) and conventional\\u000a food grade soybean oil (soy oil) with EP additive concentration of 0–20% (w\\/w) were used in ASTM D2783 four-ball extreme pressure\\u000a (4-ball EP) and Twist Compression Tribotests

Svajus Joseph Asadauskas; Girma Biresaw; Ted G. McClure

2010-01-01

122

Effects of used lubricating oil on two mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina.  

PubMed

An outdoor experiment was set up to investigate the effects of used lubricating oil (5 L/m2) on Aegiceras corniculatum Blanco. and Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh., two salt-excreting mangroves. A. marina was more sensitive to used lubricating oil than A. corniculatum and canopy-oiling resulted in more direct physical damage and stronger lethal effects than base-oiling. When treated with canopy-oiling, half of A. corniculatum plants survived for the whole treatment time (90 d); but, for A. marina, high mortality (83%) resulted from canopy-oiling within 3 weeks and no plants survived for 80 d. Base-oiling had no lethal effects onA. corniculatum plants even at the termination of this experiment, but 83% of A. marina plants died 80 d after treatment. Forty days after canopy-oiling, 93% of A. corniculatum leaves fell and no live leaves remained on A. marina plants. By the end of the experiment, base-oiling treatment resulted in about 45% of A. corniculatum leaves falling, while all A. marina leaves and buds were burned to die. Lubricating oil resulted in physiological damage to A. corniculatum leaves, including decreases in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and increases in malonaldehyde contents. For both species, oil pollution significantly reduced leaf, root, and total biomass, but did not significantly affect stem biomass. Oil pollution resulted in damage to the xylem vessels of fine roots but not to those of mediate roots. PMID:18232231

Ye, Yong; Tam, N F Y

2007-01-01

123

Aircraft Water-Based Solid Film Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved MIL-L-81329 water based extreme temperature range solid film lubricant has been developed. This material provides corrosion protection and improved endurance life for steel on steel components while maintaining the other desirable properties s...

A. A. Conte

1983-01-01

124

LEACHING OF PB AND ZN FROM SPENT LUBRICATING OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Leaching experiments with Pb- and Zn-resistant pseudomonads demonstrated that Pb and Zn were leached from spent lubricating oil into water under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Leaching of the metal from oil was more efficient into seawater than into fresh water. Differenc...

125

Lubricating Properties of Oil-In-Water Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are described in which elastohydrodynamic and boundary lubrication properties of O\\/W emulsions of mineral oil are studied with a variety of nonionic surfactants as the emulsifying agents. The changes in the minimum elastohydrodynamic film thickness are determined with different surfactants, with changes in oil concentration, with changes in emulsifying agent concentration, and with blending of different surfactants. These results

Yoshitsugu Kimura; Kazumi Okada

1989-01-01

126

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe.  

PubMed

A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 muL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0-10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%-0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r(2) = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. PMID:18924720

Pignalosa, Gustavo; Knochen, Moisés; Cabrera, Noel

2005-01-01

127

Physical properties study on partially bio-based lubricant blends: thermally modified soybean oil with popular commercial esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally polymerised soybean oil (SBO) is compared with several other vegetable oils, including ordinary SBO and high-oleic SBO (HO SBO). Acid values (AVs) and kinematic viscosities of the oils were measured over 28 days on oils stored at 85°C. As expected, the AVs and viscosities increased with time and the HO SBO demonstrated similar but smaller effects. The thermally modified

Kenneth M. Doll; Brajendra K. Sharma

2012-01-01

128

Physical properties study on partially bio-based lubricant blends: thermally modified soybean oil with popular commercial esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally polymerised soybean oil (SBO) is compared with several other vegetable oils, including ordinary SBO and high-oleic SBO (HO SBO). Acid values (AVs) and kinematic viscosities of the oils were measured over 28 days on oils stored at 85°C. As expected, the AVs and viscosities increased with time and the HO SBO demonstrated similar but smaller effects. The thermally modified

Kenneth M. Doll; Brajendra K. Sharma

2011-01-01

129

BIOBASED LUBRICANTS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As environmental concerns are growing, vegetable oils are finding their way into total loss lubricants for military applications and in outdoor activities such as forestry, mining, railroads, dredging, fishing and agriculture hydraulic systems. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant envir...

130

Food contamination by hydrocarbons from lubricating oils and release agents: Determination by coupled LC?GC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that many foods are contaminated with mineral oil products used as lubricating oils\\/greases or as release agents. The mineral oil base of such products usually consists of branched alkanes ranging between C17and C35. It forms a broad ‘hump’ of unresolved compounds in the gas chromatogram. Examples of such products are described; contamination is shown for a sample

Konrad Grob; Anna Artho; Maurus Biedermann; Jnes Egli

1991-01-01

131

Phase transformation through shearing under pressure with and without oil lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sliding contacts a low wear rate is generally desired. In dry-sliding, wear is the removal of material from a surface through localized mechanical deformation at contact spots; the actual areas of contact between the two surfaces. The physical mechanism by which a lubricant protects the sliding surface and reduces wear, is the central topic of this dissertation. Lubricants are commonly thought to form a physical barrier between sliding surfaces that prevents the adhesion and local plastic deformation which results in wear. The conditions at contact spots of lubricated sliding interfaces were simulated by plastically shearing materials under pressure using a Bridgman anvil device. Shearing was performed on stacks of Cu foils, of Ag foils and one Cu-Ag type of mixed sample composed of stacked Cu and Ag foils, all without and with two different oil lubricants between the foils. X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis on such foil stacks deformed to various amounts of strain followed the shear tests. The lubricants were seen to delay the alloying of the simulated wear surfaces but basically the same phases resulted with and without the presence of the lubricants. Based on the results discussed in this thesis it is proposed that, more often than expected, at lubricated sliding surfaces there occurs a mixing of surface material and lubricant. This mixing is akin to mechanical alloying, a process commonly used to alloy immiscible materials, and often forms metastable phases including amorphous alloys. The formation of these non-equilibrium alloys at the sliding surface with the indicated oils is believed to provide part of the wear reduction when lubricants are present.

Bednar, Matthew Scott

132

39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

133

Turbine lubricating oil: New filtration advances save time and money  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes benefits of filtration advances which include fewer forced outages, faster startups and reduced bearing wear. The importance of clean lubricating oil for turbines has been recognized for a long time, and almost all generating plants use some type of filtration system. Many older technologies and systems cannot remove enough of the contaminants to meet the needs of

Bushar

1996-01-01

134

Interactions Between a Zinc Dialkylphosphorodithioate and Lubricating Oil Dispersants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct infrared spectrophotometric evidence of interactions between lubricating oil dispersants and a zinc dialkylphosphorodithioate (ZDP) is presented. Increasing the concentration of the dispersants polyamino monoalkenylsuccinimide, barium thiophosphonate, and basic barium dinonylbenzene sulfonate in a mineral oil containing 1.2% by weight of a ZDP decreased the intensity of the phosphorus-oxygen-carbon and phosphorus-sulfur infrared bands, and caused the appearance of a new

Nicholas E. Gallopoulos; Chester K. Murphy

1971-01-01

135

Removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of removing wax from a hazy hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range using a rotary drum filter. The filter comprising a filter vat for containing a quantity of oil solvent-diluted hazy oil mixture and a rotatable drum in the vat having a horizontal axis of rotation and also having filter cloth thereon.

Ryan, D.G.; Trust, D.B.

1990-02-27

136

Removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of removing wax from a hazy hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range using a rotary drum filter. The filter comprising a filter vat for containing a quantity of oil solvent-diluted hazy oil mixture and a rotatable drum in the vat having a horizontal axis of rotation and also having filter cloth thereon.

D. G. Ryan; D. B. Trust

1990-01-01

137

Effect of metallic-coating properties on the tribology of coated and oil-lubricated ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Friction and wear behavior was determined for zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (Ag, Au, and Nb) deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Although the use of soft Ag and Au coating...

O. O. Ajayi A. Erdemir G. R. Fenske R. A. Erck J. H. Hsieh

1992-01-01

138

Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions...

O. O. Ajayi A. Erdemir G. R. Fenske F. A. Nichols W. D. Sproul

1992-01-01

139

Process for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range (OP3379)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range which is hazy, comprising the steps of: passing undewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range through a dewaxing plant including a filtration stage, introducing the hazy oil mixture into the dewaxing plant directly at its filtration stage, so as

D. G. Rran; D. B. Trust; R. R. Savory

1989-01-01

140

Effect of metallic-coating properties on the tribology of coated and oil-lubricated ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction and wear behavior was determined for zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (Ag, Au, and Nb) deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Although the use of soft Ag and Au coatings as solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic oil significantly reduced the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250 C, these films had poor durability. In constrast, the Nb coating was more durable in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-test than were the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated zirconia was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Hsieh, J.-H.; Nichols, F. A.

1994-07-01

141

Standard test method for insolubles in used lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

This method covers the determination of pentane and toluene insolubles in used lubricating oils. Procedure A covers the determination of insolubles without the use of coagulant in the pentane. It provides an indication of the materials that can readily be separated from the oil-solvent mixtures by centrifuging. Procedure B covers the determination of insolubles in oils containing detergents and employs a coagulant for both the pentane and toluene insolubles. In addition to the materials separated by using Procedure A, this coagulation procedure separates some finely divided materials that may be suspended in the oil. Pentane insolubles may include oil-insoluble materials and some oil-insoluble resinous matter originating from oil or additive degradation, or both. Toluene insoluble materials may come from (1) external contamination, (2) fuel carbon and highly carbonized materials from degradation of fuel, oil, and additives, and (3) engine wear and corrosion materials. A significant change in pentane insolubles, toluene insolubles (with or without coagulant) and insoluble resins indicates a change in oil which could lead to lubrication system problems.

Not Available

1980-01-01

142

Water-Based Solid Film Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the initial results of an investigation to develop high temperature 538 deg C (1000 deg F) and moderate temperature 260 deg C (500 deg F) range water-based solid film lubricants for naval aircraft applications. Lithium silicate films ...

A. A. Conte

1982-01-01

143

Waste Lubricating Oil Research. Some Innovative Approaches to Reclaiming Used Crankcase Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines developed and tested in the laboratory several innovative techniques for reclaming used lubricating oil. These processes included percolation through both chemically treated clay and ion-exchange resins, distillation through batch and ...

M. L. Whisman J. W. Goetzinger F. O. Cotton

1974-01-01

144

A novel sensor monitoring corrosion effects of lubrication oil in an integrating manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a number of sensor principles for the online monitoring of lubrication oil in combustion engines have been investigated, where the utilized sensors aim at determining physical and chemical properties of the oil, which can be used as indicators for the deterioration of the oil. A crucial property of lubrication oil is its corrosiveness as it directly relates to the

Attila Agoston; Edda Svasek; Bernhard Jakoby

2005-01-01

145

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

SciTech Connect

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

2000-01-20

146

Food contamination by hydrocarbons from lubricating oils and release agents: determination by coupled LC-GC.  

PubMed

We have found that many foods are contaminated with mineral oil products used as lubricating oils/greases or as release agents. The mineral oil base of such products usually consists of branched alkanes ranging between C17 and C35. It forms a broad 'hump' of unresolved compounds in the gas chromatogram. Examples of such products are described; contamination is shown for a sample of bread, bonbon, and chocolate, respectively. The results suggest that contamination of foodstuffs with mineral oils does not always receive the required attention. However, there is also a lack of guidelines. PMID:1806392

Grob, K; Artho, A; Biedermann, M; Egli, J

147

22. DETAIL TO NORTHWEST OF LUBRICATING OIL TANKS AND FILTERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL TO NORTHWEST OF LUBRICATING OIL TANKS AND FILTERS FOR UNITS 1-4 (CENTER), AND UNIT 3 GOVERNOR (RIGHT CENTER FOREGROUND) AND GATE VALVE (RIGHT CENTER BACKGROUND) CONTROLS, OLD POWERHOUSE GENERATOR FLOOR - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

148

Effect of water based lubricants on wear of coated material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water base lubricants on wear of coated tools are examined by a crossed-cylinder wear test from environmental protection viewpoint. The lubricating property of pure water is inadequate. However, the addition of solid lubricant (melamine cyanuric acid adduct, MCA) to water, shows good tribological performance. Such a mixture provides the advantage of separating solid components from the water

Teisuke Sato; Tatsuo Besshi; Daisuke Sato; Isao Tsutsui

2001-01-01

149

Formulation of polymer-based lubricant for metal forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new metal forming lubricant based on polymeric materials has been developed. The lubricant has been developed through emulsion copolymerization. Copolymers with the common composition of stearyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate acid phos- phate were made with three secondary polymers: methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The performance of the developed lubricant was evaluated using the ring compression and

G Ngaile; J Cochran; D Stark

2007-01-01

150

Mechanical Alloying of Fe-Based Solid Lubricant Composite Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribological problems are of very high interest in modern research fields of mechanical engineering (1). In order to obtain low friction coefficients and an efficient self lubrication behaviour under high and low temperature conditions as well as under vacuum which is problematic in case of using conventional oil lubricants, several alloying systems were produced and investigated with respect to their

D. Ernst; H. Weiss; R. Reichardt; H. Zoz

151

Preparation and performance of novel lubricating oil additives derived from 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three 2-dialkylaminomethylthiobenzhthiazoles were prepared, and their thermal stability, corrosion-inhibiting and lubricating\\u000a characteristics as additives in lubricating oil were evaluated. The novel additives possess higher load-carrying capacity\\u000a and better lubricating property.

Yong Wan; Qunji Xue; Lili Cao; Guangqiu Shen

1996-01-01

152

Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing said composition  

SciTech Connect

Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by combining a polar promoter, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and a basic nitrogen compound complex to form a sulfur- and molybdenumcontaining composition.

Devries, L.; King, J.M.

1981-08-11

153

Amine compatibility aids in lubricating oil compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a composition. It comprises an ashless ester containing dispersant compound selected from the group consisting of oil soluble oxazolines and esters, or mixtures thereof, of long chain hydrocarbon substituted mono- and dicarboxylic acids or their anhydrides; wherein the long chain hydrocarbon group is a polymer of a Câ to Câ monoolefin, the polymer having a number average

J. Emert; M. Waddoups

1991-01-01

154

Catalytic process for manufacture of low pour lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for hydrodewaxing a petroleum fraction having a boiling point above about 550/sup 0/F., to produce a dewaxed lubricating oil base stock. The process consists of contacting a feedstock of the petroleum fraction, in the presence of hydrogen, with a supported catalyst composition comprising, in combination, about 20 to about 50 percent by weight of a support material; about 0.1 to about 3 weight percent of at least one group VIII metals. The remainder is a porous crystalline silicate having a silicon to aluminum mole ratio, expressed in terms of the mole ratio of SiO/sub 2/ to Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, of at least about 20, characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern. The designated herein ZSM-22 contact of the feedstock with the supported catalyst is undertaken under conditions including a pressure of from about 200 psig to about 3000 psig; a temperature of from about 260/sup 0/C. to about 482/sup 0/C; a feedstock LHSV from about 0.2 to about 20 and from about 500 and up to about 20,000 standard cubic feet of hydrogen per barrel of feedstock.

Chester, A.W.; Garwood, W.E.; Vartuli, J.C.

1986-03-04

155

A magnetoelastic viscometer for on-line monitoring of viscosity of lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the prospects for developing means for on-line measurement of the viscosity of lubricating oils, including\\u000a diagnostic instrumentation based on magnetoelastic interaction. The theoretical basis for the development of magnetoelastic\\u000a sensors and the main concept of measuring the fluid viscosity are presented. Two methods of measuring the viscosity are described.\\u000a The first method is based on estimating variations

L. V. Markova; V. M. Makarenko; M. S. Semenyuk; A. P. Zozulya; H. Kong; H.-G. Han

2011-01-01

156

Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke mopeds operated with synthetic lubricating oil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the contribution of unburned lubricating oil and gasoline-derived n-alkanes to particulate emission from non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped two-stroke (2-S) mopeds operated with ester-based, fully synthetic lubricating oil. Exhaust particulate matter (PM) from ten 2-S, 50 cm3 mopeds belonging to three different levels of emission legislation (EURO-0, EURO-1 and EURO-2) was collected during the sampling phase of the ECE 47 driving cycle through which each mopeds was driven on a dynamometer bench. Filters containing PM were extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor and analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. The contribution of unburned lubricating oil to the PM was ascertained and quantified by exploiting characteristic ions in its mass spectrum. The experimental results show that unburned lubricating oil accounted for a significant fraction (4.7-38.7%) of the PM emitted from 2-S mopeds. Emission rates of particulate unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes from non-catalyst EURO-0 mopeds were 15.4-56.2 mg km(-1) and 1-2 mg km(-1), respectively. These emission rates were reduced of 75% and 88%, respectively, for catalyst-equipped EURO-1 mopeds. The results of the tests carried out on two EURO-2 mopeds of different technology were contrasting. A EURO-2 moped with carburettor and secondary air injection exhibited a clear reduction of 95% and 88% for unburned lubricating oil and n-alkanes emission rates with respect to the average values observed for EURO-1 mopeds. On the other hand, the second EURO-2 moped, equipped with catalyst and direct injection, had unburned lubricating oil emission rates roughly in the range of EURO-0 mopeds while particulate n-alkanes were emitted at rates comparable with typical values observed for catalyst EURO-1 mopeds. PMID:19244644

Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario

2008-10-01

157

A note on the use of the CEC L-33-A-93 test to predict the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradabilities of five unformulated mineral oils (brightstock, 150 SN base oil, white oil and two gas oils) were determined in the CEC L-33-A-93 test and during 20 weeks incubation in nutrient-supplemented soil microcosms. Biodegradation in both studies was measured as the loss of extractable hydrocarbon (‘primary’ biodegradation). There was a statistically significant (P <0.01) rectilinear relationship between the extents

N. S. Battersby; P. Morgan

1997-01-01

158

Waste lubricating oil research. Some innovative approaches to reclaiming used crankcase oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 1 billion gallons of used lubricating oil is drained each year at service stations, airfields, garages, railroad yards, industrial plants, and truck, bus, and auto fleet headquarters. All of this used oil could be reused if collected and effectively reprocessed. Instead, as much as threefourths of it is indiscriminately dumped, contaminating both water and land. Some is burned

M. L. Whisman; J. W. Goetzinger; F. O. Cotton

1974-01-01

159

Removing haze from hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of removing wax and ice crystals from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range is described, wherein at least one individual collector element consists solely of one material. The material is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbonaceous material and water in the solid state but being distinct from the wax and ice crystals in

D. G. Ryan; S. Ackerman

1987-01-01

160

Alkyl Polyglucosides as Components of Water Based Lubricants.  

PubMed

Water can be used as an ecological lubricant base if it is possible to select additives which can beneficially modify its tribological and corrosion properties. Additionally, those additives should not be harmful to human health and the natural environment. These conditions limit or even eliminate the possibility for the application of the additives used in traditional oil bases as they are insoluble in water and often toxic. Alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) have been suggested as additives improving lubricating properties of water. They are biodegradable and do not have to be recycled. They exhibit surface activity. They produce micelles at low concentration and lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentration. Two types of alkyl polyglucosides differing in alkyl chain lengths and degrees of polymerization were used in this investigation. Tribological tests were carried out using a ball-on-disc T-11 tester. The balls were made of steel, whereas the discs were made of steel, aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, polyamide and poly(methyl methacrylate). The description of the device and the methods has been given in the literature (Szczerek and Tuszy?ski in TriboTest 8:273-284, 2002). The addition of APGs improves the lubricating properties of water. The relative decrease in motion resistance and wear depends both on the type of friction couple and on the kind of alkyl polyglucoside used. The tribological test results obtained were correlated with the activity of APGs measured as wettability of friction couples by their solutions. PMID:23606804

Su?ek, Marian W?odzimierz; Ogorza?ek, Marta; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Klimaszewska, Emilia

2013-01-01

161

Re-refined lubrication oils. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatments and re-refining of used lubrication oils. Topics include the decontamination processes, reclamation of automobile oils, and handling and storage of waste oils. Environmental analyses of used oil recycling are included. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of recycled lubricating oils are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-07-01

162

Basic trends in foreign development of synthetic lubricating oils for aviation gas-turbine engines (patent review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Synthetic lubricating oils that were once used widely, formulated from dibasic acid ester base stocks (diester oils), have been displaced in favor of mixed or complex esters, and also compounded esters and diesters.2.The most widely used base stocks for synthetic oils are prepared from complex esters of neopentyl polyols such as neopentyl glycol, trimethylolpropane (TMP), pentaerythritol (PE), and dipentaerythritol (di-PE).

A. V. Vilenkin; E. N. Kalaitan

1973-01-01

163

Preparation of nano-copper as lubrication oil additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-copper used as lubrication oil additive has good tribological property and active self-repairing effect for friction\\u000a pairs. The reduction in liquid phase for preparing nano-additive is one of the most common method. Nano-copper was prepared\\u000a by reduction in liquid phase. The different project and routine practice for preparing nano-copper were researched. The dispersion\\u000a problem of nano-copper was investigated by surface

Xiao-li Wang; Bin-shi Xu; Yi Xu; He-long Yu; Pei-jing Shi; Qian Liu

2005-01-01

164

PERFORMANCE OF NOVEL MoS2 NANOPARTICLES BASED GRINDING FLUIDS IN MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICATION GRINDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanoparticles are known to possess exceptional tribological properties. This research evaluates the tribological behavior and performance of novel MoS2 nanoparticles based grinding fluids in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding of cast iron. Active MoS2 nanoparticles were added in low and high concentrations, to three commercially available base oils: 1) paraffin oil, 2) CANMIST oil and 3) soybean

Bin Shen; Parash Kalita; Ajay P. Malshe; Albert J. Shih

165

Process for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range (OP-3379)  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for removing haze from dewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range which is hazy, comprising the steps of: passing undewaxed hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range through a dewaxing plant including a filtration stage, introducing the hazy oil mixture into the dewaxing plant directly at its filtration stage, so as to combine the hazy oil mixture and the undewaxed oil mixture and subject them to concurrent filtering in the filtration stage, and introducing free charge which is net unipolar into the hazy dewaxed oil mixture before that oil mixture is combined with the undewaxed oil mixture.

Rran, D.G.; Trust, D.B.; Savory, R.R.

1989-04-11

166

A nucleonic oil debris monitor for detecting metal in recirculating lubricating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic debris sensors have been developed for recirculating oil lubrication systems. The in-line monitors apply the principle of X-ray fluorescence. The nucleonic oil debris monitors (ODM's) have been designed and fabricated for use with test cell operations involving aircraft transmissions and gear boxes. ODM's were tested to evaluate their sensitivity, accuracy, and response to lubricant temperature over the range of

R. W. Harman

1974-01-01

167

Process for the manufacture of lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for reducing the pour point of a hydrocarbon feedstock containing nitrogen and sulfur-containing compounds which comprises: passing the hydrocarbon feedstock to a solvent extraction zone wherein the hydrocarbon feedstock is extracted with a solvent to remove a portion of the aromatic compounds contained in the hydrocarbon and thereby form an extraction zone raffinate; passing at least a portion of the extraction zone raffinate to a hydrotreating zone wherein hydrogen is contacted with hydrocarbon feedstock in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst at hydrotreating conditions wherein a substantial portion of the nitrogen and sulfur-containing compounds are converted to hydrogen sulfide and ammonia to form a hydrotreating zone effluent; passing at least a portion of the effluent from the hydrotreating zone to a stripping zone wherein hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are removed from the hydrotreating zone effluent to form a stripping zone effluent; passing at least a portion of the stripping zone effluent containing less than about 10 ppmw nitrogen-containing compounds based on nitrogen and less than about 20 ppmw sulfur-containing compounds based on sulfur to a dewaxing zone.

Unmuth, E.E.; Mahoney, J.A.; Ellyn, G.; Bertolacini, R.J.

1988-07-05

168

Environmental assessment of ester-based lubricants after application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Lubricants based on renewable resources are an environmentally friendly alternative to petrochemical products due to their\\u000a better ecotoxicological performance and their excellent biodegradability. To improve the technical performance of lubricants,\\u000a and to reduce friction and wear, the use of additives is nowadays obligatory. The collaborative research center SFB 442 aims\\u000a at developing environmentally acceptable lubricants that facilitate

Bibiane Erlenkaemper; Christoph Bugiel; Christian Brecher; Sabrina Werth; Adolf Eisentraeger

2008-01-01

169

Self-healing behavior of a polyelectrolyte-based lubricant additive for aqueous lubrication of oxide materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the self-healing behavior of a polyelectrolyte-based aqueous lubricant additive, poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG), during aqueous lubrication of an oxide-based tribosystem. Combined pin-on-disk tribometry and fluorescence microscopy experiments have shown that stable lubricating performance was enabled by means of rapid healing of the worn tribopair surface by polymers dissolved in the adjoining bulk lubricant. This rapid ‘self-healing’ of PLL-g-PEG

S. Lee; M. Müller; R. Heeb; S. Zürcher; S. Tosatti; M. Heinrich; F. Amstad; S. Pechmann; N. D. Spencer

2006-01-01

170

The filling of powdered herbs into two-piece hard capsules using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as lubricant.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the plug formation and filling properties of powdered herbal leaves using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as an alternative lubricant. In a first step, unlubricated and lubricated herbal powders were studied on a small scale using a plug simulator, and low-force compression physics and parameterization techniques were used to narrow down the range in which the optimum amount of lubricant required would be found. In a second step these results were complemented with investigations into the flow properties of the powders based on packing (tapping) experiments to establish the final optimum lubricant concentration. Finally, capsule filling of the optimum formulations was undertaken using an instrumented tamp filling machine. This work has shown that hydrogenated cotton seed oil can be used advantageously for the lubrication of herbal leaf powders. Stickiness as observed with magnesium stearate did not occur, and the optimum lubricant concentration was found to be less than that required for magnesium stearate. In this work, lubricant concentrations of 1% or less hydrogenated cotton seed oil were required to fill herbal powders into capsules on the instrumented tamp-filling machine. It was found that in principle all powders could be filled successfully, but that for some powders the use of higher compression settings was disadvantageous. Relationships between the particle size distributions of the powders, their flow and consolidation as well as their filling properties could be identified by multivariate statistical analysis. The work has demonstrated that a combination of the identification of plug formation and powder flow properties is helpful in establishing the optimum lubricant concentration required using a small quantity of powder and a powder plug simulator. On an automated tamp-filling machine, these optimum formulations produced satisfactory capsules in terms of coefficient of fill weight variability and capsule weight. PMID:22960627

Aling, Joanna; Podczeck, Fridrun

2012-08-31

171

The plasma generated and photons emitted in an oil-lubricated sliding contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive work has long been going on to find out the unknown origin that sets off curious tribo-physicochemical phenomena and that causes various kinds of problems in oil-lubricated sliding contacts in mechanical and processing systems. The strange tribochemical reaction is one of the such curious chemical phenomena observed in the degradation of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricating oil film in a hard disk drive. Plasma (triboplasma) (Nakayama and Mirza 2006 Tribol. Trans. 49 17) would be one of the most probable origins of the problems if it were generated sufficiently intensely in oil-lubricated sliding contacts, as it is in such a highly energetic state. The generation of plasma was predicted in both dry and oil-lubricated sliding (Nakayama 1997 Japan. J. Tribol. 42 1077, Nakayama 2004 Surf. Coat. Technol. 188-189 599). However, plasma generation in industrially important oil-lubricated contacts has not yet been proven, though it has been found in dry sliding (Nakayama and Nevshupa 2002 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 L53). Here the author reports the discovery of the predicted plasma generated in the rear part of an oil-lubricated sliding contact, together with a new finding on photon emission phenomena from inside and outside of the sliding contact in the tribosystem of a diamond pin sliding against a sapphire disc. The plasma in oil-lubricated sliding has a simple ellipse shape, while that in dry sliding has a horseshoe pattern. Visible and infrared (IR) photons are emitted from oil-lubricated sliding contact, while ultraviolet (UV), visible and IR photons are emitted from the region of plasma generation as well as from dry sliding. The UV photon spectra emitted under oil-lubrication completely coincided with those in dry sliding and air discharge, demonstrating that plasma is generated by air discharge even under oil-lubrication. Two kinds of new concepts have been proposed. One is plasma generation by discharge of air through bubble formation in decompressed oil in the rear part of the sliding contact. The other is photon emission from surface atoms and oil molecules excited by the attack of electrons accelerated in the intense tribocharge-induced electric field of the asperity gap inside the sliding contact under dry and oil-lubricated slidings. The size and intensity of the plasma and photon emission from the sliding contact under oil-lubrication increases greatly with the applied normal force and the sliding velocity.

Nakayama, Keiji

2007-02-01

172

Solubility correlation and phase behaviors of carbon dioxide and lubricant oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, carbon dioxide is being considered as one of the promising environmentally-friendly refrigerants, and extensive studies on the “trans-critical” vapor-compression cycle using CO2 have been undertaken both experimentally and theoretically. In the vapor compression cycle, lubricant oils are always required, and thus thermophysical properties of lubricant and refrigerant mixtures must be well understood. Currently, the lubricants of choice are polyalkylene

A. Yokozeki

2007-01-01

173

Aviation Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

174

Degradation of lubricating oils by marine bacteria observed by quantitative mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial degradation of the hydrocarbons of lubricating oils was investigated by mass spectrometric analysis which gives\\u000a both total amount and the composition of hydrocarbon types of residual oil. An unused lubricating oil, which mainly consisted\\u000a of hydrocarbon types with only a small percentage ofn-alkanes, was degraded by marineBacillus sp. andPseudomonas sp. with 55 % and 25 % decreases in 10

Yasushi Kawakami; Hajime Nishimura

1981-01-01

175

Powder Lubricant Based on Molybdenum Disulfide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent introduces a powder-like lubricant of molybdenum disulfide for machining of a cutting tool. To improve the cutting properties of the tool and increase its life, an addition of 15-25 percent sulfur to the powder lubricant is recommended.

S. V. Grekov

1969-01-01

176

Description of the liquid–liquid equilibrium in binary and multicomponent CFC\\/lubricating oil mixtures by means of an extended Flory–Huggins model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended Flory–Huggins model has been developed and used to interpret liquid–liquid phase diagrams related to binary mixtures of CFC–lubricating oil for which miscibility gaps of UCST, LCST and hourglass type are present. Some liquid–liquid equilibrium measurements have been carried out for the fluorinated compounds R134a, R125, R143a, and R32 in mixtures with polyester-based lubricating oils (PES), pentaerythritol tetraheptanoate (PTE)

E. Musso; R. Tesser; G. Basile; M. Di Serio; E. Santacesaria

2000-01-01

177

An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural+a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil

M. S. Hatamipour; S. M. Fakhr Hoseini; T. Tavakkoli; A. H. Mehrkesh

2010-01-01

178

Marine Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

179

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

180

Apparatus for Evaluating the Carbon-Forming Properties of Lubricating Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discussed is an apparatus designed to evaluate the coking properties of lubricating oils. The apparatus consists of a carbon-former heated by an electroheater, a pump, a sump for the oil to be tested, a cooler for the oil, tubes to carry the oil to the ca...

A. A. Ryabkin A. N. Arkhipov A. V. Nepogodev L. S. Ryazanov

1970-01-01

181

Dynamics of Solid Dispersions in Oil During the Lubrication of Point Contacts, Part I—Graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Hertzian contact is lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contacts are optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact is formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around

C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

1982-01-01

182

STRUCTURE INDUCED THERMO-OXIDATIVE BEHAVIOR OF BIO-BASED SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental awareness has led to new generation of lubricants and fluids based on renewable resources that are nontoxic and eco-friendly. These fluids are potential replacements for mineral oil in various agricultural, marine, forestry and industrial equipment and therefore prevent polluting the ...

183

Corrosion Resistance of Weapon Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

INTRODUCTION: Used animal fat for lubrication as far back as 1400BC * Oils became available as lubricants in 1859 * Dry lubricant formulations became available in the 1950's. WEAPON SYSTEM LUBRICATION CHARACTERISTICS - LUBRICITY - VISCOSITY - CORROSION RE...

J. Menke

2010-01-01

184

Antioxidant combinations of molybdenum complexes and organic sulfur compounds for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

An antioxidant additive combination for lubricating oils is prepared by combining (a) a sulfur containing molybdenum compound prepared by reacting an ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and a basic nitrogen compound, with (b) an organic sulfur compound.

deVries, L.; King, J.M.

1983-09-06

185

Utilization and degradation of an ester-based synthetic lubricant by Acinetobacter lwoffi  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil-degrading bacterium, Acinetobacter lwoffi, isolated by elective culture from the Medway estuary, utilized an ester-based synthetic lubricating oil EMKARATE DE 155 as sole carbon and energy source. Analysis of culture supernatants by gas chromatography showed the accumulation of a nondegradable metabolite 1,1,1 Tris (hydroxymethyl) propane in addition to two metabolizable fatty acids, octanoic and decanoic acids as products of

O. O. Amund

1989-01-01

186

The Influence of Lead Suspension in Oil Lubricant on the Sliding Wear Behaviour of Cast Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation pertains to the analysis of the sliding wear response of a cast iron over a range of applied pressures\\u000a in the presence of an oil lubricant. The effect of varying concentrations of lead particles suspended in the oil lubricant\\u000a on the wear behaviour of the cast iron was also examined. The wear rate increased with pressure initially at

B. K. Prasad; S. Rathod; M. S. Yadav; O. P. Modi

2010-01-01

187

Model-based diagnostics of gas turbine engine lubrication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current research was to develop improved methodology for diagnosing anomalies and maintaining oil lubrication systems for gas turbine engines. The effort focused on the development of reasoning modules that utilize the existing, inexpensive sensors and are applicable to on-line monitoring within the full-authority digital engine controller (FADEC) of the engine. The target application is the Enhanced

Byington

1998-01-01

188

Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil with waste-lubricant oils and zinc.  

PubMed

The feasibility of electrokinetic technology on the remediation of mixed-waste-contaminated railroad soil, contaminated by lubricant oil and zinc, was investigated. To enhance the removal efficiency, catholyte purging with 0.1M HNO(3) and a supply of non-ionic surfactant, secondary alcohol ethoxylate, was applied to the anode to remove Zn and to solubilize the lubricant oil. The catholyte purging maintained the soil pH as acidic and enhanced desorption of zinc from the soil, where the zeta potential of the acidic soil became positive. Thereafter, the direction of electro-osmotic flow was changed from the cathode to anode and the flow rate was reduced. The lesser in magnitude reverse electro-osmotic flow inhibited the migration of zinc and the lubricant oil was removed by the electro-osmotic flow. The removal of zinc and lubricant oil was enhanced with an increase in voltage gradient; however, a higher voltage gradient resulted in higher energy expenditure. After electrokinetic operation over 17 days, the removal efficiency of zinc was 22.1-24.3%, and that of lubricant oil was 45.1-55.0%. Although the removal of lubricant oil was quite high, the residual concentration did not meet Korean regulation levels. PMID:19467778

Park, Sung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Young; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Jo; Baek, Kitae

2009-04-19

189

WASTE LUBRICATING OIL DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND: POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE TO COASTAL WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that approximately 35 percent changed their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular method of disposal reported by the respondents was putting the oil in the garbage ...

190

Lubricant for Drawing Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention involves a lubricant for drawing metals based on water and soap which is distinguished in that, with the goal of increasing the effectivity of the liquid, it contains hydrogenated vegetable oil, colloidal nickel, finely-dispersed nickel, nic...

I. A. Pletyukhin D. K. Falkin V. K. Lozheshnik V. M. Sheredeko Z. N. Zakharova

1970-01-01

191

Low temperature rheological studies of hydrocarbon base lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to evaluate the rheological properties of samples of waxy mineral oil, a wax-free hydrocarbon solvent, wax-free polymer-thickened oils and fully formulated lubricants containing wax and polymer in hydrocarbon solvents. A mechanical spectrometer (cone and plate rotational viscometer) and the mini rotary viscometer were used in these studies. The cooling rate and cold soak times were computer

D. C. Venerus; E. E. Klaus; J. L. Duda

1987-01-01

192

Evaluation and selection of regeneration of waste lubricating oil technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricant is one of the important resources that cannot be disposed of randomly due to the presence of pollutants. In response\\u000a to economic efficiency and environmental protection, there is a growing trend of regeneration and reuse of waste lubricant.\\u000a However, the technologies shall be compared to provide a useful reference for the use of waste lubricant. The major aim of

Yu-Lung Hsu; Chun-Chu Liu

2011-01-01

193

Quantitative Analysis for Monitoring Formulation of Lubricating Oil Using Terahertz Time-Domain Transmission Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative analysis of zinc isopropyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T204) mixed with lube base oil from Korea with viscosity index 70 (T204-Korea70) is presented by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Compared with the middle-infrared spectra of zinc n-butyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T202) and T204, THz spectra of T202 and T204 show the weak broad absorption bands. Then, the absorption coefficients of the T204-Korea70 system follow Beer's law at the concentration from 0.124 to 4.024%. The experimental absorption spectra of T204-Korea70 agree with the calculated ones based on the standard absorption coefficients of T204 and Korea70. The quantitative analysis enables a strategy to monitor the formulation of lubricating oil in real time.

Tian, Lu; Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Qing-Li; Shi, Yu-Lei; Zhang, Cun-Lin

2012-04-01

194

Molybdenum Disulfide-Base Solid Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was shown that in air at room temperature and at high temperatures VNII NP-212 and VNII NP-230 solid film lubricants with organic film forming materials have the longest life. In a vacuum of 0.00001 torr and in argon, the limit of working temperatures ...

Z. S. Rubtsova L. N. Sentyurikhina

1966-01-01

195

The impact of lubricants on latex condoms during vaginal intercourse.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate the impact of additional lubricant on condom breakage and slippage. Two hundred and sixty-eight couples used 6 new and 6 aged condoms during vaginal intercourse and were instructed to use 2 of each type with either water-based lubricant, oil-based lubricant or no additional lubricant. The use of either oil-based or water-based lubricant increased slippage rates of new and aged condoms, although only one pairwise comparison (oil-based lubricant vs. no additional lubricant) was statistically significant (8.5% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.004). The use of oil-based lubricant increased breakage, although not statistically significantly, in both new and aged condoms. Water-based lubricant did not impact the breakage rate of the new condoms and decreased the breakage rate of the aged condoms (no additional lubricant 4.5% vs. water-based lubricant 2.1%, P = 0.029). From a functional perspective, this study suggests that condom users should be told not to use oil-based lubricants. The negative impact of water-based lubricant on slippage may be outweighted by the protective influence on breakage, especially for aged condoms. Over three-quarters of the couples (76%) had at least some incorrect knowledge, according to current condom instructions, of the type of lubricant that should be used with condoms. PMID:8142525

Steiner, M; Piedrahita, C; Glover, L; Joanis, C; Spruyt, A; Foldesy, R

196

Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both

T. Tian; V. W. Wong

2000-01-01

197

Experimental Investigations and Field Applications of Oil-Film-Lubricated Mechanical Face Seals with Spiral Grooves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil-film-lubricated mechanical face seal described here is a hydrodynamically lubricated, noncontacting, mechanical face seal with zero leakage. On the basis of systematic theoretical analyses, research on design methods, and experimental investigations, many field applications have been made. The experimental investigations include test rig development; long-time high-speed running tests; frequent start-up and shut-down tests; measurements of the seal leakage, face

YUMING WANG; HUIXIA YANG; YADING WANG; XUEMEI DUAN; HAINING WANG

2005-01-01

198

Applied models to biodegradation kinetics of lubricant and vegetable oils in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation technologies are used in order to remove pollutants from the environment in a safe, economical and harmless way during the treatment of waste, especially with the use of techniques such as biodegradation. A lubricant and vegetable oil contaminated water sample was studied in order to evaluate the biodegradability of different types of oils, considering the relevance of the obtained

Renato N. Montagnolli; Paulo R. M. Lopes; Ederio D. Bidoia

2009-01-01

199

Determination of insolubles in diesel lubricating oil by FIA-visible spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insolubles determination is one of the parameters usually recommended to evaluate the residual life of oil because their presence at elevated levels in diesel lubricating oil changes the viscosity, prematurely clogs filters and is one of the major factors in causing abrasive engine wear. The proposed method employs visible spectrophotometric detection in association with flow injection analysis. The results obtained

M. Knochen; A. Sixto; G. Pignalosa; S. Domenech; S. Garrigues; M. de la Guardia

2004-01-01

200

Engine Lubrication System Analysis by Considering Aeration and Cavitation within the Rotating Oil Supply Passage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connecting rod big-end bearing is one of the most heavily loaded components of the lubrication circuit system of modern combustion engines. The bearing's oil supply has to be designed accordingly in order to ensure its sustainable operating reliability. As can be seen, the oil supply has to pass the main bearing and the rotating crankshaft before entering the connecting

Yiqing Yuan; Wei Tao; Eysion A. Liu; Gary C. Barber; Qian Zou; Laila Guessous; Zixue Du

2007-01-01

201

Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing the composition  

SciTech Connect

Antioxidant additives for lubricating oil are prepared by (1) combining a polar solvent, an acidic molybdenum compound and an oil-soluble basic nitrogen compound to form molybdenum-containing complex and (2) contacting said complex with carbon disulfide to form a sulfur-and molybdenum-containing composition.

Devries, L.; King, J.M.

1981-08-25

202

Simulated aging of lubricant oils by chemometric treatment of infrared spectra: potential antioxidant properties of sulfur structures.  

PubMed

Lubricant oils are complex mixtures of base oils and additives. The evolution of their performance over time strongly depends on its resistance to thermal oxidation. Sulfur compounds revealed interesting antioxidant properties. This study presents a method to evaluate the lubricant oil oxidation. Two samples, a synthetic and a paraffinic base oils, were tested pure and supplemented with seven different sulfur compounds. An aging cell adapted to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer allows the continuous and direct analysis of the oxidative aging of base oils. Two approaches were applied to study the oxidation/anti-oxidation phenomena. The first one leads to define a new oxidative spectroscopic index based on a reduced spectral range where the modifications have been noticed (from 3050 to 2750 cm(-1)). The second method is based on chemometric treatments of whole spectra (from 4000 to 400 cm(-1)) to extract underlying information. A SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self Modeling Analysis (SIMPLISMA) method has been used to identify more precisely the chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment and to follow their evolution. Pure spectra of different species present in oil were obtained without prior information of their existence. The interest of this tool is to supply relative quantitative information reflecting evolution of the relative abundance of the different products over thermal aging. Results obtained by these two ways have been compared to estimate their concordance. PMID:23598215

Amat, Sandrine; Braham, Zeineb; Le Dréau, Yveline; Kister, Jacky; Dupuy, Nathalie

2013-01-17

203

Analysis of hydrodynamic journal bearings lubricated with a binary water-based lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the steady, one-dimensional flow of a binary water-based lubricant within an infinite breadth hydrodynamic journal bearing is described. The method uses the Newton-Raphson iterative technique to obtain the interface layer in the flooded clearance along the bearing. The implementation of the Simpson rule of integration technique into the equation set allows pressures,

M. B. W. Nabhan; G. A. Ibrahim; M. Z. Anabtawi

1997-01-01

204

Tribochemical Wear of Rail Steels Lubricated with Synthetic Ester-Based Model Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headchecks are a common type of damage in heavily loaded curved freight tracks. This paper deals with synthetic ester formulations' ability to prevent damage caused by headchecks through mild tribochemical wear. An experimental study pertaining to wear and friction of two rail steels lubricated by two synthetic ester base fluids, TMP-oleate and TMP-C8-C10, has been carried out. Six different free

Patric Waara; Thomas Norrby; Braham Prakash

2004-01-01

205

Separation of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates in lubricating oil additives by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven zinc dialkyldithiophosphates have been synthesised and their mixtures separated by normal-phase HPLC on a 5-?m silica column. Dichloromethane- or heptane-based eluents containing alkylamine (?0.4%) and acetic acid in a volume ratio of 2:1 and 1% methanol were suitable for separation of mixtures of these metal complexes in commercial lubricating oil additives. In all cases tested, the zinc complexes eluted

N. Lambropoulos; T. J. Cardwell; D. Caridi; P. J. Marriott

1996-01-01

206

The influence of contact conditions on surface reaction layers formed between steel surfaces lubricated by an aviation oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the influence of load and temperature on the formation and stability of tribo-films for bearing steel on bearing steel contacts lubricated with an aviation oil, EXXON Turbo 2380 (TCP based - tricresyl phosphate) at ambient temperatures. Experiments were carried out on a pin-on-disc (POD) tribometer (with a ball-on-flat geometry) under an average loading rate of 0.17Ns?1

L. Wang; R. J. K. Wood

2007-01-01

207

Isolation and Characterization of Novel Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens Possessing High Efficiency to Degrade Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel Oil, and Lubricating Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria possessing high capacity to degrade gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, and lubricating oil were screened from several areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Among isolates, two strains, WatG and HokM, which were identified as new strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens species, respectively, showed relatively high capacity and wide spectrum to degrade the hydrocarbons in gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil.

Patcharaporn Wongsa; Makiko Tanaka; Akio Ueno; Mohammad Hasanuzzaman; Isao Yumoto; Hidetoshi Okuyama

2004-01-01

208

Removing haze from hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method of removing wax and ice crystals from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range is described, wherein at least one individual collector element consists solely of one material. The material is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbonaceous material and water in the solid state but being distinct from the wax and ice crystals in the hydrocarbon oil mixture. It is positioned in a separation region in a separator vessel. Free charge, which is net unipolar, is introduced into the hydrocarbon oil mixture in such manner as to cause the hydrocarbon oil mixture to act as a medium through which volumetric distribution of the introduced charge takes place by free movement of charge through the hydrocarbon oil mixture, and the charged hydrocarbon oil mixture is passed into the separation region and into contact with at least one collector element. There is a sufficient excess of free charge introduced such that the volumetric charge distribution causes wax and ice crystals to be driven to and deposited on at least one collector element.

Ryan, D.G.; Ackerman, S.

1987-10-27

209

Investigation into sliding wear performance of zinc-based alloy reinforced with SiC particles in dry and lubricated conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present investigation was to assess the influence of SiC particle dispersion in the alloy matrix, applied load, and the presence of oil and oil plus graphite lubricants on the wear behaviour of a zinc-based alloy. Sliding wear performance of the zinc-based alloy and its composite containing SiC particles has been investigated in dry and lubricated conditions.

B. K. Prasad

2007-01-01

210

The search for higher lubricant stability properties in modified vegetable oil derivatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this decade, great interest has been stirred up toward the use of renewable resources as industrial fuels, such as bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. Bio-lubricants are also playing a more prominent role and becoming competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. The main draw here is that we can, from y...

211

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

212

Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

213

Thermally stable derivatives of propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in

V. A. Trofimov; I. S. Panidi; V. G. Spirkin; L. V. Leonidova; E. A. Kozhekina; M. I. Yakushkin; I. A. Makarovskii

1995-01-01

214

Effects of spent lubricating oil on the growth of Capsicum annum L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Miller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility of the hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) to spent lubricating oil was investigated in soils supplemented with concentrations of oil ranging from 1–5% w\\/w. Treatment of soil with 4 and 5% spent oil consistently inhibited germination of both crops.Eighty-four days after sowing, the mean height and leaf area of C. annum in soil

G. O. Anoliefo; D. E. Vwioko

1995-01-01

215

Applications of Electrostatic Sensor for Wear Debris Detecting in the Lubricating Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an advanced monitoring technology has been presented based on the electrostatic induction principle to monitor timely wear fault on-line. The paper begins with the principle of the electrostatic monitoring technology, then we focus on the electrostatic sensor, the most important component in the electrostatic monitoring system, establish a measurement model for an electrostatic sensor with the given structure parameters. Based on the measurement model, we use the finite element method to analyze the characteristics of an electrostatic sensor for wear debris detecting in lubricating oil. Lastly we build an experiment platform to validate the feasibility of the electrostatic monitoring method. The experiment results show, to some extent, that the electrostatic signal can reflect the relative density of wear debris, and the sensor proposed can satisfy the primary demand of wear debris on-line monitoring.

Wen, Z.; Yin, X.; Jiang, Z.

2013-10-01

216

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30

217

Effects of oil additives on lubricant film thickness and traction  

SciTech Connect

Effects of typical engine-oil additives on peak traction coefficient and film thickness were evaluated on a disk-type traction machine. Film thickness was inputed from measured inter-disk capacitance. The addition of 1% ZDTP to an SAE 5 base mineral oil increased the inputed film thickness by some 130 nm or 15 percent. The addition of 1.5% detergent nullified this film thickness increase, which was, however, regained on adding 5% dispersant. A further increase of 150 nm was observed on adding 0.4 palmitic acid.

Snyder, F.L.; Tevaarwerk, J.L.; Schey, J.A.

1984-01-01

218

Investigation of zinc additives in coliquefaction of waste lubricating oil and a bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The behavior and fate of a zinc additive to lubricating oil in the coliquefaction of waste lubricating oil and a bituminous coal have been investigated by means of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS)spectroscopy. Although the zinc additive appears to remain largely unaltered during use as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), it is readily converted to solid zinc sulfide and effectively separated from the desired liquid hydrocarbon products during the coliquefaction process. It is anticipated that similar behavior will be shown by most other environmentally important elements. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Huggins, F.E.; Zhao, J.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky,Lexington, KY (United States); Kuo, C.H.; Tarrer, A.R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

1996-08-01

219

Experimental Investigations on Relationship between Sorptive Properties, Surface Tension, Contact Angle and Lubricity of Engine and Gear Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In tlie paper are presented results of experimental investigations on relationship between lubricity of selected gear oils\\u000a and engine oils and their sorptive properties as well as contact angle and surface tension. Engine and gear oils has been\\u000a so compose to have suitable tlie same viscosity, [7,8]. Diversity of sorptive and superficial properties and lubricity of oils have been obtained

Tomasz Jan Kaldonski; Tadeusz Kaldonski

220

Effects of spent lubricating oil on the growth of Capsicum annum L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Miller.  

PubMed

Susceptibility of the hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) to spent lubricating oil was investigated in soils supplemented with concentrations of oil ranging from 1-5% w/w. Treatment of soil with 4 and 5% spent oil consistently inhibited germination of both crops. Eighty-four days after sowing, the mean height and leaf area of C. annum in soil treated with 3% spent oil gave the lowest values. These were 3.14 +/- 0.6 cm and 0.24 +/- 0.01 cm(2) compared with respective values of 19.2 +/- 0.2 cm and 2.9 +/- 0.3 cm(2) for control plants. Premature death was observed in the case of L. esculentum plants treated with all tested strengths of spent lubricating oil. PMID:15091550

Anoliefo, G O; Vwioko, D E

1995-01-01

221

Effect of lubricating oils on flaking of a wet clutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper type wet clutch is sometimes damaged by flaking under operating conditions. We have classified the causes of flaking damage into the cleavage of cellulose fiber due to carbonized friction material owing to friction heating and the cleavage of cellulose fiber due to components in additives in the lubricant. We have identified the additives which promote the cleavage of

Toru Matsuoka; Akihiro Ohashi; Takeo Nakayama

1996-01-01

222

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vapors from the sump tank may not be discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven propulsion and auxiliary generating machinery depending on forced lubrication shall be arranged to shut down...

2011-10-01

223

46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vapors from the sump tank may not be discharged back into the engine crank case of engines of the dry sump type. (g) Steam turbine driven propulsion and auxiliary generating machinery depending on forced lubrication shall be arranged to shut down...

2012-10-01

224

Performance Characteristics of Oil Lubricated Swing-Pad Thrust Bearings with Different Radii of Curvatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Frictional performance of oil lubricated thrust bearings of conventional tilt-pad and swing-pad designs is presented. Results from the conventional tilt-pad bearing are used as a baseline. All tests were conducted at a speed of 35 rpm and a sump temperatu...

N. T. Sides T. L. Daugherty

1980-01-01

225

Vibration measurement and analysis of marine diesel lubricating oil pump pressure tubing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the studies about the marine diesel lubricating oil pump pressure tubing vibration. It adopt capacitive sensors for its vibration measurements. It used coherent analysis theory for pressure tubing vibration analysis. The analyzed results show that pressure tubing vibration caused mainly by the hydraulic fluctuation. It provides a basis for the pressure tubing damping design of the low-vibration

Qingshan Ji; Hongyan Hao

2010-01-01

226

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently

O. O. Ajayi; M. Alzoubi; A. Erdemir; G. R. Fenske; O. L. Eryilmaz; S. Zimmerman

2000-01-01

227

A review of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPS): characterisation and role in the lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the additive, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which is found commonly in lubricating oil where it plays a role as both an antioxidant and an antiwear additive. This zinc complex is highly effective but its mechanisms of action have not been definitively reported. This review covers work pertaining to the characterisation and mechanisms of action of ZDDP

Allyson M. Barnes; Keith D. Bartle; Vincent R. A. Thibon

2001-01-01

228

Relation Between Foaming and Surface Properties of Detergent-Containing Lubricating Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water concentration on the foaming tendency of lubricating oil containing the detergent additives Ca-phenate and amide was investigated from a surface chemical standpoint. Foam volume, dynamic surface tension and surface viscosity were measured at various water concentrations. It was proved that the increase of surface viscosity with water content was the main factor affecting foaming in the

Yasukatsu Tamai; Saburo Koyama; Nobuyuki Takano

1978-01-01

229

Portable fluorescence sensor for on-line monitoring of lubricant oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on a portable, compact and inexpensive fluorescence sensor for monitoring the ageing of retail lubricant oils as a result of the operation in an internal combustion engine. The proposed sensor consists of a UV laser diode, an optical fibre probe for simultaneous excitation and collection of the fluorescence and a USB powered palm-size spectrometer connected

T. K. Liang; M. Friedrich; D. Lala; K. B. Ozanyan

2004-01-01

230

Research on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Lubricating-Oil Cooler with Mixing Integral Pin-Fin Tubes and Plain Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design A lot of comparison experimental researches have been done to the lubricating-oil cooler with mixing integral pin-fin tubes and plain tubes double-flowing from an plain tubes lubricating-oil cooler. It is discovered that when oil volume flowing rate is same, exchanged heat per volume by the former is higher, and the pressure is lower, and the ability to transferred

Guang-lin Niu; Chang-qi Yan; Shuai Shi

2010-01-01

231

The Effect of Oil Pockets Shape and Distribution on Seizure Resistance in Lubricated Sliding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental investigations on the effect of the oil pockets existence on seizure resistance of sliding elements\\u000a are presented. Seizure tests were conducted with block-on-ring apparatus at increasing pressure. The stationary block (counter\\u000a specimen) contacted the rotating steel ring (specimen). The tested assemblies were lubricated by oil L-AN 46, which was heated\\u000a to 30 °C before each experiment. The

Lidia Galda; Andrzej Dzierwa; Jaroslaw Sep; Pawel Pawlus

2010-01-01

232

Choking of Flow Restrictor Caused by Calcium-Detergent in Lubricating Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a lubricating oil flow with an average velocity 15 R 50m\\/s in flow restrictors in hydrostatic bearings, we found out a phenomenon that 15m particles of calcium carbonate are deposited on the inside of the restrictor. The effects of calcium-detergent and water in oil on this phenomenon were examined. The relationship between the flow velocity and the position of

A. Yano; S. Watanabe; T. Omura; K. Saki

1999-01-01

233

40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1). (c) Lubricating oil. Use lubricating oils specified in § 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified mixture of fuel and lubricating oil, mix the lubricating oil with the fuel according to the manufacturer's...

2013-07-01

234

Confirmation of heavy metal ions in used lubricating oil from a passenger car using chelating self-assembled monolayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prevent engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties. It is necessary to monitor the actual physical and chemical condition of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change interval. Our study focuses on the condition of the lubricating oil in an operated car engine. Shear stress curves and viscosity curves as

Young Gun Ko; Choong Hyun Kim

2006-01-01

235

Primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of mineral base oils and their relationships with oil viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the primary and ultimate biodegradabilities of a series of paraffinic base oils representative of the main classes that are used for the production of lubricating oils, such as engine, industrial, and marine oils. Primary and ultimate biodegrability (B) data were determined using the CEC test and the modified Sturm test (OECD 301B), respectively. There was a strong

F. Haus; O. Boissel; G.-A. Junter

2004-01-01

236

Waste Automotive Lubricating Oil Reuse as a Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of automotive waste oil reuse as a fuel. The supply and potential marketability of waste oil fuel is considered in relationship to existing and projected fossil fuel usage in the U...

B. Kincannon J. Carroll J. Sahagian N. Surprenant S. Chansky

1974-01-01

237

Slick 50 – a proven PTFE-based boundary lubricant for engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the testing and lubricating mechanisms of Slick 50, a solid lubricant engine oil additive containing PTFE for reducing friction and wear. Gives the results of long term engine tests by the Southwest Research Institute, Texas, monitored by radioactive tracer, exhaust emission analysis and fuel economy improvement. Offers Slick 50 as an alternative to zinc phosphorus additives.

Bill Wilson

1995-01-01

238

Stabilization of Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An anti-oxidant for synthetic lubricants used as winter grade crankcase oils, aviation instrument lubricants, and aircraft gas turbine oils is composed of a diaminodiphenyl or aminophenyl alkoxyphenyl ether and the polymeric condensation product of an acr...

H. A. Cyba

1965-01-01

239

Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

2012-12-01

240

Relative toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent against benthic macro-invertebrates of a west African estuarine lagoon.  

PubMed

The relative acute toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent was evaluated against hermit crab, Clibanarius africanus (Aurivillus) and periwinkle, Tympanotonus fuscatus (L) from the Lagos lagoon in laboratory bioassays. Based on the derived toxicity indices, the detergent (96 hr LC50 = 5.77ml/l) was found to be 1.73 times more toxic than spent engine oil (96 hr LC50 = 10.01 ml/l) when acting singly against C africanus and 18.73 times (96 hr LC50-48.67 ml/l) more toxic (96 hr LC50 = 911.57 ml/l) when acting singly against T. fuscatus. On the basis of the computed susceptibility factors, C. africanus was found to be about eight times and ninety-one times more susceptible to the toxic effect of detergent and spent lubricant oil respectively. The randomized analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (Fcal 58.83 Ftab 3.87; DF 13; p > 0.05) between all treatments of spent lubricant oil and detergent during the 96 hr exposure period of test animals. At 5% level of significance the Student Neuman-Keuls (SNK) test further revealed significant differences in the mean mortality response of test animals exposed to toxicants at all concentrations and untreated control. The results obtained in this study suggest that the estuarine benthic macroinvertebrates, which play key roles in the environment, may serve as useful in-situ sentinels for biomonitoring studies of petroleum pollutants in fragile aquatic ecosystems such as the Lagos lagoon. PMID:17402237

Chukwu, L O; Odunzeh, C C

2006-07-01

241

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect

The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

2011-10-01

242

Rheological properties and lubricity of poly-alpha-olefin oils  

SciTech Connect

Oils were obtained by polymerization of alpha-olefins with a complex aluminum chloride catalyst, followed by neutralization of the polymerized product, distillation, and hydrogenation. Materials were tested to determine the kinematic viscosity at above- and below-freezing temperatures and dynamic viscosity at below-freezing temperatures. Poly-alpha-olefin oils were obtained at different levels of average molecular weight by varying the conditions of polymerization and distillation. The antiwear properties of petroleum, PAOO, and alkylbenzene oils having equal viscosities and an addition of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate were compared. The dialkylbenzene oil had strong associative-solvation properties with respect to the additive.

Tsvetkov, O.N.; Kolesova, G.E.; Bogdanov, S.K.; Toporishcheva, R.I.

1988-01-01

243

A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

2010-04-01

244

Investigation of Aqueous Lubricants on Polymer Surfaces by Nanoindenter-based Scratch Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoindenter-based scratch (nanoscratch) tests were successfully used to study lubrication at the microscale in the presence of a fluid film. The influence of aqueous lubricants on both hydrophobic (polypropylene and polyethylene) and hydrophilic (cellulose) surfaces was investigated. The lubricants consisted of aqueous solutions of amphiphilic block copolymers of ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO). The coefficients of friction were measured in the presence of lubricant solution on the solid surfaces. An improved lubricity (i.e., coefficient of friction decreased) was observed to occur as the adsorption excess increased.

Krause, Wendy E.; Liang, Jing; Song, Junlong; Rojas, Orlando J.

2010-03-01

245

Lubricant Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solubility of thiophosphoryl derivatives as an extreme pressure ingredient for petroleum and synthetic lubricating oils is improved by incorporating from 50 to 100 percent by weight of the thiophosphoryl compound of a mixture of abietyl amines, or 1-(...

J. J. Plemich P. C. Vienna

1965-01-01

246

Tribological behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on magnesium alloy with oil lubrication at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ceramic coating with micro-pores structure on AM60B magnesium alloy was prepared in silicate electrolyte by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The PEO coating is mainly composed of percales MgO and forsterite Mg2SiO4 phases. The tribological performance of the PEO coatings and uncoated magnesium alloys under oil-lubricated wear conditions at different loads and elevated temperatures (80–120°C) was comparatively investigated. Results

Jie Guo; Liping Wang; J. Liang; Qunji Xue; Fengyuan Yan

2009-01-01

247

A new emergency lubricating-oil system for steam turbine generators: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive-displacement pump, powered by a turbine-shaft driven permanent magnet generator (PMG) can be used to provide lubricating oil over nearly the entire turbine generator speed range. The concept offers high reliability through its simplicity; switchgear, batteries and other auxiliaries are eliminated by hard-wiring the PMG to the pump induction drive motor. In this study, an existing PMG supplying power

G. L. Kalan; W. R. Oney; J. H. Steenburgh; R. C. Elwell

1987-01-01

248

Characterisation of tars from the co-pyrolysis of waste lubricating oils with coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of a lubricating oil waste with or without coal yields important quantities of valuable products such as C1–C3 alkanes, C2–C4 olefins and BTX. However, information on molecular structures of tars obtained is only available in terms of analyses in the GC–MS ranges. This range corresponds to an upper limit of approximately 300u; aromatics of mass greater than 300u do

M.-J Lazaro; R Moliner; I Suelves; A. A Herod; R Kandiyoti

2001-01-01

249

Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas  

SciTech Connect

In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G. [and others

1995-09-01

250

Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.  

PubMed

An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding. PMID:19897349

Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

2009-11-07

251

40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...oil used for the test. (b) Test fuels. (1) Use diesel fuels for testing which are clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal...

2012-07-01

252

Wax Esters of Vegetable Oil Fatty Acids Useful as Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wax esters are prepared entirely from acids obtained from hydrogenated vegetable oils. Fatty alcohols, prepared by hydrogenolysis of the fatty acids, are esterified with the fatty acids to yield the wax esters. These esters have properties similar to thos...

E. W. Bell

1978-01-01

253

Process to embody waste automotive lubricating oils into a fuel additive to reduce corrosion and deposits and augment energy availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described which makes use of waste automotive lubricating oils as an energy source, and function as an emulsifier, into which oils are embodied, and agitated, aqueous solutions of water-soluble salts of those metals which inhibit corrosion and minimize deposits when fuel oils are burned. The resultant fuel oil additive, as a water-in-oil emulsion, is introduced into fuels

1977-01-01

254

Effect of dissolved lubricating oils on the viscosity of alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

The operation of refrigeration systems involves the circulation of a working fluid which is actually a mixture of refrigerant and lubricant oil. Since the viscosity of oil and that of refrigerants normally differ by up to a factor of 4, the effect of dissolved oil is very large. In order to use new alternative refrigerants, accurate information on thermophysical properties of refrigerant-oil mixtures is needed. In the present study, the viscosity of refrigerant oil mixtures was measured for HCFC-123 + 3GSD and HFC-134a + PAG in the compressed liquid region with a falling-ball viscometer. The temperature range of the measurements was 253-333 K. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Chang, Y.N.; Nagashima, A. (Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan))

1993-09-01

255

Separating wax from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of pretreating a hydrocarbon oil mixture bailing in the lubricating oil range and containing dissolved wax, comprising the steps of reducing the solubility for the wax so as to cause dissolved wax in the oil to form a dispersion of wax particles in the oil mixture and introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby wax particle agglomeration and particle size growth occurs. A method is also described wherein a first oil solvent liquid is added to the waxy oil mixture to form an admixture, the admixture is cooled to the cloud point of the admixture in the absence of any introduced free excess charge. Then a second oil solvent liquid is added to the admixture. The second oil solvent liquid a lower solubility for wax than for the admixture, so as to cause the wax to precipitate as wax particles. The free excess charge is introduced into the admixture of waxy oil mixture and first and second oil solvents, to bring about agglomeration and growth of the precipitated wax particles.

Ryan, D.G.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.; Chimenti, R.J.L.; Mintz, D.J.

1986-12-09

256

Determination of wear metals in lubrication oils: a comparison study of ICP-OES and FAAS.  

PubMed

Certain wear metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) of various lubrication oils were determined by means of ICP-OES and FAAS. The kerosene dilution method, which is used widely together with ICP-OES, was applied with both methods here. Calibration standards were made from a commercial organo-metallic standard. Our aim was to clarify the possibility of using the quick kerosene dilution method together with FAAS for a rapid check for certain indicator metals. Metal determinations with FAAS were accurate enough for quantitative work in machine condition diagnostics and waste oil characterization, when compared with those with ICP-OES. PMID:16317907

Vähäoja, Pekka; Välimäki, Ilkka; Heino, Katri; Perämäki, Paavo; Kuokkanen, Toivo

2005-11-01

257

Biodegradation of Lubricating Oil in Wastewater with Zoogloea sp. 1 1 Project supported by the Natural Science and Technology Program of Lanzhou University (Nos. 582402 and 582403)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify microbial strains that have a strong ability to biodegrade lubricating oil. No. 20 lubricating oil was used as the sole carbon source in an isolation medium to screen bacteria from sludge that had been contaminated with crude oil. Through both morphological and biochemical methods, the bacterial strain that had the highest biodegrading

Liang JIN; Xiao-Juan WANG; Zong-Lian GU; De-Zhi ZHOU; Si-Qin XIE

2006-01-01

258

In-Situ, On-Demand Lubrication System for Space Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of today's spaceraft have long mission lifetimes. Whatever the lubrication method selected, the initial lubricant charge is required to last the entire mission. Fluid lubricant losses are mainly due to evaporation, tribo-degradation, and oil creep out of the tribological regions.In the past, several techniques were developed to maintain the appropriate amount of oil in the system. They were based

Mario Marchetti; William R. Jones Jr; Stephen V. Pepper; Mark J. Jansen; Roamer E. Predmore

2003-01-01

259

Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.  

PubMed

Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

2010-09-22

260

Lubricants and Their Environmental Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental considerations have increased in importance in the last two decades and lubricants are part of that. The REACH Regulations apply to the components of lubricants. About 50% of a lubricant can be reclaimed using refining processes ranging from acid/clay treatment through to distillation/hydrogenation to produce up to Gp. II quality re-refined base oils. The major possible contaminants are the PAHs, which are effectively removed by optimised distillation/hydrogenation, metals, remnants of VI improvers, water and untreated acids. Sulphur contents of these base oils must be viewed differently from those of virgin mineral base oils. Certain PAHs are recognised carcinogens and pose a health and safety risk and must be controlled. The use of re-refined base oils is driven by the concept of 'sustainability', to minimise pollution and maximise the use of resources.

Betton, C. I.

261

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01

262

Um-1 Lubricating Grease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to increase the low temperature properties of thick lubricating grease (UM-1) based on mineral oil and ceresine, vinylcyclohexene is added, and diphenylamine as antioxidant. The proposed grease can be used up to 120C. Low temperature grease compo...

M. Y. Berkovich V. S. Gulerman L. M. Levinson P. N. Matyushin V. A. Popov

1966-01-01

263

Consider synthetic lubricants for process machinery  

SciTech Connect

Judicious application of properly formulated synthetic lubricants can benefit a wide spectrum of process machinery. This informed usage is very likely to drive down overall maintenance and downtime expenditures and can markedly improve plant efficiency. The paper describes the origin of synthetic lubricants, then explains the principal features and attributes of the six base fluids: synthetic hydrocarbon fluids; organic esters; polyglycols; phosphate esters; silicones; and blends of the synthetic lubricants. The paper discusses the properties and advantages and gives brief highlights of successful case histories of the use of synthetic lubricants. These include: circulating oil system for furnace air preheaters; Right angle gear drives for fin fan coolers; plant-wide oil mist systems; and pulverizing mills in coal-fired generating plant. In the last case, an economic analysis is done to point out the savings possible in lubricant consumption cost, reduced maintenance cost, lubricant disposal cost, and reduction in power consumption.

Bloch, H.P. (Bloch, (Heinz P.), Montgomery, TX (United States)); Pate, A.R. Jr. (Summit Industrial Products, Tyler, TX (United States))

1995-01-01

264

Effectiveness of liquid crystal admixtures in the lubricating oil for a multi-operational machine  

SciTech Connect

Reliable cyclic operation of modern multioperational, numerically controlled (N/C) machine tools strongly depends not only on the precision manufacturing of kinematic pairs, but also on the conditions of their maintenance and running-in periods. In the machine tool industry, the running-in of the most important newly assembled kinematic units and mechanisms of machines, i.e., spindle head units, gearboxes, ball screw paris, etc., is attained during a 2- to 36-hour period in the plant and subsequent long-term operational running-in of all units on the assembled machine. For the reduction of the running-in duration, low-viscosity oil, sulfurized lubricants and various additives are used. However, the usage of low viscosity oil may cause scoring and increase the wear due to squeezing-out of the oil and contact between mating surfaces. In other cases the low effectiveness of the additives in the running-in process is observed, as well as surface corrosion and the long duration of the run-in process itself. The influence of lubricants and their additives on the running-in process of gearboxes of metal-cutting machine tools is investigated. Theoretical and experimental analysis proved the expediency of adding liquid crystals (fatty acid esters of cholesterol) into the oil. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Vekteris, V.; Murachver, A. [Vilnius Technical Univ. (Lithuania)

1995-10-01

265

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Advanced Space Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a variety of space lubricants was compared under boundary lubrication at ground level. The types of lubricants studied were the two synthetic base oils PFPE 815Z and MAC 2001A and the two greases 601EF and R2000. High-pressure rheological tests were performed in order to characterize the behavior of each base oil as a function of pressure and

Nobuyoshi Ohno; Sobahan Mia; Shigeki Morita; Shingo Obara

2010-01-01

266

Tribological Characteristics of Si3N4-based Self-Lubricating Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for fabrication of self-lubricating ceramic-based composites has been developed. Multi-channel ceramic matrices with a predetermined number, diameter, and distribution of channels are fabricated and then filled with a lubricant such as polytetrafluoroethylene or perfluoropolyether. Friction coefficients of lubricant-filled silicon nitride against 52100 steel were found to be 0.1 to 0.2, in contrast with pure silicon nitride for

L. Tuchinskiy; E. Veksler; R. Loutfy; M. Williams

2000-01-01

267

AN INVESTIGATION OF DIESEL ENGINE OIL FILTRATION AND ABRASIVE WEAR WITH HIGH DETERGENCY LUBRICANTS BY MEANS OF RADIOACTIVE TRACER TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study designed to evaluate the relative effects of fullflow and bypass ; filtration, abrasive particle size, and detergent additive level of diesel ; lubricating oils on piston ring wear in a General Motors 3-71 type diesel engine ; was conducted using radioisotope tracer techniques. The detergent-type oils ; greatly reduced the amount of piston ring wear in comparison to

Halliwell

1959-01-01

268

Sliding Wear Behavior of Cast Iron: Influence of MoS2 and Graphite Addition to the Oil Lubricant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study discusses sliding wear characteristics of a gray cast iron over a range of applied loads in oil lubricated condition. Effects of MoS2 and graphite addition to the oil lubricant in governing the wear behavior have also been studied. The wear rate increased with load in general with a few exceptions in the case of oil plus 5% MoS2 wherein it had a tendency to show a reverse trend in the intermediate load range. Addition of 5% graphite to the oil brought about a decrease in the wear rate without affecting seizure resistance. Increasing quantity of graphite in the oil from 5 to 10% practically did not affect the wear rate at lower loads. However, it led to significantly lower wear rates at higher loads and also offered higher seizure resistance. In the case of oil plus 5% MoS2 lubricant mixture, the wear rate of the samples was higher than that of the lubricant with 5% graphite when tests were conducted at lower loads while identical response was observed at higher loads in both cases. Seizure resistance of the samples was not affected by the addition of 5% graphite and MoS2 to the oil. The frictional heating also increased with load in general, except in the case of oil containing 5% MoS2 and 10% graphite wherein it remained practically unaffected in the intermediate load range. The presence of 5% graphite and MoS2 in the oil lubricant brought about reduced frictional heating, except in the case of oil plus 5% graphite mixture wherein the trend reversed, and oil plus 5% MoS2 leading to comparable frictional heating during specimen seizure. Increasing test duration caused higher frictional heating. Adhesion was observed to be the principal wear mechanism while microcracking assisted delamination and abrasion also contributed to material loss.

Prasad, B. K.; Rathod, S.; Yadav, M. S.; Modi, O. P.

2011-04-01

269

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the influence of the quantity of oil supply in hobbing with minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) of cutting oil, compared with that using dry cutting and flooded oil, in terms of flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness, for various types of coating films of the hob. Experiments were carried out using a fly tool. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1) The flank wear obtained with a quantity of oil supply of only 1mL/h showed almost the same value as that obtained by dry cutting, when using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. However, it is a result of great interest that flank wear increases with increasing quantity of oil supply, and the largest value was obtained when the oil was flooded. (2) The crater wear and finished surface roughness with the MQL system are smaller than those using dry cutting and flooded oil. (3) The quantities of oil supply of 1mL/h to 15mL/h in the MQL system are suitable for hobbing in terms of reducing flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness.

Matsuoka, Hironori; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo; Tsuda, Yoshihiro

270

FRICTION AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Owing to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way as lubricants for industrial and automotive applications. Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability and biodegradability, as well as comparable performance properties to petroleum-based...

271

Effect of MoSâ based lubricants on automotive gear efficiency and operating temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve the federally mandated fuel economy standards for automotive vehicles, passenger car and truck rear axle and differential lubrication must become more efficient. The results of the study described indicate potential for improvement in axle efficiency if MoSâ based lubricants are used.

D. A. Gresty; E. J. Jr. Kunz; T. J. Risdon

1977-01-01

272

Time-dependent behavior of gas absorption in lubricant oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas absorption behavior in liquid with time has been studied by applying a simple mathematical model. The model is based on a one-dimensional mass diffusion process due to the concentration difference in dissolving gas. In order to examine the model validity, selected experimental data in the literature have been analyzed with the present model. The model has faithfully reproduced the

A Yokozeki

2002-01-01

273

Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

2007-10-01

274

Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.  

PubMed

Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft. PMID:10701290

van Netten, C; Leung, V

2000-03-01

275

International Conference on Solid Lubrication, 3rd, Denver, CO, August 7-10, 1984, Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The present conference on solid lubrication technologies gives attention to such topics as graphite films and graphite motor oils, a wear equation for solid film lubricants, a built-in SEM friction tester, cupric oxide solid lubricant for copper, intercalated dichalcogenide solid lubricants, and the in situ formation of solid lubricating films from mineral oil and ester base lubricants. Also discussed are bonded solid film lubricants, motor brush wear test results, solid lubricant performance contributions to friction linings, the self-lubricating property of Fe-Mo-S alloys in vacuum, the friction of solvent-cast polymeric films, tribological processes in sliding polymer interfaces, and the application of ethyl cellulose to the cold pressure working of ferrous metals. A closing section gives attention to sputtered and ion-plated coatings.

Not Available

1984-01-01

276

Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes  

SciTech Connect

A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

1983-10-01

277

THE USE AND FATE OF LUBRICANTS, OILS, GREASES, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of the use and fate of lubricants, oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids in the iron and steel industry. Data from nine integrated steel plants and two consultants with extensive steel industry experience were used to: develop correlatio...

278

Cryogenic Friction Behavior of PTFE based Solid Lubricant Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid lubricants used in aerospace applications must provide low friction and a predictable operation life over an extreme range of temperatures, environments and contact conditions. PTFE and PTFE composites have shown favorable tribological performance as solid lubricants. This study evaluates the effect of temperature on the friction coefficient of neat PTFE, a PTFE\\/PEEK composite and an expanded PTFE (ePTFE)\\/epoxy coating.

N. L. McCook; D. L. Burris; P. L. Dickrell; W. G. Sawyer

2005-01-01

279

Prediction of pressure drop in refrigerant–lubricant oil flows with high contents of oil and refrigerant outgassing in small diameter tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the available prediction methodologies for frictional pressure drop in two-phase gas–liquid flows of oil-rich refrigerant–lubricant oil mixtures in a small diameter tube. In this particular application, the liquid–vapour phase change (flashing) is caused by a reduction of the solubility of the refrigerant in the mixture. The very low vapour pressure of the oil causes

J. R. Barbosa; V. T. Lacerda; A. T. Prata

2004-01-01

280

The Effect of Three Mineral Base Oils on Roller Bearing Fatigue Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three mineral base oils on roller bearing fatigue life has been studied. Life performance tests were conducted, using a specially controlled group of 45-mm bore cylindrical roller bearings. The results indicate that base oil stock affects bearing performance. Of the highly naphthenic, naphthenic, and paraffinic mineral oils studied, bearings lubricated with the latter achieved superior lives. The

Irwin Koved

1966-01-01

281

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Grease-Lubricated Rolling Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lubricant film thickness of grease-lubricated, cylindrical roller thrust bearings was measured, using a capacitance type displacement probe. For comparison, the same tests were also performed with the bearings lubricated with mineral oils. The film thickness and friction torque as a function of rotational speed were determined both under fully flooded and starved lubrication conditions. The test results show that

H. C. Muennich; H. J. R. Gloeckner

1980-01-01

282

Linear and non-linear control techniques applied to actively lubricated journal bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can use the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can use the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurized oil into the

R. Nicoletti; I. F. Santos

2003-01-01

283

Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an “oil in water” microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil.

José L. Burguera; Marcela Burguera; Raquel E. Antón; Jean-Louis Salager; María A. Arandia; Carlos Rondón; Pablo Carrero; Yaneira Petit de Peña; Rosario Brunetto; Máximo Gallignani

2005-01-01

284

Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa.  

PubMed

Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming. PMID:23841994

Geibel, Scott

2013-07-09

285

Oxidative behavior of hydrocarbon lubricants  

SciTech Connect

A micro-oxidation tester in conjunction with gel permeation chromatography and clay percolation has been used to study the high temperature oxidation of mineral oil lubricants. (A thin film of a mineral oil lubricant on a metal surface thus simulating the piston-ring cylinder conditions of an internal combustion engine). Oxidation studies reveal higher reaction rates for super-refined than for conventionally refined mineral base oils. For a series of conventionally refined paraffinic base oils, the least viscous fluid has the highest rate of oxidation. The products have a high probability of being evaporated rather than contributing to sludge and deposits or their precursors. High-oxidation-rate constants of all base oils studied signify their vulnerability to oxygen attack. A kinetic model describes a parallel-consecutive mechanism.

Cho, L.F.

1982-01-01

286

Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

1986-04-08

287

Experimental Studies on a Single Stage Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler Driven by Oil-Lubricated Compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because lubricating oil for moving parts is not allowed to go into the pulse tube cryocooler, Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are generally driven by oil-free compressors although oil-lubricated compressors are much cheaper and facile. Recently, it was proposed that an acoustic transparent and oil blocking diaphragm could be employed to separate the compressor and the cryocooler. Thus, the cryocooler can be driven by oil-lubricated compressors. In this paper, a pulse tube cryocooler is designed to match a crankcase compressor. Although the efficiency of the crankcase compressor is lower compared with the oil-free linear compressor, the crankcase compressor can easily work at lower frequency which results in higher efficiency for the cryocooler. So the relative high performance of the whole system can be maintained. In this system, the cryocooler delivers 28.5 W of cooling at 80 K with 680 W of electrical input power and operates at 15 Hz. The corresponding Carnot efficiency is 11.52%.

Jia, Ren; Jianying, Hu; Ercang, Luo; Xiaotao, Wang

2010-04-01

288

NEW LUBRICANTS VIA MONO-ESTOLIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been an increased interest in vegetable oil based lubricants and functional fluids over the past few years. Vegetable based oil derivatives have many advantages over petroleum based products, such as wear properties and biodegradability. Some of the main problems with current vegetable b...

289

Sputtered Silver Films to Improve Chromium Carbide Based Solid Lubricant Coatings for Use to 900°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin silver films, 25 to 350 nm thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based, solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant “base stock” with silver and barium fluoride\\/calcium flouride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the

Christopher Dellacorte; Harold E. Sliney; Daniel L. Deadmore

1988-01-01

290

Esters of methylolcyclohexanols\\/ones as synthetic base lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the preparation of asymmetric mixed esters of methylolcyclohexanols in order to decrease the pour point and increase the thermal stability of base oils. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The aldol condensation reaction of cyclohexanone with paraformaldehyde is modified to give mixture of alicyclic polyols. The obtained mixture was subsequently esterified by different pure

Firdovsi Tataroglu Seyidov; Yagoub Mansoori

2008-01-01

291

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

Not Available

2006-06-01

292

Tribological evaluation of some aluminum-based materials in lubricant\\/refrigerant mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribological characteristics of various aluminum alloys, surface treated 356 aluminum alloy and an aluminum composite are evaluated in lubricant\\/refrigerant (L\\/R) mixtures. The evaluation is based on a cylindrical pin\\/disc line contact geometry. This research program consists of two parts. The first part focuses mainly on materials screening of various aluminum\\/steel contact pairs lubricated by polyolester\\/R134a (tetrafluoroethane) and polyalkylene glycol

Hyung Yoon; Todor Sheiretov; Cris Cusano

1998-01-01

293

Spreading Behavior of Water Based Graphite Lubricants on Hot Die Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hot forging, water-based-graphite lubricants are sprayed on the die surface to provide a thin adherent graphite film for the desired metal flow. The film formation depends on the spread of the lubricant droplets and their dry-off. With dryoff-times being very small, the spreading is essentially isothermal. Therefore, the fundamentals of spreading droplets are investigated through droplet mechanics and the

L. Yang; R. Shivpuri

2006-01-01

294

Structure and properties of an iron based self-lubricant wear-resistant gradient layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of an iron based self-lubricant wear-resistant gradient layer, with spherical graphites as well as alloy-carbides on a surface of cast steel, were studied. From the outside in, the composition, structure and properties of the self-lubricant wear-resistant gradient layer with a thickness of 5–6 mm take on a gradient distribution and transform gradually into that of a

Yisan Wang; Wen Huang

1998-01-01

295

Environmental effects of oil-based mud cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During both exploration and production drilling for oil, mud is used to lubricate and sometimes provide hydraulic power to the bit, bring cuttings to the surface and control reservoir pressure. Historically, most drilling in the North Sea has used water-based muds (WBM) however, drilling certain formations with WBM can prove difficult due to hole instability caused by swelling of water-absorbing

J. M. Addy; R. Blackman; J. Blanchard; J. Davis; J. Ferbrache; D. Moore; A. Whitehead; T. Wilkinson

1983-01-01

296

Influence of Nanoadditives on Lubricants Tribological Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the influence of base oils (applied for lubricating and cutting fluids compounding) modification with metal micro- or nanoparticles addition on tribological properties of friction couples. The results of tribological investigations are presented as well as amount of wear measurements, and friction surface structure and composition examination results. Molybdenum nanoparticles added to some base oils modify their

Andrzej KOTNAROWSKI

297

Investigation of Plastic Lubricants Based on IR-Absorption Spectra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An increase in temperature of preparing the complex Ca lubricants results in a change of their IR spectrum in the 1580 to 1540/cm region. The absorption band undergoes the change at a temperature of one of the phase transitions of Ca stearate due to its s...

A. P. Lizogub M. B. Nekonechnaya M. I. Smertenko T. V. Medvedeva Y. L. Ishchuk

1972-01-01

298

Synthesis of zinc borate by inverse emulsion technique for lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricating oil additives based on boron compounds are promising materials for lubrication due to their tribological advantages\\u000a such as antiwear efficiency, good film strength, and high temperature resistance. This article deals with the preparation\\u000a of zinc borate particles that are well dispersed and colloidally stabilized in mineral oil. This method starts with preparing\\u000a two inverse emulsions (water-in-oil) with sorbitan monostearate

Sevdiye Atakul Savr?k; Devrim Balköse; Semra Ülkü

2011-01-01

299

Analysis of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate Additives in Commercial Lubricating Oil using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption\\/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc dialkyl\\/aryl dithiophosphates (ZDDPs) are multifunctional lubricating oil additives. In this research, the analy- sis of ZDDPs additive in lubricating oils using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption\\/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI- Tof) has been developed. The complexes (Zn(DTP)(DMSO) 2 ) + from reaction between zinc dithiophosphate with di- methylsulfoxide were prepared. Analysis parameters for MALDI-Tof MS have been investigated; types of matrix

Jannate Tungcharoen; Amorn Petsom

2008-01-01

300

Determination of insolubles in diesel lubricating oil by FIA-visible spectrometry.  

PubMed

Insolubles determination is one of the parameters usually recommended to evaluate the residual life of oil because their presence at elevated levels in diesel lubricating oil changes the viscosity, prematurely clogs filters and is one of the major factors in causing abrasive engine wear. The proposed method employs visible spectrophotometric detection in association with flow injection analysis. The results obtained by this method were compared with the ones obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) since this is the most employed method for insolubles determination. The proposed method presented a linear response from 0 to 3% (w/w) of insolubles in pentane (ASTM D-893). The sampling frequency was about 30 samplesh(-1), with a relative standard deviation (n=5) of 2.4% or better. Accuracy was evaluated analysing 98 real samples and the results obtained with the FIA-spectrophotometric method were plotted against those obtained by the FT-IR method by means of linear regression. Slope and intercept of the straight line obtained were compared with the theoretical values of 1 and 0 by means of the joint-confidence ellipse F-test. At the confidence level of 95% no evidence of a difference was found between both methods. PMID:18969754

Knochen, M; Sixto, A; Pignalosa, G; Domenech, S; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

2004-12-15

301

Manufacture of refrigeration oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary

R. P. Chesluk; H. J. Platte; A. J. Sequeira

1981-01-01

302

Biodegradation of a synthetic lubricant by Micrococcus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of large quantities of lubricants, both synthetic and mineral oil based, is causing increasing concern because they are not only an unquantified hazard to the environment, but also a potential hazard to the long-term health of people. This study examines the metabolic pathways and eventual fate of synthetic lubricants in micoorganisms involved in biodegradation. The synthetic ester Emkarate

M. A. Wright; F. Taylor; D. E. Brown; I. J. Higgins; S. J. Randles

1993-01-01

303

Boundary friction in liquid and dry film biobased lubricants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farm-based raw materials such as fats, seed oils, starches, proteins, and gums can be subjected to various degrees of processing to make them suitable for use in lubrication. The resulting biobased ingredients are then blended with each other and/or with synthetic ingredients to formulate lubricant...

304

Dynamics of Solid Dispersions in Oil During the Lubrication of Point Contacts, Part II—Molybdenum Disulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of MoS2 particles in a mineral oil dispersion are studied in the same manner as reported in Part I for graphite dispersions. A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various. slide\\/roll conditions. In general, the behavior of MoS2 and graphite

C. Cusano; H. E. Sliney

1982-01-01

305

AntiWear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent

Jun Qu; Dinesh G Bansal; Bo Yu; Jane Y Howe; Huimin Luo; Sheng Dai; Huaqing Li; Peter Julian Blau; Bruce G Bunting; Gregory Mordukhovich; Donald Smolenski

2012-01-01

306

Particle Emissions from a Small Two-Stroke Engine: Effects of Fuel, Lubricating Oil, and Exhaust Aftertreatment on Particle Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fuel and lubricating oil formulation and exhaust catalytic aftertreatment on physical and chemical characteristics of two-stroke engine exhaust particles were studied. The exhaust particles were produced with a professional chainsaw engine. The employed fuels were a 98-octane oxygenated, low-sulfur, low-aromatic reformulated gasoline, which served as a reference, and a 95-octane nonoxygenated alkylate gasoline that had no aromatics

Timo Ålander; Eero Antikainen; Taisto Raunemaa; Esa Elonen; Aimo Rautiola; Keijo Torkkell

2005-01-01

307

Application of mid infrared spectroscopy and iPLS for the quantification of contaminants in lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a narrow spectral range in the mid infrared region for a rapid and conclusive determination of contaminants (gasoline, ethylene glycol and water) in lubricating oil was investigated. A graphically-oriented local multivariate calibration modeling procedure called interval partial least-squares (iPLS) was applied to select a spectral range that provides the lowest prediction error, in comparison to the

Alessandra Borin; Ronei J. Poppi

2005-01-01

308

The lubrication of DLC coatings with mineral and biodegradable oils having different polar and saturation characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to improved performance over the last decade, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are more frequently used in highly loaded mechanical components that sometimes need to operate under boundary- or mixed-lubrication conditions. However, DLC coatings are considered as “inert” coatings with a low surface energy and their lubrication ability according to conventional metal-lubrication mechanisms is therefore questionable. In order to investigate

M. Kalina; J. Vižintin; K. Vercammenb; J. Barriga; A. Arnšek

2006-01-01

309

Environmentally Friendly Products Based on Vegetable Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope of this work was to study and develop new methods and processes for the production of vegetable oil esters as raw materials in the manufacture of biodegradable lubricants and solvents. Different esters were produced either chemically or enzymati...

M. Laemsae

1995-01-01

310

Isolation and application of Gordonia sp. JC11 for removal of boat lubricants.  

PubMed

Boat lubricants are continuously released into the marine environment and thereby cause chronic oil pollution. This study aims to isolate lubricant-degrading microorganisms from Thai coastal areas as well as to apply a selected strain for removal of boat lubricants. Ten microorganisms in the genera of Gordonia, Microbacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Enterococcus and Candida were initially isolated by crude oil enrichment culture techniques. The lubricant-removal activity of these isolates was investigated with mineral-based lubricants that had been manufactured for the 4-stroke diesel engines of fishing boats. Gordonia sp. JC11, the most effective strain was able to degrade 25-55% of 1,000 mg L(-1) total hydrocarbons in six tested lubricants, while only 0-15% of the lubricants was abiotically removed. The bacterium had many characteristics that promoted lubricant degradation such as hydrocarbon utilization ability, emulsification activity and cell surface hydrophobicity. For bioaugmentation treatment of lubricant contaminated seawater, the inoculum of Gordonia sp. JC11 was prepared by immobilizing the bacterium on polyurethane foam (PUF). PUF-immobilized Gordonia sp. JC11 was able to remove 42-56% of 100-1,000 mg L(-1) waste lubricant No. 2 within 5 days. This lubricant removal efficiency was higher than those of free cells and PUF without bacterial cells. The bioaugmentation treatment significantly increased the number of lubricant-degrading microorganisms in the fishery port seawater microcosm and resulted in rapid removal of waste lubricant No. 2. PMID:22449747

Chanthamalee, Jirapat; Luepromchai, Ekawan

2012-01-01

311

Tribological properties of nickel-based self-lubricating composite at elevated temperature and counterface material selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid lubricating materials are necessary for development of new generation gas turbine engines. Nickel-based self-lubricating composites with graphite and molybdenum disulfide as lubricant were prepared by powder metallurgy (P\\/M) method. Their tribological properties were tested by a MG-2000 high-temperature tribometer from room temperature to 600°C. The structure of the composite was analyzed by XRD and worn surface morphologies were observed

Jian Liang Li; Dang Sheng Xiong

2008-01-01

312

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

Not Available

2004-07-01

313

The friction behavior of Ni ?-, SiO ? 2- and mica sodium silicate-based solid lubrication composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction behavior of Ni?-, SiO?2- and mica sodium silicate-based lubricant composites, which included BN, WS2 and graphite as lubricants, were examined. A ring-on-disk apparatus, in which a solid lubricant composite disk was held against a rotating stainless ring, was used as the test configuration. The tests were run with a load from 62 to 250 N in temperatures from

Changsheng Li; Yoshinori Takeichi; Masao Uemura; Tsuyoshi Nakai; Mamoru Sinomiya; Yuko Tsuya

1999-01-01

314

Modification of Boundary Lubrication by Oil-Soluble Friction Modifier Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular-level function of model and commercial friction modifier additives in lubricants of the type used at the wet clutch interface in automatic transmissions has been studied using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) modified for oscillatory shear. The nanorheological properties of tetradecane with and without a model friction modifier additive (1-hexadecylamine) were examined in the boundary lubrication regime and compared

Yingxi Zhu; Hiroko Ohtani; Michael L. Greenfield; Marina Ruths; Steve Granicka

2003-01-01

315

Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.  

PubMed

The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles. PMID:22369074

Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

2012-03-14

316

An analysis of lubricating system of automobile gasoline engine  

SciTech Connect

Influences of oil-flow and oil temperature on frictional torques of whole engine and main lubricating components were determined by motoring method. Oil-flow rate, temperature and pressure in main lubricating paths were directly measured under the same conditions. Oil-flow rate and frictional coefficient and crankshaft system were estimated by theoretically analysing Reynolds' equation. Experimental data were discussed based on oil-flow analyses in lubricating system. Engine frictional torque becomes smallest when the engine is supplied with an optimum oil-flow rate, 2.5 - 3.5 1/min where the ratio of oil-flow rate is 10 - 20% in crankshaft system, 30 - 40 % in a piston-connecting rod system, and 50 - 60 % in valve system. The optimum oil-flow rate which minimizes the frictional torque is 1 - 2 1/min for crankshaft and piston-connecting rod systems, and 3 - 4 1/min for a valve system.

Tran, P.; Yamamoto, T.; Baba, Y.; Hoshi, M.

1987-01-01

317

Experimental Evaluation of Chromium-Carbide-Based Solid Lubricant Coatings for Use to 760 C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemica...

C. Dellacorte

1987-01-01

318

Lubricant analysis for gas turbine condition monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of used lubricating oil is a fast-evolving technique for predictive maintenance with any closed-loop lubricating system such as those in gas and steam turbines, diesel and gasoline engines, transmissions, gearboxes, compressors, pumps, bearings, and hydraulic systems. Based on analysis of periodic oil samples, a laboratory diagnostic report is sent to the personnel responsible for the equipment to warn of any possible problem or to make a specific maintenance recommendation. The entire process, from sample taking to the diagnostic report, should take less than 48 hours to be effective. These reports, when combined with statistical analysis and trending, can provide an insight to management personnel on the effectiveness of the program, efficiency of the maintenance department, repair status of equipment, recurring problems, and even information on the performance of different lubricants. Condition monitoring by oil analysis can be broken down into two categories: debris monitoring to measure the trace quantities of wear particles carried by the lubricant away from the wearing surfaces and lubricant condition monitoring to determine whether the lubricant itself is fit for service based on physical and chemical tests.

Lukas, M.; Anderson, D.P. [Spectro Inc., Littleton, MA (United States)

1997-10-01

319

Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations  

SciTech Connect

The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao [Refrigeration and Cryogenics Institute, Department of Power and Energy Engineering, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang, Kaijian [Fujitsu General Institute of Air-Conditioning Technology Limited, Kawasaki 213-8502 (Japan)

2007-10-15

320

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01

321

Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: molybdenum disulfide  

SciTech Connect

A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

Cusano, C.; Sliney, H.E.

1981-01-01

322

Influence of hydrocarbon composition of hydrocracking feedstocks on lubricant base stock and middle distillate products  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of the hydrocracking process is the formation of carbonium ions as intermediate species, which then give the final products, characterized by a majority of branched paraffin isomers and the virtual absence of small fragments (methane and ethane). The kinetics of the hydrocracking process depends on the operating conditions, including among others the hydrocarbon composition of the feedstock, the type of catalyst, and the pressure, temperature and hydrogen-hydrocarbon ratio. The hydrocracking process is very versatile, applicable to a wide variety of feedstocks. This versatility gives rise to an interesting case to study: i.e., the feasibility of obtaining lube oil base stock and or fuel oil from Minas waxy reside, because the high wax content of the latter gives considerable difficulty in processing by conventional means. In order to gain more data on the hydrocracking process, the authors have studied the influence of hydrocarbon composition of the hydrocracking feedstocks, i.e., non-parafinnic vacuum distillate, paraffinic vacuum distillate, and wax, on the performance of hydrocracked products, i.e., lubricant base stock, middle distillate, and naphtha. The operating conditions used were: temperature, 400/sup 0/C to 420C; pressure, 100 kg cm/sup 2/; and H/sub 2/ HC ratio, 1000 1 m/sup 3//L. Bi-functional catalysts were tested in a continuous-flow test apparatus. Samples were taken from gas and liquid products, respectively. Liquid product was fractionated to get the following cuts: 1BP-80/sup 0/C, 80/sup 0/-150/sup 0/C, 150/sup 0/-250/sup 0/C, 250/sup 0/-380/sup 0/C and 380/sup 0/C.

Nasution, A.S.

1986-09-01

323

Processing and Formulation of Lithium Lubricating Greases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects that soap concentration, base oil viscosity and additives exert on the rheology of lubricating greases have been studied. Also, changes in both microstructure and rheology of lithium lubricating greases during their manufacturing process have been evaluated. With this aim, different lithium lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate, base oil viscosity and processing conditions or using different polymeric additives. The manufacturing process was followed through the mixing rheometry technique by measuring the evolution of torque with processing time, and samples of incipient and finished greases were taken from the stirred tank at different processing times. Rheological (small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS)) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observations were carried out on each sample. The experimental results obtained demonstrate that the values of the linear viscoelasticity functions and the mechanical behaviour of lubricating grease strongly depend on the processing variables and grease composition. Also, it has been found that the structural skeleton (size and shape of the disperse phase particles) is highly influenced by the base oil viscosity. These results have been explained taking into account the balance between the solvency of the thickener in the base oil and the level of entanglements formed by soap fibres, which influence the lubricating grease network.

Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Moreno, G.; Gallegos, C.

2006-05-01

324

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOBASED LUBRICANT ADDITIVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of sulfur incorporated vegetable oils for possible application as antiwear additives for biodegradable lubricants. The curr...

325

Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×103 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C5H13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C8H18O3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C10H18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C9H22N2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C8H18O3) compound.

Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

2009-07-01

326

Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives  

SciTech Connect

Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Truhan, Jr., John J [ORNL

2006-01-01

327

Lubricants and lubricant additives: I. Performance characteristics of N-mono and N,N-Disubstituted fatty amides and modified fatty amides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of N-mono and N,N-disubstituted amides of substituted and unsubstituted C18 fatty acids have been prepared and evaluated as base lubricants and lubricant additives. The neat epithioamides possess extreme\\u000a pressure lubricant characteristics and are noncorrosive at normal temperatures. The epithioamides also frequently function\\u000a as extreme pressure additives and antiwear agents for paraffinic or diester base oils, sometimes in both

F. C. Magne; R. R. Mod; G. Sumrell; W. E. Parker; R. E. Koos

1974-01-01

328

Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both considered for the interaction between the flanks of the TLOCR and the ring groove. Then, the moments and axial forces from TLOCR/liner lubrication and TLOCR/groove interaction were coupled into the dynamic equations of the TLOCR. Furthermore, effects of piston dynamic tilt were considered in a quasi three-dimensional manner so that the behaviors of the TLOCR at different circumferential location could be studied. As a first step, variation of the third land pressure was neglected. The model predictions were illustrated via an SI engine. One important finding is that around thrust and anti-thrust sides, the difference between the minimum oil film thickness of two lands can be as high as several micrometers due to piston dynamic tilt. As a result, at thrust and anti-thrust sides, significant oil can pass under one land of the TLOCR along the bore, although the other land perfectly seals the bore. Then, the capabilities of the model were further explained by studying the effects of ring tension and torsional resistance on the lubrication and oil transport between the lands and the liner. The effects of oil film thickness on the flanks of the ring groove on the dynamics of the TLOCR were also studied. Friction results show that boundary lubrication contributes significantly to the total friction of the TLOCR.

Tian, T.; Wong, V.W.

2000-01-01

329

Spectrophotometric flow-injection analysis of the total base number in lubricants by using acid–base buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric FIA method for the determination of the total base number (TBN) in a lubricant was proposed, which involved using an acid–base buffer solution prepared with a nonaqueous solvent. This method is based on measurements of the absorbance change of an indicator contained in the acid–base buffer solution, which is generated due to a neutralization reaction of base in

Keiko Jyonosono; Toshihiko Imato; Noriyuki Imazumi; Masayuki Nakanishi; Jun-ichi Yagi

2001-01-01

330

Evaluation of coating-based lubricants for cold forging using the localised rod-drawing test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tribo-test method that incorporates major interacting variables such as surface expansion, interface temperature, sliding velocity, pressure, etc. is introduced to evaluate the performance of lubricants in cold forging. To induce different deformation patterns, dies of different surface profiles are employed under localised rod-drawing setup. The tools are designed based on the maximum level of surface expansion they can induce.

Liqun Ruan; Hiroyuki Saiki; Yasuo Marumo; Yasuhiro Imamura

2005-01-01

331

Friction and wear performance of low-friction carbon coatings under oil lubrication..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Amorphous carbon coatings with very low friction properties were recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These coatings have shown good promise in mitigating excessive wear and scuffing problems associated with low-lubricity diesel fuels. To re...

A. Kovalchenko O. O. Ajayi A. Erdemir G. R. Fenske

2001-01-01

332

Economic incentives for hazardous-waste management: Deposit-refunded systems and used lubricating oil  

SciTech Connect

Economic incentives have been widely advocated for controlling environmental externalities. There has been increasing interest in devising such incentives to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. It is demonstrated that since firms comply with existing disposal rules, there is no efficiency basis for additional incentives. In contrast, incentives may be appropriate for firms that do not comply with existing rules. A range of regulatory instruments is compared, including taxes on inputs and waste generation, and subsidies for safe disposal and waste minimization. Each instrument has undesirable properties. Waste-end taxes encourage illegal disposal; safe-disposal subsides stimulate waste generation; and waste-minimization subsidies cannot be effectively targeted. The economic incentive instrument proposed is a combination of input taxes and safe-disposal subsidies, sometime manifest in the deposit-refund system. This instrument is efficiency-enhancing under plausible real-world conditions. The theoretical results are applied to the case of used lubricating oil, a large-volume waste stream that has vexed regulators for many years. An empirical model is developed that enables the simulation of prices, quantities, and net social benefits resulting from the establishment of a tax-subsidy or deposit-refund system. This model accounts for variations in: price-responsiveness; residual external damage from disposal; ex ante rates of regulatory compliance; and the level of transactions costs implied by the program. The instrument offers positive net social benefits, but only under a narrow range of conditions. The model is modified to apply to a generic hazardous waste problem that emphasizes illegal dumping. The existence of positive net social benefits depends on differences in risk across disposal options, the ex ante level of regulatory compliance, and the magnitude of unit transactions costs.

Belzer, R.B.

1989-01-01

333

The Wear Behavior of Brush-Plated Ni-W-Co/SiC Composite Layer with Oil Lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wear behavior of brush-plating a Ni-W-Co/SiC composite layer on 1045 steel with oil lubrication is investigated. The composite layer is determined by OM, XRD and TEM. The worn surface of the plated layer is observed with SEM and laser profile analysis. The composition and average size of worn debris are analyzed by means of ferrograph and fluid spectrum. The results show that the brush-plated composite layer with added SiC particles reveals high wear resistance compared to the Ni-W-Co brush-plated layer.

Xu, Jiang; Liu, Wenjin

334

PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) Based Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty: Contact Stress and Lubrication Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. The NuNec® cervical disc arthroplasty system was chosen as the study object, which was then analytically modelled as a ball on socket joint. A non-adhesion Hertzian contact model and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory were used to predict the maximum contact stress and the minimum film thickness, respectively. The peak contact stress and the minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces were then determined, as the radial clearance or lubricant was varied. The obtained results show that under 150 N loading, the peak contact stress was in the range 5.9 – 32.1 MPa, well below the yield and fatigue strength of PEEK; the calculated minimum film thickness ranged from 0 to 0.042 µm and the corresponding lambda ratio range was from 0 to 0.052. This indicates that the PEEK based cervical disc arthroplasty will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, within the natural angular velocity range of the cervical spine.

Xin, H; Shepherd, DET; Dearn, KD

2012-01-01

335

Lubricants for Reducing Corrosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A metal-free detergent with increased corrosion inhibiting and sludge dispersing characteristics for diesel and gasoline engine lubricating oils is a sulfurized succinic anhydride-polyalkylene polyamine product. An alkenyl succinic anhydride having an alk...

W. Lowe

1965-01-01

336

Emulsifiable Oil Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alcohol amine, an oil-soluble tetiary amine and sodium nitrite are combined with a mineral lubricating oil base to form a rust and corrosion inhibiting lubricant for use with cast iron and low carbon steels. A cutting and grinding fluid containing a mi...

R. L. Quanstrom

1965-01-01

337

Lubricants for four-stroke motorcycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricants for four-stroke motorcycles have traditionally been rebranded versions of those used for passenger car engine lubrication. Recent developments in passenger car engine oils with the intention of improving fuel utilisation efficiencies were not compatible with some of the specific requirements of four-stroke motorcycle powertrain lubrication. The effect of using such lubricants on the various components of the motorcycle powertrain,

David Margaroni

1998-01-01

338

Performance Problems with Group II Hydro-Cracked Turbine Oils in Corps of Engineers Hydropower Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Corps of Engineers has historically used solvent-refined napthenic-type base oils (Group I) for lubricating hydroelectric turbines and associated governor systems. Products now being supplied by the lubrication industry for the same purpose are based ...

J. S. Micetic A. D. Beitelman

2004-01-01

339

7 CFR 2902.14 - Penetrating lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2902.14 Penetrating lubricants. (a) Definition...percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying...biobased penetrating lubricants. By that date...contains petroleum-based ingredients, re-refined... : Penetrating lubricant products...

2009-01-01

340

7 CFR 3201.14 - Penetrating lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3201.14 Penetrating lubricants. (a) Definition...percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying...biobased penetrating lubricants. By that date...contains petroleum-based ingredients, re-refined... ): Penetrating lubricant products...

2013-01-01

341

7 CFR 2902.14 - Penetrating lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2902.14 Penetrating lubricants. (a) Definition...percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying...biobased penetrating lubricants. By that date...contains petroleum-based ingredients, re-refined... : Penetrating lubricant products...

2010-01-01

342

A study on colloidal PSt — a new type of water-based lubrication additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of water-based lubrication additive — colloidal polystyrene (PSt) was prepared. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the PSt is spherical particles in submicron scale. Four-ball test results indicate that these particles can greatly improve the base fluid's anti-wear (AW) and extreme pressure (EP) performances. It was also found that the EP and AW capabilities of the fluid

Biao Duan

1999-01-01

343

Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

1997-04-01

344

Contamination effects by a ‘conventional’ and a ‘biodegradable’ lubricant oil on infaunal recruitment to Antarctic sediments: A field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the impacts of synthetic lubricants on Antarctic infaunal communities, a field experiment was setup near Australia's Casey Station, East Antarctica. Two types of synthetic lubricants were tested: an ‘Unused’ and ‘Used’ conventional synthetic lubricant, and an alternative marketed as ‘biodegradable’. Clean defaunated sediment was contaminated with the lubricants, decanted into trays, and deployed by divers onto the seabed

B. A. W. Thompson; P. M. Goldsworthy; M. J. Riddle; I. Snape; J. S. Stark

2007-01-01

345

Molybdenum Disulphide Lubrication: A Continuation Survey, 1981 - 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of molybdenum disulfide as a lubricant is recalled and its chemical and physical properties are summarized. The lubrication mechanism; lubrication by molybdenum disulfide alone; bonded films; incorporation in bulk solids; use in oils and greas...

A. R. Lansdown

1984-01-01

346

Lubricant selection criteria and the tribological system  

SciTech Connect

Before the proper lubricant selection can be made, the tribological system must be identified to its fullest extent. This system includes the type of motion, speeds, temperatures, loads and the environment that is specific to the application. Once these parameters are identified, lubrication engineers or tribo-engineers can use their knowledge of the different lubricant chemistries to make a lubricant selection that will optimize the performance of the application. In addition to lubricant chemistry knowledge, the lubrication engineer also must analyze the application based on the identified tribological system. This analysis includes such topics as speed factors, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, extreme pressure lubrication, emergency lubrication and various special application requirements.

Lauer, D.A. [Kluber Lubrication North America, Inc., Londonderry, NH (United States)

1995-07-01

347

Synthetic lubricants. January 1981-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 81-Nov 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning properties, manufacture and testing of synthetic lubricants. Physical properties, high-temperature synthetic oils, synthetic crudes, antioxidants, reclamation, chromatographic identification methods, carcinogenicity testing and performance evaluations are discussed. Military and civilian applications are included. (Contains 147 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-10-01

348

High-temperature lubricants. November 1971-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1971-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning high temperature synthetic and natural lubricating compositions. Thickening agents, thermal stabilizers, polymeric additives, antioxidants, and preservatives are included relative to such lubricants as greases, oils, and soaps. Methods of manufacturing and various applications are included. (This updated bibliography contains 95 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1990-04-01

349

The Friction of Lubricated Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis has been made of the kinetic friction between metals sliding under conditions of boundary lubrication. With mineral oils and many other lubricants an intermittent clutching and breaking away of the surfaces still occurs through the oil film. The friction, the surface temperature and the area of contact all show violent fluctuations and the behaviour may be essentially the

F. P. Bowden; L. Leben

1940-01-01

350

Metal-containing lubricant compositions  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising: a major amount of a lubricating oil; from 1 to 10 (wt)% of an ashless dispersant compound; or from 0.3 to 10 (wt)% of a nitrogen or ester containing polymeric viscosity index improver dispersant.

Hunt, M.W.; Kennedy, S.

1987-05-12

351

Fretting wear behavior of PTFE-based bonded solid lubrication coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental analysis of the fretting behavior in the presence of a polytetrafluoroethylene-based bonded solid lubrication coating is presented. Dynamic analyses have been performed in combination with examinations through Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, Laser Scanning Microscope and surface profile-meter. Experimental results showed that the coating has excellent anti-friction and wear-resistant performance, and strongly modifies fretting regime behavior

J. Xu; M. H. Zhu; Z. R. Zhou

2004-01-01

352

7 CFR 3201.38 - Firearm lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Items § 3201.38 Firearm lubricants. (a) Definition. Lubricants that are designed for...49 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...qualifying biobased firearm lubricants. By that date,...

2013-01-01

353

7 CFR 2902.46 - Forming lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Forming lubricants. 2902.46 Section 2902...Items § 2902.46 Forming lubricants. (a) Definition...68 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...qualifying biobased forming lubricants. By that date,...

2010-01-01

354

7 CFR 2902.38 - Firearm lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Items § 2902.38 Firearm lubricants. (a) Definition. Lubricants that are designed for...49 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...qualifying biobased firearm lubricants. By that date,...

2009-01-01

355

7 CFR 2902.38 - Firearm lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Items § 2902.38 Firearm lubricants. (a) Definition. Lubricants that are designed for...49 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...qualifying biobased firearm lubricants. By that date,...

2010-01-01

356

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this item. In addition, task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b...of at least 88 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased...

2013-01-01

357

7 CFR 3201.46 - Forming lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Forming lubricants. 3201.46 Section 3201...Items § 3201.46 Forming lubricants. (a) Definition...68 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...qualifying biobased forming lubricants. By that date,...

2013-01-01

358

Starting and Steady-State Friction Torque of Grease-Lubricated Rolling Element Bearings at Low Temperatures—Part I: A Parameter Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the friction torque in a roller element bearing was made. The aim was to sort out parameters important to bearing torque, and to see whether they interact. Friction torque in grease-lubricated bearings were compared to bearings lubricated with the corresponding base oil at ?20° and + 20°C. Also, base oil viscosity, NLGI number, load and acceleration

V. Wikström; E. Höglund

1996-01-01

359

Design and testing of a procedure for evaluating fuel-efficient crankcase lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to design and evaluate a procedure for evaluating the fuel efficiency characteristics of crankcase lubricants using the driving cycles of the 1975 Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. Most of the test protocol was based on guidelines proposed by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Three crankcase lubricants and five oil supplements, as

Ted M. Naman

1981-01-01

360

A study on lubrication mechanism and wear scar in sliding circular contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of test method, normal load and sliding speed on the lubricating characteristics of a paraffinic base oil were experimentally investigated using a four-ball tester with a contact resistance instrument. Results show that at light load, elastohydrodynamic lubrication can only be found in the specific speed method, but a little wear scar still existed in the standard test method

Wen-Feng Kuo; Yuang-Cherng Chiou; Rong-Tsong Lee

1996-01-01

361

Effect of Selected Chemical Compounds on the Lubrication of Silicon Carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study has been conducted to investigate the interactions between selected chemical compounds and silicon carbide under boundary lubrication conditions. A modified four-ball wear tester was used to evaluate the additive effectiveness on silicon carbides lubricated with a paraffinic base oil containing one weight percent of additives. Friction, wear, and film morphology were observed for a range of chemical

Douglas E. Deckman; Chun-I Chen; Stephen M. Hsu

1999-01-01

362

The effect of ethoxylated esters on the lubricating properties of their aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

  In many applications strict ecological criteria are crucial. Water is often used in these cases as a lubricant base. Its disadvantageous properties, in particular lubricity, can be modified by introduction of additives. Ethoxylated methyl esters of fatty acids from rapeseed oil were chosen for that purpose. In order to verify tribological properties of aqueous solutions of these compounds, anti-seizure properties

M. W. Sulek; A. Bocho-Janiszewska

2006-01-01

363

Metalworking corrosion inhibition/drawing lubricant  

SciTech Connect

A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

Lipinski, H.F.; Wantling, S.J.

1980-05-06

364

Metalworking corrosion inhibition\\/drawing lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

H. F. Lipinski; S. J. Wantling

1980-01-01

365

Investigation of Solid Lubricants for Helicopter Transmissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using solid lubricants in bearings and gears was demonstrated as a satisfactory method for preventing catastrophic failure and for providing emergency operation of helicopter transmissions in the event of an oil lubrication failure. Mod...

P. H. Bowen

1967-01-01

366

Lubricants and lubricant additives: III. Performance characteristics of some thioacetate, phosphorodithioate, and hexachlorocyclopentadiene derivatives of stearic acid amides and esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  A number of N-mono, N,N-disubstitured amides, and esters of substituted fatty acids have been prepared and evaluated as base\\u000a lubricants and lubricant additives for paraffin (S-105) or diester (DOS) base oils. The effect of acetylthio, phosphorodithio,\\u000a thio, chloro, and bromotrichloromethyl substituents, as well as hexachlorocyclopentadiene adducts upon performance as antiwear\\u000a and extreme-pressure lubricants was investigated. Sulfurized 1,4-bis(pentachlorostearoyloxy)-2-butene was most

R. R. Mod; F. C. Magne; G. Sumrell; R. E. Koos

1977-01-01

367

Description of the vapor–liquid equilibrium in binary refrigerant\\/lubricating oil systems by means of an extended Flory–Huggins model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the extended Flory–Huggins equation is applied to describe the vapor–liquid equilibrium in binary mixtures usually used in refrigerating cycle machines and constituted by a fluorinated refrigerant (CFC) and a lubricating oil.With the purpose of testing the model, some isothermal measurements of equilibrium pressure have been carried out for mixtures with different CFC compositions in oil related

R Tesser; E Musso; M Di Serio; G Basile; E Santacesaria

1999-01-01

368

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01

369

Effect of oil additives on the durability of hydrogenated DLC coating under boundary lubrication conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have became accepted non-ferrous coatings for automotive tribo-components as they offer excellent tribological properties resulting in improved fuel economy and reduced dependence on existing lubricant additives which can be harmful to catalytic converters and ultimately to the environment. Obtaining optimum durability (wear) as well as high fuel economy (low friction) using DLC-coated parts relies in part

T. Haque; A. Morina; A. Neville; R. Kapadia; S. Arrowsmith

2009-01-01

370

Tribological properties of Fe 7Mo 6-based-alloy lubricated with poly-alpha-olefin containing PN additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribological properties of Fe–Mo type disk specimens were investigated against ASTM 52100 steel balls under the lubrication of poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and PAO containing 1.5mass% alkyl-phosphonic acid-triazole-methanamine (PN additive). Both the Fe7Mo6-based alloy and Mo disk specimens exhibited lower friction and lower wear rates than the Fe and gray cast iron disk specimens under the lubrication of PAO. The friction coefficients

T. Murakami; K. Kaneda; M. Nakano; Y. Xia; S. Sasaki

2010-01-01

371

New Solid State Oil Condition Sensor for Real Time Engine Oil Condition Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine lubrication oil degrades at varying rates depending on the lubricant, engine type and application. Traditional maintenance programs are designed to change oil on predetermined intervals (such as run time\\/mileage), with more advanced algorithms taking into account load and operating temperature of the engine, or lab analysis. Conservative interval based maintenance programs spend too many resources changing oil and longer

James W. Bennett; Leonid Matsiev; Mark Uhrich; Oleg Kolosov; Zbigniew Bryning; Robert Lattin; Thermo-King Corp

372

Formulation of green crankcase oil - A novel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing demand for environmentally acceptable lubricant has led researchers to look to vegetable oils as an alternative to mineral based lubricants. These vegetable oil based products are sustainable, renewable and biodegradable that can replace petroleum derived products in numerous industrial applications such as stabilizers, plasticizers and in coating formulations. However vegetable oils are limited by their poor low temperature

S. Arumugam; G. Sriram; V. Santhanam

2012-01-01

373

BIODIESEL AND THE ISSUE OF DIESEL FUEL LUBRICITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advent of (ultra-)low sulfur diesel fuels based on petroleum has caused changes in the properties of these fuels. One of the major changes is the loss of previously inherent lubricity. Biodiesel, a diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or used frying oils, is miscible with petr...

374

Synergistic lubricating effects of borate ester with heterocyclic compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of novel lubricating oil additives, borate ester and heterocyclic compound, were mixed into paraffin base oil in different ratio by weight. The synergism was evaluated by four-ball and SRV testers. The performance is better than that of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP).

Guanqiu Shen; Zhi Zheng; Yong Wan; Xiangdong Xu; Lili Cao; Qixia Yue; Tianjian Sun; Airou Liu

2000-01-01

375

Oxidative Degradation and Stabilisation of Mineral Oil-Based Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermally induced hydrocarbon oxidation is a self-accelerating autoxidation process and is divided into ‘low’-, 30–120°C,\\u000a and ‘high’-, >120°C, temperature phases. The first has four stages – induction of radical chain reactions, propagation, branching\\u000a and then termination. Mechanisms of these processes are described and discussed. Differences in hydrocarbon reactivity are\\u000a related to molecular structure. For hydrocarbon oxidation >120°C, the first stage

G. Aguilar; G. Mazzamaro; M. Rasberger

2010-01-01

376

Evaluation of lubricants for cold rolling aluminum strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various kinds of base oils were applied to cold rolling aluminum strips on a test mill for evaluation of the influences of\\u000a these base oils, aromatics contents and viscosity of base oils on their lubricating performances and surface reflectivity\\u000a of rolled strips at annealing. Results showed that low friction coefficient and rolling force were obtained by using the normal\\u000a paraffins,

Jianlin Sun; Xinming Zhang

1997-01-01

377

High Temperature Tribological Characteristics of Fe–Mo-based Self-Lubricating Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe–Mo-based self-lubricating composites were prepared by a powder metallurgical hot-pressing method. The tribological properties\\u000a of Fe–Mo-based composites with varied CaF2 contents at high temperature were evaluated, and the effect of glaze films on the friction and wear characteristics of composites\\u000a were analyzed. The results show that the introduction of CaF2 into Fe–Mo alloys improved the mechanical properties, and the best

Jiesheng Han; Junhong Jia; Jinjun Lu; Jingbo Wang

2009-01-01

378

Lubricant overbased detergent-dispersants with improved solubility  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lubricating composition comprising a major amount of a lubricating oil composition and a minor amount of an over-based detergent-dispersant lubricant additive, in an amount of from about 0.5% to about 15% by weight of the total weight of the lubricating oil composition. The additive comprises a reaction product of an alkaline earth metal phenate, and an ammonium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The phenate and the sulfonate are reacted in the presence of an alcohol to 1 to 4 carbon atoms, at a temperature of from about 25/sup 0/C to about 90/sup 0/C and pressure of from about 0.5 to about 7 atmospheres. The reaction product is stripped at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/C to about 200/sup 0/C and pressure of from about 0.1 to about 1 atmosphere, to remove ammonia water and the alcohol.

Valcho, J.J.; Slama, F.J.; Strukl, J.S.; Park, C.M.

1986-09-30

379

Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

380

Lip seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, friction wear, and lubrication of lip seals. Lubrication film thickness, friction forces, cylinder scoring, seal leakage theory, elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal lip seals, standards and specifications, and lip seal failures and strengths are considered. Geothermal, dredge pump, and rotary shaft applications are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

381

Industrial Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

Kajdas, C.; Karpi?ska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

382

TG-FTIR methods for the evaluation on lubricant contamination  

SciTech Connect

A typical Air Force base will produce several thousand gallons per year of used turbine engine lubricants. The potential for contamination of the collected lubricants, particularly with halogenated, compounds such as decreasing solvents and other fluids, reduces the effectiveness of a previously developed reclamation process. In this project, the feasibility of using two different thermally analysis methods in combination with advanced data analysis techniques to detect contamination in used turbine engine lubricants was investigated. The first method, TG/FT-IR combined with advanced data analysis routines, was shown to be capable of detecting the presence of several different types of contaminants in synthetic lubricants at concentrations of about 5%. It was demonstrated that data analysis routines based on factor analysis (SIMCA) and neural networks could be used for identifying the presence of a contaminant. The second method, TG/secondary oxidation/FT-IR, was developed specifically for detecting trace levels of chlorinated contaminants in lubricants. Optimization of this method using existing instrumentation led to a detection limit of about 300 ppm (w/w) organic chlorine in the lubricant. Further improvements in hardware and software components could lead to detection limits of <10 ppm. This instrumentation could also be used to characterize used motor oils, cooking oils or pyrolysis oils.

Bonanno, A.S.; Bassilakis, R.; Serio, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)

1996-12-31

383

Lubrication in tube hydroforming (THF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lubrication mechanisms that occur at the tool–workpiece interface for the transition and expansion zones are discussed. Suitable lubrication systems for the transition and expansion zones are reviewed based on the mechanics of deformation and material flow at the interface. Details of two model tests for evaluating the performance of tube hydroforming (THF) lubricants and die coatings are given. The

Gracious Ngaile; Stefan Jaeger; Taylan Altan

2004-01-01

384

Industrial Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ‘Industrial lubricant’ gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used\\u000a combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing\\u000a film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications\\u000a are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are

C. Kajdas; A. Karpinska; A. Kulczycki

2010-01-01

385

Aplicacion de la Cromatografia Liquida en Columna en El Estudio de Lubricantes, Separacion de Esteres (Application of the Liquid Column Chromatography to the Study of Lubricating Oils and Esters Separation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of the liquid column chromatographic method for determining the composition of mineral lubricating oils and semisynthetic hydrocarbon esters is described. The efficiency, speed, and economic benefits of the method are reviewed. Liquid column chrom...

C. G. Herreros L. A. Blanco

1983-01-01

386

Low-cost oil quality sensor based on changes in complex permittivity.  

PubMed

Real time oil quality monitoring techniques help to protect important industry assets, minimize downtime and reduce maintenance costs. The measurement of a lubricant's complex permittivity is an effective indicator of the oil degradation process and it can be useful in condition based maintenance (CBM) to select the most adequate oil replacement maintenance schedules. A discussion of the working principles of an oil quality sensor based on a marginal oscillator to monitor the losses of the dielectric at high frequencies (>1 MHz) is presented. An electronic design procedure is covered which results in a low cost, effective and ruggedized sensor implementation suitable for use in harsh environments. PMID:22346666

Pérez, Angel Torres; Hadfield, Mark

2011-11-10

387

Lubricant Effects on Transmission Power Loss: Several lubricants are evaluated for mechanical efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Efficiency tests were conducted on 11 different lubricants to determine various effects physical and chemical properties of lubricating oils have on power loss in tr...

1984-01-01

388

Technical Seminar: Oil-Free Turbomachinery for Rotorcraft  

NASA Video Gallery

Rotorcraft engines are among the most demanding applications for conventional oil-lubricated bearings because they must operate with extreme reliability and the highest possible power density. Recent breakthroughs in gas-lubricated oil bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling enable the deployment of revolutionary oil-free turbomachinery systems that weigh less and cost less to operate and maintain. Presented November 4, 2008.

Christopher O

2010-11-15

389

Primary biodegradability of mineral base oils in relation to their chemical and physical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary biodegradability of 32 mineral base (i.e., unformulated) oils of paraffinic nature was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. These oils were refinery products obtained by varying manufacturing processes. Biodegradation percentages ranged between 15% and 75%, i.e., below the commonly accepted standards for environmentally-compatible lubricants. Biodegradability values were compared to the overall chemical composition and main physical properties of

Frédérique Haus; Jean German; Guy-Alain Junter

2001-01-01

390

The effectiveness of PTFE nanoparticle powder as an EP additive to mineral base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experiments using a four-ball tester to evaluate the extreme pressure (EP) and wear reduction properties of AISI 52100 steel balls with several mineral oils with and without additive. The lubricants studied include PTFE nanoparticle powder as an additive in different percentages with SN-350 and Bright Stock as mineral base oils with very different viscosities (9 and 32.4cSt,

E. Fernández Rico; I. Minondo; D. García Cuervo

2007-01-01

391

Multifunctional lubricant additives and compositions thereof  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an antioxidant\\/ antiwear\\/extreme pressure\\/load carrying lubricant composition. It comprises a major proportion of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease or other solid lubricant prepared therefrom and a minor amount of an ashless multifunctional antioxidant\\/antiwear\\/extreme pressure\\/load carrying additive product comprising a thiophosphate derived from a dihydrocarbyl dithiocarbamate.

L. O. Farng; A. G. Horodysky

1991-01-01

392

Principles for formulating theory of condition for lubricating oils under service conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indexes of oil condition, with certain exceptions, are regulated by standardization documents and various types of instructions for operation; indexes (criteria) of reliability stem from the corresponding theory. A special problem is represented by the form and method of generalizing oil condition indexes for subsequent comparison with reliability criteria of the object or parameters that are proportional to these criteria.

V. L. Lashkhi

1994-01-01

393

A study of annulus lubrication for oil well completion using scale model tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an oil reservoir reaches the end of its production life the well which has been drilled to extract the oil must undergo completion or ldquowell abandonmentrdquo. Abandonment is the process whereby all the productive zones within the well are isolated with cement, removing some or all of the production tubing and setting a surface plug in the well with

M. Adams; N. Turner; P. Pollard

2008-01-01

394

Comparative overview of five gear oils in mixed and boundary film lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stribeck curves were obtained from numerous traction tests performed under a wide range of operating conditions on several fully formulated gear oils with mineral, PAO and ester basestocks. These curves, which make use of a modified Stribeck parameter also presented here, were examined in order to analyse the influence of the operating conditions and of the gear oils on the

José A. Brandão; Mathilde Meheux; Fabrice Ville; Jorge H. O. Seabra; Jorge Castro

395

Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.  

PubMed

This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source. PMID:23490355

Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

2013-03-11

396

FLUIDS, LUBRICANTS, FUELS AND RELATED MATERIALS. Period covered January through December 1957  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive laboratory evaluation studies are presented for a series of ; mineral oils and hydrocarbons which have been super-refined by a pilot plant ; hydrogenation over nickel catalyst. Advantages of hydrogenated and exhaustively ; acid-refined mineral oils and hydrocarbons over conventionally refined mineral ; oils are demonstrated for application as base stocks for hydraulic fluids and ; lubricants. Completed hydraulic

E. E. Klaus; M. R. Fenske

1958-01-01

397

Torque Characteristics of Oil and Grease-Lubricated R2, R3, and R4 Ball Bearings at High Speeds with Combined Radial and Axial Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of high-speed torque tests of R2, R3, and R4 ball bearings lubricated with oil and with 1\\/16 and 1\\/8-pack grease. The bearings were tested with combinations of 50g (490 × 10N), 100g (980 × 10 N), and 200g (1960 × 10 N) radial loads with 0, 50g, (490 × 10 N), 100g (980 × 10

H. H. Mabie

1978-01-01

398

Geophysical investigation using resistivity and GPR methods: a case study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysics has been shown to be effective in identifying areas contaminated by waste disposal, contributing to the greater\\u000a efficiency of soundings programs and the installation of monitoring wells. In the study area, four trenches were constructed\\u000a with a total volume of about 25,000 m3. They were almost totally filled with re-refined lubricating oil waste for approximately 25 years. No protection liners were

Alexandre Lisboa Lago; Vagner Roberto Elis; Welitom Rodrigues Borges; Giovanni Chaves Penner

2009-01-01

399

Geophysical investigation using resistivity and GPR methods: a case study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysics has been shown to be effective in identifying areas contaminated by waste disposal, contributing to the greater efficiency of soundings programs and the installation of monitoring wells. In the study area, four trenches were constructed with a total volume of about 25,000 m3. They were almost totally filled with re-refined lubricating oil waste for approximately 25 years. No protection

Alexandre Lisboa Lago; Vagner Roberto Elis; Welitom Rodrigues Borges; Giovanni Chaves Penner

2009-01-01

400

Properties of Base Stocks Obtained from Used Engine Oils by Acid/Clay Re-refining (Proprietes des Stocks de Base Obtenus par Regeneration des Huiles a Moteur Usees par le Procede de Traitement a l'Acide et a la Terre).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Owing to limited laboratory facilities of Canadian re-refineries, the NRC Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory has providing a service to re-refiners by evaluating in the laboratory their products, including feedstocks, base stocks (or base oils) and finished ...

P. L. Strigner G. Moroz R. Sabourin G. Burton T. Bailey

1980-01-01

401

Composition Optimization of Self-Lubricating Chromium-Carbide-Based Composite Coatings for Use to 760°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the “base stock” because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. “Additives” were silver and barium fluoride\\/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base

Chris Della Corte; Harold E. Sliney

1987-01-01

402

Solid Film Lubrication of Worm Gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of lubricating worm gears with bonded solid film lubricants. An apparatus for determining gear efficiency and lubrican film wear-life was fabricated. Several tests using conventional oil lubrication were conducted to establish baseline gear efficiency data. Efficiency and wear-life tests were made with four solid lubricant films, two of them incorporating MoS2 and

Hugh S. Hass

1968-01-01

403

Lubricating Congress: a shocking analysis of how big oil buys votes - and influence  

SciTech Connect

Political contributions from oil companies raise questions of impropriety and conflict of interest, although legislators claim the oil lobbyists have no more effect on their notes than other interest groups. By supporting candidates who will be favorable to their cause, companies are acting legally. Campaign financing reforms requiring disclosure have not been effectively enforced, but analysis of submitted reports shows that $3.9 million were contributed directly by oil interests for the 1978 congressional campaign. A comparison of contributions reveals a preference for Republicians, significant support for legislators from the seven major producing states, and even a larger support for those from other states. The contributions came from both oil-connected individuals and from political-action committees (PACs). The author describes the nature of these contributions, traces the subsequent voting behavior, and speculates on their relationship. (DCK)

Roeder, E.

1980-03-01

404

Fundamentals for the Design of Oil Mist Lubrication Systems, Part 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formulae are given for calculating the rate at which oil mist must be supplied to sleeve bearings, sliding surfaces (carriages, rails), spur and worm gears, cams, chain gears, and chain conveyors. Guidelines are presented for determining feed-nozzle confi...

S. Pytko K. Bednarek

1975-01-01

405

Palm oil methyl esters as lubricant additive in a small diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysian crude palm oil has been successfully converted to methyl esters, also known as palm oil diesel (POD), which is readily\\u000a combustible in diesel engines. This paper presents and discusses the results of current studies on the performance and the\\u000a effects of POD on the wear characteristics of tribological components of a small, four-stroke diesel engine. Adding POD to\\u000a commercial

H. H. Masjuki; S. M. Sapuan

1995-01-01

406

Influence of substances forming friction polymer on antiwear, antiscoring, antifriction, and detergent properties of lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.It has been shown that the antiwear, antiscoring, and antifriction action of friction polymers involves an improvement in the microgeometry of the friction surfaces.2.It has been established that friction polymers are formed upon introduction of the synthesized additives into the oil, and not by the components of the oil itself.3.Feasibility has been established for increasing the temperature limit of the

Yu. S. Zaslavskii; R. N. Zaslavskii; M. I. Cherkashin; I. A. Morozova; K. E. Belozerova; E. S. Brodskii; A. N. Panarina; V. A. Tumanova; I. A. Khoduseva; K. M. Badyshtova

1974-01-01

407

Transesterification of trimethylolpropane and rapeseed oil methyl ester to environmentally acceptable lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable trimethylolpropane [2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol] esters of rapeseed oil fatty acids were synthesized\\u000a by transesterification with rapeseed oil methyl ester both by enzymatic and chemical means, both in bench and pilot scales.\\u000a Nearly complete conversions were obtained with both techniques. A reduced pressure of about 2 to 5 kPa, to remove the methanol\\u000a formed during transesterification, was critical for a high product

Esa Uosukainen; Yu-Yen Linko; Merja Lämsä; Tommi Tervakangas; Pekka Linko

1998-01-01

408

Lubricants and Polymeric Additives Therefor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A polyhydroxy-carboxylate detergent copolymer with increased anti-sludging properties for internal combustion engine lubricating oils is the polymerization product of acrylic or alkacrylic acids and dihydroxy alkanes. Alkyl methacrylates having from 12 to...

H. F. Richards S. A. Herbert R. J. Moore

1965-01-01

409

Oxidative behavior of hydrocarbon lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micro-oxidation tester in conjunction with gel permeation chromatography and clay percolation has been used to study the high temperature oxidation of mineral oil lubricants. (A thin film of a mineral oil lubricant on a metal surface thus simulating the piston-ring cylinder conditions of an internal combustion engine). Oxidation studies reveal higher reaction rates for super-refined than for conventionally refined

1982-01-01

410

Synthesis, Characterization and Adaptability of Carbon Nanotube-Based Solid Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the experimental investigations of the tribological properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) based composites. Two different CNT composites were obtained by electro-depositing molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and silver (Ag) on vertically aligned assemblies of CNTs. Both of the CNT based composites, CNT-MoS2, as well as CNT-Ag, showed substantially lower values of friction coefficients and wear rates than traditional thin films of MoS2, and Ag. The adaptabilities of these composites under humid and non-humid conditions for CNT-MoS2, and high temperature cycling in the case of CNT-Ag composites, were also tested and will be presented. Our results indicate that the CNT-MoS2 composites were able to sustain their lubricating properties under humid/non-humid cycling, whereas the CNT-Ag composites showed degradation of their frictional properties under high temperature cycling.

Church, Amelia; Zhang, Xianfeng; Luster, Brandon; Kholi, Punit; Aoaudi, Samir; Talapatra, Saikat

2010-03-01

411

Tolerance analysis of a micro-optical detection system for on-line monitoring of lubricant oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a functional prototype of a micro-optical detection unit for both absorbance and laser-induced fluorescence analysis in fused silica capillaries. Absorbance detection allows concentration measurements ranging from 0.6 µM to 12 mM, whereas fluorescence detection enables concentration measurements from 6 pM up to 0.6 mM. We make use of non-sequential optical ray tracing simulations combined with statistical design methodology to perform a complete tolerance analysis for manufacturability and we demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of the system is insensitive to reasonable misalignment and fabrication errors of its building blocks. The possibility of using standard fabrication techniques to prototype and replicate this miniaturized plastic detection system, as well as its wide measurement range make it a good candidate for applications where low-cost and portable systems are needed to measure small volumes of liquid samples with low-level concentrations. As an example we demonstrate the use of the system for the optical characterization and differentiation of nanoliter volumes of lubricant oils.

Van Overmeire, S.; Ottevaere, H.; Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Desmet, G.; Thienpont, H.

2010-10-01

412

Bearing Lubrication Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent described apparatus for lubrication of anti-friction bearings which uses the oil bleeding characteristics of grease. The apparatus consists of a housing for attachment to a bearing and a grease reservoir wherein the grease is retained in a slop...

K. H. Warren

1970-01-01

413

Base Oil Effects on Fatigue Life for Additive Blends as Measured on a 4Ball Fatigue Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study to determine the lubricant factors affecting fatigue of rolling contact bearings, the effects of base oil composition and viscosity for additive blends on the fatigue life of CVD 52100 steel balls were evaluated with a 4-ball fatigue machine. Using pure hydrocarbons as base stocks, aromatic hydrocarbons were found to not only give longer lives than

Fred G. Rounds

1977-01-01

414

Inspection of Police Cruiser Engines Operated Using Re-Refined and Virgin Based Crankcase Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engine inspections were made of several San Diego, CA police cruiser units which were operated using rerefined engine oil. For comparison, police cruiser units of the same type from Hollywood Park, TX which were operated using virgin based engine oil were...

E. A. Frame

1977-01-01

415

Fundamental Research on Hobbing with Minimal Quantity Lubrication of Cutting Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the effect of cutting speed on flank wear, crater wear and finished surface roughness during hobbing using an uncoated tool, and TiN- and (Al, Ti)N- coated tools with a minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) system. The experiments were conducted by simulating hobbing by fly tool cutting on a milling machine. The results helped clarify the following points. (1) With the uncoated tool and the TiN-coated tool, the flank wear increases upon increasing in the cutting speed from 47m/min to 86m/min. Conversely, flank wear decreases at the higher speed of 117m/min. It was impossible to cut at 159m/min owing to the failure of the cutting edge. With the (Al, Ti)N-coated tool, the flank wear showed nearly the same small value, irrespective of cutting speed. (2) The cutting speed also has a large effect on crater wear, particularly for the TiN-and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools. The cutting speed of 117m/min is suitable for decreasing crater wear. (3) The finished surface roughness is small for all the tools used in this test for cutting speeds less than 86m/min, after which it becomes large because of the adhesion of deposited metal at cutting speeds more than 117m/min. When using the TiN- and (Al, Ti)N-coated tools, there is a critical cutting groove length, at which the surface roughness decreases rapidly.

Matsuoka, Hironori; Tsuda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Satoshi; Yokota, Hideo

416

Succinimide complexes of borated alkyl catechols and lubricating oil compositions containing same  

SciTech Connect

A composition is described comprising a complex prepared by reacting a borated alkyl catechol and an oil soluble alkyl or alkenyl succinimide wherein the weight percent ratio of the alkyl or alkenyl succinimide to the borated alkyl catechol ranges from 3:1 to 16:1.

Liston, T.V.

1986-12-16

417

Influence of Oil Lubricant Additives on Tribological Behavior of Engineering Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report contains the literature research work, the survey, and the results from the pin-on-disc tests with ceramics and steel in oil with and without additives. The results discuss the friction and wear of ceramics sliding against themselves an...

O. Boming P. Salonen M. Kleimola

1991-01-01

418

Vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots -Lubricating action and seal action by the liquid-  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots. This system allows an adherability and low friction performance when a suction cup adheres on rough surface such as concrete wall with small vacuum pump. It utilizes a seal action and lubrication action of a liquid to make the robot body adherable and slidable on the surface. The

Tohru Miyake; Hidenori Ishihara; Tatsuya Tomino

2009-01-01

419

Frictional behavior of oxide graphene nanosheets as water-base lubricant additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide graphene (GO) nanosheets were prepared by modified Hummers and Offeman methods. The products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tribological properties of GO nanosheets as water-base lubricant additive were investigated using a UMT-2 ball-plate tribotester. By the addition of GO nanosheets in pure water, the antiwear ability was improved and the friction coefficient was decreased. The water with GO nanosheets showed better tribological properties than the water with oxide multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs-COOH). It is concluded that the formation of a thin physical tribofilms on the substrate can explain the good friction and wear properties of GO nanosheets.

Song, Hao-Jie; Li, Na

2011-12-01

420

High-Melting Lubricants Based on Complex Calcium Soaps of Commercial Synthetic Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthetic fatty acids can be used in the production of high-quality complex calcium lubricants which can be used in a wide range of temperatures. The best calcium lubricants are obtained when using the wide heat-treated and distilled fraction of acids C10...

M. B. Nakonechnaya N. S. Goshko V. V. Sinitsyn Y. L. Ishchuk

1969-01-01

421

Object shape-based methodology for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of gasoline, water, coolant and other contaminants into the engine lubricant as well as the normal aging process affects the optical properties of liquid medium, such as transparency, absorption, and refractive index. A new methodology for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants is proposed and described in details in this paper. Novelty of the proposed methodology consists of obtaining

Hamid R. Aghayan; Jun Yang; Evgueni V. Bordatchev

2010-01-01

422

Effect of active elements of lubricating-cooling liquids on embrittlement of iron-based alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more detailed examination of the effect of chlorine, sulfur, and phosphorus on grain boundary embrittlement of the material, cold rolling trials were carried out on iron strips with a total relative reduction of 65%. Rolling was carried out in air and with lubricants deposited with a cloth pad on the surface of the strips. Lubricants were represented by KhP-470

V. V. Tikhonovich; L. M. Sheludchenko; V. V. Gorskii

1991-01-01

423

Tribological properties of transition metal di-chalcogenide based lubricant coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition metal di-chalcogenides MX2 (X = S, Se, Te; and M= W, Mo, Nb, Ta) are one kind of solid lubricant materials that have been widely used in industry. The lubricant properties of such lubricant coatings are dependent not only on microstructure, orientation, morphology, and composition of the coatings, but also on the substrate, the interface between substrate and lubricant coatings, and the specific application environment. In this review, the effects of parameters on tribological properties of such kind of lubricant coatings were summarized. By comparing advantages and disadvantages of those coatings, the special treatments such as doping, structural modulation and post-treatment were suggested, aiming to improve the tribological performance under severe test conditions (e.g. high temperature, oxidizing atmosphere or humid condition).

Yang, Jun-Feng; Parakash, Braham; Hardell, Jens; Fang, Qian-Feng

2012-06-01

424

Cement-lined pipes for water lubricated transport of heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents different strategies for preventing oil from fouling the walls of core-annular flow pipelines and also for restart from an unexpected pipeline shut-down. The most promising of these strategies is to use cement-lined pipes. Experiments presented here show that hydrated cement-lined pipes are highly oleophobic and therefore resist fouling for long term. A pilot scale cement-lined core-annular flow

Michael S. Arney; Geraldo S. Ribeiro; Emilio Guevara; Runyan Bai; Daniel D. Joseph

1996-01-01

425

Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

1982-06-29

426

Combined solid and liquid lubrication of silicon nitride under boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study showed that an effective way of lubricating ceramic surfaces under boundary conditions both at room temperature and at high temperatures of 150 and 250 C was the combined effect of solid, i.e., soft metal-Ag, and liquid lubricants, i.e., polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Compared to dry sliding of uncoated materials, oil-lubricated sliding of silver-coated silicon nitride surfaces resulted, for the conditions tested, in a decrease of the friction coefficient by a factor of 18 and of specific wear rate by more than four orders of magnitude. The Ag coating, which was formed in part by ion-beam-assisted deposition, was effective in preventing ceramic-to-ceramic contact under boundary-lubricated regimes. The only observed drawback was the occurrence of a chemical interaction between the Ag film and sulfur from the oil, which reduced the durability of the Ag film.

Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Hsieh, J. H.; Erck, R. A.; Fenske, G. R.

1992-07-01

427

Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.  

PubMed

Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals. PMID:2225336

Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

1990-11-01

428

Lubricant-Coolant for the Cold Working of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lubricant-coolant for cold working of metals based on mineral oil and chlorinated paraffin is distinguished by the fact that with the goal of increasing the anticorrosion properties of the liquid, polymeric unsaturated ether acids obtained after the sep...

V. P. Barannik N. K. Zagoruyko L. A. Krasilenko A. M. Kivshits

1970-01-01

429

European development of lubricants derived from renewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contends that 40 years ago London Bus and other vehicle companies were using castor oil based fluids in their rear axles thereby obtaining major advantages in consumption of fuel owing to the excellently low coefficient of friction. Investigates a few specific applications drawn from across Europe and other parts of the globe where harvestable resourced lubricants have moved into well

C. W. Lea

2002-01-01

430

Mixed Lubrication with a Complex Ester as a Friction Modifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a small proportion of a polar additive in paraffinic base oils has been studied. The experimental test device is a disk machine. The traction is measured in different lubrication regimes. First of all, as a reference, it was found that in the real EHD regime (? > 2), no friction-reduction effect occurs. In contrast, where a thin-film

M. Belin; J. M. Martin; J. L. Mansot

1984-01-01

431

7 CFR 3201.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Chain and cable lubricants. 3201.43 Section 3201...3201.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition...77 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...qualifying biobased chain and cable lubricants. By that date,...

2013-01-01

432

7 CFR 3201.86 - Pneumatic equipment lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...86 Pneumatic equipment lubricants. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed specifically for...67 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...biobased pneumatic equipment lubricants. By that date,...

2013-01-01

433

Silicon Nitride Boundary Lubrication: Effect of Sulfonate, Phenate and Salicylate Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary lubrication characteristics of sulfonates, phenates, and salicylates in a silicon nitride on silicon nitride contact were investigated. The additives were blended at one percent by weight solution in a purified paraffinic base oil and tested on a ball-on-three flat geometry in the Four-Ball Tester. These compounds all exhibited effective lubricating properties for silicon nitride, including both low base

Richard S. Gates; Stephen M. Hsu

2000-01-01

434

The Prediction of Contact Pressure–Induced Film Thickness Decay in Starved Lubricated Rolling Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under starved conditions the thickness and distribution of the lubricant film in an elastohydrodynamically lubricated (EHL) contact is directly related to the distribution of lubricant on the track in the inlet to the contact. In starved lubricated rolling bearings this lubricant distribution is determined by many effects. The authors have developed a model to predict the oil lost from the

M. T. Van Zoelen; C. H. Venner; P. M. Lugt

2010-01-01

435

INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURES ON LOW TEMPERATURE RHEOLOGY, OXIDATIVE STABILITY, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUP II AND III BASE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of base oil composition on lubricant properties has been studied to better understand low temperature rheology, oxidative stability and other physical properties. A simple approach has been adopted using low temperature rheology to develop multi-linear regression model to estimate Brookf...

436

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01

437

A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

2006-11-01

438

STARCH-OIL INTERACTION IN DRY FILM LUBRICANTS WITH CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch is one of the most abundant farm-based raw materials. It is a significant component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, rice, wheat, and barley. Because of the large surplus of these crops over demand, there is a great deal of interest in developing new uses for starch-base...

439

The effect of particle size on the lubricating properties of colloidal polystyrene used as water based lubrication additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of colloidal polystyrene (PSt) with different average diameters (110–368nm) were prepared. Four-ball test results show that the load carrying capability of the relevant water based fluid is proportional to the average diameter of the PSt. However, there is no obvious effect of particle size on wear reduction with PSt. It is also found that sulfur in the emulsifier

Biao Duan; Hong Lei

2001-01-01

440

Lubricating Grease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Grease lubrication is a complex mixture of science and engineering, requires an interdisciplinary approach, and is applied\\u000a to the majority of bearings worldwide. Grease can be more than a lubricant; it is often expected to perform as a seal, corrosion\\u000a inhibitor, shock absorber and a noise suppressant. It is a viscoelastic plastic solid, therefore, a liquid or solid, dependent\\u000a upon

G. Gow

2010-01-01

441

New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications  

SciTech Connect

In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

Haider, Julfikar [School of CEIS, Ellison Building, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of MME, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland)

2011-01-17

442

Effect of Vaginal Lubricants on Natural Fertility  

PubMed Central

Objective Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants have been shown to negatively affect in vitro sperm motility. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of vaginal lubricant use during procreative intercourse on natural fertility. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months completed a baseline questionnaire on vaginal lubricant use. Subsequently, women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding, intercourse, and vaginal lubricant use and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Diary data were used to determine the fertile window and delineate lubricant use during the fertile window. A proportional hazards model was used to estimate fecundability ratios with any lubricant use in the fertile window considered as a time-varying exposure. Results Of the 296 participants, 75 (25%) stated in their baseline questionnaire that they use vaginal lubricants while attempting to conceive. Based on daily diary data, 57% of women never used a lubricant, 29% occasionally used a lubricant, and 14% used a lubricant frequently. Women who used lubricants during the fertile window had similar fecundability to those women who did not use lubricants (fecundability ratio 1.05, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.85) after adjusting for age, partner race, and intercourse frequency in the fertile window. Conclusion Lubricants are commonly used by couples during procreative intercourse. Lubricant use during procreative intercourse does not appear to reduce the probability of conceiving.

Steiner, Anne Z.; Long, D. Leann; Tanner, Catherine; Herring, Amy H.

2012-01-01

443

Surface integrity of inconel-718 nickel-base superalloy using controlled and natural contact length tools. part I: Lubricated  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface integrity of inconel-718 nickel-base superalloy was investigated using orthogonal cutting at various cutting speeds,\\u000a depths of cut and chip-tool contact lengths under lubricated conditions. The experimental work involved the determination\\u000a of residual stress, plastic strain and microhardness distribution in the surface region and the examination of the surface\\u000a and subsurface using scanning electron and optical microscopy. Both residual

A. B. Sadat; M. Y. Reddy

1992-01-01

444

Silicon nitride boundary lubrication: Effect of oxygenates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ball-on-three-flat (BTF) wear tester was used to investigate the boundary lubricating characteristics of oxygenates on a commercial silicon nitride. A wide variety of oxygen-containing compounds containing hydroxyl functioal groups were more effective compared to a base case of neat paraffin oil. Decreases of up to 58% in friction coefficient, and 95% in wear were obtained. In most cases, films were obseved in and around the wear scar, suggesting chemical reactions had taken place in the contact. Additional wear tests, conducted using neat shorter-chain linear primary alcohols, i.e., 6-10 carbons, demonstrated boundary lubrication protection, with longer chain length providing better antiwear performance. A study of several C8 compounds with specific oxygen-containing functional groups (primary alcohol, secondary alcohols, acid, aldehyde, and ketone) demonstrated that the primary alcohol had the strongest boundary lubricating effect. Varying the amount of water in the alcohols had little effect on friction and wear, suggesting that the boundary lubrication effects observed were not merely due to dissolved water in these fluids, but some characteristic chemical interaction with the hydroxyl functional group of the alcohols and acids.

Gates, Richard S.; Hsu, Stephen M.

1995-07-01

445

Primary biodegradability of mineral base oils in relation to their chemical and physical characteristics.  

PubMed

The primary biodegradability of 32 mineral base (i.e., unformulated) oils of paraffinic nature was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. These oils were refinery products obtained by varying manufacturing processes. Biodegradation percentages ranged between 15% and 75%, i.e., below the commonly accepted standards for environmentally-compatible lubricants. Biodegradability values were compared to the overall chemical composition and main physical properties of base oils. Biodegradability decreased with increasing levels of aromatic and/or polar compounds in the tested oils. For most oils, the biodegradation percentage increased with the viscosity index, but was a decreasing function of the kinematic viscosity (KV), the pour point, the flash point (FP) and the refractive index (RI). Linear relationships between biodegradability and FP or RI values were observed. These results show that, beside chemical features such as the contents in polar and aromatic compounds, simple physical magnitudes such as KV and RI, commonly used to characterize lubricant properties, may be useful parameters for predicting the biodegradability of mineral base oils. PMID:11695621

Haus, F; German, J; Junter, G A

2001-11-01

446

Air force waste petroleum, oil, and lubricants as boiler fuel. Final report, January-December 1992  

SciTech Connect

This interim report documents the effort spent between January and December 1992. Work concentrated on literature search and survey, summarizing the data of the rate, variety, and management of waste POL generated at each Air Force base; studying DOD and commercial efforts to utilize waste POL as boiler fuel; conducting an economic incentive study; identify the environmental regulatory compliance issues; and identify and purchase of equipment. The literature review and the economic incentive study show that utilizing waste POLs as boiler fuel is possible and economically sound. Waste POL can be burned in a variety of boilers and burner types in blends with virgin boiler fuel up to 100 percent waste POL or as a fuel supplement in a coal-fired boilers. Concerns for undesirable emissions and ash residue include: (1) lead and other heavy metals; (2) inorganic elements such as sulfur, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, and fluorine; and (3) organic elements such as antifreeze, halides, and solvents. Extra care is required at the collection points to minimize the contamination of waste POL by halogens, low flash point fuels and solvents, solids, and water. The surveys sent out to the Air Force Major Commands proved inadequate. Data received were incomplete and inaccurate. Lack of manpower and time at the individual bases contributed to the inaccuracy of the data.

Shaaban, A.H.

1995-03-01

447

New base oil used in low-toxicity oil muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a new and different low-toxicity, ''low-pollutant'' oil-mud base fluid is presented. This low-polynuclear-aromatic oil differs from most other white mineral oils in that it is composed of 99+ percent cyclic and branched paraffins with an average carbon number of Cââ. It contains less than 0.1 percent aromatics and less than 1 percent n-paraffins. This base oil composition

P. A. Boyd; J. P. Allamon; T. S. Carter; D. L. Whitfill

1983-01-01

448

New Base Oil Used in Low-Toxicity Oil Muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a new and different low-toxicity, low-pollutant oil-mud base fluid is presented. This low-polynucleararomatic (LPNA) oil differs from most other white mineral oils in that it is composed of 99+% cyclic and branched paraffins with an average carbon number of Cââ. It contains less than 0.1% aromatics and less than 1% n-paraffins. This base oil composition provides for

P. A. Boyd; D. L. Whitfill; T. S. Carter; J. P. Allamon

1985-01-01

449

Does additional lubrication reduce condom failure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that using additional spermicide with condoms provides added contraceptive effect and protection from infection, and that water-based lubricants may lower condom breakage rates. This questionnairebased study investigated the use of additional lubrication with condoms amongst 525 female students presenting for post-coital contraception, and the current and past experience of condom and additional lubrication use amongst 481

Mark Gabbay; Alan Gibbs

1996-01-01

450

7 CFR 2902.47 - Gear lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Gear lubricants. 2902.47 Section 2902...Items § 2902.47 Gear lubricants. (a) Definition...58 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...for qualifying biobased gear lubricants. By that date,...

2010-01-01

451

Fatty Glycolic Acid Derivatives as Yarn Lubricants and as Antimicrobial Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to novel glycolic acid fatty ester derivatives which are useful as yarn lubricants and antimicrobial agents. Fiber lubricants, sometimes referred to as spinning oils or coning oils, are applied to textile fibers to facilitate handlin...

J. P. Moreau A. V. Bailey A. J. DeLucca

1988-01-01

452

Seed based oil as an alternative to mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral oil has been the preferred insulating fluid in power electrical equipment for more than 100 years. Undesirable characteristics of mineral oil, such as lower fire point, environmental concerns and degradation of insulation paper, has spurred the industry to develop alternative insulating systems. Recently developed seed based oils have been proven to provide better performance in all of the objectionable

J. Josken; D. Wareham

2004-01-01

453

Thermal and oxidative stabilities of liquid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental processes which occur during the thermal and oxidation degradation of hydrocarbons is reviewed. Various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers are emphasized. Techniques to determine thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is examined.

Jones, W.R. Jr.

1984-04-01

454

VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

455

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01

456

Lubrication Flows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

1989-01-01

457

Bench wear and single-cylinder engine evaluations of high-temperature lubricants for US Army ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as an evaluation tool for HTL's. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247 deg C and an oil sump temperature of 166 deg C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired. A wide range of bench scale wear techniques have been developed to highlight different lubricant performance characteristics, with particular emphasis on high-temperature operation and oxidation. Based on the bench tests, Oil D would be expected to have inadequate high-temperature, long-term wear protection. Oil D passed the Allison C-4 graphite clutch friction test.

Lacey, Paul I.; Frame, Edwin A.; Yost, Douglas M.

1994-09-01

458

Method of recovering oil-based fluid  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

Brinkley, H.E.

1993-07-13

459

Powder-lubricated piston ring development  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear. (VC)

Heshmat, H.

1991-06-01

460

Powder-lubricated piston ring development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear.

Heshmat, H.

1991-06-01

461

Measurement and Assessment of Bearing Degradation in Ester-Based Lubricant Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PROJECT OVERVIEW -- OIL ISSUES (Additive Effects * Seawater Contamination * Chloride Concentrations * Oxidation/Degradation) CORROSION ISSUES IN OILS (Alloy Microstructure * Seawater Content (Emulsions) * Chloride Concentrations * Effect of Temperature). ...

B. Marx C. Smith D. P. Butt M. Hurley M. Luke

2009-01-01

462

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication With Herschel-Bulkley Model Greases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of grease-lubricated rolling element bearings is presented. Experimentally determined flow curves for grease are found to be well correlated by the Herschel-Bulkley model flow equation. A theory for predicting roller film thickness based on the assumed flow model is derived.Experimental results show that grease will develop a larger film thickness than the grease base oil at first, but

James J. Kauzlarich; J. A. Greenwood

1972-01-01

463

A review of lubrication and preformance issues in refrigeration systems using an HFC (R-134a) refrigerant  

SciTech Connect

It has been considered critical for refrigerant and compressor lubricant to be miscible with each other over part of the range of operating conditions of refrigerant systems. Adequate miscibility, many believe, provides oil return to the compressor. Presently, synthetic polyol esters have been selected for use with HFC refrigerants, such as R-134a, which are considered appropriate alternatives to CFCs. The authors will review the mechanical issues in miscible vs non-miscible naphthenic hydrocarbon oil-based lubricants. Extensive lab, test stand and cabinet testing has been conducted and data will be presented which show responsible and predictable performance based on the chemical and physical properties of the lubricant and refrigerant. Many non-miscible systems show satisfactory performance with the proper selection of lubricant, additives and mechanical configuration. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.; Eckard, A.; Flak, T.; Tritak, T. [Witco Corporation, Oakland, NJ (United States)

1996-04-01

464

Capabilities and limitations of a cone-penetrometer-deployed fiber optic laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) petroleum oil and lubricant (POL) sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a new field screening technique using a fiber optic laser induced fluorescence (LIF) petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL) chemical sensor deployed from a truck mounted cone penetrometer is presented. The system provides real-time, in situ measurement of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and soil type to a maximum depth of 150 feet with a vertical spacing of two inches. Each depth measurement records the fluorescent spectrum from 350 to 720 nm. Spectral signatures can be used to track a single or multiple contaminants across a site. Real-time measurement permits on site interpretation and `plume chasing.' Field data from SCAPS (Navy) field operations is presented to show how the system can be used for rapid three-dimensional delineation of a POL contaminant plume.

McGinnis, William C.; Davey, Michele; Wu, Karina D.; Lieberman, Stephen H.

1995-01-01

465

Graphene-ionic liquid based hybrid nanomaterials as novel lubricant for low friction and wear.  

PubMed

Hybrid nanomaterials offer potential scope for an increasing number of novel applications when engineered to deliver usefully functional properties. Recent advancements in the design of new material products that result from interactions among different compositions at the nanoscale and microscale has led to innovative ways to fabricate and process hybrids with altered structural physicochemical properties. An example is the development of novel "lubricants" that make use of ionic liquids (ILs) and their ability to induce exploitable molecular assemblies at the IL-graphene interface. In the present study, we report the potential of graphene-IL hybrid nanomaterials for engineering applications with a focus on "lubricant" properties to reduce frictional forces to enhance tribological performance. The present contribution outlines the wear and tribological properties (friction and lubrication) of a highly viscous IL [BMIM][I] and its comparison with its nanohybrid material counterpart. Detailed structural-microstructural investigations of the nanohybrid materials were performed using X-ray diffraction and microscopic techniques employing scanning electron (SEM), transmission electron (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) microscopies. A comparative study of the morphology of friction track and wear behavior was assessed by SEM and TEM. These characteristic properties within and outside the friction track were further correlated with physical and chemical interactions obtained by contact angle measurements and Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX). PMID:23597151

Khare, Varsha; Pham, Minh-Quan; Kumari, Nitee; Yoon, Hae-Sung; Kim, Chung-Soo; Park, Jae-Il; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

2013-05-08

466

Friction and wear behaviors of a (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of various polyols as water-based lubricating additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction and wear behaviors of (Ca, Mg)-sialon\\/SAE 52100 steel pair under the lubrication of water or various polyol aqueous solutions were investigated with an SRV friction and wear tester in a ball-on-disc configuration. This was conducted to simulate the effect of polyols as aqueous additive in machining sialon ceramic. The morphologies of and elemental distributions in the worn surfaces

Wenguang Zhang; Weimin Liu; Laigui Yu

2000-01-01

467

Linear variable filter based oil condition monitoring systems for offshore windturbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major part of future renewable energy will be generated in offshore wind farms. The used turbines of the 5 MW class and beyond, often feature a planetary gear with 1000 liters lubricating oil or even more. Monitoring the oil aging process provides early indication of necessary maintenance and oil change. Thus maintenance is no longer time-scheduled but becomes wear dependent providing ecological and economical benefits. This paper describes two approaches based on a linear variable filter (LVF) as dispersive element in a setup of a cost effective infrared miniature spectrometer for oil condition monitoring purposes. Spectra and design criteria of a static multi-element detector and a scanning single element detector system are compared and rated. Both LVF miniature spectrometers are appropriately designed for the suggested measurements but have certain restrictions. LVF multi-channel sensors combined with sophisticated multivariate data processing offer the possibility to use the sensor for a broad range of lubricants just by a software update of the calibration set. An all-purpose oil sensor may be obtained.

Wiesent, Benjamin R.; Dorigo, Daniel G.; ?im?ek, Özlem; Koch, Alexander W.

2011-09-01

468

Tethered Lubricants  

SciTech Connect

We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

Archer, Lynden

2010-09-15

469

Lubricating Grease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grease lubrication is a complex mixture of science and engineering, requires an interdisciplinary approach, and is applied to the majority of bearings worldwide. Grease can be more than a lubricant; it is often expected to perform as a seal, corrosion inhibitor, shock absorber and a noise suppressant. It is a viscoelastic plastic solid, therefore, a liquid or solid, dependent upon the applied physical conditions of stress and/or temperature, with a yield value, ? o. It has a coarse structure of filaments within a matrix. The suitability of flow properties of a grease for an application is best determined using a controlled stress rheometer for the frequency response of parameters such as yield, ? o, complex shear modulus, G * , phase angle, ?, and the complex viscosity, ? *.

Gow, G.

470

Oxidation and corrosion resistant diesel engine lubricant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a diesel engine lubricating oil composition comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon lubricating oil and from 0.1-5.0 weight percent of the reaction product obtained by reacting at a temperature range of 50°C-200°C substantially equimolar amounts of an N-acyl sarcosine reactant and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic azole reactant.

R. L. Sung; B. H. Zoleski; R. L. ORourke

1989-01-01

471

Preparation and tribological properties of water-soluble copper/silica nanocomposite as a water-based lubricant additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and its ultraviolet-visible light spectrum was measured in relation to surface plasmon excitation of Cu particles. The tribological properties of as-synthesized Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite as an additive in distilled water were investigated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that as-synthesized Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite as a lubricant additive is able to significantly improve the tribological properties of distilled water. A protective and lubricious film composed of Cu and a small amount of FeS, FeSO4 and SiO2 is formed on steel sliding surfaces lubricated by distilled water containing Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite. During friction process Cu nanoparticles can be released from Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite to fill up micro-pits and grooves of steel sliding surfaces, resulting in greatly reduced friction and wear of steel frictional pair via self-repairing. The state and thickness of the film formed on the worn surface is closely related to applied load; and Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite might be a promising water-based lubricant additive for steel-steel contact subjected to moderate load.

Zhang, Chunli; Zhang, Shengmao; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Pingyu

2012-10-01

472

Liquid lubrication for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

473

The tribological performance of DLC-coated gears lubricated with biodegradable oil in various pinion\\/gear material combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable oils possess good tribological properties and are less harmful to the environment than conventional oils; however, they suffer from a poor oxidation stability, which limits their operating temperature. Diamond-like carbon coatings, with their low-friction properties, could offer an innovative solution to prevent excessive frictional heating in machine components and reduce the oxidation of biodegradable oils and hence prolong the

M. Kalin; J. Vižintin

2005-01-01

474

Transesterification of canola oil in mixed methanol\\/ethanol system and use of esters as lubricity additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification of canola oil was carried out with methanol, ethanol, and various mixtures of methanol\\/ethanol, keeping the molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:6 and using KOH as a catalyst. Mixtures of alcohol increased the rate of transesterification reaction and produced methyl as well as ethyl esters. The increased rate was result of better solubility of oil in reaction mixture

Mangesh G. Kulkarni; A. K. Dalai; N. N. Bakhshi

2007-01-01

475

7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to provide lubrication...have a biobased content of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the...

2013-01-01

476

Inkjet-based deposition of polymer thin films enabled by a lubrication model incorporating nano-scale parasitics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film lubrication theory has been widely used to model multi-scale fluid phenomena. Variations of the same have also found application in fluid-based manufacturing process steps for micro- and nano-scale devices over large areas where a natural disparity in length scales exists. Here, a novel inkjet material deposition approach has been enabled by an enhanced thin film lubrication theory that accounts for nano-scale substrate parasitics. This approach includes fluid interactions with a thin flexible superstrate towards a new process called Jet and Coat of Thin-films (JCT). Numerical solutions of the model have been verified, and also validated against controlled experiments of polymer film deposition with good agreement. Understanding gleaned from the experimentally validated model has then been used to facilitate JCT process synthesis resulting in substantial reduction in the influence of parasitics and a concomitant improvement in the film thickness uniformity. Polymer films ranging from 20 to 500 nm mean thickness have been demonstrated with standard deviation of less than 2% of the mean film thickness. The JCT process offers advantages over spin coating which is not compatible with roll-to-roll processing and large area processing for displays. It also improves over techniques such as knife edge coating, slot die coating, as they are limited in the range of thicknesses of films that can be deposited without compromising uniformity.

Singhal, Shrawan; Meissl, Mario J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

2013-09-01

477

Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao [Refrigeration and Cryogenics Institute, Shanghai JiaoTong University, ShangHai 200030 (China); Wang, Kaijian [Fujitsu General Institute of Air-Conditioning Technology Limited, Kawasaki 213-8502 (Japan)

2007-10-15

478

Synthetic metallic dialkydithiocarbamates as antiwear and extreme-pressure additives for lubricating oils: Role of metal on their effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Dialkydithiocarbamates of five metals have been synthesized in pure form by following a simple general method. The alkyl chain in each of these compounds has been kept the same so as to observe the performance variations due to metal ions. The EP properties expressed as load wear index and weld load indicated the highest performance by Bi followed by Pb, Sb, Zn and Mo. The antiwear properties in terms of wear scar diameter, relative anti-wear effectiveness and mean average wear scar diameter show a performance order of Bi > Pb > Sb > Zn > Mo. The large ionic radius metals (Bi, Pb & Sb) had the best overall load-carrying performance and their effectiveness increased substantially when the additive concentration was more than 0.004 gm atom/Kg. The results suggest that Bi has good potential to replace toxic Pb and Sb from existing lubrication systems. 18 refs., 7 refs., 1 tab.

Tuli, D.K.; Sarin, R.; Gupta, A.K. [Indian Oil Corporation, Faridabad (India)] [and others

1995-04-01

479

Environmental, Resource Conservation, and Economic Aspects of Used Oil Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to provide current and updated information, the case for burning used automotive lubricating oil versus re-refining it has been reevaluated based upon the 1980 American economy and energy conservation posture. In these comparisons, the environmen...

D. W. Brinkman M. L. Whisman N. J. Weinstein H. R. Emmerson

1981-01-01

480

Influence of Lubricant Properties and Temperature on the Scuffing Failure of FZG Gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of experimental scuffing results of FZG gears lubricated with mineral paraffinic base oils, with different viscosities, showed the relevance of friction power dissipation in gear scuffing, represented by the product of traction coefficient by hertzien pressure and sliding speed.

J. Castro; J. Seabra

1999-01-01

481

Environmentally adapted lubricants in Swedish forest industry – a critical review and case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, a gradual conversion from mineral oil based hydraulic fluids to environmentally adapted lubricants (EALs), has taken place in the forest industry in Sweden. The current market share of the EALs is ca. 80 percent of the mobile hydraulic fluids utilised. The original driving force of this change can be traced to end-user demands, especially paper

T. Norrby; M. Kopp

2000-01-01

482

40 CFR 86.513-94 - Fuel and engine lubricant specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Unleaded gasoline and engine lubricants representative of commercial fuels and engine lubricants which will be generally...emission control systems based on good engineering...gas-fuel and engine lubricants representative of...

2013-07-01

483

40 CFR 86.513-94 - Fuel and engine lubricant specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unleaded gasoline and engine lubricants representative of commercial fuels and engine lubricants which will be generally...emission control systems based on good engineering...gas-fuel and engine lubricants representative of...

2010-07-01

484

40 CFR 86.513-94 - Fuel and engine lubricant specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unleaded gasoline and engine lubricants representative of commercial fuels and engine lubricants which will be generally...emission control systems based on good engineering...gas-fuel and engine lubricants representative of...

2009-07-01

485

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the Shell staff who thought that esters of perfluoro salicylic acid might be an excellent antifriction additive for motor oil fuels. One of the best additives currently used in motor oils is the hydrocarbon ester of salicylic acid.

Lagow, Richard J.

1993-04-08

486

An investigation into the molecular stability of zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphates (ZDDPs) in relation to their use as anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives in lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic energies and structures of the monomeric, neutral and basic forms of the important lubricating oil additive zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphate (ZDDP) are examined by molecular optimisation techniques using semi-empirical quantum chemistry calculations (MNDO). The optimised geometries reveal good agreement with known crystallographic data. The molecular stability is found to be highest for the basic form of ZDDP. For all forms,

D. R Armstrong; E. S Ferrari; K. J Roberts; D Adams

1997-01-01

487

An examination of the reactivity of zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphate in relation to its use as an anti-wear and anti-corrosion additive in lubricating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivity of the lubricating oil additive zinc di-alkyl-di-thiophosphate (ZDDP) was investigated by molecular orbital techniques. Semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods were used to model the structures of some of the complexes expected to form during the reaction of the additive with an oxygen rich steel surface. The results showed that the most stable of the complexes resulting from these reaction

D. R. Armstrong; E. S. Ferrari; K. J. Roberts; D. Adams

1998-01-01

488

Differences in the tribological mechanisms when using non-doped, metal-doped (Ti, WC), and non-metal-doped (Si) diamond-like carbon against steel under boundary lubrication, with and without oil additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the tribological performance and mechanisms of the boundary-lubricated contacts of steel against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, i.e., steel\\/DLC, using the same materials, oils, additives and conditions as we have previously reported for DLC\\/DLC contacts. We present and compare the behaviour of two non-doped, two metal-doped (Ti, WC) and one non-metal-doped (Si) DLC coatings in

M. Kalin; J. Vizintin

2006-01-01

489

Rheology and elastohydrodynamic lubrication  

SciTech Connect

This book summarizes progress in this field during the last 25 years. The author intends `a description of a large part of the current knowledge about lubricant rheology, elastohydrodynamic lubrication and the effects of surface roughness and particulate contamination in the lubricant on the overall behavior of a heavily loaded lubricated contact.` Jacobson reviews specialized theological models for shearing flows of liquid lubricants and discusses their role in analyses of elastohydrodynamic lubrication. However, the author succeeds best while drawing heavily on his own research to measure lubricant behavior at elevated pressures and to describe wear processes in rolling bearings.

Jacobson, B.O.

1991-12-31

490

A comparison of the tribological behaviour of steel\\/steel, steel\\/DLC and DLC\\/DLC contacts when lubricated with mineral and biodegradable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, which can nowadays be applied to many highly loaded mechanical components, sometimes need to operate under lubricated conditions. It is reasonable to expect that in steel\\/DLC contacts, at least the steel counter body will behave according to conventional lubrication mechanisms and will interact with lubricants and additives in the contact. However, in DLC\\/DLC contacts, such mechanisms

M. Kalin; J. Vižintin

2006-01-01

491

Basic research on vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots Measurement of lubricating action and seal action by the liquid-  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vacuum-based wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots. This system allows an adherability and low friction performance when a suction cup adheres on rough surface such as concrete wall with small vacuum pump. It utilizes a seal action and lubrication action of a liquid to make the robot body adherable and slidable on the surface. The

Tohru Miyake; Hidenori Ishihara; Tatsuya Tomino

2008-01-01

492

A Wavelength Modulated, Continuum Excited Furnance Atomic Fluorescence System for the Determination of Wear Metals in Jet Engine Lubricating Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A historical review is presented of atomic fluorescence, continuum excitation, and furnace atomization as they apply to wear metal determination in oils. The theories applicable to atomic fluorescence with a continuum source, wavelength modulation, signal...

T. F. Wynn

1980-01-01

493

EHD Lubrication of Different Types of Gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The full thermal elastohydrodynamic analysis of lubrication of spur, helical, hypoid, and different types of cylindrical and\\u000a double enveloping worm gears is performed. The theory is implemented by computer programs. By using these programs the influence\\u000a of gear design, operating conditions and lubricant characteristics on maximum pressure and temperature in the oil film, on\\u000a EHD load carrying capacity of the

Vilmos Simon

494

Lubrication of Diffusion-Beryllided Titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction and lubrication characteristics of titanium which had been beryllided by a diffusion process were investigated. Tests were performed using flat surfaces in a modified 4-Ball wear tester. The apparatus is described and the results tabulated and discussed.Various combinations of titanium, beryllided titanium, 4140 steel, 1020 steel and silver-plated steel were studied rubbing under oil lubrication and also dry.

R. V. Klint; R. S. Owens

1962-01-01

495

Comparing the Lubricity of Biofuels Obtained from Pyrolysis and Alcoholysis of Soybean Oil and their Blends with Petroleum Diesel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A diesel-like fuel was synthesized by a pyrolysis method using only an edible soybean oil as starting material (PD). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends with both high sulfur (HSD) and low sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels, and compared with blends of biodiesel (BD) w...

496

Synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic lubricants on boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

In a study seeking to achieve low friction and low wear on ceramic materials, we investigated a new lubrication concept that explores the synergistic effect of a silver film and a recently developed synthetic oil on the boundary lubrication behavior of silicon nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) ceramics. Friction and wear tests were performed on a wear test machine at temperatures up to 380[degree]C. Under the test conditions explored, we found that the friction coefficients of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]/Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] test pairs during oil-lubricated sliding tests ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, and the average wear rates of ceramic pins were between 3 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] and 10[sup [minus]6] mm[sup 3] N[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]1], depending on test temperature. Concurrent use of lubricant oil with a silver film had a synergistic effect on both friction and wear. When silver films are used at oil-lubricated sliding interfaces, wear rates of both pins and flats were reduced to unmeasurable levels and the friction coefficients were reduced by factors of two to ten below those of the test pairs without silver films. Beneficial synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic oil on the boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics were more pronounced at elevated test temperatures than at room temperature.

Erdemir, A.; Ajayi, O.O.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.); Ockers, J.M. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)); Kar, K.K.; Morgan, T.A. (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States))

1992-11-01

497

Synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic lubricants on boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

In a study seeking to achieve low friction and low wear on ceramic materials, we investigated a new lubrication concept that explores the synergistic effect of a silver film and a recently developed synthetic oil on the boundary lubrication behavior of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramics. Friction and wear tests were performed on a wear test machine at temperatures up to 380{degree}C. Under the test conditions explored, we found that the friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} test pairs during oil-lubricated sliding tests ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, and the average wear rates of ceramic pins were between 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}6} mm{sup 3} N{sup {minus}1} m{sup {minus}1}, depending on test temperature. Concurrent use of lubricant oil with a silver film had a synergistic effect on both friction and wear. When silver films are used at oil-lubricated sliding interfaces, wear rates of both pins and flats were reduced to unmeasurable levels and the friction coefficients were reduced by factors of two to ten below those of the test pairs without silver films. Beneficial synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic oil on the boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics were more pronounced at elevated test temperatures than at room temperature.

Erdemir, A.; Ajayi, O.O.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.; Ockers, J.M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Kar, K.K.; Morgan, T.A. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

1992-11-01

498

Method for improving the lubricating properties of solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect

A process for preparing improved solid lubricants, by modifying the surface characteristics of the solid lubricants using reactive chemical compounds, is disclosed. Prior art measures anticipate combinations of modifiers and solid lubricants as lubricating mixtures but do not disclose bonding modifiers with solid lubricants. Examples of the improved modified solid lubricants are molybdenum disulfide chemically bonded to polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate or polydimethylsiloxane.

Brendle, M.C.

1980-05-13

499

Tribological behavior of some antiwear additives in vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing concern for the use of mineral oils because of the worldwide interest in environmental issues. This has promoted the use of vegetable oils as the alternative base fluids, environmental friendly lubricants. In view of this, a study of the effect of antiwear additives in vegetable oils was carried out using a four-ball wear tester. The

B. G. Ahn; O. K. Kwon; Y. J. Chun

1997-01-01

500

Tests show benefits of new polished rod lubricator  

SciTech Connect

Tests with beam-pumped oil wells, completed over 7-months at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (Rmotc), indicated that a new lubricator supplying supplementary grease to polished rods lowered operating costs by reducing maintenance, material costs, and electrical requirements. It also minimized polished rod corrosion and enhanced pollution control. The lubricator worked with extremely hot fluids and in adverse weather conditions. The paper describes Rmotc, the new lubrication, the test wells, and cost reduction.

Tyler, M.R.; Khatib, A. [Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center, Casper, WY (United States)

1995-04-10