Science.gov

Sample records for oil field california

  1. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  2. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of volumes of technically recoverable, conventional oil that could eventually be added to reserves in nine selected major oil fields in the San Joaquin Basin in central California. The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.

  3. Silverthread oil field, Ventura County, California: a hydrodynamic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, R.N.; Hester, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    Silverthread oil field is located in west-central Ventura County, California. An unusual combination of Miocene turbidite sand deposition, tight folding, faulting, and hydrodynamics have created an accumulation of over 6 million bbl of oil from 33 wells. This field is also unique in that it lies beneath the convergence of several opposing major thrust faults which effectively hide any surface indication of structure at depth. Though previously and often explored by majors and other operators, the remarkable deduction and perseverance by Harry Browne and Argo Petroleum Corporation geologists led to the main area discovery in 1971. Of exceptional interest is the interaction of classic hydrodynamic flow on the distribution of fluids within the reservoir. Thirteen contour maps and numerous structure and stratigraphic sections were required to unravel the sand sequence, faulting, structure, and hydrodynamics. Because of high surface relief, most wells were directionally drilled from islands, and subsequent electric logs had to be unstretched using the Dental Dam technique to facilitate their correlation. A large, lighted, three-dimensional model consisting of thirty-six 2 x 5-ft transparent plexiglas plates was constructed to show a simple resolution of the complexities of this area and will be part of the poster session. This display, they believe, will generate considerable interest in their presentation.

  4. Sword field, offshore California: challenges in making this giant oil field commercial

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in 800-2000 ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended reservoir was fractured Miocene Monterey chert, siliceous shales or siltstones, and dolomites that are draped over the axially faulted anticlinal structure. Drilling of the initial well in OCS P-0322 in 1982 resulted in discovering the giant Sword field. A confirmation well drilled in OCS P-0320 indicates in-place reserves of well over 1 billion bbl. Although the discovered potential is significant, the low gravity (8.5/sup 0/-10.5/sup 0/ API) of the oils discovered to date, along with water depths in excess of 1500 ft, currently pose economic challenges to successful field development. Conoco and its partners are addressing the current economic barriers on several fronts. A three-dimensional seismic survey has been conducted to delineate reservoir geometry and to define probable variations in pay thickness and fracturing. A market feasibility study will be undertaken to assess the demand for low gravity crude from offshore California. Finally, Conoco has developed proprietary technology called OCHOS (Offshore California Heavy Oil System), which uses an innovative oil and/or water emulsion technique to allow for more economic recovery of high-velocity or low-gravity crudes.

  5. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

    1996-07-16

    A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

  6. How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.C.; Ballard, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended reservoir was fractured Miocene Monterey chert, silicic shales/siltstones, and dolomites that are draped over the axially faulted structure. Drilling of the initial well in OCS P-0322 in 1982 resulted in discovering the giant Sword field. A confirmation well drilled in OCS P-0320 indicates in-place reserves of well over 1 billion bbl. While the discovered potential is significant, the low gravity (8.5/degree/-10.5/degree/ API) of the oils discovered to date, along with water depths in excess of 1500 ft, currently pose economic challenges to successful field development. Conoco and its partners are addressing the current economic barriers on a number of fronts. Three-dimensional seismic surveys are being conducted to better delineate reservoir geometry and to define probable variations in lithology, fracturing, and oil gravity. A market feasibility study will be undertaken to assess the demand for low-gravity crude from offshore California.

  7. How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.C.; Ballard, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2,000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended reservoir was fractured Miocene Monterey chert, silicic shales/siltstones,m and dolomites that are draped over the axially faulted structure. Drilling of the initial well in OCS P-0322 in 1982 resulted in discovering the giant Sword field. A confirmation well drilled in OCS P-0320 indicates in-place reserves of well over 1 billion bbl. while the discovered potential is significant, the low gravity (8.5/sup 0/-10.5/sup 0/ API) of the oils discovered to data, along with water depths in excess of 1,500 ft, currently pose economic challenges to successful field development.

  8. Potential CO2 Sequestration in Oil Field Reservoirs: Baseline Mineralogy and Natural Diagenesis, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. A.; Kaess, A. B.; Nguyen, D. T.; Caffee, S. E.; Olabise, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil fields have been suggested as potential sites for sequestration of CO2 generated from the burning of hydrocarbons. However, to be effective for removing CO2 from the atmosphere, the injected CO2 must remain within the reservoir. The role of atmospheric CO2 in rock weathering is well known and a growing body of experimental work indicates that under reservoir conditions supercritical CO2 also reacts with sedimentary rocks. In order to predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a given reservoir, detailed knowledge of the mineralogy is required. In addition, post-injection monitoring may include analyzing core samples to examine interactions between reservoir rocks and the CO2. Thus, documentation of the natural diagenetic processes within the reservoir is necessary so that changes caused by reactions with CO2 can be recognized. Kern County, California has been a major petroleum producing area for over a century and has three oil fields that have been identified as potential sites for CO2 sequestration. Two of these, Rio Bravo-Greeley and McKittrick, have no previously published mineralogic studies. Samples from these (and nearby Wasco) oil fields were studied using transmitted-light petrography and scanning electron microscopy. At Rio Bravo-Greeley-Wasco, Kreyenhagen (Eocene) and Vedder (Oligocene) sandstones are mainly arkosic arenites with only small amounts of volcanic rock fragments. Detrital feldspars exhibit wide compositional ranges (up to Or75Ab25 & Ab50An50). Diagenesis has greatly altered the rocks. There are significant amounts of relatively pure authigenic K-feldspar and albite. Small amounts of authigenic quartz, calcite, dolomite, ankerite, kaolinite, illite/smectite, chlorite, zeolite, and pyrite are present. Plagioclase has been preferentially dissolved, with andesine more susceptible than oligoclase. Al3+ has been exported from the sandstones. At McKittrick, Temblor sandstones (Oligocene-Miocene) contain up to 33% volcanic rock fragments

  9. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  10. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  11. Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, J.D. ); Edwards, E.B. ); Heck, R.G. )

    1996-01-01

    Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

  12. Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, J.D.; Edwards, E.B.; Heck, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

  13. Heavy oil spells boom for California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Getty Oil Co. has begun construction of 2 pilot plants as an initial phase of a heavy oil mining venture which, if successful, could produce enough oil to rank as California's biggest onshore discovery in 30 yr. The company hopes to recover 380 million bbl of oil from an open pit mining operation in California's McKittrick Field, located 40 miles west of Bakersfield. The oil is trapped in diatomaceous earth, which has resisted conventional methods to make it give up its bonanza. The diatomaceous earth, or diatomite, was formed by the hard, silicious shells of diatoms (tiny, one-celled algae which lived in the inland bay). Getty foresees a development that would produce approximately 20,000 bpd of 13.6 - to 14 - gravity oil for a period of approximately 47 yr. Unlike an oil field, which would peak and then decline, the production from the mining operation would be more or less consistent through the life of the project. If the project is successful at McKittrick, conceivably it could have other applications in California oil fields, possibly in mining shallow oil sands or maximizing oil recovery.

  14. Getty mines oil sands in California

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-11-01

    A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields, possibly setting the stage for the mining of oil sands in shallow fields like Kern River, S. Belridge, and Lost Hills to maximize oil recovery. A report on the project is summarized. The Diatomite is estimated to have 500 million bbl of oil in reserves, of which 380 million bbl are recoverable. The estimated amount of recoverable oil exceeds the McKittrick field's cumulative production of 240 million bbl. A pilot plant was built to test solvent extraction method of recovering heavy oil. The multistep process involves a series of 6 extractors. The Lurgi retorting plant employs a 2-step heating process to separate hydrocarbons from crushed ore.

  15. The Petrology and Diagenetic History of the Phacoides Sandstone, Temblor Formation at the McKittrick Oil Field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaess, A. B.; Horton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The McKittrick oil field is located near the western edge of the San Joaquin Basin, California. The oil field is currently in production with 480 wells producing from the Tulare, San Joaquin, Reef Ridge, Monterey, Temblor, Tumey, and Kreyenhagen formations. Within the Temblor Formation production is mainly from the Miocene Carneros and the Phacoides sandstones. Eighty-two samples from the Phacoides sandstone (2403 - 3045 m below surface) were obtained from the California Well Sample Repository to characterize and understand the diagenetic history and its influence on its reservoir properties. Petrographic thin sections were analyzed by quantitative optical petrography, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and imaging with back-scatter electron and cathodoluminescence. The Phacoides sandstone consists of fine to very coarse, poorly to well-sorted, arkosic arenites, and wackes with detrital framework grains including sub-angular quartz, K-feldspar (microcline and orthoclase), plagioclase, and lithic fragments. Ba-free, Ba-rich, and perthitic K-feldspars are present. Accessory minerals include glauconite, biotite, muscovite, magnetite, titanomagnetite, sphene, zircon, apatite, corundum, and rutile. Diagenetic alteration includes: (1) compaction, (2) mineral dissolution, (3) albitization of feldspars, alteration of biotite to pyrite and chlorite, replacement of framework grains by calcite, (4) alteration of volcanic rock fragments, (5) cementation by kaolinite, calcite and dolomite, and (6) precipitation of K-feldspar and quartz overgrowths. Early-formed fractures were healed by authigenic quartz, albite, and K-feldspars. Precipitation of carbonates and clays, rearranging of broken grains, and formation of pseudomatrix reduced primary porosity. Secondary porosity is common and formed initially by the dissolution of plagioclase (excluding albite) and volcanic fragments, and later by dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and detrital K-feldspars. Hydrocarbon emplacement was

  16. California oil survival team (cost)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N. L.

    1994-12-31

    COST is an industry-government partnership. Various agencies and organization are participating. There are at least the three trade associations in California, the Western States Petroleum Association, the independent Oil Producers Agency, and a number of companies, the Department of the Interior, the Bureau of Land Management, the Department of Energy, the U.S. Forest Service, a number of state agencies, the Division of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources being a particularly prominent member of this team, and several national laboratories that are based in California. The mission of this group is to maintain the petroleum industry as a viable part of the California economy and as an important contributor to domestic oil and gas production. COST is quite exciting and quite unique. It is a forum for information exchange and for collaborative problem solving.

  17. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  18. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  19. Silica phase changes: Diagenetic agent for oil entrapment, Lost Hills field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Julander, D.R.; Szymanski, D.L. )

    1991-02-01

    The siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target at Lost Hills. Silica phase changes have influenced the distribution and entrapment of hydrocarbons. With increasing temperature, opal A phase diatomite is converted to opal CT and finally quartz phase rock. All phases are low in permeability. The opal A diatomite is characteristically high in oil saturation and productive saturation. Productivity from this phase is dependent on structural position and fieldwide variations in oil viscosity and biodegradation. The deeper chert reservoir coincides with the opal CT to quartz phase transition. Porosity is again reduced in this transition, but saturations in the quartz phase rocks increase. Tests in the chert reservoir indicate a single, low-permeability system, suggesting the importance of matric contribution. resistivity and porosity in the diatomite, and resistivity and velocity in the chert, are the physical properties which best reflect saturation. Methods exploiting these properties (FMS, BHTV, borehole, and surface shear wave studies) should be helpful in further characterizing the reservoirs and identifying future pay.

  20. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  1. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  2. Environmental assessment. Downhole steam generator field test project DEEP STEAM: enhanced oil recovery project (DOE No. 16), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.

    1980-02-01

    Objective of DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oil from reservoirs greater than 760 m deep using steam injection. The proposed site is in the Kern River Oil Field in the San Joaquin Valley. This document describes the project, existing environment, and possible impact of the project. It is concluded that the proposed action does not significantly affect the quality of the environment, and therefore an environmental impact statement is not required. (DLC)

  3. Geospatial Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riqueros, N. S.; Kang, M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    California currently ranks third in oil production by U.S. state and more than 200,000 wells have been drilled in the state. Oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, leading to groundwater contamination and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Here we compile available public databases on oil and gas wells from the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other state and federal sources. We perform geospatial analysis at the county and field levels to characterize depths, producing formations, spud/completion/abandonment dates, land cover, population, and land ownership of active, idle, buried, abandoned, and plugged wells in California. The compiled database is designed to serve as a quantitative platform for developing field-based groundwater and air emission monitoring plans.

  4. Determination of heterogeneity by high-resolution seismic reservoir characterization in the heavy oil Temblor reservoir of Coalinga Field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Sailendra Nath

    The research focuses on analysis and subsurface imaging of siliciclastics rocks on steam-affected 3D poststack seismic data, merged from different vintages, from the Temblor Formation in the Coalinga heavy oil reservoir in the San Joaquin basin, California. The objective was identification, delineation, and demarcation of reservoir heterogeneities by seismostratigraphic and seismogeomorphic analysis. The proximity of the San Andreas Transforms greatly controlled basin evolution and caused substantial reservoir heterogeneity by changing the depositional environment from shallow marine to near-shore fluvial. Moreover, two unconformities dissect the reservoir interval. The seismic dataset exhibits erratic, distorted reflection strengths and amplitudes caused by steam-injection-aided production. A petrophysical analysis based on Gassmann fluid substitution suggests a 27% P-wave velocity decrease in steam-saturated intervals. Seismic to well log ties were problematic and vexing due to the resulting statics, wavelet changes, and line mismatches. Mapping and flattening on a deeper horizon, however, allowed mapping of the internal unconformities and well ties which were crucial for seismostratigraphic sequence identification. Visualization of seismic attributes brought out stratification patterns and two distinct, laterally and vertically extensive, porous, and interconnected facies tracts interpreted as incised valley fills and tidal-to-subtidal deposits as evidenced by bright, steam related amplitudes. Seismic attribute analysis, Geobody Visualization and Interpretation, and structure and isochron maps brought out two prominent channel-systems, recut and restacked in the central part of the area. These deposits were identified on seismic data and correlated to high-gamma coarsening-upward sands on logs and cores. The deeper one, shifting towards SSE with depth, lies between the Base Temblor and Buttonbed unconformities both in the southwestern and northwestern parts of

  5. Petrophysical evidence for the nature of vertical permeability barriers: Temple Ave. Fault, Wilmington Oil Field, Long Beach, California

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, H.; Sample, J.C. )

    1996-01-01

    The Temple Avenue fault is a north-trending east-dipping normal fault that dissects the north flank of the Wilmington anticline in the Wilmington Oil field. The fault involves sediments of the Repetto Formation (lower Pliocene) and the Puente Formation (upper Miocene). Oil/water contact structural maps indicate that the fault acts as a permeability barrier. Well B-756-I was drilled across the Temple Ave. fault in the Repetto Formation. The throw of the fault in this well ranges from 15 to 17 meters (50 to 56 feet). The Repetto Formation is composed of interbeded sands and shales. Sixty five samples were collected from and around the fault zone. Preliminary XRD analysis of bulk and clay fractions show that authigenic clay minerals (<2 [mu]m) represent between 1 to 2% of the sediments. Clay minerals are mostly smectite (5-7%) and a Fe-illite (15-30%); chlorite and kaolinite are also present. The authigenic illite content appears to increase around the fault zone. Diagenetic conversion of Ca-rich feldspars to smectite is suggested by an inverse correlation of their abundances. Calcite is present in the majority of the samples (4-8%), but a significant increase in the carbonate content (14-16%) occurs along the fault. Ongoing SEM and isotope analysis will aid in the determination of the origin and nature of the changes in the mineralogy that contribute to form a permeability barrier.

  6. Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery in the Vedder Formation, Greeley Field, San Joaquin Valley, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Most scientists agree that greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are major contributors to the global warming trend and climate change. One effort to mitigate anthropogenic sourced CO2 is through carbon capture and sequestration. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs due to their known trapping capability, in-place infrastructure, and proximity to carbon emission sources are good candidates for possible CO2 storage. The Vedder formation is one of three reservoirs identified in the San Joaquin Basin that meets standards for possible storage. An analysis of net fluid production data (produced minus injected) from discovery to the present is used to determine the reservoir volume available for CO2 storage. Data regarding reservoir pressure response to injection and production of fluids include final shut-in pressures from drill stem test, static bottom-hole pressure measurements from well completion histories, and idle well fluid level measurements for recent pressure data. Proprietary experimental pressure, volume and temperature data (PVT), gas oil ratios (GOR), well by well permeability, porosity, and oil gravity, and relative permeability and perforation intervals are used to create static and dynamic multiphase fluid flow models. All data collected was logged and entered into excel spreadsheets and mapping software to create subsurface structure, reservoir thickness and pressure maps, cross sections, production/injection charts on a well-by-well basis, and both static and dynamic flow models. This data is used to determine storage capacity and the amount of pressure variance within the field to determine how the reservoir will react to CO2 injection and to gain insight into the subsurface fluid movement of CO2. Results indicate a homogenous field with a storage capacity of approximately 26 Million Metric Tons of CO2. Analysis of production by stream and pressure change through time indicates a strong water drive

  7. Passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from Oil Fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Thompson, David R.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Frankenberg, Christian; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Fladeland, Matthew; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 and MEthane EXperiment (COMEX) was a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities. As a part of this effort, seven flights were performed between June 3 and September 4, 2014 with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields located in California's San Joaquin Valley. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with: a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC; a 5-hole turbulence probe; and an atmospheric measurement package operated by CIRPAS measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Three of the flights were accompanied by the Next Generation Airborne Visual InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft. Large-scale, high-concentration CH4 plumes were detected by the MAMAP instrument over the fields and tracked over several kilometers. The spatial distribution of the MAMAP observed plumes was compared to high spatial resolution CH4 anomaly maps derived by AVIRIS-NG imaging spectroscopy data. Remote sensing data collected by MAMAP was used to infer CH4 emission rates and their distributions over the three fields. Aggregated emission estimates for the three fields were compared to aggregated emissions inferred by subsequent airborne in-situ validation measurements collected by the Picarro instrument. Comparison of remote sensing and in-situ flux estimates will be presented, demonstrating the ability of airborne remote sensing data to provide accurate emission estimates for concentrations above the

  8. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  9. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M.; Forster, C.; Jenkins, C.; Schamel, S.; Sprinkel, D.; and Swain, R.

    1999-02-01

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project completed in December 1996. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery is testing the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having simular producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially t o other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  10. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, Steven

    1997-07-29

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee property in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery was initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and the recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  11. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Resrvoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Creties; Sprinkel, Doug; Deo, Milind; Wydrinski, Ray; Swain, Robert

    1997-10-21

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  12. Recativation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, Steven

    1997-03-24

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway- Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modem reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  13. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, Steven

    1999-07-08

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steam was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project completed in December 1996. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery is testing the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objective of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  14. Preliminary results of field mapping of methane plumes offshore of Coal Oil Point, California with a RESON 7125 multibeam sonar in water-column mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, D. P.; Hatcher, G.; Lorenson, T. D.; Greinert, J.; Maillard, E.; Weirathmueller, M.; Leifer, I.

    2010-12-01

    From June 17 - 23 2010, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement(BOEMRE), the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) , RESON Inc. and the University of California, Santa Barbara(UCSB) conducted a comprehensive marine-seep gas-plume mapping study offshore of Coal Oil Point, California. The ultimate goal of the experiment is to quantify the amount of methane emitted from natural seeps using multibeam sonar, with results calibrated using field measurements of aqueous and atmospheric methane in the seep fields. Success will lead to better estimates of natural marine methane contributions to the global methane budget. We mapped selected seeps, some twice, with a pole-mounted RESON 7125 multibeam with a 10-degree forward rake. Other equipment included a Benthos Stingray ROV equipped with high-definition video cameras and in situ gas sampling apparatus, Niskin bottles for water column sampling of dissolved methane, and a Picarro G1301 cavity ringdown spectrometer for mapping atmospheric methane concentrations. This paper focuses primarily on the data reduction and data visualization strategies employed while processing the more than 1.2 TB of raw water column data collected by the multibeam system over several high-output oil and gas seep areas. Water depths ranged from about 30 to 80m. Turnkey software solutions for processing these data are currently unavailable so most of the processing code was developed in-house by the USGS. The main challenge in processing the sonar water-column data is ray-tracing the large volume of data, with each ping containing more than 4500 times as many samples as a conventional multibeam ping. We employed two strategies to make processing tractable on conventional workstations: (1) decimate the raw data based on desired output resolution before ray-tracing; and (2) design the ray-tracing program to run in parallel on multi-core workstations

  15. Denverton Creek gas field, Solano County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, R.G.; Jacobson, J.B.

    1988-02-01

    The Denverton Creek gas field is located in Solano County, California, 40 mi northeast of San Francisco on the west side of the Sacramento Valley. The field was discovered in 1966 by the Mobil Oil Corporation Trojan Powder 1 well from a sand of Paleocene age within the Martinez channel. During 1967 and 1968, new pool discoveries were made in other Paleocene sands. Commercial gas deliveries began in March 1967 and ceased in 1971, and the field was abandoned in 1973 with a cumulative production of 712 million ft/sup 3/ of gas from three wells. Increases in natural gas prices during the middle and late 1970s, coupled with sound geological concepts supported by improved seismic data, led to a number of discoveries in the valley. Included in this effort was reestablishment of production at Denverton Creek in 1977 by new drilling. Chevron USA, in joint ventures with Cities Service and Channel Exploration, has drilled nine wells in the field, which developed two new pool discoveries. In 1986, the field produced 5 bcf of gas from 11 wells. Gas entrapment in the Denverton Creek field is caused by a number of anomalies, including sand pinch-out, faulting, and truncations by unconformities and the Martinez channel. Although these types of entrapping mechanisms are found in other fields in the Sacramento Valley, the Denverton Creekfield is unique in that all are present in one producing area.

  16. Oil field management system

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  17. DOE tallies Class III oil recovery field projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-25

    Here are details from midterm proposals submitted as part of the US Department of Energy's Class 3 oil recovery field demonstration candidate projects. All of the proposals emphasize dissemination of project details so that the results, if successful, can be applied widely in similar reservoirs. Project results will also be fed into a national petroleum technology transfer network. The proposals include: Gulf of Mexico, Gulf coast, offshore California, a California thermal, immiscible CO[sub 2], produced/potable water, microbial EOR, California diatomite, West Texas Spraberry field, and other Permian Basin fields.

  18. 77 FR 10598 - BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... current and accurate information concerning the securities of California Oil & Gas Corp. because it...

  19. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.

    1996-11-01

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway- Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program. One of the main objectives of Budget Period I was to return the Pru Fee property to economic production and establish a baseline productivity with cyclic steaming. By the end of the second quarter 1996, all Pru producers except well 101 had been cyclic steamed two times. Each steam cycle was around 10,000 barrels of steam (BS) per well. No mechanical problems were found in the existing old wellbores. Conclusion is after several years of being shut-in, the existing producers on the Pru lease are in reasonable mechanical condition, and can therefore be utilized as viable producers in whatever development plan we determine is optimum. Production response to cyclic steam is very encouraging in the new producer, however productivity in the old producers appears to be limited in comparison.

  20. Integration of geologic and reservoir data to reevaluate performance of Terminal 8, an upper Miocene reservoir in Long Beach unit, Wilmington oil field, Los Angeles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H.

    1988-03-01

    The Terminal 8 reservoir consists of 615 ft of net oil sand. Vertical closure of the oil-saturated sandstone is 1080 ft. Areal extent is 13,350 ac. The reservoir sandstones are turbidites that have been correlated with the Puente Formation. The environment of deposition is an outer fan (sandstone-to-shale ratio of 1.2) in the lower Terminal sandstones and midfan in the upper Terminal sandstone (sandstone-to-shale ratio of 3.8). The fault block is located on the northeastern flank of the Wilmington anticline and is bounded by two intersecting normal faults and by oil-water contacts. Development started in 1969. Infill drilling after 1980 extended the boundaries and provided new data that led to reevaluation of the reservoir. The nine original sand units were divided into 13 flow units. Volumetrics were calculated for each flow unit using Zycor software. Mapping of electric log-derived water saturation and net oil-sand data revealed discrepancies, the result of varying log quality, different log types, lack of thin sand definition, and changing clay content. Computer-generated maps were constructed for each flow unit, and for weighted averages the units were combined into upper and lower Terminal zones. Individual maps are: structure, net oil sand, original water saturation, current water saturation, original oil in place, current oil in place, original reserves, current reserves, oil produced, pressure, and water cut. Mapping of original oil in place revealed fluid barriers within the reservoir. Mapping of current oil in place indicated moved oil and defined undrained areas. Water cut, fluid entry surveys, and temperature-spinner-tracer survey mapping revealed permeability trends. Pressure data confirmed sealing faults. This detailed study defined suspected, but never analyzed, complexities of the Terminal 8 reservoir.

  1. Airborne passive remote sensing of large-scale methane emissions from oil fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and validation by airborne in-situ measurements - Initial results from COMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Kolyer, Richard W.; Thompson, David R.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Krings, Thomas; Horstjann, Markus; Leifer, Ira; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Vigil, Sam; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Fladeland, Matthew; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    On several flights performed over the Kern River, Kern Front, and Poso Creek Oil Fields in California between June 3 and September 4, 2014, in the framework of the CO2 and MEthane Experiment (COMEX) - a NASA and ESA funded campaign in support of the HyspIRI and CarbonSat mission definition activities - the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) remote sensing instrument (operated by the University of Bremen in cooperation with the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ) detected large-scale, high-concentration, methane plumes. MAMAP was installed for the flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft, together with a Picarro fast in-situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analyzer (operated by the NASA Ames Research Center, ARC), a 5-hole turbulence probe and an atmospheric measurement package (operated by CIRPAS), measuring aerosols, temperature, dew-point, and other atmospheric parameters. Some of the flights were accompanied by the next generation of the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, installed aboard a second Twin Otter aircraft (operated by Twin Otter International). Data collected with the in-situ GHG analyzer were used for validation of the MAMAP and AVIRIS-NG remotely sensed data. The in-situ measurements were acquired in vertical cross sections of the discovered plumes at fixed distances downwind of the sources. Emission rates are estimated from both the remote and in-situ data using wind information from the turbulence probe together with ground-based wind data from the nearby airport. Remote sensing and in-situ data as well as initial flux estimates for selected flights will be presented.

  2. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  3. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Jaoquin Basin, California. Annual report, June 13, 1995--June 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M.; Jenkins, C.; Sprinkel, D.; Swain, R.; Wydrinski, R.; Schamel, S.

    1998-09-01

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  4. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  5. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Schamel

    1998-03-20

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region.

  6. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Schamel

    1998-08-31

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region.

  7. A Guide to the Baja California Field Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Since 1974, Glendale Community College (GCC) has offered a variety of biology, social science, and language classes at a field station located on the Baja California peninsula, Republic of Mexico. This guide to GCC's Baja California Field Studies Program (BCFSP) provides manuals, forms, job descriptions, contracts with participating organizations,…

  8. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  9. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Lee, K.; Torrses-Verdin, C.; Tseng, H.

    1994-12-31

    Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into 3 stacked eastward dipping unconsolidated oil sands. EM measurements were made from two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data could clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands and it has preferentially migrated eastward.

  10. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  11. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Schamel

    1998-02-27

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region. In January 1997 the project entered its second and main phase with the purpose of demonstrating whether steamflood can be a more effective mode of production of the heavy, viscous oils from the Monarch Sand reservoir than the more conventional cyclic steaming. The objective is not just to produce the pilot site within the Pru Fee property south of Taft, but to test which production parameters optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  12. Ecology of Oil/Gas Platforms Offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.; Cowen, R.K.; Kauwling, R.J.; Mitchell, C.T.

    1987-02-01

    The report summarizes the ecology of fishes and attached epifauna that associate with offshore oil and gas platforms of California and an evaluation of actual and potential use of the platforms for mariculture. The attached invertebrate biota in the upper 35 m of the water column is dominated by bay (Mytilus edulis) or California (M. californianus) mussels, depending upon location and/or age of the structure, with other mollusks, barnacles and polychaetes being of secondary importance. The attached community may take up to five years to fully develop. The fish fauna at shallow (less than 45 m of water), nearshore platforms is dominated by surfperches and rockfishes; major species in this assemblage are about equally divided between those with relatively large mouths (which consume large organisms such as crabs and small fish) and those with relatively small mouths (which graze on small epifauna and planktonic organisms). The fish fauna may take two years to attain a relatively stable community structure. The fish fauna at nearshore platforms is similar to that at natural reefs and oil islands in the area, but is more diverse among common species. As opposed to these other structures, platforms lack fish which associated with algae.

  13. Oil field redevelopment -- some lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of some oil field redevelopment experiences that resulted in unanticipated expenses or other inconveniences and consequently became learning experiences. Compared with many other types of contaminated properties, oil fields are relatively easy to remediate. The primary contaminant is crude oil ranging in nature from hard and weathered tar to fresh crude with a notable fraction of light end hydrocarbons. Groundwater is usually not impacted due to the low mobility and solubility of crude oil. Crude oil overall has a relatively low toxicity, is not considered a hazardous material and can usually be easily remediated using bioremediation. All of these factors contribute to the notion that oil fields are low risk in terms of cleanup. However, experience has shown that oil field redevelopment does have some risks as is illustrated by examples.

  14. Determining water saturation in diatomite using wireline logs, Lost Hills field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bilodeau, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    There is a long-held paradigm in the California oil industry that wireline log evaluation does not work in Monterey Formation lithologies. This study demonstrates that it is possible to calculate accurate oil saturation from wireline log data in the diatomite reservoir at Lost Hills field, California. The ability to calculate simple but accurate oil saturation is important because it allows field management teams to map pay, plan development and waterflood programs, and make estimates of reserves more accurate than those based on core information alone. Core data from eight wells were correlated with modern resistivity and porosity logs, incorporating more than 2000 ft of reservoir section. Porosity was determined from bulk density and water saturation was determined using the Archie equation. Crossplots of corrected core oil saturation versus Archie oil saturation (1-S{sub w}) confirm the accuracy of the algorithm. Improvements in the accuracy and precision of the calculated oil saturation will require more detailed reservoir characterization to take into account lithologic variation.

  15. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits. PMID:25914401

  16. Abandoned oil fields of Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1984-04-01

    One nonconventional oil target in Texas is the oil that remains in abandoned fields, defined as those fields that had no oil or gas production in 1977 and 1982. This target includes oil that has not been tapped by conventional field development because of reservoir heterogeneity and oil in reservoirs that have not been subjected to any secondary or tertiary recovery efforts. A total of 138 abandoned oil fields having individual cumulative production greater than 500,000 bbl are located in the Texas Gulf Coast (railroad Commission of Texas Districts 2, 3, and 4). These 138 onshore fields produced 276 million barrels of oil before being abandoned. Nongiant fields in the Texas Gulf Coast average about 40% ultimate recovery, so these fields probably originally contained about 700 million bbl of oil in place. Therefore, about 424 million bbl of oil remain unrecovered. Reservoirs in these abandoned fields are Tertiary sandstones. The 44 abandoned fields in the upper Texas Gulf Coast (District 3) produced from a wide range of plays; those plays with the largest number of abandoned fields are Yegua and Frio deep-seated domes, Eocene deltaic sandstone, and Frio barrier/strand-plain sandstone. The 19 abandoned fields in the middle Texas Gulf Coast (District 2) produced mainly from Wilcox and Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and from Frio and Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones. The lower Texas Gulf Coast (District 4) contains 75 abandoned fields that produced from Frio fluvial/deltaic and barrier/strand-plain sandstones and from Jackson-Yegua barrier/strand-plain sandstones.

  17. Laboratory batch experiments and geochemical modelling of water-rock-supercritical CO2 reactions in Southern San Joaquin Valley, California oil field sediments: Implications for future carbon capture and sequestration projects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickler, P. J.; Rivas, C.; Freeman, S.; Tan, T. W.; Baron, D.; Horton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of CO2 as supercritical liquid in oil reservoirs has been proposed for enhanced oil recovery and a way to lower atmospheric CO2 levels. The fate of CO2 after injection requires an understanding of mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions occurring between the formation minerals and the existing formation brines at formation temperatures and pressures in the presence of supercritical CO2. In this study, core samples from three potential storage formations, the Vedder Fm. (Rio Bravo oil field), Stevens Fm. (Elk Hills oil field) and Temblor Fm. (McKittrick oil field) were reacted with a synthetic brine and CO2(sc) at reservoir temperature (110°C) and pressure (245-250 bar). A combination of petrographic, SEM-EDS and XRD analyses, brine chemistry, and PHREEQ-C modelling were used to identify geochemical reactions altering aquifer mineralogy. XRD and petrographic analyses identified potentially reactive minerals including calcite and dolomite (~2%), pyrite (~1%), and feldspars (~25-60%). Despite the low abundance, calcite dissolution and pyrite oxidation were dominant geochemical reactions. Feldspar weathering produced release rates ~1-2 orders of magnitude slower than calcite dissolution. Calcite dissolution increased the aqueous concentrations of Ca, HCO3, Mg, Mn and Sr. Silicate weathering increased the aqueous concentrations of Si and K. Plagioclase weathering likely increased aqueous Ca concentrations. Pyrite oxidation, despite attempts to remove O2 from the experiment, increased the aqueous concentration of Fe and SO4. SEM-EDS analysis of post-reaction samples identified mixed-layered illite-smectites associated with feldspar grains suggesting clay mineral precipitation in addition to calcite, pyrite and feldspar dissolution. The Vedder Fm. sample underwent complete disaggregation during the reaction due to cement dissolution. This may adversely affect Vedder Formation CCS projects by impacting injection well integrity.

  18. Crude oil from Tengiz field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.; Khabibulina, R.K.; Kochuleva, L.R.

    1988-03-01

    Analyses were performed on samples taken from exploratory wells. Physicochemical characteristics of the oil were determined as light, low-pour, and high-wax, with low percentages of resins, asphaltenes, and sulfur; the oil contained practically no vanadium or nickel. The kerosine cuts were high in acidity and sulfur content, and diesel fuel cuts met all requirements for L-0.5-61 diesel fuel. The potential contents and properties of distillate and residual lube base stocks are shown and yields of oil base stocks with 96 and 90 V.I. are presented. The residues had high solid points, low viscosities, and high levels of carbon residue, ash, and sulfur content.

  19. 76 FR 72675 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Valero Refining Company-California, (Oil Refinery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 10329, 2-24-2011) and the application has been processed... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Valero Refining Company-- California... special-purpose subzone at the oil refining facilities of Valero Refining Company--California, located...

  20. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. [Quarterly report], June 14, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.

    1996-01-19

    This project will reactivate ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conduct a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming will be used to re-establish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recover will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program. A summary of technical progress covers: geological and reservoir characterization, and reservoir simulation.

  1. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Quarterly report, June 14--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.

    1995-12-19

    This project will reactivate ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conduct a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming will be used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recover will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class 3 reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program. A summary of technical progress discusses the literature compilation, assembly of digitized log suites, development of a stratigraphic framework, installation of lease production facilities, return wells to production, drill producer and observation wells, and reservoir characterization.

  2. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  3. Infrared spectrometry field-method for identification of natural seep-oils.

    PubMed

    Grant, D F; Eastwood, D

    1983-11-01

    An infrared field-method has been developed which is capable of distinguishing between oils originating from natural seepage in the Santa Barbara (California) Channel region and closely similar oils from onshore drilling platforms. The technique involves a minimum of sample preparation and the use of simple infrared instrumentation which can be operated by non-technical personnel. Natural seep-oil samples were collected from the surface of the water, underwater, and from beaches in the area. The non-seep oils were obtained from production wells which were located in the same geographical areas as the seepage and were from several different well depths corresponding to different geological zones. Natural seep-oils are more aromatic than the production oils, and this difference is evidenced by observed differences in the spectra for both weathered and unweathered oils. These spectral differences between seep and non-seep oils have been found to persist after exposure to weathering for a week. PMID:18963475

  4. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  5. Fault seals in oil fields in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, N.H.; Veal, H.K.; Bortz, L.C.

    1987-08-01

    Faults forms seals for oil accumulations in the Eagle Springs, Trap Spring, and Blackburn fields, and probably in the Grant Canyon field, in Nevada. The main boundary fault on the east side of the Pine Valley graben forms a seal in the Blackburn field. A fault on the west side of the trap Spring field forms a seal. In Grant Canyon field, it is interpreted that the main boundary fault on the east side of the Railroad Valley graben forms a seal. Calcite is deposited by hot spring activity, plugging up many fault zones and, in some cases, forming seals. Some fault zones have calcite mineralization up to several thousand feet wide. Within the Eagle Springs field on the east side of the Railroad Valley graben, a northeast-trending fault separates oil accumulations with different oil-water contacts. This separation indicates that the fault forms at least a partial seal within the accumulation.

  6. Grant Canyon oil field, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, H.K.; Duey, H.D.; Bortz, L.C.; Foster, N.H.

    1987-08-01

    The Grant Canyon field is located on the east side of Railroad Valley, 8 mi south of the Eagle Springs oil field. The discovery well, 1 Grant Canyon Unit (SW 1/4 NW 1/4, Sec. 21, T7S, R57E), was completed by Northwest Exploration Co. on September 11, 1983, flowing 1816 BOPD from the Devonian Simonson(.) dolomite (4374-4448 ft). Two additional wells have been completed in the field. Cumulative oil production through December 31, 1986, is 5,260,430 bbl of oil. During December 1986, wells 3 and 4 flowed an average of 5189 BOPD. Well 4 averaged 4065 BOPD for a recent monthly total. The discovery well (1) has been shut-in. The productive area is about 240 acres. The trap is a high fault block in the boundary fault zone that separates Railroad Valley from the Grant Range to the east. The Devonian Simonson(.) reservoir is an intensely fractured, vuggy dolomite with some intercrystalline porosity. The top seal is the Tertiary valley fill which unconformably overlies the Simonson(.) dolomite. The oil column is about 400 ft thick and the field apparently has an active water drive, inasmuch as the 1 Unit had to be shut-in because of water production. The oil is black, 26/sup 0/ API gravity, a pour point of 10/sup 0/F and 0.5% sulfur. Estimated ultimate recoverable oil reserves are 13,000,000 bbl of oil. The adjacent Bacon Flat field is a one-well field (SW 1/4 SW 1/4, Sec. 17, T7N, R57E) that was completed by Northwest Exploration Co. on July 5, 1981, for 200 BOPD and 1050 BWPD from the Devonian Guilmette(.) limestone (5316-5333 ft). Cumulative production through December 31, 1986, is 209,649 bbl of oil, and this well averaged 215 BOPD during December 1986.

  7. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Lee, Ki Ha; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    1994-09-01

    Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resisitivity images derived from the EM data collected before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated eastward. Surface-to-borehole measurements were useful in mapping the distribution of the major oil sands, but they were insensitive to resisitivity changes in the early stages of the steam flood.

  8. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Finlayson, David P.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Leifer, Ira; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fong, Grace

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.0 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The cities of Goleta and Isla Vista, the main population centers in the map area, are in the western part of a contiguous urban area that extends eastward through Santa Barbara to Carpinteria. This urban area is on the south flank of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains, on coalescing alluvial fans and uplifted marine terraces underlain by folded and

  9. Grant Canyon oil field, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, H.D.; Veal, H.K.; Bortz, L.C.; Foster, N.H.

    1988-03-01

    The Grant Canyon field is located on the east side of Railroad Valley, Nevada, 8 mi south of the Eagle Springs oil field. The discovery well, 1 Grant Canyon Unit (SW1/4NW1/4, Sec. 21, T7S, T57E), was completed by Northwest Exploration Company on September 11, 1983, flowing 1816 BOPD, probably from the Devonian Simonson Dolomite (4375-4448 ft). Two additional wells have been completed in the field. Cumulative oil production through December 31, 1986, is 5,260,430 bbl of oil. During December 1986, wells 3 and 4 flowed an average of 5189 BOPD. Well 4 averaged 4065 BOPD for a recent month. The discovery well has been shut-in. The productive area is about 240 ac. The trap is a high fault block in the boundary fault zone that separates Railroad Valley from the Grant Range to the east. The Devonian Simonson reservoir is an intensely fractured, vuggy dolomite with some intercrystalline porosity. The top seal is the Tertiary valley fill, which unconformably overlies the Simonson Dolomite. The oil column is about 400 ft and the field apparently has an active water drive, inasmuch as the 1 Grant Canyon Unit had to be shut-in because of water production. The oil is black, 26/sup 0/API gravity, with a pour point of 10/sup 0/F and 0.5% sulfur. Estimated ultimate recoverable oil reserves are 13,000,000 bbl. The adjacent Bacon Flat field is a one-well field (SW1/4SW1/4, Sec. 17, T7N, R57E) that was completed by Northwest Exploration Company on July 5, 1981, for 200 BOPD and 1050 BWPD from the Devonian Guilmette Limestone (5316-5333 ft). Cumulative production through December 31, 1986, was 209,649 bbl of oil. This well averaged 215 BOPD during December 1986.

  10. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  11. Reclamation planning for oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lahti, T.

    1990-12-31

    Oil and gas activity began in Rocky Mountain Region during the early 1900`s. Many of the early fields are still producing today. During the initial development of these older fields, little emphasis was placed upon environmental protection activities and reclamation of disturbed areas. Today, many of the {open_quotes}older fields{close_quotes} continue to change without a plan for environmental protection and reclamation. Reclamation of producing fields should begin immediately after a well site is equipped for production. Disturbed areas, no longer needed for operations, should be recontoured and revegetated to stabilize the site and reduce erosion. The Wyoming Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has developed a planning process for use by petroleum industry representatives, in conjunction with the BLM, whenever they are proposing expansion of new fields or planning the reclamation of existing disturbances. The procedures contained in this planning process can help resolve conflicts while guiding operators as they develop reasonable measures to mitigate the impacts of oil and gas development and production. The oil and gas operators, working with the BLM, or other land management entities, should establish a planned priority schedule for completing necessary maintenance and reclamation-related field work. This plan will help the operator budget his resources and work with the land manager to meet present and future responsibilities for environmental protection, reclamation, and final abandonment. Development and implementation of a field reclamation plan encourages the operator to condition a field for reclamation prior to final abandonment. The primary objective of this paper is to describe a procedure for the development of oil and gas field reclamation plans. This procedure establishes guidelines for reclamation planning of existing oil and gas fields on the Bureau of Land Management administered public lands in Wyoming.

  12. Amposta oil field (Spanish Mediterranean offshore)

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, U. )

    1988-08-01

    The Amposta oil field lies some 20 km off the Mediterranean coast of Spain directly south of the Ebro delta in 70 m of water. The field is operated by Shell in association with Repsol Exploracion (the Spanish national oil company) and Coparex. The field was discovered in 1970 and came on stream in 1972, reaching a maximum production of 40,000 bbl/day. The current cumulative production of 55.7 million bbl is just 300,000 bbl short of the field's expected ultimate primary recovery. Original production was established via a single-buoy mooring system (SBM) with a permanently moored tanker acting as a floating storage vessel. Oil is produced from a fractured, karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoir in a tilted fault-block structure (areal closure is 900 ha), sealed by overlying Miocene clastics. The top of the reservoir is at 1,746 m; the original oil column was 194 m. Designing the optimal production/drainage scheme for a complex reservoir such as the Amposta field with its intricate pore geometry (channels, caves, and fractures) formed an interesting challenge. The field has produced from 7 wells so far. Until recently pressure could be maintained and dry oil produced. Enhanced recovery tests (gas injection) are presently being undertaken. The heavy, undersaturated, high-sulfur crude (17{degree} API, gas-oil ratio of 380 scf/bbl, and 5.5% sulfur) is an early expulsion product generated from a marly/chalky type II source rock sequence of latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous age, underlying the field.

  13. Lithologic diversity and environmental restrictions are a challenge to reservoir development of the upper Miocene deep water sandstones of the Union Pacific and Ford zones in the Wilmington oil field, Los Angeles County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H. ); Jung, K.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The Union Pacific and Ford zones of the Long Beach Unit portion of the Wilmington oil field consist of more than 1,900 ft (600 m) of interbedded sediments in an asymmetrical faulted anticline divided into five fault blocks. Seventeen percent of the original oil in place has been produced predominantly from the major sand units in the lower Ford zone which possess the most favorable reservoir characteristics. This zone has watered out and has been abandoned. Reservoir development is now concentrated n two distinct overlying zones. The lower interval has major sand units and is being successfully waterflooded. The upper interval consists of 1,300 ft (400 m) of thinly interbedded sands and shales with a sandstone/shale ratio of 0.43. The zone cannot be evaluated with conventional logs. The volumetrics and reservoir quality of the upper zone are being re-evaluated using new logging techniques and new interpretation methods designed for thin bed analysis. In addition, shear wave sonic data and wireline formation pressure data has been obtained to evaluate hydraulic fracture potential and the subdivision of sands into high and low permeability flow units. Environmental restrictions require kill fluids and drilling muds other than an oil base system. These kill fluids and drilling muds have the potential for damaging the formations. Successful development of the upper section of the Union Pacific and Ford Zone can only succeed by paying close attention to and respecting the heterogeneity of the lithology. This requires new methods of formation evaluation, well completion, and production practices.

  14. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  15. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  16. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin basin, California. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.

    1996-06-28

    This project will reactivate ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conduct a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program. The producibility problems initially thought to be responsible for the low recovery in the Pru Fee property are: (a) the shallow dip of the bedding; (b) complex reservoir structure, (c) thinning pay zone; and (d) the presence of bottom water. The project is using tight integration of reservoir characterization and simulation modeling to evaluate the magnitude of and alternative solutions to these problems. Two main activities were brought to completion during the first quarter of 1996: (1) lithologic and petrophysical description of the core taken form the new well Pru 101 near the center of the demonstration site and (2) development of a stratigraphic model for the Pru Fee project area. In addition, the first phase of baseline cyclic steaming of the Pru Fee demonstration site was continued with production tests and formation temperature monitoring.

  17. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is not just to produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  18. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  19. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-09-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  20. Variability of surface temperature in agricultural fields of central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the relationship between hand-held infrared thermometers and aircraft thermal scanners in near-level terrain and to quantify the variability of surface temperatures within individual fields, ground-based and aircraft thermal sensor measurements were made along a 50-km transect on 3 May 1979 and a 20-km transect on 7 August 1980. These comparisons were made on fields near Davis, California. Agreement was within 1 C for fields covered with vegetation and 3.6 C for bare, dry fields. The variability within fields was larger for bare, dry fields than for vegetatively covered fields. In 1980, with improvements in the collection of ground truth data, the agreement was within 1 C for a variety of fields.

  1. Sacha oil field of Ecuadorian Oriente

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, R.W.; Bonilla, G.; Robbins, R.K.

    1982-08-01

    The Sacha oil field in the Ecuadorian Oriente was discovered in early 1969. Production began in July 1972, and at the end of 1980 had exceeded 190 million bbl. Drilling through 1980 had resulted in 91 oil wells and 2 dry holes. Estimated original primary recoverable reserves surpass 632 million bbl. The field is on a very low-relief anticline about 17.5 mi (28 km) long and averaging 4 mi (6.5 km) wide. Vertical closure amounts to 200 ft (60 m) and there are 41,000 acres (16,600 ha.) of areal closure on top of the principal reservoir. The Cretaceous sandstones, at drilled depths between 9,300 and 10,100 ft (2,835 and 3,080 m) provide excellent reservoirs. The Hollin Formation, the basal Cretaceous sandstone, is the principal reservoir, having produced 80% of the oil through 1980 and containing about 68% of the original reserves.

  2. Recent Trends in Water Use and Production for California Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Tiedeman, Kate; Yeh, Sonia; Scanlon, Bridget R; Teter, Jacob; Mishra, Gouri Shankar

    2016-07-19

    Recent droughts and concerns about water use for petroleum extraction renew the need to inventory water use for oil production. We quantified water volumes used and produced by conventional oil production and hydraulic fracturing (HF) in California. Despite a 25% decrease in conventional oil production from 1999 to 2012, total water use increased by 30% though much of that increase was derived from reuse of produced water. Produced water volumes increased by 50%, with increasing amounts disposed in unlined evaporation ponds or released to surface water. Overall freshwater use (constituting 1.2% of the state's nonagricultural water consumption) increased by 46% during this period due to increased freshwater-intensive tertiary oil production. HF has been practiced in California for more than 30 years, accounting for 1% of total oil production in 2012 from mostly directional and vertical wells. Water use intensity for HF wells in California averaged at 3.5 vol water/vol oil production in 2012 and 2.4 vol/vol in 2013, higher than the range from literature estimates and net water use intensity of conventional production (1.2 vol/vol in 2012). Increasing water use and disposal for oil production have important implications for water management and have potentially adverse health, environmental, and ecological impacts. PMID:27175896

  3. Geology and oil resources of the Coalinga district, California, with a report on the chemical and physical properties of the oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Ralph; Anderson, Robert; Allen, Irving Cowan

    1910-01-01

    The Coalinga oil district occupies a strip of land about 50 miles in length by 15 miles in width along the northeastern base of the Diablo Range, on the southwest side of the San Joaquin Valley, in western Fresno and Kings counties in central California. The region is accessible by rail from the main lines of both the Southern Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads by a branch line of the Southern Pacific running westerly from Goshen to Coalinga. The proved productive oil territory is comprised in a band 13 miles long by 3 miles wide in the foothills in the northern end of the district, within the Coalinga field proper, together with a narrow strip along the district's southwestern boundary in the Kreyenhagen field.

  4. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-06-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  5. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  6. Essential oil yield and composition of Pistacia vera "Kerman" fruits, peduncles, and leaves grown in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pistacia vera ‘Kerman’ is the predominant pistachio nut cultivar in the United States (California), the world’s second largest producer. Despite several reports on the essential oil (EO) content in the genus Pistacia, data on ‘Kerman’ is limited. The EO content and volatile organic compound (VOC) em...

  7. California commercial/sport fish and shellfish oil toxicity study. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, R.G.; Wingert, R.C.; Vick, W.H.; Sowby, M.L.; Foley, C.J.

    1983-12-01

    The effect of oil on three species of California marine organisms, California Halibut (Paralichthys californicus), Northern Anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and California Mussel (Mytilus californianus) were investigated. Adult, larval, and egg life stages of each species were exposed to the water soluble fraction (WSF) of Santa Barbara crude oil in flow-through experiments lasting through the life stage or as long as 120 days. Embryos of all species accumulated hydrocarbons and showed reduced survival with increasing test concentration. Larval halibut demonstrated bent notochords in high test concentration, reduced growth rate in all concentrations, and gill damage in adults in high concentration. Anchovy larvae and adults showed patterns similar to halibut with reduction in growth and head and jaw abnormalities.

  8. Uncertainty of oil field GHG emissions resulting from information gaps: a Monte Carlo approach.

    PubMed

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam R

    2014-09-01

    Regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from liquid fuel production generally work with incomplete data about oil production operations. We study the effect of incomplete information on estimates of GHG emissions from oil production operations. Data from California oil fields are used to generate probability distributions for eight oil field parameters previously found to affect GHG emissions. We use Monte Carlo (MC) analysis on three example oil fields to assess the change in uncertainty associated with learning of information. Single factor uncertainties are most sensitive to ignorance about water-oil ratio (WOR) and steam-oil ratio (SOR), resulting in distributions with coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.1-0.9 and 0.5, respectively. Using a combinatorial uncertainty analysis, we find that only a small number of variables need to be learned to greatly improve on the accuracy of MC mean. At most, three pieces of data are required to reduce bias in MC mean to less than 5% (absolute). However, the parameters of key importance in reducing uncertainty depend on oil field characteristics and on the metric of uncertainty applied. Bias in MC mean can remain after multiple pieces of information are learned, if key pieces of information are left unknown. PMID:25110115

  9. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  10. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  11. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope & Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, Steven

    1999-11-09

    In January 1997 the project entered its second and main phase with the purpose of demonstrating whether steamflood can be a more effective mode of production of the heavy, viscous oils from the Monarch Sand reservoir than the more conventional cyclic steaming. The objective is not just to produce the pilot site within the Pru Fee property south of Taft (Figure 1), but to test which production parameters optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  12. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  14. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  15. A model of peak production in oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Wiener, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model for oil production on the basis of simple physical considerations. The model provides a basic understanding of Hubbert's empirical observation that the production rate for an oil-producing region reaches its maximum when approximately half the recoverable oil has been produced. According to the model, the oil production rate at a large field must peak before drilling peaks. We use the model to investigate the effects of several drilling strategies on oil production. Despite the model's simplicity, predictions for the timing and magnitude of peak production match data on oil production from major oil fields throughout the world.

  16. Operating experience with California's first coal fired enhanced oil recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, G.B.

    1983-11-01

    This article discusses the experiences of operating Pyropower Corporation's ''Pyroflow'' circulating fluidized bed steam generation plant in Bakersfield, California. The Pyroflow plant is shown to be demonstrating its ability to provide a reliable source of steam for enhanced oil recovery. Actual operating problems have been minimal, and those which have occurred have involved plant auxilliary equipment rather than the steam generator itself. Fluidized bed combustion is the only practical means of burning coal in environmentally sensitive areas such as California without the use of flue gas scrubbing for sulfur dioxide control. This plant operates on the circulating bed concept as distinct from conventional fluidized beds which have a fixed bed depth.

  17. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  18. Gullfaks oil field - From challenge to success

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, H.; Nygaard, O. )

    1990-09-01

    The giant Gullfaks oil field was discovered in 1978. The field contains oil reserves in excess of 1.3 billion bbl. The field is located in the northeastern past of Block 34/10 in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Gullfaks represents the shallowest structural element of the Tampen Spur and was formed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic delta-deposited Brent Group, the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic fluvial channel and delta-plain deposits of the Statfjord Formation. The presence of gas in the post-Jurassic section and a variable water depth have complicated seismic interpretation. However, the improved quality of the 1985 three dimensional seismic survey and deliberate deepening of the development wells have resulted in a more accurate and complete structural interpretation. The Brent reserves in the western part of the field currently are being developed by the Gullfaks A and B platforms. The eastern part of the field is developed by a third platform, Gulflaks C. Water injection is the major drive mechanism maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point.

  19. Subsidence and uplift at Heber Geothermal field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Heber Geothermal field is in the Imperial Valley near the City of Heber, California, about 3 1/2 miles north of the Mexican border. The field is at the southern end of a network of irrigated agricultural fields extending across the valley floor. The Heber geothermal system is circular, producing water of moderate temperature (360{degrees}F) and low-salinity (13,000-14,000 ppm TDS). In cross section, the geothermal system resembles a lopsided mushroom. The system has three major permeability units: capping clays form 500 to 1800 feet; a high-matrix-permeability, deltaic-sandstone outflow reservoir from 1,800 to 5,500 feet; and feeder faults and fractures in indurated sediments below 5,500 feet. The deltaic sandstones were deposited by the ancestral Colorado River. As both power plants continue operating in Heber field, the need persists to monitor subsidence and uplift. The field`s subsidence bowl is not expected to expand significantly, but some small changes are expected due to pressure changes caused by production for the SIGC binary power plant. The three SIGC injection wells, located between the production areas for the two power plants, will be managed for adequate reservoir pressure support.

  20. California's American Trader oil spill: Effective interagency and public-private collaboration in environmental disaster response

    SciTech Connect

    Gellert, G.A. ); Daugherty, S.J.; Rabiee, L.; Mazur, M.; Merryman, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The American Trader tanker oil spill off Huntington Beach, California, in 1990 triggered a large interagency and public-private response to minimize the ecological and economic impact of nearly 400,000 gallons of spilled crude oil. This paper examines the interagency collaboration of public and private organizations during this crisis. Data are presented from interviews with key participants from various agencies, as well as from an innovative quantitative health-based risk assessment that allowed rapid reopenings of 15 miles of affected beaches. Features that contributed to effective management of the emergency response are considered along with recommendations for improvements in the future.

  1. Fracturing results in diatomaceous earth formations, South Belridge Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Strubhar, M.K.; Medin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    Fracturing significantly increases light oil production rates at South Belridge making this an economically successful technique for exploitation of the Reef Ridge reservoir. No fracturing mechanics problems were encountered in any of the treatments. The loosely consolidated formations behaved mechanically much like brittle, elastic rocks. Net oil and gross production is typified by initial high rates and an early rapid decline. The major cause of this early rapid decline is the transient flow effect. This behavior is typical of low permeability oil and gas production. Fractures are vertical, as shown by gamma ray and temperature logs run following several treatments. The fractures grow slightly out of the perforated intervals (10 to 15 feet). Loss of fracture conductivity due to fines migration, scale deposition, and/or fracture healing (imbedment) is not a serious problem. Oil viscosity can vary as much as ten-fold. Some wells produce significant amounts of gas--100 to 200 MCFPD initially. The formation is primarily diatomaceous earth which is very fine particle size siliceous material composed of whole or fragmented diatom tests (skeletons). There is no evidence that clay swelling or dispersion is a problem. Field and laboratory data support this conclusion. Aqueous fracturing fluids were successfully used which confirmed laboratory tests on cores.

  2. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  3. Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

    2000-07-01

    Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

  4. Getty: producing oil from diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Zublin, L.

    1981-10-01

    Getty Oil Company has developed unconventional oil production techniques which will yield oil from diatomaceous earth. They propose to mine oil-saturated diatomite using open-pit mining methods. Getty's diatomite deposit in the McKittrick field of California is unique because it is cocoa brown and saturated with crude oil. It is classified also as a tightly packed deposit, and oil cannot be extracted by conventional oil field methods.

  5. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole.

  6. Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals of the Geysers Steam Field, California and their Potential Use in Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Diane

    1980-12-16

    Little information has been published on the hydrothermal alteration minerals occurring at depth in the Geysers steam field, California. Steiner (1958) reported the occurrence of wairakite from a well; McNitt (1964) identified pyrite, sericite, calcite, quartz, siderite, apatite and chlorite in cores of Franciscan graywacke and greenstone. Recently, Union Oil Geothermal Division furnished a set of well cores from the cap rock overlying the steam reservoir for geophysical studies (Lockner -e t -a l . , 1980). Cores of metagraywacke and greenstone from 4 wells were compared to unaltered Franciscan metagraywacke from surface exposures. Several previously unreported alteration minerals were found in the cored rocks, including epidote, tremolite-actinolite, prehnite and tourmaline. This note describes the observed alteration minerals and some of the factors that controlled their growth.

  7. Geology of Tompkins Hill gas field, Humboldt County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.

    1988-03-01

    The Tompkins Hill gas field, located in Humboldt County, California, is the only producing field in the Eel River basin. The field is an anticlinal flexure on the north limb of the Eel River syncline in the central onshore portion of the basin. The Tompkins Hill anticline is doubly plunging and trends east-west. Stratigraphic units present in the field include the Yager, Eel River, and Rio Dell Formations and Scotia Bluffs Sandstone. The Yager occurs below a major unconformity, and forms economic basement. Strata overlying the Eel River, Rio Dell, and Scotia Bluffs represent a progradational basin-fill sequence, including submarine fan, slope, shelf, and littoral deposits. The primary productive interval in the field is within the middle of the Rio Dell and consists of interbedded fine sandstone and mudrock. Portions of the Eel River and upper Rio Dell Formations are also productive. The Tompkins Hill gas field was discovered by the Texas Company in 1937 with the drilling of Eureka 2 in Sec. 22, T3N, R1W. The play was probably based on outcrop mapping and the presence of gas seeps in the area. The primary trapping mechanism in the field is structural, although stratigraphy may have been a factor in constraining gas. To date, 39 producing wells have been drilled and 87.4 bcf of gas, consisting of 98% methane, has been produced. Very minor amounts of condensate are also produced. The source rocks for the gas are uncertain, but both the Yager Formation and strata of the lower Wildcat Group may have contributed.

  8. Geology and paleoenvironment of Bunker gas field, Solano County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Shariff, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    Bunker gas fields is in Solano County, T6N, R1, 2E, MDBM, in the Sacramento Valley, the northern part of the Great Valley of California. Correlation, interpretation, and analysis of electric logs from more than 60 wells were used in the study of the Bunker gas field. Subsurface structure contour maps of the field indicate a northwest-trending, faulted, domal to anticlinal fold that plunges to the southeast. Paleotopographic maps of the Bunker gas field demonstrate that: (1) the direction of the paleofluvial valleys and paleoslope during the late Cretaceous was generally in a south-southwesterly direction, and the sediment source was in the north-northeast; and (2) the direction of the paleofluvial valleys and paleoslope during the late Paleocene was generally to the west, and the sediment source was to the east of the field. This paleotopography is inferred to have persisted during the early Eocene. Electric-log analysis, lithologic characteristics (e.g., grain size, sorting), and stratigraphic sequence illustrate that subsurface deposystems in the Bunker gas field were predominantly shelf facies. Both progradational and retrogradational suites of strata occur within the stratigraphic sequence. a shallow regressive and transgressive sea was the prominent paleogeographic feature within the study area. During the Late Cretaceous, the study area was covered by a shallow regressive sea and was characterized by deltaic conditions during the period that the Mokelumne sand and shale lithosome was deposited. During the early late Paleocene, the study area was covered by a shallow transgressive sea, and a mid-neritic environment prevailed during the period that the McCormick sandstone was deposited. During the latest Paleocene, the area was covered by a shallow regressive sea and exhibited a littoral environment at the time when the Martinez shale was deposited.

  9. Halophilic archaebacteria from the Kalamkass oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Zvyagintseva, I.S.; Belyaev, S.S.; Borzenkov, I.A.; Kostrikina, N.A.; Milekhina, E.I.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    Two strains of halophilic archaebacteria, growing in a medium containing from 10 to 25% NaCl, were isolated from the brines of the Kalamkass (Mangyshlak) oil field. Both strains are extremely halophilic archaebacteria according to the complex of their phenotypic properties. Strain M-11 was identified as Haloferax mediterranei on the basis of the composition of polar lipids and DNA-DNA homology. The composition of polar lipids and 16S rRNA sequence of strain M-18 allowed us to assign it to the genus Haloferax. This strain differs from the approved species of the genus Haloferax, H. volcanii, and H. mediterranei. However, to describe it as a new species, additional investigations are necessary. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Geothermal Pumping and Induced Seismicity in Southern California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, D. A.; Jones, L.

    2013-12-01

    Induced earthquakes have been recognized for decades and observed in New Zealand, Switzerland, the US and elsewhere. Many factors can induce seismicity, including changes in pore pressure, temperature, volume, and chemistry. When fractured rock is injected with fluid, the effective normal stress and coefficient of friction are lowered and the rock is brought closer to failure. In this study, we examine the relationship between seismicity and geothermal pumping. We have obtained monthly injection and production data from the CA Department of Conservation for the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Brawley Geothermal Field, and other California geothermal fields. We compare the temporal distribution of injection, production, fluid volume change (injection volume - production volume), and seismicity to determine if there are changes in the pumping rates that correspond to changes in seismicity rates. We observe a qualitative correlation between times of maximum fluid volume change and high seismicity levels, in particular, contemporaneous with the 2005 Obsidian Butte earthquake swarm. We also examine how changes in injection and production rates affect the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, earthquake depth, and focal mechanisms.

  11. Laboratory and field observations of stress-wave induced changes in oil flow behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P. M.; Majer, Ernest Luther; Wooden, W.; Daley, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present recent results of laboratory and field experiments designed to validate and quantify the phenomenon of seismically enhanced oil production in marginal reservoirs. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed where mechanical stress oscillations at 100 Hz or less were applied to sandstone cores while flowing oil and/or brine at constant flow rates. Steady-state flow and simulated flooding experiments indicated that stress stimulation causes significant changes in the ability of one fluid to displace the other and on the preference that the rock has for trapping one fluid over the other. For Berea sandstone, which is highly water wet, stress stimulation caused oil production to be impeded during water floods and caused the bulk fluid pressure drop across the core to increase during steady-state simultaneous flow of oil and brine. A possible explanation of these observations is that stimulation caused the core to become more oil wet. Field stimulation tests on producing reservoirs at Lost Hills, California were performed using a downhole fluid pressure pulsation device. Stimulation was applied in one well for 50 days total during July - November 2000. Two groups of producing wells were monitored for changes in oil cut and oil production during the test. A control group of 26 wells displayed an oil-cut increase of 29% and an oil production increase of 26% which are clearly correlated with the stimulation treatment. A larger group of 60 wells showed 11% oil-cut and 17v0 production increases. Similar increases were observed during the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, magnitude 7.1, in the Mojave Desert about 230 miles from Lost Hills. Downhole seismic monitoring of the stimulation wavefield is being used to help quantify the frequency range and energy threshold required for effective production enhancement.

  12. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  13. Project DEEP STEAM preliminary field test, Bakersfield, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, A.J.; Beyeler, J.A.; Clay, R.G.; Darnall, K.R.; Donaldson, A.B.; Donham, T.D.; Fox, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    A successful field test of the DEEP STEAM technology has been conducted. A direct contact steam generator was operated in the Kern River reservoir in cooperation with Chevron USA. The objectives of the test were demonstration of long term operation of a downhole steam generator, investigation of reservoir response, and the environmental consequences of the technology. The test was extensively instrumented to provide data on generator performance and reservoir response. The results show that the system is capable of long term operation in the oil field. It was demonstrated that substantial environmental improvements over surface steam production can be expected from injection of combustion products with steam in the downhole steam concept. The reservoir character was not altered by the test injection and appeared the same as that for pure steam injection.

  14. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  15. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  16. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  17. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  18. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Microbial processes in oil fields: culprits, problems, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Noha; Elshahed, Mostafa S; McInerney, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity, metabolic capabilities, ecological roles, and community dynamics of oil reservoir microbial communities is far from complete. The lack of appreciation of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can lead to detrimental consequences such as souring or plugging. In contrast, knowledge of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can be used to enhance productivity and recovery efficiency. It is clear that (1) nitrate and/or nitrite addition controls H2S production, (2) oxygen injection stimulates hydrocarbon metabolism and helps mobilize crude oil, (3) injection of fermentative bacteria and carbohydrates generates large amounts of acids, gases, and solvents that increases oil recovery particularly in carbonate formations, and (4) nutrient injection stimulates microbial growth preferentially in high permeability zones and improves volumetric sweep efficiency and oil recovery. Biosurfactants significantly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water and large amounts of biosurfactant can be made in situ. However, it is still uncertain whether in situ biosurfactant production can be induced on the scale needed for economic oil recovery. Commercial microbial paraffin control technologies slow the rate of decline in oil production and extend the operational life of marginal oil fields. Microbial technologies are often applied in marginal fields where the risk of implementation is low. However, more quantitative assessments of the efficacy of microbial oil recovery will be needed before microbial oil recovery gains widespread acceptance. PMID:19203651

  20. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-2, Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase 1 fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and 96.1 percent of surface rights in 10,447 acres of the 30,182 acres contained within NPR-2. This property comprises the Buena Vista Hills Oil Field. Oil and gas companies have leased out 9,227 acres in 17 separate leases. Discovered in 1909, this field has approximately 435 active wells producing 2,819 gross barrels of oil and 8.6 million cubic feet of gas per day. Net production to the Government royalty interests include 200 barrels of oil per day and 750 thousand cubic feet of gas per day. Royalty revenues are about $1.7 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 407 thousand barrels of oil and 1.8 billion cubic feet of gas. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present, but these should be the responsibility of the lessees. Ultimate liability still rests with the United States and may increase as the leases are sold to smaller and smaller operators.

  1. Polymer flooding increases production in giant oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Delamaide, E.; Corlay, P. )

    1994-12-01

    Daqing field, discovered in 1959, is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, with original oil in place exceeding two billion tons. Reservoir heterogeneity and oil viscosity have resulted in moderate displacement efficiency and high watercut. To increase recovery, polymer injection was tested in two pilots between 1987 and 1992, after lab and reservoir studies. Both pilots proved highly successful and led to the decision to extend polymer injection to the whole field. This article presents the history of Daqing polymer flooding, from preliminary studies to full-field extension.

  2. Kill fluid for oil field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

  3. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976.

  4. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  5. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. PMID:22704814

  6. Exploitation of multizones by waterflooding in the Daqing oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Jinyusun; Yangwanli; Wangzhiwu

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of oil and water in the pay zones and the constant changes of relationship taking place among the zones in the course of development of a sandstone oil reservoir by waterflooding bear closely on its stable production and ultimate recovery. So, the result of development of an oil field depends largely on knowledge of the changing conditions and the ability to cope with them by regulatory or reconstructive measures. All the pay zones in the Daqing oil field have been clearly segregated, and on this basis, different zones in the one and same well may be flooded and produced separately. The development of the Daqing oil field has been successful, comparable to similar oil fields in the U.S. and Soviet Union in the following respects, which are disucssed: reservoir pressure maintained; wells kept flowing; stable average daily output; long, stable high- yielding period; and less water consumed than in oil fields of other countries producing oil of similar viscosity. (12 refs.)

  7. California condor plumage and molt as field study aids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is made of the reliability of plumage and molt characteristics of the California condor for estimating age and identifying individual birds. Neither character seems sufficiently reliable to use in more than a general way.

  8. Oiled seabird rescue at the J.V. Fitzgerald Marine Reserve, San Mateo County, California, 1968-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Records of oiled and injured seabirds at the J.V. Fitzgerald Marine Reserve, San Mateo County, California, were collated from the daily log at the Reserve for the period 1968-1995. These records serve to demonstrate that oil spills and chronic oiling have occurred frequently in this area, just south of San Francisco. Common Murres (Uria aalge) were the most frequently-oiled species rescued at the Reserve. Greater efforts should be made by wildlife rehabilitators to collate large volumes of past data (prior to the early 1990s) on oiled and injured seabirds for similar documentation of large or moderate oil spills (including undocumented or poorly-known spills), chronic oiling from small spills, and injuries from other sources.

  9. Reservoir compaction of the Belridge Diatomite and surface subsidence, south Belridge field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, J.R.; Shore, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Surface subsidence due to reservoir compaction during production has been observed in many large oil fields. Subsidence is most obvious in coastal and offshore fields where inundation by the sea occurs. Well-known examples are Wilmington field in California and Ekofisk field in the North Sea. In South Belridge field, the Belridge Diatomite member of the late Miocene Reef Ridge Shale has proven prone to compaction during production. The reservoir, a high-porosity, low-permeability, highly compressive rock composed largely of diatomite and mudstone, is about 1,000 ft thick and lies at an average depth of 1,600 ft. Within the Belridge Diatomite, reservoir compaction due to withdrawal of oil and water in Sec. 12, T28S, R20E, MDB and M, was noticed after casing failures in producing wells began occurring and tension cracks, enlarged by hydrocompaction after a heavy rainstorm were observed. Surface subsidence in Sec. 12 has been monitored since April 1987, through the surveying of benchmark monuments. The average annualized subsidence rate during 1987 was {minus}1.86 ft/yr, {minus}0.92 ft/yr during 1988, and {minus}0.65 ft/yr during 1989; the estimated peak subsidence rate reached {minus}7.50 ft/yr in July 1985, after 1.5 yrs of production from the Belridge Diatomite reservoir. Since production from the Belridge Diatomite reservoir commenced in February 1984, the surface of the 160-ac producing area has subsided about 12.5 ft. This equates to an estimated reservoir compaction of 30 ft in the Belridge Diatomite and an average loss of reservoir porosity of 2.4% from 55.2 to 52.8%. Injection of water for reservoir pressure maintenance in the Belridge diatomite began in June 1987, and has been effective in mitigating subsidence to current rates and repressurizing the reservoir to near-initial pressure. An added benefit of water injection has been improved recovery of oil from the Belridge Diatomite by waterflood.

  10. Environmental contamination in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.; Hall, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on freshwater wildlife of chronic exposure to oil field discharges are not well known. Collections of wastewater, aquatic invertebrates, fish, salamanders, and small mammals were made in several streams in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania during 1980-81. Estimates of the petroleum content of two wastewater discharges were high (21.9 and 8.4 ppm) and one was low (0.3 ppm). Water conductivity was inversely related to aquatic invertebrate biomass. Hydrocarbons accumulated in significantly greater amounts in crayfish, fish, and small mammals from collection sites with oil extraction activity than from sites without oil extraction activity. Estimates of total petroleum in invertebrates, trout, and suckers averaged between 200 and 280 ppm for oil extraction sites and between 8 and 80 ppm for sites without oil extraction activity: Oil extraction activity did not affect metal accumulation by fish. Oil and wastewater discharges in oil fields disrupt community composition and can cause an overall reduction in stream productivity.

  11. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole.

  12. Using InSAR to Analyze the Effects of Oil Extraction on the Kuparuk Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluyut, E.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ground deformation around oil fields is a major concern in regards to the impacts of this human-induced change on the environment. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) was used to map the ground deformation in the area of the Kuparuk Oil Field in Northern Alaska from 2007 to 2010. Data packages from the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) and corresponding data for the digital elevation model (DEM) were used to create interferograms and the DEM. This was done using MATLAB and Python on a Linux operating system. Selected interferograms were cropped and errors from noise, topography, or atmosphere were minimized through fitting and stacking techniques. After analysis, the InSAR data yielded a chronology of a change in ground deformation around the Kuparuk Oil Field, which is correlated to a history of recovery techniques. Analysis of interferograms from before, in transition, and after application of different techniques can determine patterns of ground deformation in the field. It was found that positive ground deformation was more prevalent before the implementation of new oil recovery techniques as opposed to after implementation, with negative ground deformation occurring during the transition of the applications that allowed for more productive oil extraction. These results quantitatively demonstrate the magnitude of land subsidence that actively recovered oil fields induce. They also suggest that new methods of enhanced oil recovery are stabilizing the subterranean layers being drilled, creating a decrease in positive land deformation. This could support the continuation of research in fields of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration.

  13. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J. J.; Hutchings, L. J.; Kasameyer, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is located in northern California and is one of the world's largest producers of electricity from geothermal energy. The resource consists of primarily dry steam which is produced from a low, porosity fractured graywacke. Over the last several years steam pressure at the Geysers has been dropping. Concern over decline of the resource has prompted research to understand its fundamental nature. A key issue is the distribution of fluid in the matrix of the reservoir rock. In this paper we interpret seismic compressional-wave velocity and attenuation data at the Geysers in terms of the geologic structure and fluid saturation in the reservoir. Our data consist of approximately 300 earthquakes that are of magnitude 1.2 and are distributed in depth between sea level and 2.5 km. Using compressional-wave arrival times, we invert for earthquake location, origin time, and velocity along a three-dimensional grid. Using the initial pulse width of the compressional-wave, we invert for the initial pulse width associated with the source, and the one-dimensional Q structure. We find that the velocity structure correlates with known mapped geologic units, including a velocity high that is correlated with a felsite body at depth that is known from drilling. The dry steam reservoir, which is also known from drilling, is mostly correlated with low velocity. The Q increases with depth to the top of the dry steam reservoir and decreases with depth within the reservoir. The decrease of Q with depth probably indicates that the saturation of the matrix of the reservoir rock increases with depth.

  15. Main Generator Seal Oil Supply Reliability Improvements at Southern California Edison's San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Simma, Fred Y.; Chetwynd, Russell J.; Rowe, Stuart A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the justification for the approach, details and results of the Main Generator Seal Oil System reliability enhancements on the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, SONGS. The SONGS, Unit 3 experienced substantial turbine damage in early 2001 after the turbine bearings lubrication oil supply failed. During a loss of off-site power incident, power was lost to the two AC powered turbine lubrication oil pumps due to a breaker failure in the switchgear and the DC powered emergency bearing lubricating oil pump failed to start due to a breaker trip. The SONGS turbine generators coasted down from full speed to a full stop without lubricating oil. This resulted in significant bearing, journal and steam path damage that required a four-month duration repair outage during a time period where electricity was in short supply in the State of California. The generator hydrogen sealing system remained operable during this event, however it was recognized during the event follow up investigation that this system had vulnerabilities to failure similar to the bearing lubrication system. In order to prevent a reoccurrence of this extremely costly event, SONGS has taken actions to modify both of these critical turbine generator systems by adding additional, continuously operating pumps with a new, independent power source and independently routed cables. The main challenge was to integrate the additional equipment into the existing lubrication and seal oil systems. The lubrication Oil System was the first system to be retro-fitted and these results already have been presented. Reference 2. This paper provides the result of the reliability enhancements for the Main Generator Seal Oil System, which concludes the turbine/generator critical oil systems reliability improvements, performed by SONGS. It is worth noting that the design team discovered and corrected a number of other significant operational issues, which had been present from the early days and also learned

  16. Families of miocene monterey crude oil, seep, and tarball samples, coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs to better assess their origins and distributions in coastal California. These samples were used to construct a chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree to classify 288 additional samples. The results identify three tribes of 13C-rich oil samples inferred to originate from thermally mature equivalents of the clayey-siliceous, carbonaceous marl and lower calcareous-siliceous members of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach near Santa Barbara. An attempt to correlate these families to rock extracts from these members in the nearby COST (continental offshore stratigraphic test) (OCS-Cal 78-164) well failed, at least in part because the rocks are thermally immature. Geochemical similarities among the oil tribes and their widespread distribution support the prograding margin model or the banktop-slope-basin model instead of the ridge-and-basin model for the deposition of the Monterey Formation. Tribe 1 contains four oil families having geochemical traits of clay-rich marine shale source rock deposited under suboxic conditions with substantial higher plant input. Tribe 2 contains four oil families with traits intermediate between tribes 1 and 3, except for abundant 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicating suboxic to anoxic marine marl source rock with hemipelagic input. Tribe 3 contains five oil families with traits of distal marine carbonate source rock deposited under anoxic conditions with pelagic but little or no higher plant input. Tribes 1 and 2 occur mainly south of Point Conception in paleogeographic settings where deep burial of the Monterey source rock favored petroleum generation from all three members or their equivalents. In this area, oil from the clayey-siliceous and carbonaceous marl members (tribes 1 and 2) may overwhelm that from the lower

  17. Petroleum systems of the San Joaquin Basin Province, California -- geochemical characteristics of oil types: Chapter 9 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2007-01-01

    New analyses of 120 oil samples combined with 139 previously published oil analyses were used to characterize and map the distribution of oil types in the San Joaquin Basin, California. The results show that there are at least four oil types designated MM, ET, EK, and CM. Most of the oil from the basin has low to moderate sulfur content (less than 1 weight percent sulfur), although a few unaltered MM oils have as much as 1.2 weight percent sulfur. Reevaluation of source rock data from the literature indicate that the EK oil type is derived from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, and the MM oil type is derived, in part, from the Miocene to Pliocene Monterey Formation and its equivalent units. The ET oil type is tentatively correlated to the Eocene Tumey formation of Atwill (1935). Previous studies suggest that the CM oil type is derived from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation. Maps of the distribution of the oil types show that the MM oil type is restricted to the southern third of the San Joaquin Basin Province. The composition of MM oils along the southern and eastern margins of the basin reflects the increased contribution of terrigenous organic matter to the marine basin near the Miocene paleoshoreline. EK oils are widely distributed along the western half of the basin, and ET oils are present in the central and west-central areas of the basin. The CM oil type has only been found in the Coalinga area in southwestern Fresno County. The oil type maps provide the basis for petroleum system maps that incorporate source rock distribution and burial history, migration pathways, and geologic relationships between hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. These petroleum system maps were used for the 2003 U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of the San Joaquin Basin Province.

  18. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  20. Fracturing alliance allows massive diatomite oil reserves to be economically produced at Lost Hills, California: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Klins, M.A.; Stewart, D.W.; Pferdehirt, D.J.; Stewart, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    As North American oilfield operations mature, there is a perceptible loosening of the autocratic ties between oil companies and contractors. They are being replaced by alliances or partnerships designed to minimize cost while improving profitability of the companies involved. Many papers have been written concerning alliance theory, but little documentation exists detailing actual performance. This paper evaluates a mature alliance, its implementation, structure and results. In Lost Hills, California, the diatomite formation requires hydraulic fracturing to allow oil recovery at profitable production rates. Because hydraulic fracturing is approximately two-thirds of the total well cost, it is imperative that fracturing investments be optimized to allow field development to proceed at optimum levels. Therefore, in 1990, a fracturing alliance (the first of its kind) was initiated between Chevron and Schlumberger Dowell. Over 1 billion lbm of sand has been successfully placed during approximately 2,000 fracture stimulation jobs. Through this prototype fracturing alliance, many major accomplishments are being achieved. The most notable are the hydraulic fracturing costs that have been reduced by 40% while improving the profitability of both companies. This paper illustrates the benefits of an alliance and justifies the change in management style from a low-bid operating strategy to a win-win customer/supplier attitude.

  1. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  2. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  3. Analysis of induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, A.; Maercklin, N.; Matrullo, E.; Orefice, A.; Amoroso, O.; Convertito, V.; Sharma, N.; Zollo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluid injection, steam extraction, and reservoir stimulation in geothermal systems lead to induced seismicity. While in rare cases induced events may be large enough to pose a hazard, on the other hand the microseismicity provides information on the extent and the space-time varying properties of the reservoir. Therefore, microseismic monitoring is important, both for mitigation of unwanted effects of industrial operations and for continuous assessment of reservoir conditions. Here we analyze induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field in California, a vapor-dominated field with the top of the main steam reservoir some 1-3 km below the surface. Commercial exploitation began in the 1960s, and the seismicity increased with increasing field development. We focus our analyses on induced seismicity recorded between August 2007 and October 2011. Our calibrated waveform database contains some 15000 events with magnitudes between 1.0 and 4.5 and recorded by the LBNL Geysers/Calpine surface seismic network. We associated all data with events from the NCEDC earthquake catalog and re-picked first arrival times. Using selected events with at least 20 high-quality P-wave picks, we determined a minimum 1-D velocity model using VELEST. A well-constrained P-velocity model shows a sharp velocity increase at 1-2 km depth (from 3 to 5 km/s) and then a gradient-like trend down to about 5 km depth, where velocities reach values of 6-7 km/s. The station corrections show coherent, relatively high, positive travel time delays in the NW zone, thus indicating a strong lateral variation of the P-wave velocities. We determined an average Vp-to-Vs ratio of 1.67, which is consistent with estimates from other authors for the same time period. The events have been relocated in the new model using a non-linear probabilistic methods. The seismicity appears spatially diffused in a 15x10 km2 area elongated in NW-SE direction, and earthquake depths range between 0 and 6 km. As in previous

  4. Reservoir geology of Landslide field, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, T.R.; Tucker, R.D.; Singleton, M.T. )

    1991-02-01

    The Landslide field, which is located on the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 and consists of 13 producers and six injectors. Cumulative production as of mid-1990 was approximately 10 million bbl of oil with an average daily production of 4700 BOPD. Production is from a series of late Miocene turbidite sands (Stevens Sand) that were deposited as a small constructional submarine fan (less than 2 mi in diameter). Based on interpretation of wireline logs and engineering data, deposition of the fan and of individual lobes within the fan was strongly influenced by preexisting paleotopography and small syndepositional slump features. Based on mapping of individual depositional units and stratigraphic dipmeter analysis, transport direction of the sand was to the north-north across these paleotopographic breaks in slope. Dipmeter data and pressure data from individual sands are especially useful for recognition and mapping of individual flow units between well bores. Detailed engineering, geophysical and geological studies have increased our understanding of the dimensions, continuity, geometry, and inherent reservoir properties of the individual flow units within the reservoir. Based on the results of these studies a series of water isolation workovers and extension wells were proposed and successfully undertaken. This work has increased recoverable reserves and arrested the rapid production decline.

  5. Oil fields of northern Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, H.D.

    1989-03-01

    Since 1954 four oil fields have been discovered in northern Railroad Valley: Eagle Springs, Trap Springs, Currant, and Kate Spring. Though similar in many aspects, each is unique in structure, stratigraphy, and reservoir conditions. Oil accumulation in all four fields is related to faulting, and all reservoirs are either fractured or enhanced by fractures. The reservoir rocks vary from Tertiary ignimbrites to Tertiary lacustrine sediments to Paleozoic carbonates. A Tertiary unconformity controls the seal at Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, and Kate Spring. At Currant the seal is the Tertiary Sheep Pass shale. There are two basic oil types. Oil has been generated from shales of the Tertiary Sheep Pass Formation and the Mississippian Chainman Formation. Oil generation is probably recent and continuing. These oils are mixed in at least two reservoirs. Over 10 million bbl of oil have been produced in northern Railroad Valley, and despite the variability of the stratigraphy, structure, and oil generation, the area is still a viable hunting ground for modest reserves. Using these fields along with their permutations and combinations as models makes exploration in the rest of the Basin and Range province inspiring.

  6. Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bockmeulen, H.; Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API gravity, percent saturates, aromatics, NSO and asphalitic compounds, gas chromatograms for whole oils, C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ fractions, and aromatics. Also, 24 associated waters were sampled and analyzed for Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup - -/, SO/sub 4//sup - -/, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The geological and geochemical significances of these analyses are discussed with particular emphasis on the genesis of the petroleum.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  8. Integrated modeling and field study of potential mechanisms forinduced seismicity at The Geysers Goethermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Majer, Ernie; Oldenburg, Curt; Peterson, John; Vasco, Don

    2006-06-07

    In this paper, we present progress made in a study aimed atincreasing the understanding of the relative contributions of differentmechanisms that may be causing the seismicity occurring at The Geysersgeothermal field, California. The approach we take is to integrate: (1)coupled reservoir geomechanical numerical modeling, (2) data fromrecently upgraded and expanded NCPA/Calpine/LBNL seismic arrays, and (3)tens of years of archival InSAR data from monthly satellite passes. Wehave conducted a coupled reservoir geomechanical analysis to studypotential mechanisms induced by steam production. Our simulation resultscorroborate co-locations of hypocenter field observations of inducedseismicity and their correlation with steam production as reported in theliterature. Seismic and InSAR data are being collected and processed foruse in constraining the coupled reservoir geomechanicalmodel.

  9. SUPERVISED FIELD EXPERIENCE AND INTERNSHIP PROGRAMS IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE CALIFORNIA STATE COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNS, W. LLOYD

    A SURVEY OF EXISTING FIELD EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN THE 18 CALIFORNIA STATE COLLEGES WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HIGH-QUALITY SUPERVISED FIELD-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION. DATA FOR MAJOR FINDINGS WERE COLLECTED FROM (1) A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, (2) AN EXAMINATION OF FIELD-EXPERIENCE…

  10. California Community College Student Attitudes on Communication Career Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, Robert E.; Pasqua, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Describes a survey of California community college students enrolled in journalism, business, and English courses, which focused on student characteristics; educational background; family members in communications careers; ethnic background; awareness of communications careers; perceptions of careers in radio-television, advertising,…

  11. Initial exploration results: COSO Geothermal Field Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.L.; Austin, C.

    1983-09-01

    The Coso geothermal area in Inyo County, California is described. Extensive geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the area have been conducted making it one of the most thoroughly studied geothermal prospects in the US. The Coso geothermal system, its reservoir rocks and fractures, magmatic heat source, groundwater flow patterns, caprock or seals, and the Coso Navy Exploratory Well 75-7 are described.

  12. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  13. Characterization of gas fields by petroleum system, Sacramento Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Valin, Z.C.; Reid, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Sacramento Basin, a north-trending forearc basin, contains Late Jurassic to Holocene sedimentary rocks that thicken to the south. The basin fill is about 300 km long, 80 km wide, and as much as 16 km thick. Because the 157 gas fields with original reserves of 9.14 tcf (1012 ft3) cover a large area, a change in chemical composition due to migration from wet gas to pure methane is recorded. On the basis of the carbon-isotopic composition of methane and stratigraphic occurrence, two petroleum systems have been identified in the Sacramento Basin. The Dobbins-Forbes(?) gas system, which contained about 2.25 tcf of recoverable gas, underlies the Winters-Domengine(?) gas system, which contained about 6.89 tcf of recoverable gas. Gas migrated laterally to the north as far as 200 km in the Dobbins-Forbes(?) system, whereas in the Winters-Domengine(?) system, gas first migrated vertically and then crossed the Midland Fault to the east for as far as 40 km. In both systems, depth of gas production is less than 3 km. By applying the petroleum-system concept and available information about the geology and geochemistry of this province, our study provides a new testable hypothesis for the origin, migration, and accumulation of gas in the Sacramento Basin. By reinterpreting some of the natural-gas information, along with data on gas wetness, gas-oil ratio, vectors of migration, hydrocarbon volume, and thermal history, two gas systems have been identified.

  14. Characterization of gas fields by petroleum system, Sacramento Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Valin, Z.C. ); Reid, R.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The Sacramento Basin, a north-trending forearc basin, contains Late Jurassic to Holocene sedimentary rocks that thicken to the south. The basin fill is about 300 km long, 80 km wide, and as much as 16 km thick. Because the 157 gas fields with original reserves of 9.14 tcf (1012 ft3) cover a large area, a change in chemical composition due to migration from wet gas to pure methane is recorded. On the basis of the carbon-isotopic composition of methane and stratigraphic occurrence, two petroleum systems have been identified in the Sacramento Basin. The Dobbins-Forbes( ) gas system, which contained about 2.25 tcf of recoverable gas, underlies the Winters-Domengine( ) gas system, which contained about 6.89 tcf of recoverable gas. Gas migrated laterally to the north as far as 200 km in the Dobbins-Forbes( ) system, whereas in the Winters-Domengine( ) system, gas first migrated vertically and then crossed the Midland Fault to the east for as far as 40 km. In both systems, depth of gas production is less than 3 km. By applying the petroleum-system concept and available information about the geology and geochemistry of this province, our study provides a new testable hypothesis for the origin, migration, and accumulation of gas in the Sacramento Basin. By reinterpreting some of the natural-gas information, along with data on gas wetness, gas-oil ratio, vectors of migration, hydrocarbon volume, and thermal history, two gas systems have been identified.

  15. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  16. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  17. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  18. Polarimetric SAR Models for Oil Fields Monitoring in China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, A.; Nunziata, F.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Ding, X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, physical-based models for polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) oil fields monitoring are proposed. They all share a physical rationale relying on the different scattering mechanisms that characterize a free sea surface, an oil slick-covered sea surface, and a metallic target. In fact, sea surface scattering is well modeled by a Bragg-like behaviour, while a strong departure from Bragg scattering is in place when dealing with oil slicks and targets. Furthermore, the proposed polarimetric models aim at addressing simultaneously target and oil slick detection, providing useful extra information with respect to single-pol SAR data in order to approach oil discrimination and classification. Experiments undertaken over East and South China Sea from actual C-band RadarSAT-2 full-pol SAR data witness the soundness of the proposed rationale.

  19. Salt caverns show promise for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-11-18

    Salt caverns show promise for the disposal of non-hazardous oil field wastes, and there are no apparent regulatory barriers to this application. Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. Argonne National laboratory has reviewed the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicates that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas). The paper discusses the two types of salt deposits in the US, regulatory concerns, wastes, cavern design, disposal operations, closure and remediation, and results of the feasibility study.

  20. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  1. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh; Dentz, Jordan; Doty, Chris

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  2. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines.

  3. Hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken oil field in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.; Petron, G.; Miller, B.; Frost, G. J.; Peischl, J.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Within the past five years, the production of oil and natural gas in the United States from tight formations has increased rapidly due to advances in technology, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. With the expansion of oil and natural gas extraction operations comes the need to better quantify their emissions and potential impacts on climate forcing and air quality. The Bakken formation within the Williston Basin in North Dakota has emerged as a large contributor to the recent growth in oil production and accounts for over 10% of domestic production. Close to 30% of associated gas co-produced with the oil is flared. Very little independent information is currently available to assess the oil and gas industry emissions and their impacts on regional air quality. In May 2014, an airborne field campaign was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory and the University of Michigan to investigate hydrocarbon emissions from operations in the oil field. Here, we present results from the analysis for methane, several non-methane hydrocarbons and combustion tracers in 72 discrete air samples collected by the aircraft on nine different flights. Samples were obtained in the boundary layer upwind and downwind of the operations and in the free troposphere. We will show results of a multiple species analysis and compare them with field campaign data from other U.S. oil and gas fields, measurements from NOAA's Global Monitoring Division long-term observing network, and available bottom-up information on emissions from oil and gas operations.

  4. Crude oil from the Samgori field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Manovyan, A.K.; Shigapova, A.K.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.

    1984-04-01

    This article analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of petroleum from the Georgian SSR. The crude oil is light in color, light in distillation range, low-viscosity, and medium-wax, with low contents of resin-asphaltene compounds, sulfur, and metals. This petroleum is characterized by its high content of naphtha cuts with low sulfur contents, low octane numbers (owing to the high contents of paraffin hydrocarbons), and low contents of aromatics. It is determined that the best flow plan for processing the crude is either a fuel scheme or a fuel/lube scheme, depending on the specific product demands.

  5. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bull, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  6. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  7. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  8. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2009-05-01

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  9. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR. PMID:23314376

  10. Unconventional petroleum resources in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hallmark, F.O.

    1980-09-01

    The distribution, physical characteristics, and potential of some of the more significant unconventional deposits in California are described in this report: diatomaceous oil shale in southern San Joaquin Valley and Casmalia area-Santa Barbara County; oil and tar sands in Oxnard oil field, Arroyo Grande, Santa Maria Valley, Sisquoc area, Salinas Valley, Richfield tar sand; and minor deposits in Santa Cruz County, Point Arena area-Mendocino County, and McKittrick tar sands. (DLC)

  11. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  12. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  13. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  14. Distribution of Thermophilic Marine Sulfate Reducers in North Sea Oil Field Waters and Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Beeder, J.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. In addition, some unidentified sulfate reducers were present. Culturable thermophilic Desulfotomaculum strains were not detected. Specific strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers inhabited different parts of the oil reservoir. No correlation between the duration of seawater injection and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers in the produced waters was observed. Neither was there any correlation between the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers. The results indicate that thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sulfate reducers are indigenous to North Sea oil field reservoirs and that they belong to a deep subterranean biosphere. PMID:16535321

  15. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Tinis, R.

    1991-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment.

  16. A brief history of oil and gas exploration in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California: Chapter 3 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The Golden State got its nickname from the Sierra Nevada gold that lured so many miners and settlers to the West, but California has earned much more wealth from so-called “black gold” than from metallic gold. The San Joaquin Valley has been the principal source for most of the petroleum produced in the State during the past 145 years. In attempting to assess future additions to petroleum reserves in a mature province such as the San Joaquin Basin, it helps to be mindful of the history of resource development. In this chapter we present a brief overview of the long and colorful history of petroleum exploration and development in the San Joaquin Valley. This chapter relies heavily upon the work of William Rintoul, who wrote extensively on the history of oil and gas exploration in California and especially in the San Joaquin Valley. No report on the history of oil and gas exploration in the San Joaquin Valley would be possible without heavily referencing his publications. We also made use of publications by Susan Hodgson and a U.S. Geological Survey Web site, Natural Oil and Gas Seeps in California (http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/index.html), for much of the material describing the use of petroleum by Native Americans in the San Joaquin Valley. Finally, we wish to acknowledge the contribution of Don Arnot, who manages the photograph collection at the West Kern Oil Museum in Taft, California. The collection consists of more than 10,000 photographs that have been scanned and preserved in digital form on CD-ROM. Many of the historical photographs used in this paper are from that collection. Finally, to clarify our terminology, we use the term “San Joaquin Valley” when we refer to the geographical or topographical feature and the term “San Joaquin Basin” when we refer to geological province and the rocks therein.

  17. Relative Contributions of Geothermal Pumping and Long-Term Earthquake Rate to Seismicity at California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, D. A.; Jackson, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    In a tectonically active area, a definitive discrimination between geothermally-induced and tectonic earthquakes is difficult to achieve. We focus our study on California's 11 major geothermal fields: Amedee, Brawley, Casa Diablo, Coso, East Mesa, The Geysers, Heber, Litchfield, Salton Sea, Susanville, and Wendel. The Geysers geothermal field is the world's largest geothermal energy producer. California's Department of Oil Gas and Geothermal Resources provides field-wide monthly injection and production volumes for each of these sites, which allows us to study the relationship between geothermal pumping activities and seismicity. Since many of the geothermal fields began injecting and producing before nearby seismic stations were installed, we use smoothed seismicity since 1932 from the ANSS catalog as a proxy for tectonic earthquake rate. We examine both geothermal pumping and long-term earthquake rate as factors that may control earthquake rate. Rather than focusing only on the largest earthquake, which is essentially a random occurrence in time, we examine how M≥4 earthquake rate density (probability per unit area, time, and magnitude) varies for each field. We estimate relative contributions to the observed earthquake rate of M≥4 from both a long-term earthquake rate (Kagan and Jackson, 2010) and pumping activity. For each geothermal field, respective earthquake catalogs (NCEDC and SCSN) are complete above at least M3 during the test period (which we tailor to each site). We test the hypothesis that the observed earthquake rate at a geothermal site during the test period is a linear combination of the long-term seismicity and pumping rates. We use a grid search to determine the confidence interval of the weighting parameters.

  18. Air emissions associated with decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Cantle, Peter; Bernstein, Brock

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms offshore southern California are nearing the end of their productive lives and will be decommissioned in the near future. Many are in deep water and are correspondingly large, with the largest, Harmony, in 1200 feet of water and weighing approximately 43,000 tons. Nearly 30% of California's platforms are in water depths that exceed those of any previous decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Decommissioning will involve the operation of diesel-powered heavy equipment for long periods in virtually all phases of the operation (e.g, at the platform, in transit to and from the platform, in port, at offloading, salvage, and recycling facilities) in a region where air quality is a crucial concern for state, federal, and local regulatory agencies, as well as the public. To support future decision making about the choice between decommissioning options, we consider potential air emissions generated under complete and partial (removal to 85 feet below water line) removal options. We describe major emissions categories, and the environmental and human health issues associated with each, and examine how the regulatory system would operate in specific projects. We then describe methods to estimate emissions for a worst-case example involving the largest platform, Harmony. We estimate that complete versus partial removal of Harmony would result, respectively, in 600 or 89 tons of NOx, 50 or 7 tons of carbon monoxide, 29,400 or 4400 tons of CO2 , 21 or 3 tons of PM10, and 20 or 3 tons of PM2.5. Complete removal of Harmony's jacket and topsides creates approximately 6.75 times more air pollution than partial removal down to 85 feet below the sea surface. We discuss how the Harmony estimate can be used as a baseline to roughly estimate emissions from decommissioning other platforms, using expected time on station for the major categories of decommissioning equipment. PMID:25914363

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  1. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  2. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  3. Subtle history and geology of Villeperdue oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Arbin, P. )

    1990-09-01

    Villeperdue oil field is located in the Paris basin 80 km east of Paris. The first well was drilled in 1959 and tested some oil. But it was not until 1982, after a subtle seismic and drilling history, that exploration resumed and the field proved commercial. The reservoir is an oolitic limestone of early Callovian age (late Dogger); it has an average thickness of about 30 m and is 1,850 m below ground level. The trap, not obvious from seismic data, is a combination of stratigraphic, structural, and diagenetic features. The structure is a western-plunging nose, and the eastward updip closure is supposedly controlled by permeability change with the possible influence of gentle faults and pressure barriers. The producing surface is about 70 km{sup 2}, with a 60-m oil column. Gross porosity, ranging from 8 to 20%, is highly variable, the result of numerous porosity types. As a result, each well has its own characteristics, and field development is mainly controlled by this problem. Thus, porosity detection over the field, and consequently delineation, are dependent on subtle seismic facies studies. Today, 145 wells have been drilled, of which 120 are producing and 19 are used for water injection. Horizontal wells are planned to increase productivity. Production of this giant oil field (based on the Paris basin scale) has been of 3 million m{sup 3} to date, with an average weekly production of about 13,000 m{sup 3}.

  4. Oil field slim hole drilling technology improving

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Recent advances in slim hole drilling technology have improved the application of this drilling technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole drilling hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and coring operations, Use of slim hole techniques to drill horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous coring and drilling is becoming more accepted as a viable drilling method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include drilling in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole drilling operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and drill with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% drilled, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% drilled with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the drilling of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole drilling is the ability to retrieve cores from the entire well during drilling.

  5. Results from shallow research drilling at Inyo Domes, Long Valley Caldera, California and Salton Sea geothermal field, Salton Trough, California

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, L.W.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Vogel, T.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews the results from two shallow drilling programs recently completed as part of the United States Department of Energy Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The purpose is to provide a broad overview of the objectives and results of the projects, and to analyze these results in the context of the promise and potential of research drilling in crustal thermal regimes. The Inyo Domes drilling project has involved drilling 4 shallow research holes into the 600-year-old Inyo Domes chain, the youngest rhyolitic event in the coterminous United States and the youngest volcanic event in Long Valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the drilling at Inyo was to understand the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior of silicic magma as it intrudes the upper crust. This behavior, which involves the response of magma to decompression and cooling, is closely related to both eruptive phenomena and the establishment of hydrothermal circulation. The Salton Sea shallow research drilling project involved drilling 19 shallow research holes into the Salton Sea geothermal field, California. The purpose of this drilling was to bound the thermal anomaly, constrain hydrothermal flow pathways, and assess the thermal budget of the field. Constraints on the thermal budget links the local hydrothermal system to the general processes of crustal rifting in the Salton Trough.

  6. Biodiesel Prepared From Field Pennycress Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L., FP) is a winter annual species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) which is widely distributed throughout temperate North America that can serve as a winter rotational crop for conventional crops, thus not displacing farm land or negatively impacting the food s...

  7. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  8. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.C. ); Honey, F.R. ); Ballew, G.I. )

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  9. The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

    2014-05-01

    A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

  10. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  11. Ozone formation along the California-Mexican border region during Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ozone (O3) formation along the California-Mexico border region using the WRF-CHEM model in association with the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign. Four two-day episodes in 2010 are chosen based on plume transport patterns: 1) May 15-16 (plume north), 2) May 29-30 (plume southwest), 3) June 4-5 (plume east), and 4) June 13-14 (plume southeast). Generally, the predicted O3 spatial patterns and temporal variations agree well with the observations at the ambient monitoring sites in the San Diego-Tijuana region, but in the Calexico-Mexicali region, the model frequently underestimates the observation. In the San Diego-Tijuana region, the morning anthropogenic precursor emissions in the urbanized coastal plain are carried inland and mixed with the local biogenic emissions during transport, causing the high O3 level over the mountain region. Biogenic emissions enhance the O3 concentrations by up to 40 ppb over the mountain region in the afternoon. The factor separation approach is used to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport of emissions from California and Baja California to the O3 level in the California-Mexico border region. The Baja California emissions play a minor role in the O3 formation in the San Diego region and do not seem to contribute to the O3 exceedances in the region, but have large potential to cause O3 exceedances in the Calexico region. The California emissions can considerably enhance the O3 level in the Tijuana region. Generally, the California emissions play a more important role than the Baja California emissions on O3 formation in the border region (within 40 km to the California-Mexico border). On average, the O3 concentrations in the border region are decreased by 2-4 ppb in the afternoon due to the interactions of emissions from California and Baja California. Further studies need to be conducted to improve the sea breeze simulations in the border region for evaluating O3 formation.

  12. Bird use of fields treated postharvest with two types of flooding in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Skalos, Daniel A.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed birds on grain and non-grain fields in the Tulare Basin of California treated post-harvest with two types of flooding that varied in duration and depth of water applied (Flooded-type fields [FLD]: 1 week; Irrigated-type fields [IRG]: 1 week) flooding increased waterbird use of grain fields in the Tulare Basin more than in the northern Central Valley. Thus, even though water costs are high in the Tulare Basin, if net benefit to waterbirds is considered, management programs that increase availability of FLD-type fields (especially grain) in the Tulare Basin may be a cost-effective option to help meet waterbird habitat conservation goals in the Central Valley of California.

  13. Carcinogenic potential of PAHs in oil-contaminated soils from the main oil fields across China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Liao, Jingqiu; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations, composition profiles, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 55 surface soil samples collected from four oil fields across China (Daqing, DQ; Shengli, SL; Xinjiang, XJ; and Huabei, HB). The total 16 priority PAHs concentrations of DQ, SL, XJ, and HB ranged from 857 to 27,816; 480 to 20,625; 497 to 43,210; and 12,112 to 45,325 ng/g, respectively, with means of 9160; 6394; 13,569; and 22,954 ng/g and the seven possible carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 8-25.7 % of the total PAHs. Almost all the samples were heavily contaminated, and phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene were the most dominant components. The PAH isomeric ratios indicated that PAHs in oil fields mainly originated from petroleum. The toxic assessment illustrated that people living and working in oil fields would suffer low carcinogenic risk, which was somehow coincided with the results of epidemiological survey on cancer incidence. It seems essential to pay more attention to the chronic human health effects of exposure to oil fields and to focus new studies on the public health field that involves a large number of people all over the world. PMID:25772862

  14. Giant oil fields of the Gulf Coast area

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1993-09-01

    The 134 giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area contain 29% of the total giant-field reserves. Cumulative production is 32% of the giant-field cumulative total and 20% of the United States cumulative production. Eighty-nine of the giant fields are offshore with 22% of the reserves, 11 fields are in east Texas with 24% of the reserves, and 1 field is in Florida with 1% of the reserves. In 106 of the giant fields the primary producing interval is Cenozoic with 65% of the reserves, and in 28 giant fields the producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval in 124 giant fields consists of clastics with 91% of the reserves, in 7 fields the primary lithology is carbonates with 6% of the reserves, and in 3 giant fields the lithology is mixed clastics and carbonates. A total of 127 fields are in structural traps with all of the reserves, 4 fields are stratigraphic traps (3%) with 18% of the reserves, and 3 fields are combination traps with 1% of the reserves. Over 50 of the giant oil fields in structural traps are salt domes. The most prevalent types of giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area are onshore structural traps with Cenozoic clastics as the primary producing intervals.

  15. Mixing of biogenic siliceous and terrigenous clastic sediments: South Belridge field and Beta field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The intermixing and interbedding of biogenically derived siliceous sediment with terrigenous clastic sediment in reservoirs of upper Miocene age provides both reservoir rock and seal and influences productivity by affecting porosity and permeability. Miocene reservoirs commonly contain either biogenic-dominated cyclic diatomite, porcelanite, or chert (classic Monterey Formation) or clastic-dominated submarine fan sequences with interbedded or intermixed siliceous members of biogenic origin. Biogenic-clastic cycles, 30-180 ft thick, at South Belridge field were formed by episodic influx of clastic sediment from distant submarine fans mixing with slowly accumulating diatomaceous ooze. The cycles consist of basal silt and pelletized massive diatomaceous mudstone, overlain by burrowed, faintly bedded clayey diatomite and topped by laminated diatomite. Cycle tops have higher porosity and permeability, lower grain density, and higher oil saturation than clay and silt-rich portions of the cycles. Submarine fan sediments forming reservoirs at the Beta field are comprised of interbedded sands and silts deposited in a channelized middle fan to outer fan setting. Individual turbidites display fining-upward sequences, with oil-bearing sands capped by wet micaceous silts. Average sands are moderately to poorly sorted, fine- to medium-grained arkosic arenites. Sands contain pore-filling carbonate and porcelaneous cements. Porcelaneous cement consists of a mixture of opal-A, opal-CT, and chert with montmorillonite and minor zeolite. This cement is an authigenic material precipitated in intergranular pore space. The origin of the opal is biogenic, with recrystallization of diatom frustules (opal-A) into opal-CT lepispheres and quartz crystals. Porcelaneous cement comprises 4-21% of the bulk volume of the rock. Seventy percent of the bulk volume of the cement is micropore space.

  16. Confirmatory Survey of the Fuel Oil Tank Area - Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Eureka, California

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  17. A summary of geologic hazards for proposed OCS oil and gas lease sale 68, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Deborah J.; Richmond, William C.

    1982-01-01

    A geophysical survey, consisting of about 6,880 line-km of multisensor, high-resolution, seismic reflection data, was run in 161 of the 221 tracts tentatively selected by the U.S. Department of the Interior for inclusion in the southern California Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sale 68. Geologic hazards identified in the study area for which stipulations are recommended are active faults, mass transport, steep slopes (>10?), and steep-walled submarine canyons. Geologic hazards whose effects can be mitigated through existing technology and design and are not considered cause for stipulation are shallow faults, buried and filled channels, shallow gas, gas-charged sediments, hydrocarbon seeps, and unstable fan deposits. The Minerals Management Service has recommended that a stipulation be applied to 83 tracts where there is evidence of existing or potential sea-floor instability over a significant portion of the tract. Further data acquisition and analysis on a more detail-ed grid will be required of lessees or operators before drilling will be permitted on leases issued as a result of the sale.

  18. EVALUATION OF BARLEY STRAW AS AN ALTERNATIVE ALGAE CONTROL METHOD IN A NORTHERN CALIFORNIA RICE FIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California rice fields are shallow water systems with depths usually less than 15 cm. Excessive algal growth often characterizes a significant proportion of them. Especially troublesome are species of green algae and cyanobacteria which interfere with rice growth by becoming entangled with the seed...

  19. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  20. Disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.

    1996-12-31

    Bedded and domal salt deposits occur in many states. If salt deposits are thick enough, salt caverns can be formed through solution mining. These caverns are created either incidentally as a result of salt recovery or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or disposing of wastes. This paper evaluates the legality, feasibility, and suitability of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns.

  1. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lei; Luthy, Richard G

    2007-03-01

    Lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA, were characterized to assess the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the concentration-dependent effects of a residual oil tar phase on sorption mechanism and availability of PAHs. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated similar aromaticity for both lampblack carbon and the oil tar phase, with pronounced resonance signals in the range of 100 to 150 ppm. Scanning-electron microscopic images revealed a physically distinct oil tar phase, especially at high concentrations in lampblack, which resulted in an organic-like film structure when lampblack particles became saturated with the oil tar. Sorption experiments were conducted on a series of laboratory-prepared lampblack samples to systematically evaluate influences of an oil tar phase on PAH sorption to lampblack. Results indicate that the sorption of PAHs to lampblack exhibits a competition among sorption phases at low oil tar contents when micro- and mesopores are accessible. When the oil tar content increases to more than 5 to 10% by weight, this tar phase fills small pores, reduces surface area, and dominates PAH sorption on lampblack surface. A new PAH partitioning model, Kd = KLB-C(1 - ftar)alpha + ftarKtar (alpha = empirical exponent), incorporates these effects in which the control of PAH partitioning transits from being dominated by sorption in lampblack (KLB-C) to absorption in oil tar (Ktar), depending on the fraction of tar (ftar). This study illustrates the importance of understanding interactions among PAHs, oil tar, and lampblack for explaining the differences in availability of PAHs among site soils and, consequently, for refining site-specific risk assessment and establishing soil cleanup levels. PMID:17373502

  2. Stratigraphy of Citronelle Oil Field, AL: Perspectives from Enhanced Oil Recovery and Potential CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.; Pashin, J. C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Esposito, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of south Alabama. The dome forms an elliptical structural closure containing multiple opportunities for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle Oil Field, which is on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 168 MMbbl of 42° gravity oil from marginal marine sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Donovan Sand. Recently, EOR field tests have begun in the northeastern part of the oil field. Citronelle Unit B-19-10 #2 well (Alabama State Oil and Gas Board Permit No. 3232) will serve as the CO2 injector for the first field test. CO2 will be injected into the Upper Donovan 14-1 and 16-2 sandstone units. All well logs in the 4-square-mile area surrounding the test site have been digitized and used to construct a network of nineteen stratigraphic cross sections correlating Sands 12 through 20A in the Upper Donovan. Detailed study of Citronelle cores has shown that depositional environments in the Donovan Sand differed significantly from the earlier model that has guided past development of the Citronelle Field. The cross sections demonstrate the extreme facies heterogeneity of the Upper Donovan, and this heterogeneity is well expressed within the five-spot well pattern where the field test will be conducted. Many other features bearing on the performance of the CO2 injection test have been discovered. Of particular interest is the 16-2 sand, which is interpreted as a composite of two tiers of channel fills. Pay strata are typically developed in the lower tier, and this is where CO2 will be injected. The upper tier is highly heterogeneous and is interpreted to contain sandstone fills of variable reservoir quality, as well as mudstone plugs.

  3. Using Oil and Gas Well Log Records to Understand Possible Connections Between Wastewater Injection Zones and Usable Groundwater Aquifers in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, D.; Haugen, E. A.; Battistella, C.; Treguboff, E. W.; Kale, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although the disposal of produced water in wastewater injection wells has been occurring in California for decades, it is not clear whether injected fluids may be migrating into usable groundwater aquifers. One problem is the poor characterization of federally-protected (<10,000 ppm TDS) water in the state. Another is the lack of publically-accessible information about the hydrological properties of confining strata adjacent to injection zones. In effort to better understand these two problems, we have begun studying the archived oil and gas well records collected by the California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). These scanned records contain two useful sources of information. First, geophysical well logs, such those measuring resistivity and porosity, can be used to determine aquifer salinity. This allows a three-dimensional understanding of the distribution of protected groundwater. Second, driller's logs contain lithological descriptions at depth. These lithologies can be used to construct a three-dimensional texture model, which can then be used in a groundwater flow model. A large number of undergraduate researchers at CSU Sacramento and CSU Long Beach have been collecting information on well records in the Ventura Basin and the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Each well record is examined with basic metadata entered into an online database in an effort to identify appropriate geophysical well logs and driller's logs. High-quality driller's logs are coded and used to create three-dimensional framework models for each well field. The geophysical logs are digitized and will be used to determine aquifer salinity. In addition, we are using information from the DOGGR well records to investigate wellbore integrity, waste disposal and waterflood injection volumes, and the possibility of induced seismicity. This project is part of the broader effort of the California State Water Resources Control Board to implement Senate Bill 4.

  4. Improving polymer injectivity at West Coyote Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, P.J.; Kuehne, D.L.; Uhl, J.T.; Walkup, G.W.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a case history where laboratory and simulation results were used to model a single-well polymer injectivity field test in the West Coyote Field and improve the injectivity in a subsequent field test. The polyacrylamide polymer used in the first test exhibited low injectivity. Laboratory studies were performed to identify the causes of low injectivity and physically model the field test. Laboratory core data and reservoir properties were used in a mathematical model to calculate the polymer injectivity, which closely matched that observed in the field. The low polymer injectivity at West Coyote was due to: formation damage caused by the polymer and low salinity polymer makeup water; and the high resistance factor developed by the polymer. These problems were overcome by: using a lower molecular weight polyacrylamide; preshearing the polymer solution before injection; and increasing the salinity of the polymer makeup water. These improvements resulted in a 50% increase in injectivity during the second polymer injectivity field test at West Coyote.

  5. Improving polymer injectivity at West Coyote Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, P.J.; Kuchne, D.L.; Uhl, J.T.; Walkup, G.W.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a case history where laboratory and simulation results were used to model a single-well polymer injectivity field test in the West Coyote field and to improve injectivity in a subsequent field test. The polyacrylamide used in the first test exhibited low injectivity. Laboratory studies were performed to identify the causes of low injectivity and to model the field test physically. Laboratory core data and reservoir properties were used in a mathematical model to calculate the polymer injectivity, which closely matched that observed in the field. The low polymer injectivity at West Coyote was a result of formation damage caused by the polymer and low-salinity polymer makeup water and the high resistance factor developed by the polymer. These problems were overcome by using a lower-molecular-weight polyacrylamide, preshearing the polymer solution before injection, and increasing the salinity of the polymer makeup water. These improvements resulted in a 50% increase in injectivity during the second polymer injectivity field test at West Coyote.

  6. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  7. Toxicology of oil field pollutants in cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Coppock, R W; Mostrom, M S; Khan, A A; Semalulu, S S

    1995-12-01

    Cattle are poisoned by petroleum and substances used in drilling and operating oil and gas wells. The most common reported route of exposure for non-gaseous material is oral. Exposures occur when the petroleum or chemicals used in oil and gas field activities are available to cattle and when water and feed-stuffs are contaminated. Cattle, as a leisure activity, explore and ingest crude oil. Based on morbidity patterns in cattle herds, the amount of toxic substance ingested is variable. When water and feedstuffs are contaminated, a larger number in a herd generally are affected. Cattle have been poisoned by a wide variety of chemical mixtures. For substances high in volatile hydrocarbons, the lung is a target organ. Hydrocarbons also target the kidney, liver and brain. Exposure-linked abortions have been reported in cattle. Diethylene glycol targets the brain, liver and kidney. The reported threshold dose of unweathered oil for cattle ranges from 2.5 to 5.0 ml/kg bw, and the reported threshold dose for weathered oil is 8.0 ml/kg. PMID:8588300

  8. Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980’s. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  9. Field Assessment of the Gap Analysis Program Vegetation Database in BVOC "Hotspots" in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlik, J. F.; Albertson, E. D.

    2002-12-01

    Emission inventories of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) require an accurate spatial description of plant species or plant communities. Because it is species-specific, the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) geographic information system database may be a valuable resource for developing a statewide BVOC emission inventory for California. However, it is important to conduct field validations of GAP to assess its accuracy and overall utility for biogenic emissions modeling. Nine polygons were selected in BVOC "hotspots" (in terms of model output) by California Air Resources Board staff for assessment. These "hotspots" occurred in naturally vegetated areas dominated mostly by oaks, ranging from Ventura County in southern California to Mendocino County in northern California. Quantitative vegetation composition data gathered through field surveys were compared to the species listings in GAP database. The species listed in GAP for these polygons accounted from zero to 94% of the relative cover found. About one-third of the 44 species listed in GAP were found in high enough proportions in the field surveys to justify their placement, and another 39 species, including eight oak species, were found in sufficient abundance to be considered as additional co-dominants. In recent years, similar field surveys were conducted in San Diego County, the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills, and 35 polygons have now been quantitatively assessed. Considering the range of accuracy found, the GAP database may be a useful source of species composition and dominance information for BVOC inventories for California, provided supplementary data for leaf mass density or leaf area index can be obtained from other sources.

  10. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  11. Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

    2012-02-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

  12. Strategies for field application of foams in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, E.E.; Ivory, J.; Law, D.H.S.

    1995-12-31

    Steam-based processes in heavy oil reservoirs that are not stabilized by gravity have poor vertical and areal conformance. This is because gases are more mobile within the pore space than liquids and steam tends to override or channel through oil in a formation. The steam-foam process which consists of adding surfactant with or without non-condensible gas to the injected steam, was developed to improve the sweep efficiency of steam drive and cyclic steam processes. The foam-forming components injected with the steam stabilize the liquid lamellae and cause some of the steam to exist as a discontinuous phase. The steam mobility (gas relative permeability) is thereby reduced resulting in an increased pressure gradient in the steam-swept region, to divert steam to the unheated interval and displace the heated oil better. The propagation of surfactant in the reservoir is determined by its thermal stability, adsorption, precipitation, and oil partitioning behaviour. The propagation of the foam is determined by the mechanisms that generate and destroyfoam in the reservoir, including gas and liquid velocities, condensation and evaporation, non-condensible gas, and the presence of oil. Strategies were developed to minimize the chemical requirements for generating effective steam-foams. Economic steam-foam processes requires that surfactant losses are minimized, foam propagation and foam stability is maximized at surfactant concentrations lower than has hereto been used in the field. This paper, based on laboratory finding and field experience, discusses the important considerations which affect the efficient application of steam-foam in the field.

  13. Basalt models for the Mars penetrator mission: Geology of the Amboy Lava Field, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Bunch, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Amboy lava field (San Bernardino County, California) is a Holocene basalt flow selected as a test site for potential Mars Penetrators. A discussion is presented of (1) the general relations of basalt flow features and textures to styles of eruptions on earth, (2) the types of basalt flows likely to be encountered on Mars and the rationale for selection of the Amboy lava field as a test site, (3) the general geology of the Amboy lava field, and (4) detailed descriptions of the target sites at Amboy lava field.

  14. Source rock identification and oil generation related to trap formation: Southeast Constantine oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Rahmani, A.; Belhadi, E.M.; Hamel, M.; Bourmouche, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Petroleum exploration began in the Southeast Constantine basin in the late 1940s. Despite the very early discovery of Djebel Onk field (1954), exploration remains very sparse and relatively unsuccessful due mainly to the geological complexity of the region. The Ras-Toumb oil field was discovered only twenty years later. In 1988, a new discovery, the Guerguit-El-Kihal oil field renewed the interest of explorationists in this region. The Southeast Constantine Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin has a sedimentary sequence of shales and carbonates with a thickness exceeding 7,000 m. Structural traps are related to pyrenean and post-Villafranchian phases. Potential reservoirs with good petrophysical characteristics and seals can be found throughout the section and are mainly Cenomanian-Turonian and Coniacian limestones and dolomites. The known source rocks are Cenomanian-Turonian and Campanian carbonate shales. Kerogen is a mixture of type II and type III for the Campanian. The kerogen has a fair petroleum potential and is often immature or low mature. The Cenomanian-Turonian kerogen is type II amorphous, with a variable but important petroleum potential. Total organic carbon values range from 1.5% to 7%. Maturity corresponds to the oil window. This source rock is well known throughout the Mediterranean region and is related to the oceanic anoxic event. Kinetic modeling of this organic matter evolution indicates favorable oil generation timing related to trap formation ages.

  15. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses: (1) The design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms and the current state-of-the-art understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. (2) Assimilation of laboratory core flood and rock consumption data. Use of this data in 1-D and 2-D limited area simulations, and a 3-D model of the entire pilot project. (3) Simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2-D area of the field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long term consumption functions and two relative permeability adjustment mechanisms. (4) Scale up of 2-D simulation results, and their use in a 271 acre 1.097 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 2/), 7 layered 3-D model of the pilot. (5) Comparison of 3-D simulator results with initial field alkaline flood performance. (6) Recommended additional application of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods. 10 refs.

  16. Earthquakes in the oil field at Rangely, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Healy, John H.; Raleigh, C. Barry; Coakley, John M.

    1972-01-01

    Seven years of seismic data recorded at the Uinta Basin Observatory were searched for earthquakes originating near an oil field at Rangely, Colorado, located 65 km ESE of the observatory. Changes in the number of earthquakes recorded per year appear to correlate with changes in the quantity of fluid injected per year. Between November 1962 and January 1970, 976 earthquakes were detected near the oil field by the UBO station; 320 earthquakes were larger than magnitude 1. Richter magnitudes are estimated from both S-wave and P-wave measurements and a method based on the duration of the seismic signal is used to estimate the magnitude of the larger shocks. The two largest shocks had magnitudes of 3.4 and 3.3. The total seismic energy released was l0l7 ergs. During this same period the energy used for water injection, measured at the wellhead, was 1021 ergs.

  17. Design of gearbox for oil field hoisting equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimova, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The kinematic diagram of the mechanical drive of oil field hoisting equipment is determined by the gear ratio for raising and lowering the down-hole equipment, the necessary hoist load capacity, and the power of the traction engine of the transport base. The choice of a rational gear ratio for raising the down-hole equipment is an important stage in the kinematic design of the transmission. The gear ratio of the gearbox of an oil-field hoist should be such as to ensure that the equipment is raised and lowered most rapidly and the utilization of the traction engine power is highest. The preferred gear train is one chosen in accordance with the geometric structure of the gear train of the gearbox. Such gearboxes are convenient to operate and easy to build. The design of these gearboxes is discussed.

  18. Review of mineral estate of the United States at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-09

    The purpose of this report is to present this Consultant`s findings regarding the nature and extent of the mineral estate of the United States at National Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California. Determination of the mineral estate is a necessary prerequisite to this Consultant`s calculation of estimated future cash flows attributable to said estate, which calculations are presented in the accompanying report entitled ``Phase II Final Report, Study of Alternatives for Future Operations of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, NPR-2, California.`` This Report contains a discussion of the leases in effect at NPR-2 and subsequent contracts affecting such leases. This Report also summarizes discrepancies found between the current royalty calculation procedures utilized at NPR-2 and those procedures required under applicable agreements and regulations. Recommendations for maximizing the government`s income stream at NPR-2 are discussed in the concluding section of this Report.

  19. Methane leaks from oil and gas fields detected from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Julia

    2014-11-01

    A few years ago, while poring over satellite images of the Earth at night, scientists spotted the bright glow of natural gas flares burning in the oil and gas fields that have fueled America's recent energy boom. Now they have spotted something else from space: large plumes of fugitive methane gas liberated from these formations by unconventional extraction methods like horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing.

  20. Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2009-10-01

    Well blowouts are one type of event in hydrocarbon exploration and production that generates health, safety, environmental and financial risk. Well blowouts are variously defined as 'uncontrolled flow of well fluids and/or formation fluids from the wellbore' or 'uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore'. Theoretically this is irrespective of flux rate and so would include low fluxes, often termed 'leakage'. In practice, such low-flux events are not considered well blowouts. Rather, the term well blowout applies to higher fluxes that rise to attention more acutely, typically in the order of seconds to days after the event commences. It is not unusual for insurance claims for well blowouts to exceed US$10 million. This does not imply that all blowouts are this costly, as it is likely claims are filed only for the most catastrophic events. Still, insuring against the risk of loss of well control is the costliest in the industry. The risk of well blowouts was recently quantified from an assembled database of 102 events occurring in California Oil and Gas District 4 during the period 1991 to 2005, inclusive. This article reviews those findings, updates them to a certain extent and compares them with other well blowout risk study results. It also provides an improved perspective on some of the findings. In short, this update finds that blowout rates have remained constant from 2005 to 2008 within the limits of resolution and that the decline in blowout rates from 1991 to 2005 was likely due to improved industry practice.

  1. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms, along with the current understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. Assimilation of laboratory coreflood and rock consumption data, and their use in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) limited area simulations and in three-dimensional (3D) models of the entire pilot project are given. This paper also reports simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2D area of a field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long-term consumption functions, and two relative-permeability adjustment mechanisms. The scale-up of 2D simulation results and their use in a 271-acre (1096.7-ha), seven-layered, 3D model of the pilot are also discussed and 3D simulator results are compared with initial field alkaline flood performance. Finally, recommended additional applications of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods are discussed.

  2. Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1989-01-01

    Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

  3. Crude oil from the var'egansk field. [Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.K.; Krylova, S.M.; Mkhchiyan, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results from an investigation of a representative sample of the crude oil of the BV group (BV/sub 6/, BV/sub 7/, BV/sub 8/, and BV/sub 9/), taken at a central gathering point in the Tyumen Oblast. It indicates that Var'egansk crude is low-sulfur, medium-resin, and medium-wax. The Var'egansk field is a single-bed field, and its deposits are confined to the Jurassic and Cretaceous systems (Valanginian and Hauterivian-Barremian stages).

  4. Plans for first oil production revived in two Sudanese fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-03

    A Vancouver, British Columbia, independent and its Sudanese partner have filed a development plan with the government of Sudan to produce an initial 40,000 b/d from Heglig and Unity oil fields in Sudan. Arakis Energy Corp., and the private Sudanese company State Petroleum Corp. (SPC) want to begin the first commercial hydrocarbon production in the destitute, war torn country. They are picking up where Chevron Corp. left off after years of grappling with an ambitious, costly - and ultimately futile - effort to export crude-oil from Sudan. After finding almost 300 million bbl of oil in Sudan during the early 1980s, Chevron scuttled a $2 billion project to export 50,000 b/d of Sudanese crude in 1986. It drilled 90 wells and sank more than $1 billion into the project. But it dropped the plan, citing the 1986 collapse of oil prices and concerns over security after repeated guerrilla attacks delayed work. The paper details the project.

  5. Round Mountain Field, Short Radius Lateral Drilling in the Vedder Sand Round Mountain Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chenot P.E., David W.

    2002-03-10

    A 3-D simulation model study was run using CMG's STARS thermal model, and showed that a 122 meter (400 foot) horizontal well should produce up to 64 cubic meters per day of oil (400 B/D) when the heated oil bank hits the well.

  6. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  7. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  8. Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

    1986-05-01

    Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

  9. Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

  10. Reservoir characterization and diagenesis of the oligocene 64-zone sandstone, North Belridge Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.R. ); Soule, C.H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oligocene (Zemorrian) 64-Zone sandstone is an important oil and gas reservoir in North Belridge field, Kern County, California. The 64-Zone is a submarine-fan deposit that ranges from 83 to 137 m in thickness. The overall variations in reservoir quality reflect an upward increase in grain size associated with depositional processes. Three diagenetic events have had a significant impact on reservoir quality: (1) compaction, which reduced intergranular volume to an average of 20%, (2) quartz cement, which reduced porosity by an average of 6.2%, and (3) feldspar dissolution. Although an average of 2.7% porosity is directly associated with leached feldspar grains, mass balance calculations indicate secondary porosity is roughly balanced by formation of authigenic kaolinite, resulting in little or no net gain in porosity. Three episodes of calcite cementation reflect various stages of burial history. Petrographic and isotopic data demonstrate that calcite I formed at shallow depths in the zone of bacterial sulfate reduction. Fluid inclusion data indicate that calcite II precipitated at temperatures of 92 to 167[degrees]C from fluids less saline than seawater. Fracture-filing calcite III post-dates calcite II, but formed at lower temperatures (85 to 125[degrees]C). The results of isotopic modeling indicate that calcite II precipitated in equilibrium with waters expelled by shales during I/S diagenesis ([delta][sup 18]O[sub SMOW] = + 2 to +8%) and that calcite III precipitated during tectonic uplift from a mixture of shale-derived and meteoric waters ([delta][sup 18]O[sub SMOW] = 0 to +4%). Most fluid inclusions in calcite II yield temperatures greater than present bottom-hole values ([approximately]110[degrees]C). Assuming that fluid inclusions in calcite II record maximum burial and geothermal gradient of 33[degrees]C/km, tectonic uplift of 0.6 to 1.7 km ([approximately]2000-5700 ft) would be required to explain the fluid inclusion data. 48 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  11. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding

  12. Gas condensate and oil from Verkhnechonsk field of eastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bezhanidze, A.M.; Titkina, G.I.; Krylova, S.M.; Kolevatova, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    Two condensates and three crudes from different sectors and depths of the Verkhnechonsk oil and gas field were assessed for their viscosities, molecular weights, densities, flash and solid and boiling points, cetane and octane numbers, and chemical compositions, including sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, wax, resin, and asphaltene contents. The samples were distilled into 10-20 C fractions, reblended in proportion to their contents in the original feedstock, and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for product quality and hydrocarbon group composition. Distillation requirements were calculated for generating kerosene, gasoline, and diesel, jet engine, and boiler fuels from the feedstocks. Potential yields of these cuts, as well as yields of lubricating oils and paving asphalts, were evaluated for the five samples.

  13. Floating oil production unit slated in small field off Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-14

    This paper reports on the first U.S. tanker converted to a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) unit which takes up station in Gombe-Beta field off Gabon by Dec. 1. FPSO Ocean Producer will work under a 3 year, day rate contract let late in 1990 by Amoco-Gabon Bombe Marin co., a unit of Amoco Production Co. (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 27). Gombe-Beta field is in the Atlantic Ocean about 70 miles south of Port Gentil, Gabon. Ocean Producer will be moored in 50 ft of water 3.7 miles off Gabon, with Bombe-Beta's unmanned production platform about 820 ft astern. The vessel will be held in position by a disconnectable, asymmetric, six point, spread mooring system, It is owned and operated by Oceaneering International Services Ltd. (OISL). Affiliate Oceaneering Production Systems (OPS) converted the 78,061 dwt oil tanker MT Baltimore Sea at a capital cost of $25 million at Gulf Copper Manufacturing Corp.'s Port Arthur, Tex., shipyard. Both companies are units of Oceaneering International Inc., Houston. OPS the Ocean Producer's use in Gombe-Beta field is the shallowest water FPSO application in the world. Amoco-Gabon chose an FPSO production system for Gombe-Beta because it expects the remote field to have a short economic life, and the oil requires extensive processing.

  14. Oil gravity distribution in the diatomite at South Belridge Field, Kern County, CA: Implications for oil sourcing and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sande, J.J.; Doe, P.H.

    1995-04-01

    Understanding oil gravity distribution in the Belridge Diatomite has led to economic infill development and specific enhanced recovery methods for targeted oil properties. To date more than 100 wells have provided samples used to determining vertical and areal distribution of oil gravity in the field. Detailed geochemical analyses were also conducted on many of the oil samples to establish different oil types, relative maturities, and to identify transformed oils. The geochemical analysis also helped identify source rock expulsion temperatures and depositional environments. The data suggests that the Belridge diatomite has been charged by a single hydrocarbon source rock type and was generated over a relatively wide range of temperatures. Map and statistical data support two distinct oil segregation processes occurring post expulsion. Normal gravity segregation within depositional cycles of diatomite have caused lightest oils to migrate to the crests of individual cycle structures. Some data suggests a loss of the light end oils in the uppermost cycles to the Tulare Formation above, or through early biodegradation. Structural rotation post early oil expulsion has also left older, heavier oils concentrated on the east flank of the structure. With the addition of other samples from the south central San Joaquin area, we have been able to tie the Belridge diatomite hydrocarbon charge into a regional framework. We have also enhanced our ability to predict oil gravity and well primary recovery by unraveling some key components of the diatomite oil source and migration history.

  15. Genesis and formation oil and gas fields (Azerbaijan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletayev, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    The large amount of material of HC isotope composition of over 330 samples allow to restore the history of oil and gas deposits formation within the South-Caspian Depression. Maps of isotope composition changes according to area extent, as well as graphs of HC distribution depending upon stratigraphic age, including rocks, graphs of isotope composition change on sampling depth were compiled for HC study and oil-gas deposits formation. Comparison of mud volcanoes gases, oil and gas fields, gas-hydrates and bottom sediments were conducted. Gases genesis according to M. Shoelle and A. James methodic were studied. Model of area paleoconstruction was studied. Two stages of formation were distinguished as a result of gases study of various forms of their manifestation (gases of mud volcanoes, oil and gas fields, gas hydrate, bottom sediments) as well as isotope gases composition distribution in area of extent including stratigraphic age of deposits, depth of sampling and application of M. Shoelle and A. James. There were determined basic ways of HC migration as well as estimated oil-gas content prospective. The first stage has begun in the underlying PS deposits and continued up to PS deposits. At this stage one various kind of tectonic fluctuations can observed. The second stage of HC formation has started from PS and characterised with a change of geodynamic conditions in region. Avalanche sedimentation, predominance of descending movements over ascending ones promoted the accumulation of thick sediments in PS age. As a result of sediments accumulation and tectonic processes (down warping) in the deep-seated basin led to the complication of thermobaric conditions in the sedimentary series. The studied chemical and HC gases isotope composition showed that basic source of oil and gas formation is located in the deep areas of central and near-flank parts of depression. HC migration has mainly occurred upward. Study of HC migration trend in time and area as well as areas

  16. Qualitative identification of group composition in crude oil from different oil fields using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng J.; Miao, Xin Y.; Li, Yi Z.; Bao, Ri M.; Zhao, Kun

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties of the group components in crude oil were studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) under nitrogen environment at ambient temperature. The group composition of crude oil from different oil fields were analyzed on the basis of terahertz spectra. Both time delay and amplitude of terahertz wave were modulated in accordance with group composition. The features of terahertz spectra which contain information from different parts of the crude oil group composition can be qualitatively analyzed to detect the group components of the crude oil.

  17. Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kåre; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1994-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 μm wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images PMID:16349231

  18. Microbial biodiversity in a Malaysian oil field and a systematic comparison with oil reservoirs worldwide.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; Midgley, David J; Ross, Jason P; Oytam, Yalchin; Abell, Guy C J; Volk, Herbert; Daud, Wan Ata Wan; Hendry, Philip

    2012-06-01

    Microbial diversity within formation water and oil from two compartments in Bokor oil reservoir from a Malaysian petroleum oil field was examined. A total of 1,056 16S rRNA gene clones were screened from each location by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. All samples were dominated by clones affiliated with Marinobacter, some novel Deferribacteraceae genera and various clones allied to the Methanococci. In addition, either Marinobacterium- or Pseudomonas-like operational taxonomic units were detected from either compartment. A systematic comparison with the existing pertinent studies was undertaken by analysing the microbial amplicons detected and the PCR primers used. The analyses demonstrated that bacterial communities were site specific, while Archaea co-occurred more frequently. Amplicons related to Marinobacter, Marinobacterium and Pseudomonas were detected in a number of the studies examined, suggesting they may be ubiquitous members in oil reservoirs. Further analysis of primers used in those studies suggested that most primer pairs had fairly broad but low matches across the bacterial and archaeal domains, while a minority had selective matches to certain taxa or low matches to all the microbial taxa tested. Thus, it indicated that primers may play an important role in determining which taxa would be detected. PMID:22245906

  19. Well log interpretation of certain geothermal fields in the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ershaghi, I.; Abdassah, D.

    1984-03-01

    This study reviews the wireline log responses of some geothermal fields in the Imperial Valley, California. The fields under study include the Heber, the East Mesa, the Brawley, and the Westmoreland. The well logs used in the study did not include all the wireline surveys obtained by the operators. The selected well logs obtained under special arrangements with the operators were chosen to maintain the anonymity of specific well locations but are only representative of each area. Analysis of the well logs indicates that on an individual field basis, the well logs are excellent for correlation purposes. The presence of extremely saline fluids in some fields precludes the monitoring of Q/sub v/ (cation exchange capacity per unit volume) profile for detection of hydrothermally altered zones. The producing sections in all the fields are characterized by low porosity and high resistivity.

  20. C[sub 7] chemistry of biodegraded Monterey oils from the southwestern margin of the Los Angeles Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kornacki, A.S. ); Mango, F.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Biodegraded Monterey oils in the Los Angeles Basin can be differentiated from unaltered Monterey oils by utilizing new C[sub 7] parameters supplemented with standard geochemical data, such as gas-liquid chromatograms and biological markers. Unaltered oils occur below c. 4000 ft in the Wilmington, Sunset Beach, and Seal Beach fields. These medium-gravity crudes (>25[degrees]API) exhibit high C[sub 7] primary test sum values (0.90-1.00), and contain relatively low concentrations of sulfur (0.3-1.0 wt%). Most of these oils were generated at low temperatures (1 10-115[degrees]C). Heavier crudes in relatively shallow pay zones at the Wilmington and Huntington Beach fields are transformed oils that have undergone various degrees of biodegradation and water washing. The residual biodegraded oils, which contain 1.2-1.9 wt% sulfur, have lower C[sub 7] primary test sum values that range from 0.51 to 0.88, and exhibit disturbed (elevated) C[sub 7] oil-generation temperatures. As expected, the transformed crudes contain low concentrations of the aromatic gasoline-range compounds benzene and toluene (which are relatively soluble in water), and they also are depleted in the normal alkanes and (in cases of severe biodegradation) the isoprenoid isoalkanes and steranes. Furthermore, the values of several other C[sub 7] parameters -- such as ratios between [open quote]gem[close quote] and [open quote]non-gem[close quote] structural configurations of C[sub 7] compounds (e.g., 2,3-DMP/2,2-DMP; 1,2-DMCP/1,1-DMCP) -- demonstrate the degree to which bacteria preferentially metabolize certain gasoline-range compounds in petroleum. These effects must be considered when C[sub 7] source parameters (such as selectivity ratios) are used to perform oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations.

  1. C{sub 7} chemistry of biodegraded Monterey oils from the southwestern margin of the Los Angeles Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kornacki, A.S.; Mango, F.D.

    1996-12-31

    Biodegraded Monterey oils in the Los Angeles Basin can be differentiated from unaltered Monterey oils by utilizing new C{sub 7} parameters supplemented with standard geochemical data, such as gas-liquid chromatograms and biological markers. Unaltered oils occur below c. 4000 ft in the Wilmington, Sunset Beach, and Seal Beach fields. These medium-gravity crudes (>25{degrees}API) exhibit high C{sub 7} primary test sum values (0.90-1.00), and contain relatively low concentrations of sulfur (0.3-1.0 wt%). Most of these oils were generated at low temperatures (1 10-115{degrees}C). Heavier crudes in relatively shallow pay zones at the Wilmington and Huntington Beach fields are transformed oils that have undergone various degrees of biodegradation and water washing. The residual biodegraded oils, which contain 1.2-1.9 wt% sulfur, have lower C{sub 7} primary test sum values that range from 0.51 to 0.88, and exhibit disturbed (elevated) C{sub 7} oil-generation temperatures. As expected, the transformed crudes contain low concentrations of the aromatic gasoline-range compounds benzene and toluene (which are relatively soluble in water), and they also are depleted in the normal alkanes and (in cases of severe biodegradation) the isoprenoid isoalkanes and steranes. Furthermore, the values of several other C{sub 7} parameters -- such as ratios between {open_quote}gem{close_quote} and {open_quote}non-gem{close_quote} structural configurations of C{sub 7} compounds (e.g., 2,3-DMP/2,2-DMP; 1,2-DMCP/1,1-DMCP) -- demonstrate the degree to which bacteria preferentially metabolize certain gasoline-range compounds in petroleum. These effects must be considered when C{sub 7} source parameters (such as selectivity ratios) are used to perform oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations.

  2. Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Reservoir Water

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus ST22 was isolated from produced water of a North Sea oil field, on mineral medium with H(inf2)-CO(inf2) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolate grew at 17 to 62(deg)C, with an optimum at 60(deg)C. The pH range was 4.9 to 9.8, with optimal growth at pH 5.1 to 5.9; these characteristics reflected its habitat. Strain ST22 was quickly identified and distinguished from the type strain by immunoblotting. PMID:16535247

  3. Applications of water-soluble polymers in the oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterji, J.; Borchardt, J.K.

    1981-11-01

    Water-soluble polymers commonly used in the oil field are reviewed. The properties of guar, guar derivatives, cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, starches, and synthetic polymers, especially polyacrylamides, are discussed and related to chemical structures of the polymers. Original data comparing polymer solution viscosity properties under identical conditions are presented. These data include effect of polymer concentration on solution viscosity, temperature effect on solution viscosity, viscosity in acidic solution, and polymer solution viscosity in the presence of a hemicellulase enzyme. 105 refs.

  4. Corrosion of alloy steels in oil field fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests have been conducted on two low alloy and two higher alloy steels at a range of brine salinities and sulfide contents typical of oil well production fluids. AISI types 4130 and 4340 show the same behavior in these fluids as mild steel. AISI type 410 stainless steel and 9% chromium - 1% molybdenum steel corrode at rates as great as that of mild steel at higher chloride or sulfide concentrations. Special corrosion inhibitors are required for higher alloy steels when they are exposed to these conditions.

  5. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  6. Geochemistry of oil-field water from the North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of oil-field water is important in understanding the origin and migration of petroleum as well as the water mineral reactions that affect the porosity and permeability of the reservoir rocks. This knowledge is essential in interpreting electric logs and in determining potential pollution, corrosion, and disposal problems of water produced with oil and gas. Finally, the chemical composition of water is an important factor in determining the conditions (temperature, pressure) for the formation of clathrates. This chapter reports detailed chemical analyses of seven formation-water samples from wells within the NPRA and one surface-and two formation-water samples from the Prudhoe Bay oil field. The authors also report {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values for eight of the water samples as well as analyses for gases from six wells. The formation-water samples were obtained from depths ranging from about 700 to 2800 m and from reservoir rocks ranging in age from Mississippian (Lisburne Group) to Triassic. The reservoir rocks are sandstone except for sample 79-AK-5, which was obtained from a limestone interbedded with sandstone. Generally, the pre-Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks on the North Slope have a similar mineral composition. Van de Kamp (1979) gave the following description of these sandstones: Quartz (usually monocrystalline) and chert are the major components; carbonate and clay are variable. Carbonate occurs as detrital grains and as cement, siderite being the most common type. Siderite can form as much as 30 percent of the rock. Clay occurs as a common matrix, generally making up less than 10 percent of the rock. Accessory minerals include pyrite, plagioclase, microcline, glauconite, zircon, sphene, tourmaline, and muscovite.

  7. Crude oil from the El'Darovo field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Fadeev, V.S.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.

    1985-11-01

    The crudes from the El'darovo field are analyzed. They are light, low-sulfur, low-viscosity, and low pour, with a wax content of 1.2-2.8% by weight and low contents of asphaltenes and nitrogen. The oils from the Lower Cretaceous deposits differ from those from the Upper Creataceous deposits in that they are lower in density, viscosity, and carbon residue, with low contents of resins and asphaltenes, sulfur and nitrogen, and high yields of light fractions. The hydrocarbon composition of the IBP-62 degrees C cut was determined chromatographically in a column packed with CaA zeolite. The properties of the crudes are typical for crudes produced in this region. It is recommended that these crudes should be processed in mixtures with crudes from other fields in the Checheno-Ingush ASSR.

  8. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  9. Work Related Injuries in an Oil field in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaee, Faisal Rabia; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of occupational injuries in the Harweel oil field, Oman. Methods The study is based on data gathered from a computerized database maintained by Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO). All non-fatal work-related occupational injuries registered between April 2007 and December 2009 were gathered and analyzed. Results A total of 170 work-related injuries were reported during the study period. Foreign body to the eye was the most common type of injury (27.6%) encountered among all injuries, followed by man falls/slips (11.8%). Injury to the upper extremities accounted for the largest percentage (38.8%) among other body parts. While, a significant portion of the injuries (52%) affected workers aged less than 30 years. The average injury rate per 1000 exposed workers per year was 19.8. Conclusion The study outlines the types of injuries most commonly encountered in the oil field in Oman. Additional data is required in order to devise proper epidemiological analysis. Establishing a comprehensive surveillance system for injuries is essential to ascertain factors influencing such injuries. PMID:22125724

  10. A quantitative index of soil development from field descriptions: Examples from a chronosequence in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A soil development index has been developed in order to quantitatively measure the degree of soil profile development. This index, which combines eight soil field properties with soil thickness, is designed from field descriptions of the Merced River chronosequence in central California. These eight properties are: clay films, texture plus wet consistence, rubification (color hue and chroma), structure, dry consistence, moist consistence, color value, and pH. Other properties described in the field can be added when more soils are studied. Most of the properties change systematically within the 3 m.y. age span of the Merced River chronosequence. The absence of properties on occasion does not significantly affect the index. Individual quantified field properties, as well as the integrated index, are examined and compared as functions of soil depth and age. ?? 1982.

  11. Compliance with California Title 23 and SWAT in an arid environment: Use of oil-well data to minimize on-site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, M.A.; Knight, K.S. )

    1991-02-01

    California Title 23 and the Solid Waste Assessment Test (SWAT) program, as administered by the Regional Water Quality Control Boards (RWQCB), require extensive characterization and monitoring of waste disposal sites. Typical SWAT/Title 23 investigations require multiple characterization boreholes in addition to groundwater and unsaturated zone monitoring. In an arid environment such as the southwestern San Joaquin Valley, many of these requirements become impracticable. Regions such as these are often characterized by extreme depths to groundwater, non-potable groundwater, and moisture deficient and hydrocompacted soils. Through the use of oil-field data, an accurate portrayal of subsurface conditions at a SWAT-ranked site was possible. Because of the extensive background material available and the relatively benign nature of the site, a single borehole was deemed by the REQCB to be an acceptable characterization of the site. As predicted from the background data review, this borehole was drilled to 1,000 ft in depth without encountering a water-saturated interval capable of yielding a sample. In addition, oil-saturated intervals were encountered beneath the site as predicted.

  12. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oil field is about 1.5 km (1mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long.

    Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes.

    The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oil fields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface.

    These radar data show that parts of the oil field were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oil field, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999.

    Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oil field are behaving, leading to improvements in oil field operations.

  13. The origin of bajaites from the San Borja Volcanic Field in Baja California Norte, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibbins, M.; Castillo, P.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Canon-Tapia, E.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Garcia-Amador, B. I.

    2014-12-01

    Baja California is a peninsula in western Mexico that was formed through a dynamic tectonic history of convergence, rifting and strike slip motion. At approximately 13 Ma, subduction along the northwestern coast of Mexico stopped, subsequently the Gulf of California opened and strike slip faults formed parallel to the ancient trench. After subduction ended, arc-related magmatism continued as the Baja peninsula was forming until about 2 Ma. The lavas erupting in the peninsula have variable compositions including calc-alkalic and tholeiitic arc basalts and bajaites. The term bajaite is a collective term for the high magnesian andesites and basaltic andesites in Baja California that have adakitic characteristics. Adakites, on the other hand, are arc lavas characterized by high silica content and Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios; these are generally believed to have formed through melting of subducted basaltic crust. The origin of bajaite is controversial. It has been proposed as product of melting of either subducted basaltic crust primarily because of its adakitic characteristics (Saunders et al, 1987) or metasomatized mantle wedge because of its arc lava-like geochemical features (Castillo, 2008); it has also been proposed as a mixture of differentiated and mafic arc lavas (Streck et al, 2007). The composition of bajaite is similar to that of the bulk continental crust and, thus, its true origin can shed light on the mechanism for continental growth. In this study, we use geochemical techniques to resolve some of the controversies surrounding the origin of bajaite. We analyze the petrographic, major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of bajaites from the San Borja Volcanic Field in Baja California Norte, Mexico to better constrain their petrogenetic history and origin.

  14. Morphological Study of Jaraguay and San Borja Volcanic Fields, Baja California, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete-Aranda, R.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2005-12-01

    Volcanism younger than 12.5 Ma has occurred mainly as monogenetic volcanic fields along the Baja California Peninsula, but until now very little attention has been given to the morphological description of this type of volcanism. In this study we present the preliminary results of the first stage of elaboration of a Geographical Information System (GIS) of the northernmost volcanic fields of the Peninsula; Jaraguay and San Borja, which are among the less studied fields in the region. The present status of the GIS includes the main morphological characteristics and localization of over 350 eruptive centers identified in both volcanic fields. Our data show that over 90% of the eruptive centers are cinder cones, whereas the rest of volcanic structures include some stratovolcanos, shield volcanoes and calderas. Detailed analysis of digital elevation models and 14 m resolution Landsat TM images show a remarkable diversity of the size of reported eruptive centers: the average height lies around 720 m with peaks that reaches 1,412 m asl. Preliminary graphic analyses show local concentrations of the biggest volcanic structures in some areas in both fields. This spatial distribution is more evident at the San Borja volcanic field where the biggest volcanic centers are systematically located in its south and north-western boundaries. A similar concentration of bigger volcanic structures is found at the western edge of Jaraguay volcanic field where cinder cones are largely confined to its eastern most edge. The observed morphological changes of volcanic structures occur in both cases within a distance of less than 100 km. We interpret such variations as the result of heterogeneities of the low velocity zone below this particular area of the Baja California Peninsula, although the final evaluation of the distribution of the regional stress field and its relationship with the actual spatial distribution of eruptive centers must wait until more information becomes available. In

  15. Final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-2, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase I Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NPR-2 include the following: royalty income from producing oil and gas leases, rental income from non-producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for sheep grazing (10,044 acres), and town lots for residential or commercial development (16.7 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  16. 76 FR 66080 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 52030, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 52030... reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 52030 from Plains Exploration & Production Co. The petition was filed...

  17. 76 FR 22422 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 49187, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 49187... terminated oil and gas leases. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of 30 U.S.C. 188(d) and (e), and 43 CFR 3108.2-3... gas lease CACA 49187 from Gasco Production Co. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied...

  18. Land subsidence caused by the East Mesa geothermal field, California, observed using SAR interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massonnet, D.; Holzer, T.; Vadon, H.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric combination of pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the ERS-1 satellite maps the deformation field associated with the activity of the East Mesa geothermal plant, located in southern California. SAR interferometry is applied to this flat area without the need of a digital terrain model. Several combinations are used to ascertain the nature of the phenomenon. Short term interferograms reveal surface phase changes on agricultural fields similar to what had been observed previously with SEASAT radar data. Long term (2 years) interferograms allow the study of land subsidence and improve prior knowledge of the displacement field, and agree with existing, sparse levelling data. This example illustrates the power of the interferometric technique for deriving accurate industrial intelligence as well as its potential for legal action, in cases involving environmental damages. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. 76 FR 78938 - Carpinteria Offshore Field Redevelopment Project-Developmental Drilling Into the Carpinteria...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Drilling Into the Carpinteria Offshore Field Oil and Gas Reserves, California State Waters, From Federal... jointly review a proposal to develop offshore oil and gas resources, located in California state waters, from an existing oil and gas platform located in Federal waters. This review will lead to a...

  20. Tukau Field: Finding new oil in matured and complex field after 20 years of production

    SciTech Connect

    Shariff, M.D.; Ridza, M. ); Majid, P. )

    1996-01-01

    The Tukau Field is located some 30 km offshore Sarawak, Malaysia. in water depth of about 160 ft. The field, discovered by TK-2 in 1966 found 235 ft net oil sand and 16 ft wet gas sand. After further seismic data acquisition and interpretation, six (6) appraisal wells were drilled from 1973 to 1975 before the field could be commercially developed. The Tukau structure is a structurally complex feature formed as a domal anticlinal uplift, located along the Tukau I Bakau / Baram trend. It is dissected at the shallow level by normal synthetic and antithetic faults. These fault system divide the field into seven (7) fault blocks. The major hydrocarbon accumulations are between 2400 ftss and 7500 ftss and the main prospective sequence consists of fine to very fine grained sand of the upper cycle V of late Miocene age and deposited in a deltaic, fluviomarine, coastal to near shore environment. Development drilling commenced in 1975 with a total of 23 wells. To date a total of nine (9) rounds of development activities were carried out resulting in 55 wells being drilled and nine (9) well jackets installed. In 1975, based on the seismic and well data. the field is estimated to contain some 300 MMSTB of oil. Following subsequent field reviews Incorporating some 50 odd well data and seismic reinterpretation in 1987. the field STOIIP increased to 500 MMST. 3D seismic was acquired in 1992 and field review carried out In 1995 resulted In some development potential and appraisal / exploration opportunities. The appraisal well drilled in October 1995, increased the field STOIIP by some 50 MMSTB. Preliminary evaluation based on geological, engineering and economic information indicated that Tukau field will be further developed with additional well jacket and this will boost the field production by about 50%.

  1. Tukau Field: Finding new oil in matured and complex field after 20 years of production

    SciTech Connect

    Shariff, M.D.; Ridza, M.; Majid, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Tukau Field is located some 30 km offshore Sarawak, Malaysia. in water depth of about 160 ft. The field, discovered by TK-2 in 1966 found 235 ft net oil sand and 16 ft wet gas sand. After further seismic data acquisition and interpretation, six (6) appraisal wells were drilled from 1973 to 1975 before the field could be commercially developed. The Tukau structure is a structurally complex feature formed as a domal anticlinal uplift, located along the Tukau I Bakau / Baram trend. It is dissected at the shallow level by normal synthetic and antithetic faults. These fault system divide the field into seven (7) fault blocks. The major hydrocarbon accumulations are between 2400 ftss and 7500 ftss and the main prospective sequence consists of fine to very fine grained sand of the upper cycle V of late Miocene age and deposited in a deltaic, fluviomarine, coastal to near shore environment. Development drilling commenced in 1975 with a total of 23 wells. To date a total of nine (9) rounds of development activities were carried out resulting in 55 wells being drilled and nine (9) well jackets installed. In 1975, based on the seismic and well data. the field is estimated to contain some 300 MMSTB of oil. Following subsequent field reviews Incorporating some 50 odd well data and seismic reinterpretation in 1987. the field STOIIP increased to 500 MMST. 3D seismic was acquired in 1992 and field review carried out In 1995 resulted In some development potential and appraisal / exploration opportunities. The appraisal well drilled in October 1995, increased the field STOIIP by some 50 MMSTB. Preliminary evaluation based on geological, engineering and economic information indicated that Tukau field will be further developed with additional well jacket and this will boost the field production by about 50%.

  2. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant formulations for oil field applications

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; McDaniel, Richard

    2008-10-21

    A sealant for an oil or geothermal well capable of setting within about 3 to about 6 hours at temperatures less than about 250.degree. F. for shallow wells less than about 10,000 feet and deep wells greater than about 10,000 feet having MgO present in the range of from about 9.9 to about 14.5%, KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 present in the range of from about 29.7 to about 27.2%, class C fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 36.3%, class F fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 0%, boric acid or borax present in the range of from about 0.39 to about 1.45%, and water present in the range of from about 20.3 to about 21.86% by weight of the sealant.A method of sealing wells is disclosed as are compositions for very high temperature wells is disclosed as is a composition for treating oil field wastes.

  3. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  4. Indexes of pumps for oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimov, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    As reported previously, a series of oil field pumping units has been developed with power outputs of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kW, designed for injecting working fluids in cementing operations in oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing of formations, washing out sand plugs, and other production operations. The units are designed for the use of three-plunger pumps with individual power outputs of 125 or 500 kW. In the 250- and 1000-kW units, two such pumps are used. The 1000-kW pumping unit serves mainly for deep-penetration hydraulic fracturing of formations, and also for fracturing deep formations. The hydraulic fracturing process does not require the use of units with two pumps; this has been demonstrated by experience, both here and in other countries. All units intended for use in hydraulic fracturing are built with a single pump, transmission, and drive. Pumping units for well cementing must have two pumps that will give a high delivery rate. At the start of the operation, a single pump can be used to feed water into the cement mixer, with the second pump used to transfer the cement slurry to the well. Then both pumps are connected to the slurry injection line. The operation of these pumps is described.

  5. FIELD TEST KIT FOR CHARACTERIZING OIL-BRINE EFFLUENTS FROM OFFSHORE DRILLING PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated to evaluate test methods for characterizing oil-brine effluents from offshore oil production platforms and to package and deliver a field test kit for on-site oil-brine analyses. After an initial laboratory evaluation and selection of test meth...

  6. Geochemical Specific Characters of the Oil and the Origin of the Oil and Gas Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottikh, Rimma; Pisotskiy, Bogdan; Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    and porous rocks. The high metal content of carbonaceous substances and their compositional variations governed by homogenisation temperatures of the inclusions suggest that they are not the products of the decomposition of oil fields. The constant presence of uranium in the fluid and its differentiation products allows the tracing of the systems' migration ways from the crystalline basement to oil-saturated reservoir zones of the sedimentary cover The known geochemical properties of bitumen and oil - high platinum content, specific distributions of rare earth elements, that are not characteristic of the upper crust formations, as well as 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compounds, which are out of balance with the organic matter of sedimentary rocks - suggest that hydrocarbons are accumulated in the presence of cooling high-alkalinity mafite-ultramafite intrusions. This logically corresponds to the distribution of seismic anomalies and magnetic and gravity fields in the consolidated crust below the various petroleum fields (for example, South Tatarstan and Nepsky arches of the Romashkino and Verkhne-Chonskoye oil fields). The acquired geochemical and thermodynamic characteristics of the reduced fluids and their differentiation products from the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian and eastern East European platforms indicate that these were formed outside of the sedimentary cover and that the migration was directed upwards. The analysis of the magmatic evolution on platforms reveals its alkaline trend due to the impeded degassing of magmatic sources at depth and the inflow of new doses of alkaline fluids or melts into them. Further evolution of the zones of partial melting of the substratum led, in the authors' view, to the generation of oil-forming fluids and their transportation into the Earth's upper crust. Their interaction with the surrounding rocks in turn led to the formation of oil accumulations. Thus, oil is the product

  7. Alkanes in benthic organisms from the Buccaneer oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.

    1980-06-01

    About 200 g per day of alkanes are present in brine discharged from each of two production platforms in the Buccaneer oil field in the NW Gulf of Mexico. These alkanes disperse rapidly in the water column, so that seawater concentrations of petroleum alkanes in this region are generally very low. They can be taken up to some extent by plankton, fish, and barnacles, but the petroleum alkane concentrations in these organisms are also relatively low. The largest pool of petroleum alkanes is in the surficial sediments, where concentrations of up to 25 ppM are observed, with concentration gradients extending more than 20 m from the production platforms. Organisms are examined which are exposed to these sediments and, for comparison, other specimens from control sites around structures from which there are no discharges.

  8. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  9. Magnetotelluric signature of anticlines in Iran's Sehqanat oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoori, Isa; Oskooi, Behrooz; Pedersen, Laust B.

    2015-07-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has proved to be an effective tool in hydrocarbon exploration especially in areas with geological structures/formations where seismic reflection provides neither good quality data nor images. The Sehqanat oil field located in the sedimentary zone of Zagros in SW of Iran is a typical example. It is covered by the high velocity and heterogeneous formation of Gachsaran, which is exposed at the surface and has a thickness varying from 500 m to more than 2 km in the region. Gachsaran is composed mainly of salt and evaporites overlying, as a cap rock, the Asmari limestone formation which is the main reservoir in all oil fields of Iran along the Zagros range. The main geological interface which is targeted to be imaged with the MT method is the contact between the highly conductive evaporites of the Gachsaran formation and the underlying more resistive carbonates of the Asmari formation. MT data at more than 600 stations along five parallel SW-NE profiles crossing the main geological trend of the study area and transient electromagnetic data over 400 stations to be used for static shift corrections of the MT data were available. Dimensionality and strike analysis of the MT data show dominant two-dimensional (2-D) conditions in almost all sites and periods. The 2-D resistivity models resolved the boundary between Gachsaran and Asmari formations as a transition zone from highly conductive to resistive structures. The Sehqanat anticline has also been delineated throughout the 2-D resistivity sections as a resistive dome-shaped body located in the middle part of the MT profiles. There is a considerable correlation between the 2-D resistivity models and the adjacent 2-D reflection seismic sections so that a more reliable interpretation on the hydrocarbon trap of the Sehqanat anticline can be obtained.

  10. Detection of virgin olive oil adulteration using low field unilateral NMR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355

  11. Changes in types and area of postharvest flooded fields available to waterbirds in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Skalos, Daniel A.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to restore historic waterbird distribution and abundance in the Central Valley of California require information on current and historic areas of waterbird habitat. To provide this information, we mapped the area of agricultural fields in the vicinity of the historic Tulare Lake Bed in the Tulare Basin, California, that were treated postharvest with two different flooding regimes that varied in depth and duration of water applied (, 1 cm to 1.5 m water for longer than 1 wk [FLD]; , 1 to 15 cm water for 1 wk or less [IRG]) during August–March 1991–1994 and 2005–2006. We compared our results with published estimates for 1976–1980 and 1981–1987. Area and crops treated postharvest with FLD or IRG flooding differed among years and months. Overall for August through March, weekly area of FLD fields averaged 1,671 ha in 1976–1980 but declined to about half that in later years; the decline was most severe during January–March. Cotton was primarily treated with IRG flooding and comprised 47–95% of the total IRG field area. Other crops were primarily treated with FLD flooding; tomato replaced safflower in 2005–2006. These documented declines since the 1970s in area of FLD fields and changes in crops being flooded postharvest reduce the carrying capacity of the Tulare Basin for waterbirds, a situation that will need to be reversed for restoration of historic waterbird distribution in the Central Valley to be viable. If maintaining agricultural production is a priority and agricultural drainage waters can be disposed of safely, then increasing the extent of FLD grain fields would provide the most benefit for wintering waterbirds; otherwise, restoring and providing adequate water supplies to managed wetlands would most benefit waterbirds

  12. Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites. PMID:20861922

  13. Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, H.K.; Duey, H.D.; Bortz, L.C.; Foster, N.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Grant Canyon field is located on the eastern side of Railroad Valley, 8 mi south of the Eagle Springs oil field. The discovery well, Grant Canyon Unit 1 was completed by Northwest Exploration Co. on September 11, 1983, flowing 1816 bbl of oil/day from the Devonian Guilmette dolomite (4374-4448 ft). Two additional wells have been completed in the field. Through April 1988, cumulative oil production was 8,211,149 bbl of oil. During March and April 1988, wells 3 and 4 flowed an average of 6089 bbl of oil/day. For these months, well 3 averaged 4144 bbl of oil/day with 1935 bbl of oil/day coming from well 4. Production area appears to be 240 ac. The trap is a high fault block in the boundary fault zone that separates Railroad Valley from the Grant Range to the east. The Devonian Guilmette reservoir is an intensely fractured vuggy dolomite with some intercrystalline porosity. The top seal is the Tertiary Valley Fill, which unconformably overlies the Guilmette dolomite. The oil column is about 400 ft thick and the field apparently has an active water drive, inasmuch as unit 1 had to be shut in because of water production. The oil is black, 26/degree/API, 0.5% sulfur, and has a pour point of 10/degree/F. Estimated ultimate recoverable oil reserves are 13 million bbl. The adjacent Bacon Flat field is a one-well field completed by Northwest Exploration CO. on July 5, 1981, for 200 bbl of oil/day and 1050 bbl of water/day from the Devonian Guilmette Limestone (5316-5332 ft). Cumulative production through April 1988 was 303,860 bbl of oil. During March 1988, the well averaged 108 bbl of oil/day plus an unreported amount of water. Estimated ultimate recoverable oil reserves are 400,000 bbl.

  14. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  15. The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, CaliforniaGeothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2006-09-25

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become arequired strategy to extended and sustain production of geothermalresources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasingnon-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers,operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and streamwaters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field fromneighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significantincrease in energy in the United States (US Department of Energy (DOE)goal is 40,000 megawatts by 2040), injection must play a larger role inthe overall strategy, i.e., enhanced geothermal systems, (EGS). Presentedin this paper are the results of monitoring microseismicity during anincrease in injection at The Geysers field in California using data froma high-density digital microearthquake array. Although seismicity hasincreased due to increased injection it has been found to be somewhatpredicable, thus implying that intelligent injection control may be ableto control large increases in seismicity.

  16. PVTX characteristics of oil inclusions from Asmari formation in Kuh-e-Mond heavy oil field in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatinia, Zeinab; Haghighi, Manouchehr; Shafiei, Ali; Feiznia, Sadat; Zendehboudi, Sohrab

    2015-04-01

    Incorporating PVT properties and compositional evolution of oil inclusions into reservoir engineering simulator protocols can enhance understanding of oil accumulation, reservoir charge history, and migration events. Microthermometry and volumetric analysis have proven to be useful tools in compositional reconstitution and PT studies of oil inclusions and were used to determine composition, thermodynamic conditions, physical properties, and gas-to-oil ratios of heavy oil samples from Asmari carbonate reservoir in Kuh-e-Mond heavy oil field in Iran. PVT properties were predicted using a PVT black-oil model, and an acceptable agreement was observed between the experiments and the simulations. Homogenization temperatures were determined using microthermometry techniques in dolomite and calcite cements of the Asmari Formation, as well. Based on the homogenization temperature data, the undersaturated hydrocarbon mixture prior to formation of the gas cap migrated with a higher gas-to-oil ratio from a source rock. According to the oil inclusion data, the onset of carbonate cementation occurred at temperatures above 45 °C and that cementation was progressive through burial diagenesis. PVT black-oil simulator results showed that the reservoir pressure and temperature were set at 100 bar and 54 °C during the initial stages of oil migration. Compositional modeling implies that primary and secondary cracking in source rocks were responsible for retention of heavy components and migration of miscible three-phase flow during hydrocarbon evolution. The PT evolution of the petroleum inclusions indicates changes in thermodynamic properties and mobility due to phenomena such as cracking, mixing, or/and transport at various stages of oil migration.

  17. Distribution of selenium in soils of agricultural fields, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Deverel, S.J.; Hatfield, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Soils from three agricultural fields in the Panoche Creek alluvial fan area in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, were analyzed for soluble, adsorbed, and total concentrations of selenium (Se) to assess the distribution and forms of Se in relation to the leaching of Se from soils. This assessment is needed to evaluate the importance of soil Se in affecting ground water concentrations. Soil samples were collected from three fields with drainage systems of different ages (6, 15, 1.5 yr) and different Se concentrations in drain water (58, 430, 3700 µg L−1, respectively). Concentrations of soluble Se and salinity were highest in soils from the field drained for 1.5 yr and lowest in the field drained for 6 yr. Of the total concentration of soil Se from all three fields, the proportion of adsorbed and soluble Se ranged from 1 to 11% and 2 > 0.68) in saturation extracts of soils sampled from below the water table. In contrast, most soluble salts and Se apparently have been leached from the unsaturated soils in the fields drained for 6 and 15 yr. For the leached soils, dissolution and precipitation of evaporite minerals containing Se may no longer control concentrations of soluble Se.

  18. CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF OIL FIELDS ON NORTHERN ALASKAN LANDSCAPES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned de...

  19. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  20. Field and laboratory trials of a novel metaflumizone house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) bait in California.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Bradley A; Gerry, Alec C; Diniz, Alesha N

    2010-04-01

    House fly responses to metaflumizone bait were studied in southern California. Field-strain, laboratory-reared flies in outdoor cages had access for 5 d to water and two containers of untreated sugar/dry milk (control), one container of untreated food and one container of metaflumizone bait, or one container of untreated food and one container of spinosad bait (positive control). Most fly mortality occurred between 0 and 48 h for spinosad and between 48 and 96 h for metaflumizone. On a commercial dairy, fly visitation and bait consumption were higher for metaflumizone bait than for sugar or imidacloprid bait. Flies seldom visited or consumed the imidacloprid bait. Approximately 32% of field flies collected directly from metaflumizone bait (single exposure) died when held in the laboratory with untreated food for 72 h versus < 5% mortality for flies from sugar or imidacloprid bait. Individual laboratory-reared females from a field strain and a susceptible laboratory strain were videotaped in the laboratory after exposure to untreated dry milk/sugar, metaflumizone bait, spinosad bait, and imidacloprid bait. Imidacloprid-induced mortality in field strain flies was low; when on the bait they spent proportionally less time feeding (38%) than did the laboratory strain flies (63%). Feeding by the field strain was more variable, and they fed less on all bait/food sources except metaflumizone. Metaflumizone has promise as a relatively slow-acting fly bait. PMID:20429473

  1. Field investigation of duct system performance in California light commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Delp, W.W.; Matson, N.E.; Tschudy, E.

    1997-12-09

    This paper discusses field measurements of duct system performance in fifteen systems located in eight northern California buildings. Light commercial buildings, one- and two-story with package roof-top HVAC units, make up approximately 50% of the non-residential building stock in the U.S. Despite this fact little is known about the performance of these package roof-top units and their associated ductwork. These simple systems use similar duct materials and construction techniques as residential systems (which are known to be quite leaky). This paper discusses a study to characterize the buildings, quantify the duct leakage, and analyze the performance of the ductwork in these types of buildings. The study tested fifteen systems in eight different buildings located in northern California. All of these buildings had the ducts located in the cavity between the drop ceiling and the roof deck. In 50% of these buildings, this cavity was functionally outside the building`s air and thermal barriers. The effective leakage area of the ducts in this study was approximately 2.6 times that in residential buildings. This paper looks at the thermal analysis of the ducts, from the viewpoint of efficiency and thermal comfort. This includes the length of a cycle, and whether the fan is always on or if it cycles with the cooling equipment. 66% of the systems had frequent on cycles of less than 10 minutes, resulting in non-steady-state operation.

  2. Reservoir analysis study, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: Phase 2 report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    Jerry R. Bergeso and Associates, Inc. (Bergeson) has completed Phase II of the Reservoir Analysis, Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1, Elk Hills Oilfield, California. The objectives for this phase of the study included the establishment of revised estimates of the original oil and gas-in-place for each of the zones/reservoirs, estimation of the remaining proved developed, proved undeveloped, probable and possible reserves, and assessment of the effects of historical development and production operations and practices on recoverable reserves. Volume one contains the following: summary; introduction; and reservoir studies for tulare, dry gas zone, eastern shallow oil zone, western shallow oil zone, and Stevens --MBB/W31S, 31S NA/D.

  3. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-01-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consist of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of later Proterozoic age. The main granitic luton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian sheild. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alternation/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers.

  4. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-02-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consists of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of late Proterozoic age. The main granitic pluton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian shield. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alteration/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers. A model has been constructed to illustrate the changes in the primary rock texture and structure with sequential diagenetic processes, taking into consideration the fracture distribution and their opening affinities as related to their depths.

  5. Evidence for a palaeo-oil column and alteration of residual oil in a gas-condensate field: Integrated oil inclusion and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Burruss, Robert C.; Chou, I.-Ming; Kempton, Richard; Liu, Keyu; Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2014-10-01

    In the Phuong Dong gas condensate field, Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam, hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz trapped a variety of petroleum fluids in the gas zone. Based on the attributes of the oil inclusion assemblages (fluorescence colour of the oil, bubble size, presence of bitumen), the presence of a palaeo-oil column is inferred prior to migration of gas into the reservoir. When a palaeo-oil column is displaced by gas, a residual volume fraction of oil remains in pores. If the gas does not completely mix with the oil, molecular partitioning between the residual oil and the new gas charge may change the composition and properties of the residual oil (gas stripping or gas washing). To simulate this phenomenon in the laboratory, we sealed small amounts of crude oil (42 and 30 °API) and excess pure gas (methane, ethane, or propane) in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs), with and without water. These mixtures were characterized with the same methods used to characterize the fluid inclusions, heating and cooling stage microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature, mixtures of ethane and propane with the 30 °API oil formed a new immiscible fluorescent liquid phase with colour that is visually more blue than the initial oil. The fluorescence of the original oil phase shifted to yellow or disappeared with formation of semi-solid residues. The blue-shift of the fluorescence of the immiscible phases and strong CH stretching bands in FT-IR spectra are consistent with stripping of hydrocarbon molecules from the oil. In experiments in FSCCs with water solid residues are common. At elevated temperature, reproducing geologic reservoir conditions, the fluorescence changes and therefore the molecular fractionation are enhanced. However, the precipitation of solid residues is responsible of more complex changes. Mixing experiments with the 42 °API oil do not form a new immiscible hydrocarbon liquid although the fluorescence

  6. Developing a New Field-Validated Methodology for Landfill Methane Emissions in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project was initiated in the US by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in cooperation with the California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) to develop improved methods for landfill methane emissions for the California greenhouse gas inventory. This 3-year project (2007-2010) is devel...

  7. Vertical magnetic field and its analytic signal applicability in oil field underground pipeline detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Liu, Dejun; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Yi; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    We propose using the vertical component of the magnetic anomaly (vertical magnetic field (VMF)) and its analytic signal (AS) to detect oil field underground pipelines. The connection between two peaks of the VMF curves or the AS curves was used to calculate the pipeline azimuth, and the peak coordinates of the AS were used to determine the horizontal position of pipelines. Then, the effect of the pipeline magnetization direction and pipeline buried depth on the horizontal locating error was analyzed. Three typical pipeline models were used for verifying this method. Results indicate that this method can be used to precisely calculate the stretch direction of the pipeline and effectively improve the identification capability in detecting parallel pipelines. The horizontal position of the pipeline axis can be accurately located by the peak of the AS and the locating error increases with the increase in pipeline buried depth, but it is not affected by pipeline outer diameter, thickness, susceptibility. The instrument design and the VMF measurement strategy are realistic and applicable. The VMF detection with its AS provides a new effective method for horizontal locating and direction calculating of oil field underground pipelines.

  8. 75 FR 32812 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 44900, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 44900... gas lease CACA 44900 from NW. Lost Hills Petroleum Holdings, LLC. The petition was filed on time...

  9. 75 FR 53981 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 47609, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 47609... gas lease CACA 47609 from Mirada Petroleum Inc. The petition was filed on time and was accompanied...

  10. 77 FR 9959 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 50123, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 50123... gas lease CACA 50123 from West Coast Land Service. The petition was filed on time and was...

  11. Long-term Evolution of Seismicity Rates in California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, D. T.; Shearer, P. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of seismicity rates within geothermal fields provides important observational constraints on the ways in which rocks respond to natural and anthropogenic loading. We develop an iterative, regularized inversion procedure to partition the observed seismicity rate into two primary components: (1) the interaction seismicity rate due to earthquake-earthquake triggering, and (2) the time-varying background seismicity rate controlled by other time-dependent stresses, including anthropogenic forcing. We parameterize our seismicity model using an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) framework with a background seismicity rate that varies smoothly with time. We apply our methodology to study long-term changes in seismicity rates at the Geysers and Salton Sea geothermal fields in California. At the Geysers, we find that the background seismicity rate is highly correlated with fluid injection. Seismicity at the Geysers has experienced a rate increase of approximately 50% since year 2000 and exhibits strong seasonal fluctuations, both of which can be explained by changes in fluid injection following the completion of the Santa Rosa pipeline. At the Salton Sea, the background seismicity rate has remained relatively stable since 1990, with short-term fluctuations that are not obviously modulated by fluid fluxes related to the operation of the geothermal field. The differences in the field-wide seismicity responses of the Geysers and Salton Sea to geothermal plant operation may reflect differences in in-situ reservoir conditions and local tectonics, indicating that induced seismicity may not be solely a function of fluid injection and withdrawal.

  12. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  13. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  14. Application of uranium-thorium systematics to rocks from the Lassen Dome Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.A.; Clynne, M.A.; Robinson, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 238/U-/sup 230/Th disequilibrium systematics were applied to a suite of fifteen dacites, rhyodacites, and mafic inclusions from the Lassen dome field, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Chemical procedures were established and are reported for separation and purification of uranium and thorium from whole-rock samples and mineral separates. Activities of /sup 230/Th, /sup 232/Th, /sup 234/U, and /sup 238/U were determined by alpha spectrometry. Age determinations were made for five of the rhyodacite units using /sup 230/Th-/sup 238/U isochrons. The determined ages range from 3600 to 57,000 years, and are in agreement with volcanic and glacial stratigraphy and with preliminary radiocarbon and K-Ar ages. The data support a origin for the intermediate and silicic rocks of the Lassen Volcanic Center by fractional crystallization of mantle derived mafic magmas in an open system. 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Mercury in freshwater fish and clams from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field of Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Galindo, E.A.; Munoz, G.F.; Flores, A.A.

    1988-08-01

    Several reports have expressed concern about the potential toxicity hazards and environmental contamination of mercury emissions from geothermal fields in Hawaii, New Zealand, Iceland, California and Mexico. Inorganic mercury discharged from the sources may accumulate in the sediments of rivers or lakes and, after microbiological methylation may become concentrated in the edible tissue of fish. This study involves assessment of geothermal mercury pollution arising from Cerro Prieto. For this purpose the fish Tilapia mossambica and the clam Corbicula fluminea were collected from the freshwater courses of the Mexicali Valley. Reports indicated that in 1982, 13 t of T. mossambica were destinated for human consumption. A further aim was to provide base line data and information relevant to the level of mercury contamination for the Mexicali Valley.

  16. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection was lowered only slightly and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil

  17. Microseismic monitoring of the Chaveroo oil field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Albright, J.N.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Murphy, M.B.; Roberts, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Induced microseismicity was monitored in the Chaveroo oil field in southeastern New Mexico during a pressurized stimulation of a well being prepared as an injector for a waterflood operation. In addition, the microseismicity was monitored for 5 weeks following the stimulation while the area was under normal waterflood production. Little seismicity was detected during the 5.5 hour stimulation in which three thousand barrels of water were injected into the reservoir at pressures ranging from 96 to 257 bars in excess of hydrostatic pressure. Intermittent monitoring over the 5-week period indicated detectable seismicity occurred during waterflood production. Monitoring during the 5 weeks, however, was not complete enough to draw general conclusions on temporal variations of observed microseismicity. Seventy-three good quality events recorded over a cumulative 24 hours of intermittent monitoring were located using the hodogram technique. Events were detected at distances up to 1700 m from the monitor well but most occurred within 900 m. The map of microearthquake locations indicated that events occurred in the vicinity of producing wells and away from injection wells. The first half of the sequence of mappable events occurred along linear trends, but the pattern became more scattered during the later half of the sequence. The lack of seismicity during the pressurized injection and the increased seismicity levels occurring away from injection wells during waterflood production, suggest seismicity is not induced by Mohr-Coulomb failure. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Take home lead exposure in children of oil field workers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahad

    2011-06-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem. While residential lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust and soil are the most common sources of childhood lead poisoning, children can also be at risk if they live with an adult with a job or hobby that involves exposure to lead. Currently, the Oklahoma Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (OCLPPP) has a small number of cases of "take home" lead exposure in children of oil field workers. These workers may come in contact with a threading compound, "pipe dope" that can contain large amounts of lead. Workers handling this product may be exposed to lead by not following safety instructions. Additionally workers may not be provided the facilities to shower and change out of the contaminated clothing before leaving the work location. The OCLPPP recommends employers and worksites should consider effective alternative options like lead free biodegradable pipe dopes or dope free connections to prevent workers and their families from adverse health effects associated with lead. PMID:21888039

  19. Driving mechanism for plunger pumps in oil field installations

    SciTech Connect

    Gazarov, R.E.; Zaslavskii, Yu.V.

    1995-07-01

    Mobile oil field pumping installations of up to 1600 kW power at a pressure up to 140 MPa are widely used in hydraulic fracturing of beds, acid treatment of the near-face zone, cementation of wells, and other flushing and pressure operations. Equipment in these installations, which include high-pressure plunger pumps of high unit capacity, are mounted on mobile bases of limited lifting capacity (KrAZ automobile chassis, T-130 tractors, etc.). Very strict demands are made on the reliability, durability, and mass/size characteristics of the pumps and on all the equipment of the mobile installations. In modern pumps, an axial load of up to 100 tons or more, which is transmitted to the crankshaft, acts on each plunger. The engine of the installation rotates the crankshaft through a multiple-speed transmission and the transmission shaft of the pump. The forces acting on the elements of the driving part of a pump with a connecting rod - crank drive and a single-reduction tooth gear are described.

  20. Copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Jafar; Alamdari, Abdolmohammad

    2009-07-30

    The present study aims at investigation of copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation process. The produced brine containing heavy metals is usually returned to the reservoir for water flooding or is discarded to the surroundings. Therefore, surface waters or underground waters may be polluted due to probable contact to these discarded waters. Removal experiments were carried out at room temperature in a bench-scale crystallizer equipped with a draft tube. In order to gain an insight into the influence of soluble compounds in the industrial natural brine on the precipitation process, some comparative experiments were performed both on a sample of natural brine and on a synthetic simulated brine in the absence of natural impurities. A metal removal practice by coprecipitation of copper through CaCO(3) precipitates induced by reaction of Na(2)CO(3) and CaCl(2) reduced the copper concentration (Cu(2+)) from 0.27 ppm in the synthetic brine to 0.06 ppm. This removal of 78% required only 1g of precipitate per 0.15 mg copper metal. Analysis of the experimental results suggested that about 5% of the copper removal from the synthetic brine was through the mechanism of incorporation into the crystal lattice, and around 95% was through the adsorption on the crystal faces. PMID:19157701

  1. California energy flow in 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1993-04-01

    Energy consumption in California fell in 1991 for the first time in five years. The State`s economy was especially hard hit by a continuing national recession. The construction industry for the second year experienced a dramatic downturn. Energy use in the industrial sector showed a modest increase, but consumption in other end-use categories declined. The decrease in energy used in transportation can be traced to a substantial fall in the sales of both highway diesel fuels and vessel bunkering fuels at California ports, the latter reflecting a mid-year increase in taxes. Gasoline sales by contrast increased as did the number of miles traveled and the number of automobiles in the State. Production in California`s oil and gas fields was at 1990 levels thus arresting a steady decline in output. Due to enlarged steam flooding operations, production at several fields reached record levels. Also countering the decline in many of California fields was new production from the Port Arguello offshore field. California natural gas production, despite a modest 1991 increase, will not fill the use within the State. Petroleum comprised more than half of the State`s energy supply principally for transportation. Natural gas use showed a small increase. Oil products play virtually no role in electrical production. The largest single source of electricity to the State is imports from the Pacific Northwest and from coal-fired plants in the Southwest. Combined contributions to transmitted electricity from renewable and alternate sources declined as hydropower was constrained by a prolonged drought and as geothermal power from the largest and oldest field at The Geysers fell. Windpower grew slightly; however solar power remained at 1990 levels and made no substantial contribution to total power generation.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-02-18

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 1999, project work has been completed related to data preparation, basic reservoir engineering, developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model, and a rock-log model, well drilling and completions, and surface facilities. Work is continuing on the stochastic geologic model, developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Fault Block IIA Tar (Tar II-A) Zone, and operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the steamflood project. Last quarter on January 12, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations. Seven water injection wells were placed in service in November and December 1998 on the flanks of the Phase 1 steamflood area to pressure up the reservoir to fill up the existing steam chest. Intensive reservoir engineering and geomechanics studies are continuing to determine the best ways to shut down the steamflood operations in Fault Block II while minimizing any future surface subsidence. The new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulator model is being used to provide sensitivity cases to optimize production, steam injection, future flank cold water injection and reservoir temperature and pressure. According to the model, reservoir fill up of the steam chest at the current injection rate of 28,000 BPD and gross

  3. Growth patterns of a Miocene turbidite complex in an active-margin basin, Yowlumne Field, San Joaquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.S.; Melvin, J.D.; Kamerling, M.

    1996-12-31

    The upper Miocene Yowlumne sandstone was deposited as a lobate, northward-prograding turbidite complex, in eight or more stages, along the tectonically active southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, California. This prolific sandstone, which has produced most of the 100 MMBL of oil attributed to Yowlumne field, is one of several different, discontinuous reservoirs that make up the Stevens sandstone, a deep-marine clastic facies of the Miocene Monterey Formation. The Yowlumne reservoir is a lens-shaped, complex- layered sandstone body with evidence of channeling and erosion within the body. However, because seismic markers bounding this body are not truncated by it, and merge on the margins of the body, the reservoir does not incise underlying strata. Pressure data, 3D-seismic, and detailed well log correlations indicate lens-shaped, lobate sandstone layers within the Yowlumne reservoir that downlap to the north and are separated by thin shales. These layers represent separate permeability pathways that are in pressure communication over geologic time (thousands of years) but become weakly compartmentalized during rapid reservoir draw down (tens of years). Two layers form a left-stepping (westward), shingled complex that resulted from lateral shifting of turbidite depositional lobes. A second, younger, left-stepping complex of five layers is located basinward (northward) from the first and represents a basinward shift of deposition. A third, even younger complex may be located basinward from the second. Most likely, left-stepping geometries represent lobe switching influenced by Coriolis forces, and basinward-stepping geometries represent progradation controlled by accommodation.

  4. Chemometric differentiation of crude oil families in the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Kenneth E.; Coutrot, Delphine; Nouvelle, Xavier; Ramos, L. Scott; Rohrback, Brian G.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Zumberge, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemometric analyses of geochemical data for 165 crude oil samples from the San Joaquin Basin identify genetically distinct oil families and their inferred source rocks and provide insight into migration pathways, reservoir compartments, and filling histories. In the first part of the study, 17 source-related biomarker and stable carbon-isotope ratios were evaluated using a chemometric decision tree (CDT) to identify families. In the second part, ascendant hierarchical clustering was applied to terpane mass chromatograms for the samples to compare with the CDT results. The results from the two methods are remarkably similar despite differing data input and assumptions. Recognized source rocks for the oil families include the (1) Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, (2) Eocene Tumey Formation, (3–4) upper and lower parts of the Miocene Monterey Formation (Buttonwillow depocenter), and (5–6) upper and lower parts of the Miocene Monterey Formation (Tejon depocenter). Ascendant hierarchical clustering identifies 22 oil families in the basin as corroborated by independent data, such as carbon-isotope ratios, sample location, reservoir unit, and thermal maturity maps from a three-dimensional basin and petroleum system model. Five families originated from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation source rock, and three families came from the overlying Eocene Tumey Formation. Fourteen families migrated from the upper and lower parts of the Miocene Monterey Formation source rocks within the Buttonwillow and Tejon depocenters north and south of the Bakersfield arch. The Eocene and Miocene families show little cross-stratigraphic migration because of seals within and between the source rocks. The data do not exclude the possibility that some families described as originating from the Monterey Formation actually came from source rock in the Temblor Formation.

  5. Characterization of dispersion, attenuation, and anisotropy at the Buena Vista Hills field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackert, C.L.; Parra, J.O.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    We create a log of intrinsic dispersion and attenuation for the Antelope Shale formation of the Buena Vista Hills field, San Joaquin Valley, California. High dispersion (or low Q) values correlate with thin sand and carbonate beds within the Antelope Shale. These beds are at least ten times as permeable as the host shale formation, so this effect provides a possible avenue for seismic prediction of permeability. The dispersion log is formed through comparison of crosswell seismic velocities (measured at approximately 1 kHz) and sonic log velocities (measured at approximately 10 kHz). In order to provide a proper basis for comparison, the sonic log must first be adjusted for field anisotropy, scaling effects, and resolution of measurement. We estimate a local shale anisotropy of about 20% based on correlations generated from published measurements of other shale fields. We apply resolution enhancement to capture the thin sand and carbonate beds, and windowed Backus averaging to match the measurement scales. A modeling study verifies the technique, and shows that beds of thickness greater than 30 cm have a measurement signature. The actual resolution is on the order of the crosswell Fresnel length, or about 7 m for the model study.

  6. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  7. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine Near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated involvement of feral swine in contamination of agriculture fields and surface waterways with Escherichia coli O157:H7 after a nationwide outbreak traced to bagged spinach from California. Isolates from feral swine, cattle, surface water, sediment, and soil at 1 ranch were matched to ...

  8. The Validity and Utility of the California Family Risk Assessment under Practice Conditions in the Field: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Will L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of the validity and implementation of a child maltreatment actuarial risk assessment model, the California Family Risk Assessment (CFRA). Questions addressed: (1) Is there evidence of the validity of the CFRA under field operating conditions? (2) Do actuarial risk assessment results influence child welfare workers' service…

  9. University Differences in the Graduation of Minorities in STEM Fields: Evidence from California. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1223

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Peter; Aucejo, Esteban; Hotz, V. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The low number of college graduates with science degrees--particularly among underrepresented minorities--is of growing concern. We examine differences across universities in graduating students in different fields. Using student-level data on the University of California system during a period in which racial preferences were in place, we show…

  10. Biodegradation of diesel oil by an Arabian Sea sediment culture isolated from the vicinity of an oil field.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Suparna; Jagadevan, Sheeja; Mohapatra, Gita; Vijay, Avinash

    2004-12-01

    Laboratory scale batch studies were performed to test the diesel oil biodegradation ability of ES1 cultures isolated from Arabian Sea sediments obtained from the vicinity of an oil field. This culture could utilize diesel as the sole source of carbon and energy. Under aerobic conditions, 39% loss of diesel oil was observed over 8 days where 80% of the loss was due to aliphatic constituents. Under anoxic nitrate reducing conditions the rate and extent of degradation was significantly lower, i.e., 18% over 50 days. Salt acclimatized cultures could tolerate salinities up to 3.5% and demonstrated optimal performance at a salinity of 0.5%. The optimum N/P ratio for these cultures was found to be in the range of 2:1-5:1. Addition of two trace elemental substance formulations exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on culture growth. This culture has good potential for decontamination of oil-contaminated marine and subsurface environments. PMID:15288270

  11. Body and Surface-wave ambient noise seismic interferometry in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabey, L.; Hole, J. A.; Han, L.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were acquired as a part of the Salton Seismic Imaging Project in March 2011. Alongside traditional explosive source recording, a dense array of 486 seismometers across the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and Brawley Seismic Zone recorded 135 hours of natural noise sources. The geothermal field is located within the Imperial Valley in Southern California and is bordered by the southern end of the Salton Sea. There is abundant microseismicity recorded in the area, including over 100-recorded earthquakes, wave action, geothermal pumping operations, a railroad, and two highways. Volcanism associated with rifting processes provides a prolific heat source to the system marking the Salton Sea Geothermal Field as one of the largest and hottest geothermal fields in California. Seismic interferometry is a technique that uses continuous recordings of natural noise to create a 'virtual source' by cross-correlation of receiver pairs followed by stacking. This method has been highly successful for surface waves and a few previous studies have shown evidence of body waves and reflections. As anticipated the abundant tectonic and induced noise sources within our study area produced visible surface and body waves. Inclusion of the earthquakes with normalized amplitudes improved overall data quality. The virtual shots from our data our compare well to our twelve explosive shots at near offsets. The highest quality virtual source gathers are produced near anthropogenic noise sources. In particular, one large geothermal plant acted as a sufficiently strong point source producing a gather similar to what we would see from an explosive source. Surface waves recorded on 4.5-Hz geophones were retrievable from 1-6Hz after cross-correlation and stacking. Up to 30km of body waves were also observed in the 25-30Hz range. Future studies will include surface wave dispersion analysis and attempt body wave reflection imaging. The 100-meter spacing of our

  12. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  13. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  14. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir

  15. Environmental effects of the Kuwaiti oil field fires

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Theory suggests that the rates of smoke emission and heat generation and, consequently, the atmospheric injection height and residence time of the smoke are crucial in determining whether the environmental effects are of global or only regional importance. Confirming the results of model calculations, observations have shown that, up to now, the smoke did not rise higher than to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), about 3,300 m at a maximum. The photochemistry within the smoke cloud very likely is significantly different from that of the smoke-free troposphere. Also, because there is very little precipitation in the greater Gulf region from May through October, it is difficult to predict how and where NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and their oxidation products HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} will be deposited. Photochemical oxidation should be largely suppressed in the denser parts of the smoke cloud, so major acid deposition is likely to occur at some distance from the source area, probably as far away as 2,000 km. Results of model calculations suggest that the effect of the smoke emission in Kuwait on the Asian summer monsoon is small. In summary, one should expect severe environmental consequences of the Kuwaiti oil field fires for the territory of Kuwait and for parts of Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Serious effects also may be felt in Iran and the other Gulf states, and perhaps even as far away as Turkey and Afghanistan. The surface waters of the Gulf also may be severely affected by smoke deposition. Significant environmental effects on a global or even hemispheric scale, however, are not likely to occur.

  16. Survey of potential geopressured resource areas in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Robertson-Tait, A.; Kraemer, M.; Buening, N.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a survey of the occurrence and characteristics of geopressured fluid resources in California using the publicly- available database involving more than 150,000 oil and gas wells drilled in the State. Of the 975 documented on-shore oil and gas pools studied, about 42% were identified as potentially geopressured. Geothermal gradients in California oil and gas fields lie within the normal range of 1 F to 2 F per 100 feet. Except for the Los Angeles Basin, there was no evidence of higher temperatures or temperature gradients in geopressured pools.

  17. ALASKA NORTH SLOPE OIL-FIELD RESTORATION RESEARCH STRATEGY (ANSORRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including...

  18. Rocky 7 prototype Mars rover field geology experiments 1. Lavic Lake and sunshine volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Acton, C.; Blaney, D.; Bowman, J.; Kim, S.; Klingelhofer, G.; Marshall, J.; Niebur, C.; Plescia, J.; Saunders, R.S.; Ulmer, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with the Rocky 7 rover were performed in the Mojave Desert to better understand how to conduct rover-based, long-distance (kilometers) geological traverses on Mars. The rover was equipped with stereo imaging systems for remote sensing science and hazard avoidance and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers for in situ determination of mineralogy of unprepared rock and soil surfaces. Laboratory data were also obtained using the spectrometers and an X ray diffraction (XRD)/XRF instrument for unprepared samples collected from the rover sites. Simulated orbital and descent image data assembled for the test sites were found to be critical for assessing the geologic setting, formulating hypotheses to be tested with rover observations, planning traverses, locating the rover, and providing a regional context for interpretation of rover-based observations. Analyses of remote sensing and in situ observations acquired by the rover confirmed inferences made from orbital and simulated descent images that the Sunshine Volcanic Field is composed of basalt flows. Rover data confirmed the idea that Lavic Lake is a recharge playa and that an alluvial fan composed of sediments with felsic compositions has prograded onto the playa. Rover-based discoveries include the inference that the basalt flows are mantled with aeolian sediment and covered with a dense pavement of varnished basalt cobbles. Results demonstrate that the combination of rover remote sensing and in situ analytical observations will significantly increase our understanding of Mars and provide key connecting links between orbital and descent data and analyses of returned samples. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Composition and structure of asphalthene components of oils from the Krapivinskoye oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergun, Valery P.; Cheshkova, Tatiana V.; Sagachenko, Tatiana A.; Min, Raissa S.

    2015-10-01

    Asphaltene substances of oil are characterized via the methods of extraction, adsorption chromatography, chemical degradation, and chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data on the structure of the high- and low molecular weight asphaltenes of methane-naphthene oils and composition of the compounds adsorbed/occluded by their molecules are presented. These investigations are important for the development of efficient petroleum technologies.

  20. Geology and geothermal origin of Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat Oil Fields, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Goff, F. ); Ross, J.R. ); Bortz, L.C. ); Bereskin, S.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Eastern Nevada's Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields show strong evidence of formation in a still-active, moderate-temperature geothermal system. Modern manifestations of this system include unusually elevated oil-reservoir temperature at shallow depth, 116-122[degrees]C at 1.1-1.6 km, and dilute Na-HCO[sub 3]Cl thermal waters directly associated with hot oil. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that these thermal waters are meteoric in origin, but were probably recharged prior to the Holocene (before 10 ka). The waters apparently ascended to oil-reservoir elevations after deep heating in response to the normal regional thermal gradient; there is no evidence for a modern magmatic heat source. The beginning of oil-reservoir evolution at both fields is recorded by late-stage, fracture-filling quartz in the vuggy, brecciated, Paleozoic dolostone reservoir rocks. Oil and aqueous solutions were trapped as fluid inclusions in the quartz at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing in the reservoirs. Present day and fluid-inclusion temperatures define essentially coincident isothermal profiles through and beneath the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon consistent with near-constant convective heat transfer since inception of the geothermal system. Some basin and range oil fields have arisen as valuable byproducts of actively circulating geothermal systems and blending this concept into current exploration stratigies could hasten discovery of the 100 mbbl fields many geologists believe remain to be found in this region. 100 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  2. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...

  3. Laboratory measurements of reservoir rock from the Geysers geothermal field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Summers, R.; Moore, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Rock samples taken from two outcrops, as well as rare cores from three well bores at the Geysers geothermal field, California, were tested at temperatures and pressures similar to those found in the geothermal field. Both intact and 30?? sawcut cylinders were deformed at confining pressures of 200-1000 bars, pore pressure of 30 bars and temperatures of 150?? and 240??C. Thin-section and X-ray analysis revealed that some borehole samples had undergone extensive alteration and recrystallization. Constant strain rate tests of 10-4 and 10-6 per sec gave a coefficient of friction of 0.68. Due to the highly fractured nature of the rocks taken from the production zone, intact samples were rarely 50% stronger than the frictional strength. This result suggests that the Geysers reservoir can support shear stresses only as large as its frictional shear strength. Velocity of p-waves (6.2 km/sec) was measured on one sample. Acoustic emission and sliding on a sawcut were related to changes in pore pressure. b-values computed from the acoustic emissions generated during fluid injection were typically about 0.55. An unusually high b-value (approximately 1.3) observed during sudden injection of water into the sample may have been related to thermal cracking. ?? 1982.

  4. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current thermal operations in the Wilmington Field are economical with low oil prices due to the availability of inexpensive steam from an existing 50 MMBTU/hr steam generator that can utilize non-commercial low Btu produced gas. Such favorable terms for obtaining steam are not expected to be available in the future.

  5. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  6. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  7. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  8. 37. SAR2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SAR-2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD COIL CONTROL RHEOSTATS (BELOW). SCE negative no. 10331, November 1, 1923. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  10. Recovery of secular deformation field of Mojave Shear Zone in Southern California from historical terrestrial and GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaozhuo; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Bürgmann, Roland

    2015-05-01

    The 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes struck the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) in the Mojave Desert, Southern California. Coseismic and postseismic deformation from these events affect efforts to use Global Positioning System (GPS) observations collected since these events to establish a secular surface velocity field, especially in the near field of the coseismic ruptures. We devise block motion models constrained by both historical pre-Landers triangulation and trilateration observations and post-Landers GPS measurements to recover the secular deformation field and differentiate the postseismic transients in the Mojave region. Postseismic transients are found to remain in the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map Version 4, Plate Boundary Observatory, and Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center GPS velocity solutions in the form of 2-3 mm/yr excess right-lateral shear across the Landers and Hector Mine coseismic ruptures. The cumulative deformation rate across the Mojave ECSZ is 13.2-14.4 mm/yr, at least twice the geologic rate since the late Pleistocene (≤6.2 ± 1.9 mm/yr). Postseismic GPS time series based on our secular velocity field reveal enduring late-stage transient motions in the near field of the coseismic ruptures that provide new constraints on the rheological structure of the lower crust and upper mantle.

  11. The space-time structure of oil and gas field growth in a complex depositional system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Mast, R.F.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of an oil and gas field, an initial estimate is usually made of the ultimate recovery of the field. With the passage of time, this initial estimate is almost always revised upward. The phenomenon of the growth of the expected ultimate recovery of a field, which is known as "field growth," is important to resource assessment analysts for several reasons. First, field growth is the source of a large part of future additions to the inventory of proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas in most petroliferous areas of the world. Second, field growth introduces a large negative bias in the forecast of the future rates of discovery of oil and gas fields made by discovery process models. In this study, the growth in estimated ultimate recovery of oil and gas in fields made up of sandstone reservoirs formed in a complex depositional environment (Frio strand plain exploration play) is examined. The results presented here show how the growth of oil and gas fields is tied directly to the architectural element of the shoreline processes and tectonics that caused the deposition of the individual sand bodies hosting the producible hydrocarbon. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  12. Reservoir analysis study, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: Phase 3 report, economic development and production plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Jerry R. Bergeson and Associates, Inc. (Bergeson) has completed Phase 3 of the Reservoir Analysis, Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1, Elk Hills Oilfield, California. The objective of this phase of the study was to establish the economic potential for the field by determining the optimum economic plan for development and production. The optimum economic plan used net cash flow analysis to evaluate future expected Department of Energy revenues less expenses and investments for proved developed, proved undeveloped, probable, possible and possible-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) reserves assigned in the Phase 2 study. The results of the Phase 2 study were used to define future production flowstreams. Additional production scheduling was carried out to evaluate accelerated depletion of proved developed reserves in the 29R, 31 C/D Shale and Northwest Stevens T Sand/N Shale Reservoirs. Production, cost and investment schedules were developed for the enhanced oil recovery projects identified in Phase 2. Price forecasts were provided by the Department of Energy. Operating costs and investment requirements were estimated by Bergeson. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  14. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  15. De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Scott, Ramos L.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Bird, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19-C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation and clay rich Jurassic Kingak Shale and Cretaceous Hue Shale-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ) source rocks. ALS-C results for 23 oil samples from the prolific Ivishak Formation reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay Field indicate approximately equal contributions from Shublik Formation and Hue-GRZ source rocks (37% each), less from the Kingak Shale (26%), and little or no contribution from other source rocks. These results differ from published interpretations that most oil in the Prudhoe Bay Field originated from the Shublik Formation source rock. With few exceptions, the relative contribution of oil from the Shublik Formation decreases, while that from the Hue-GRZ increases in reservoirs along the Barrow arch from Point Barrow in the northwest to Point Thomson in the southeast (???250 miles or 400 km). The Shublik contribution also decreases to a lesser degree between fault blocks within the Ivishak pool from west to east across the Prudhoe Bay Field. ALS-C provides a robust means to calculate the relative amounts of two or more oil types in a mixture. Furthermore, ALS-C does not require that pure end member oils be identified prior to analysis or that laboratory mixtures of these oils be prepared to evaluate mixing. ALS-C of biomarkers reliably de-convolutes mixtures because the concentrations of compounds in mixtures vary as linear functions of the amount of each oil type. ALS of biomarker ratios (ALS-R) cannot be used to de-convolute mixtures because compound ratios vary as nonlinear functions of the amount of each oil type.

  16. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  17. The discovery and development of the El Dorado (Kansas) oil field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skelton, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Pioneers named El Dorado, Kansas, in 1857 for the beauty of the site and the promise of future riches but not until 58 years later was black rather than mythical yellow gold discovered when the Stapleton No. 1 oil well came in on October 5, 1915. El Dorado's leaders were envious when nearby towns found huge gas fields and thrived. John Donley, an El Dorado barber, had tried to find either gas or oil in 1878 at a nearby site selected by a spiritualist. He staked out a townsite, spudded a well and drilled 200 feet before running out of money. Wells in 1879 and 1882 produced only brine. In June, 1914, chafed over discovery of oil in nearby Augusta, El Dorado city fathers contracted with Erasmus Haworth, soon to retire from his position as State Geologist, to perform a geological study of the area. His field work outlined the El Dorado Anticline, which unsuccessfully was drilled first in August, 1915. On abandonment, the Wichita Natural Gas Company purchased the lease and drilled the Stapleton No. 1 oil well. More success followed and by 1918, the El Dorado produced 29 million barrels, almost 9% of the nation's oil. Entrepreneurs came and prospered: the Cities Service Oil Company, A.L. Derby, Jack Vickers, and Bill Skelly all became familiar names in Midcontinent oil marketing. Earlier giant fields had hurt the price of crude oil but the El Dorado came in as both World War I and the rapid popularization of motor transport made a market for both light and heavy ends of the refinery stream. The giant gas field never materialized as hoped but in late 1995, the El Dorado Field produced its 300 millionth barrel of oil.

  18. Seed oil development of pennycress under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress (Thlaspi sp) has been targeted as a potential oilseed for the biofuels industry. Its seeds contain ~36% oil, where erucic acid is the major fatty acid presented with 38.1%. Additionally, the physical proprieties of the methyl esters are in the range to satisfy the needs of the biodiesel m...

  19. New Field, Geochronological, and Geochemical Data on the Miocene Lovejoy Basalt and its Source, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, N. J.; Busby, C. B.; Gans, P. B.; Wagner, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Lovejoy Basalt is a distinctive, aphanitic olivine basalt that flowed through a paleovalley across the northern end of the Sierra Nevada from the Diamond Mountains near Honey Lake to the Sacramento Valley in northern California. Approximately 150 km3 of basalt was erupted in a tectonic setting transitional between subduction, Basin and Range extension, and hot spot volcanism, but the eruptive source and timing of the Lovejoy Basalt have remained controversial. Recent field mapping and geochemical analyses suggest that Thompson Peak, located south of Susanville, California, is the source vent for the Lovejoy Basalt. At Thompson Peak, Lovejoy Basalt forms an elongate, NNW-SSE trending ridge that is capped in its central section by the Basalt of Thompson Peak. Scoria deposits, volcanic bombs, agglutinate and other near vent deposits indicate Thompson Peak as the source for the Lovejoy Basalt. Previous and new mapping indicate that the basalt was channelized within granitic basement, and flowed south from the vent 30 km to Red Clover Creek before bending to the southwest and flowing 65 km to the Sacramento Valley. The Lovejoy Basalt consists of up to 13 flows, all aphyric except for an uppermost plagioclase-phyric flow present between Thompson Peak and Red Clover Creek that locally contains xenocrysts of olivine and garnet. At Table Mountain, the basalt appears to have ponded or inflated, forming very thick flows with prominent N-S trending pressure ridges. The Lovejoy Basalt is a quartz-normative tholeiite that is geochemically similar to the Columbia River Basalt. While a conclusive statement cannot yet be made about the source magma for the Lovejoy Basalt, initial analyses show that it does not appear to be related to the main phase of Cascade arc volcanism, which is predominantly calc-alkaline. Recently published age data for the Lovejoy Basalt suggests that it is coeval with the main phase of the Columbia River Basalt Group; however, our further attempts to

  20. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  1. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  2. Oil, gas field growth projections: Wishful thinking or reality?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Mast, R.F.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The observed `field growth' for the period from 1992 through 1996 with the US Geological Survey's (USGS) predicted field growth for the same period are compared. Known field recovery of field size is defined as the sum of past cumulative field production and the field's proved reserves. Proved reserves are estimated quantities of hydrocarbons which geologic and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to recoverable from known fields under existing economic and operating conditions. Proved reserve estimates calculated with this definition are typically conservative. The modeling approach used by the USGS to characterize `field growth phenomena' is statistical rather that geologic in nature.

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  4. Preliminary isostatic gravity map of the Sonoma volcanic field and vicinity, Sonoma and Napa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Roberts, C.W.; McCabe, C.A.; McPhee, D.K.; Tilden, J.E.; Jachens, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a three-dimensional mapping effort focused on the subsurface distribution of rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field in Napa and Sonoma counties, northern California. This map will serve as a basis for modeling the shapes of basins beneath the Santa Rosa Plain and Napa and Sonoma Valleys, and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure explained below) reflect the distribution of densities in the mid to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithologic boundaries. High-density basement rocks exposed within the northern San Francisco Bay area include those of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence present in the mountainous areas of the quadrangle. Alluvial sediment and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities. However, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of basement rocks. Tertiary volcanic rocks are characterized by a wide range in densities, but, on average, are less dense than the Mesozoic basement rocks. Isostatic residual gravity values within the map area range from about -41 mGal over San Pablo Bay to about 11 mGal near Greeg Mountain 10 km east of St. Helena. Steep linear gravity gradients are coincident with the traces of several Quaternary strike-slip faults, most notably along the West Napa fault bounding the west side of Napa Valley, the projection of the Hayward fault in San Pablo Bay, the Maacama Fault, and the Rodgers Creek fault in the vicinity of Santa Rosa. These gradients result from juxtaposing dense basement rocks against thick Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

  5. Crustal velocity field near the big bend of California's San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snay, R.A.; Cline, M.W.; Philipp, C.R.; Jackson, D.D.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.-K.; Lisowski, M.

    1996-01-01

    We use geodetic data spanning the 1920-1992 interval to estimate the horizontal velocity field near the big bend segment of California's San Andreas fault (SAF). More specifically, we estimate a horizontal velocity vector for each node of a two-dimensional grid that has a 15-min-by-15-min mesh and that extends between latitudes 34.0??N and 36.0??N and longitudes 117.5??W and 120.5??W. For this estimation process, we apply bilinear interpolation to transfer crustal deformation information from geodetic sites to the grid nodes. The data include over a half century of triangulation measurements, over two decades of repeated electronic distance measurements, a decade of repeated very long baseline interferometry measurements, and several years of Global Positioning System measurements. Magnitudes for our estimated velocity vectors have formal standard errors ranging from 0.7 to 6.8 mm/yr. Our derived velocity field shows that (1) relative motion associated with the SAF exceeds 30 mm/yr and is distributed on the Earth's surface across a band (> 100 km wide) that is roughly centered on this fault; (2) when velocities are expressed relative to a fixed North America plate, the motion within our primary study region has a mean orientation of N44??W ?? 2?? and the surface trace of the SAF is congruent in shape to nearby contours of constant speed yet this trace is oriented between 5?? and 10?? counterclockwise relative to these contours; and (3) large strain rates (shear rates > 150 nrad/yr and/or areal dilatation rates < -150 nstr/yr) exist near the Garlock fault, near the White Wolf fault, and in the Ventura basin.

  6. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  7. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  8. Field test of re-refined automotive engine oil in RCMP vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.

    1980-11-01

    A field test has been designed to isolate the performance characteristics of the virgin and re-refined base oils being studied. The conditions selected for the test are those normally experienced by Royal Canadian Mounted Police vehicles in similar service. All test and reference vehicles have been subjected to as equal treatment as possible, in both driving conditions and maintenance schedules. The primary conclusion that can be made with the data obtained to date is that there are statistically significant differences occurring in certain measured properties of used crankcase oil from the two test groups of vehicles. These differences are no doubt attributable, at least in part, to performance differences between the two finished oils, but other factors such as the observed differences in length of oil change interval and top-up requirements are also contributing to the responses being measured. Given the methods by which the test and reference oils were defined and chosen, it might be expected that differences in performance characteristics would be observed, and also that the reference oil might exhibit better performance characteristics than the test oil. However, the final magnitudes of any differences between the oils will not be known until the field test period is completed, and the real significance of these differences, in terms of their effect on the engines, cannot be determined until the engine examinations have been completed.

  9. An overview of giant oil and gas fields of the decade: 1978-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Halbouty, M.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Scientific studies and projections of future world energy demand indicate that although alternate-energy fuel sources must be actively pursued and developed, there must be adequate petroleum supplies to bridge the gap. For the international petroleum industry, the years covered by this conference, 1978-1988, were complex. They were years of boom and bust. The world's energy consciousness was boosted sharply by the effects of the 1979 Iranian revolution and the resulting embargo that sent world oil prices to record heights. Global petroleum exploration soon surged, leading to the industry's all-time drilling high in 1981. Then came the oil price collapse in 1985, and the following years were characterized by falling oil prices and drastic budget cuts for exploration and development. Although exploration dropped sharply, there was a steady flow of giant oil and gas field discoveries. Using the giant field designation criteria of 500 million bbl of oil recoverable for fields in Asiatic Russia, North Africa, and the Middle East; 100 million bbl of oil recoverable for the fields in the remainder of the world; and 3 tcf and 1 tcf of gas reserves recoverable for the same areas, respectively, it is estimated that at least 182 oil and gas fields containing an estimated 140 billion BOE were discovered in 46 countries during the years covered by this conference. Today, exploration is slowly gaining momentum in all types of petroleum provinces-intensely explored, partially explored, moderately explored, and essentially unexplored - and as long as exploration continues in whatever area of the world, there will always be opportunities to find giant oil and gas fields.

  10. Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bortz, L.C. ); Forster, N.H. ); Veal, H.K.; Duey, H.D.

    1988-10-01

    The Grant Canyon field is located on the east side of Railroad Valley, 8 mi south of the Eagle Springs oil field. The discovery well, Grant Canyon Unit 1, was completed by Northwest Exploration Co. on September 11, 1983, flowing 1816 BOPD from the Devonian Guilmette Dolomite. Two additional wells have been completed in the field. Cumulative oil production through April 1988 is 8,211,149 barrels of oil. During March and April 1988, wells 3 and 4 flowed an average of 6081 BOPD. For these months, well 3 average 4144 BOPD with 1935 BOPD coming from well 4. Production area appears to be 240 acres. The trap is a high fault block in the boundary fault zone that separates Railroad Valley from the Grant Range to the east. The Devonian Guilmette reservoir is an intensely fractured, vuggy dolomite with some intercrystalline porosity. The top seal is the Tertiary Valley Fill which unconformably overlies Guilmette Dolomite. The oil column is about 400 ft thick and the field apparently has an active water drive, inasmuch as the 1 Unit had to be shut-in because of water production. The oil is black, 26 degree API gty, a pour of 10 F and 0.5% sulfur. Estimated ultimate recoverable oil reserves are 13 MMBO. The adjacent Bacon Flat field is a one-well field that was completed by Northwest Exploration Co. on July 5, 1981, for 200 BOPD and 1050 BWPD from the Devonian Guilmette Limestone (5316-5332 ft). Cumulative production through April 1988 is 303,860 barrels of oil. During March 1988 the well averaged 108 BOPD plus an unreported amount of water. Estimated ultimate recoverable oil reserves are 400 MBO.

  11. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  12. Magmatic inclusions in rhyolites, contaminated basalts, and compositional zonation beneath the Coso volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Metz, J.

    1984-01-01

    Basaltic lava flows and high-silica rhyolite domes form the Pleistocene part of the Coso volcanic field in southeastern California. The distribution of vents maps the areal zonation inferred for the upper parts of the Coso magmatic system. Subalkalic basalts (<50% SiO2) were erupted well away from the rhyolite field at any given time. Compositional variation among these basalts can be ascribed to crystal fractionation. Erupted volumes of these basalts decrease with increasing differentiation. Mafic lavas containing up to 58% SiO2, erupted adjacent to the rhyolite field, formed by mixing of basaltic and silicic magma. Basaltic magma interacted with crustal rocks to form other SiO2-rich mafic lavas erupted near the Sierra Nevada fault zone. Several rhyolite domes in the Coso volcanic field contain sparse andesitic inclusions (55-61% SiO2). Pillow-like forms, intricate commingling and local diffusive mixing of andesite and rhyolite at contacts, concentric vesicle distribution, and crystal morphologies indicative of undercooling show that inclusions were incorporated in their rhyolitic hosts as blobs of magma. Inclusions were probably dispersed throughout small volumes of rhyolitic magma by convective (mechanical) mixing. Inclusion magma was formed by mixing (hybridization) at the interface between basaltic and rhyolitic magmas that coexisted in vertically zoned igneous systems. Relict phenocrysts and the bulk compositions of inclusions suggest that silicic endmembers were less differentiated than erupted high-silica rhyolite. Changes in inferred endmembers of magma mixtures with time suggest that the steepness of chemical gradients near the silicic/mafic interface in the zoned reservoir may have decreased as the system matured, although a high-silica rhyolitic cap persisted. The Coso example is an extreme case of large thermal and compositional contrast between inclusion and host magmas; lesser differences between intermediate composition magmas and inclusions lead to

  13. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S.; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P.; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  14. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field.

    PubMed

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  15. Field test and mathematical modeling of bioremediation of an oil-contaminated soil. Part 1: Field test

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.Y.; Xu, T.; Colapret, J.A. ); Cawley, W.A. ); Bonner, J.S. . Civil Engineering Dept.); Ernest, A.; Verramachaneni, P.B. . Environmental Engineering Dept.)

    1994-01-01

    A fire-wall area (about 270 ft x 310 ft) with the Bunker C oil contaminated soil was selected for the bioremediation field test. This fire-wall area was separated into 18 plots by dirt dikes to test 6 bioremediation methods with three tests of each method. The six treatment methods were: (a) aeration with basic nutrients and indigenous organisms (BNIO); (b) aeration with basic nutrients and inoculation from a refinery wastewater treatment facility (BNSIWT); (c) aeration with an oleophilic fertilizer and indigenous organisms (INIPOL); (d) aeration with basic nutrients and biosurfactant organisms (EPA Seal Beach consortia) (EPA); (e) aeration with proprietary nutrients and organisms (PRO); and (f) aeration only for active control (CONTROL). This field test was conducted for 91 days. In general the oil contents in 18 plots were reduced, but the results showed significant fluctuations. A statistical method was used to examine if the oil reductions of six methods were the results from the random error of sampling and sample analysis or biodegradation. The results of the statistical analysis showed that oil reduction was concluded from all but the plots of PRO. From the data analysis, it may be concluded that the oil reduction rate in these studies is controlled by oil transfer from soil into the aqueous solution. An example of calculation was used to illustrate this conclusion.

  16. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Fiel Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Edith

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  17. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle. PMID:19736768

  18. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  19. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  20. Intelligent fiber sensing system for the oil field area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenju; Ma, Linping

    2010-08-01

    Optical Fiber strain sensor using fiber Bragg grating are poised to play a major role in structural health from military to civil engineering. Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is a practical type of fiber optic sensors. Its measurement is encoded with the wavelength of the optical signal reflected from fiber Bragg grating. The method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. Energy sources are increasingly scarce in the world. Getting oil from the oil-wells has become more and more difficult. Therefore, new technology to monitor the oil-well condition has become extremely important. The traditional electrical sensor system is no longer useful because of the down-hole's high temperature and high pressure environment. The optical fiber sensing system is the first choice to monitor this condition. This system will reduce the cost and increase the productivity. In the high pressure and high temperature environment, the traditional packed fiber grating pressure-temperature sensor will be no longer reliability. We have to find a new fiber grating temperature-pressure sensor element and the interrogation system. In this work we use the very narrow bandwidth birefringent fiber grating as the sensing element. We obtain the interrogation system has 0.1 pm resolution.

  1. Geological setting of North Slope oil fields, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Edrich, S.P.

    1985-04-01

    The North Slope is a prolific hydrocarbon province in which discoveries to date amount to some 60 billion bbl of oil in place and 50 tcf of gas in place. Reservoirs and prolific source rocks occur throughout the stratigraphic column, which consists of a lower (or Ellesmerian) megasequence of Carboniferous to Jurassic age and an upper (or Brookian) megasequence of Early Cretaceous to Recent age. Discovered oil is almost equally divided between Ellesmerian and Brookian reservoirs. Patterns of hydrocarbon generation and migration have been controlled by deposition of clastic sedimentary wedges derived from the Brooks Range orogen. In the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, the main oil kitchen was located in the Western Colville trough. Clastic depocenters and associated kitchen areas migrated progressively eastward with time and are now located in the East Beaufort offshore. Important source rocks include the Jurassic Kingak and Late Triassic Shublik Formations of the Ellesmerian megasequence, and the Aptian-Cenomanian HRZ and Turonian-Paleocene Shale Wall formations of the Brookian megasequence.

  2. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  3. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface. PMID:17291680

  4. Use of geochemical biomarkers in bottom sediment to track oil from a spill, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    In April 1988, approximately 1500 m3 of a San Joaquin Valley crude oil were accidentally released from a Shell Oil Co. refinery near Martinez, Californa. The oil flowed into Carquinez Strait and Suisun Bay in northern San Francisco Bay Sediment and oil samples were collected within a week and analysed for geochemical marker compounds in order to track the molecular signature of the oil spill in the bottom sediment. Identification of the spilled oil in the sediment was complicated by the degraded nature of the oil and the similarity of the remaining, chromatographically resolvable constituents to those already present in the sediments from anthropogenic petroleum contamination, pyrogenic sources, and urban drainage. Ratios of hopane and sterane biomarkers, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives best identified the oil impingement. They showed the oil impact at this early stage to be surficial only, and to be patchy even within an area of heavy oil exposure.

  5. Strontium isotope constraint on the genesis of crude oils, oil-field brines and Kuroko ore deposits from the Green Tuff region of northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takanori; Kajiwara, Yoshimichi; Farrell, Clifton W.

    1989-10-01

    Crude oils from Akita to northern Niigata oil fields in the Green Tuff region of northeastern Japan have distinctly uniform 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7080-0.7082), while those from the southern Niigata oil field contain more radiogenic strontium (0.7095-0.7102). The regional variation in the strontium isotopic composition of crude oils is also reflected in their sulfur contents and sulfur isotopic compositions, and may be attributed to the regional heterogeneity of marine organic sediments from which the crude oils were ultimately derived. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of most oil-field brines (0.7061-0.7084), however, are different from and vary more locally than those of the accompanying crude oils. This finding supports the view that strontium, and by inference some other dissolved solutes in the brines, may have evolved during diagenesis by reaction of a connate and/or a meteoric water with rocks in the Green Tuff region. Barites in the sulfide ore and anhydrites and gypsums in the sulfate (sekko) ore from the Fukazawa and Kosaka Kuroko deposits in the Hokuroku district are divided by the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7081 (±0.0001), which is identical to that of crude oils from nearby oil fields. This similarity in ratios lends support to the conclusion that the Kuroko base metal deposits and crude oil deposits were ultimately derived from a common organic sediment named PUMOS (Primitive Undifferentiated Metalliferous Organic Sediments).

  6. Residence, resorption and recycling of zircons in Devils Kitchen rhyolite, Coso Volcanic Field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Zircons from the Devils Kitchen rhyolite in the Pleistocene Coso Volcanic field, California have been analyzed by in situ Pb/U ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) and by detailed cathodoluminescence imaging. The zircons yield common-Pb-corrected and disequilibrium-corrected 206Pb/238U ages that predate a previously reported K-Ar sanidine age by up to 200 kyr, and the range of ages exhibited by the zircons is also approximately 200 kyr. Cathodoluminescence imaging indicates that zircons formed in contrasting environments. Most zircons are euhedral, and a majority of the zircons are weakly zoned, but many also have anhedral, embayed cores, with euhedral overgrowths and multiple internal surfaces that are truncated by later crystal zones. Concentrations of U and Th vary by two orders of magnitude within the zircon population, and by 10-20 times between zones within some zircon crystals, indicating that zircons were transferred between contrasting chemical environments. A zircon saturation temperature of ???750??C overlaps within error a previously reported phenocryst equilibration temperature of 740 ?? 25??C. Textures in zircons indicative of repeated dissolution and subsequent regrowth are probably caused by punctuated heating by mafic magma input into rhyolite. The overall span of ages and large variation in U and Th concentrations, combined with calculated zircon saturation temperatures and resorption times, are most compatible with crystallization in magma bodies that were emplaced piecemeal in the crust at Coso over 200 kyr prior to eruption, and that were periodically rejuvenated or melted by subsequent basaltic injections. ?? Oxford University Press 2004; all rights reserved.

  7. Microtopographic evolution of lava flows at Cima volcanic field, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.

    1992-01-01

    Microtopographic profiles were measured and power spectra calculated for dated lava flow surfaces at Cima volcanic field in the eastern Mojave Desert of California in order to quantify changes in centimeter- to meter-scale roughness as a function of age. For lava flows younger than about 0.8 m.y., roughness over all spatial scales decreases with age, with meter-scale roughness decreasing slightly more than centimeter scales. Flows older than about 0.8 m.y. show a reversal of this trend, becoming as rough as young flows at these scales. Modeling indicates that eolian deposition can explain most of the change observed in the offset, or roughness amplitude, of power spectra of flow surface profiles up to 0.8 m.y. Other processes, such as rubbing and stone pavement development, appear to have a minor effect in this age range. Changes in power spectra of surfaces older than about 0.8 m.y. are consistent with roughening due to fluvial dissection. These results agree qualitatively with a process-response model that attributes systematic changes in flow surface morphology to cyclic changes in the rates of eolian, soil formation, and fluvial processes. Identification of active surficial processes and estimation of the extent of their effects, or stage of surficial evolution, through measurement of surface roughness will help put the correlation of surficial units on a quantitative basis. This may form the basis for the use of radar remote sensing data to help in regional correlations of surficial units.

  8. Selenium and sulfur relationships in alfalfa and soil under field conditions, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between total Se and S or soluble SeO4 and SO4 in soils and tissue concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), under field conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, suggest that the rate of accumulation of Se in alfalfa may be reduced in areas where high Se and S concentrations in soils were measured. These data suggest that the balance between carbonate and sulfate minerals in soil may have a greater influence on uptake of Se by alfalfa than does the balance of SeO4 and SO4 in soil solution. Soil and alfalfa were sampled from areas representing a wide range in soil Se and S concentrations. Specific sampling locations were selected based on a previous study of Se, S, and other elements where 721 soil samples were collected to map landscape variability and distribution of elements. Six multiple-linear regression equations were developed between total and/or soluble soil chemical constituents and tissue concentrations of Se in alfalfa. We chose a regression model that accounted for 72% of the variability in alfalfa Se concentrations based on an association of elements in soil (total C, S, Se, and Sr) determined by factor analysis. To prepare a map showing the spatial distribution of estimated alfalfa Se concentrations, the model was applied to the data from the previously collected 721 soil samples. Estimated alfalfa Se concentrations in most of the study area were within a range that is predicted to produce alfalfa with neither Se deficiency nor toxicity when consumed by livestock. A few small areas are predicted to produce alfalfa that potentially would not meet minimum dietary needs of livestock.

  9. Electric field and space charge distribution measurement in transformer oil struck by impulsive high voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Wenxia; Guo, Hongda; Yang, Qing; Song, He; Yang, Ming; Yu, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.

  10. Computer Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Oil Gathering Pipeline Designed for Ugut Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Samigullin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the stress and strain state modeling of infield pipeline in Ugut oil field. The finite element models of the stress field distribution in the pipeline wall are presented in this paper. The attention is paid to the pipeline reliability under stress conditions induced by the internal pressure and external compressive or tensile loads.

  11. Forecasting populations of undiscovered oil fields with the log-Pareto distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bettini, C.

    1987-01-01

    The search for a statistical representation of parent populations of oil field sizes in sedimentary basins has yielded a new probability distribution, termed the log-Pareto distribution. The log-Pareto law, related to the log-Pareto distribution, describes the medians of oil field sizes (either volumes or areas) associated with size-ranks in a parent population of fields. The name proposed for the new distribution stems from the assumption that an algebraic transformation involving logarithms of the volumes (or areas) of a parent population of oil fields yields a frequency distribution of transformed sizes that accords with the Pareto distribution. The derivation of the log-Pareto law and the log-Pareto distribution involved two steps, namely, (1) simulating a parent population of oil fields such that the population is conditioned to both the proportion of a basin's area occupied by fields and their geographic variability, and (2) finding a mathematical function that fits the log-log plot of field ranks versus simulated field areas. Both the log-Pareto law and log-Pareto distribution are useful for estimating the size distribution of the oil fields that remain to be discovered in a basin. A log-Pareto law fitted to the range of the largest fields discovered in maturely explored basins tends to underestimate the subpopulation of undiscovered fields, while Pareto's law tends to overestimate the undiscovered subpopulation. Therefore the log-Pareto law is more appropriate for risk-averse decision makers, and Pareto law for risk-seeking decision makers. The log-Pareto law has been validated with both simulated data and actual data from Nigeria, the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the Campos Basin in Brazil.

  12. ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ANTELOPE SHALE TO ESTABLISH THE VIABILITY OF CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IN CALIFORNIA'S MONTEREY FORMATION SILICEOUS SHALES

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquale R. Perri

    2003-05-15

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO{sub 2} pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO{sub 2} pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geologic considerations, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO{sub 2} pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO{sub 2} utilization rate and premature CO{sub 2} breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO{sub 2} flood process in the San Joaquin Valley. A summary of the design and objectives of the CO{sub 2} pilot are included along with an overview of the Lost Hills geology, discussion of pilot injection and production facilities, and discussion of new wells drilled and remedial work completed prior to commencing injection. Actual CO{sub 2} injection began on August 31, 2000 and a comprehensive pilot monitoring and surveillance program has been implemented. Since the initiation of CO{sub 2} injection, the pilot has been hampered by excessive sand production in the pilot producers due to casing damage related to subsidence and exacerbated by the injected CO{sub 2}. Therefore CO{sub 2} injection was very sporadic in 2001 and 2002 and we experienced long periods of time with no CO{sub 2} injection. As a result of the continued mechanical problems, the pilot project was terminated on January 30, 2003. This report summarizes the injection and production performance and the monitoring results through December 31, 2002 including oil geochemistry, CO{sub 2} injection tracers, crosswell electromagnetic surveys, crosswell seismic, CO{sub 2} injection profiling, cased hole resistivity, tiltmetering results, and

  13. Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery Process: St. Mary West Field, Lafayette County, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Brock P.E., Cary D.

    2003-03-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic appropriateness of several enhanced oil recovery processes that are available to a small mature oil field located in southwest Arkansas and to implement the most economic efficient process evaluated. The State of Arkansas natural resource laws require that an oilfield is to be unitized before conducting a secondary recovery project. This requires all properties that can reasonably be determined to include the oil productive reservoir must be bound together as one common lease by a legal contract that must be approved to be fair and equitable to all property owners within the proposed unit area.

  14. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. PMID:27596419

  15. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  16. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  17. Planning and management of the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field development, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Harry, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    As Operator for the Northeast Palawan consortium, Philippines-Cities Service, Inc., commenced the Philippines first commercial offshore oil production from the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field on February 1, 1979, some 11 months after a decision by management to start development. The relative speed at which design, fabrication, and construction were accomplished is attributed to the use of the concepts of project planning, task force approach, and project management. This paper presents the above concepts as applied to the Nido Complex.

  18. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, A.

    1987-11-01

    The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size, the area supports a broad range of linked ecosystems. Of particular concern is the 1.5-million-acre coastal plain, which may be targeted for development. The coastal plain provides a home, at least part of the year, to Alaska's porcupine caribou. The coastal plain also supports many other forms of wildlife-including the wolf, arctic fox, brown bear, polar bear, and arctic peregrine falcon, which is listed as a threatened species. The potential effects of drilling projects extend beyond loss of wildlife; they include desecration of the land itself. Although few members of Congress deny the value of protecting the amazing variety of life on the coastal plain, some insist that limited drilling could be conducted without destroying crucial habitat. Last July, the department tentatively divided some of the targeted lands among native corporations in preparation for leasing to oil companies. In response to what was felt to be an attempt to overstep congressional authority, the House passed HR 2629, banning this kind of land deal without congressional approval. In essence, the measure reiterated congressional authority provided by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980. This act mandated the study of environmental threats and oil potential by the Department of Interior, while putting the ANWR coastal plain off-limits to development without an explicit congressional directive.

  19. Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  20. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  1. Methane-forming bacteria of oil-fields

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinavichus, K.S.; Obraztsova, A.Ya.; Belyaev, S.S.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1983-03-01

    Pure cultures of the methanogenic bacteria, Methanobacterium bryantii and M. formicicum have been isolated, for the first time from oil deposits and their morphological, physiological and biochemical properties studied. All strains grow of H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/ and two of the three M. formicicum also utilize formate as a role source of carbon and energy. In no case could methanol, acetate, methylamine or glucose serve as an energy source for these autotrophs. All strains were resistant to penicillin and streptomycin and neither sulfate or sulfide inhibited their growth. Medium salinity inhibited the growth of M. bryantii but not that of M. formicicum.

  2. Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in the Santa Maria Basin and surrounding areas, central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Langenheim, V.E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic information from 694 oil and gas exploration wells from the onshore Santa Maria basin and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Santa Maria basin is located within the southwesternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges on the central California coast. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time.

  3. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

  4. Reservoir Model of the Jacksonburg-Stringtown Oil Field; Northwestern West Virginia: Potential for Miscible Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerud, Blake

    Located in northwestern West Virginia, the Jacksonburg-Stringtown field has produced over 22 million barrels of oil (MMBO) since its discovery in 1895. The primary producing interval within the field is the Late Devonian Gordon Stray. Log analysis shows this formation to represent an estuarine depositional system. Four subunits within the formation are defined based on depositional framework: barrier sand, central bay shale, estuarine channels, and fluvial channel subunits. RHOmaa/Umaa lithological composition plots support the conclusion of a marine-influenced estuarine depositional framework. Structural and isopach maps generated with data from 73 local wells reveal a northeast-southwest trending sand deposit of 15-35 foot thickness, which is interpreted as the depocenter for the incised valley of the Gordon Stray. Analysis of formation horizon maps shows that the reservoir is synclinal and, as a result, contains a stratigraphic trap as opposed to the more common structural traps found in the immediate area. Porosity and pore-feet distribution maps indicate high porosity regions in southern regions of the field and high pore volume in northern areas. A miscible CO2 flood model estimates that an additional 7.3 MMBO could be recovered from the high porosity regions in the southern half of the field. The Jacksonburg-Stringtown field is well-suited for enhanced oil recovery and/or geologic CO2 sequestration.

  5. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Pliocene to late Pleistocene magmatism in the Aurora Volcanic Field, Nevada and California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, S.; Cousens, B.; John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 3.9- 0.1 Ma Aurora Volcanic Field (AVF) covers 325 km2 east and southeast of the Bodie Hills, north of Mono Lake, California, USA. The AVF is located immediately northwest of the Long Valley magmatic system and adjacent and overlapping the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field (BHVF). Rock types range from trachybasalt to trachydacite, and high-silica rhyolite. The trachybasalts to trachydacites are weakly to moderately porphyritic (1-30%) with variable phenocryst assemblages that are some combination of plagioclase, hornblende, clinopyroxene, and lesser orthopyroxene, olivine, and/or biotite. Microphenocrysts are dominated by plagioclase, and include opaque oxides, clinopyroxene, and apatite. These rocks are weakly to strongly devitrified. The high-silica rhyolites are sparsely porphyritic with trace to 10% phenocrysts of quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, biotite, (+/- hornblende), accessory opaque oxide minerals, titanite, allanite, (+/-apatite, zircon), and have glassy groundmasses. Rocks in the AVF are less strongly porphyritic than those of BHVF. Plagioclase phenocrysts are often oscillatory zoned and many have sieve texture. Amphiboles have distinct black opaque rims. Xenocrystic quartz and plagioclase are rare. AVF lavas have bimodal SiO2 compositions, ranging from 49 to 78 wt%, with a gap between 65 and 75 wt%. They are high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition, and are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. They are enriched in rare earth elements (REE), especially light REEs, compared to the Miocene BHVF rocks. Primordial mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns show arc- or subduction-related signatures, with enrichment in Ba and Pb, and depletion in Nb and Ta. Enrichment in K and Sr and depletion in Ti are less pronounced than in the BHVF rocks. There is no correlation between lead isotope ratios and silica (initial 206Pb/204Pb ratios range from 18.974 to 19.151). Neodymium isotope ratios show a moderate negative correlation with silica

  7. High-silica rhyolite magmatism in the Big Pine volcanic field, eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidzbarski, M. I.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Quaternary Big Pine volcanic field (BPVF) located in the Owens Valley of eastern California is dominated by basaltic cinder cones and associated lava flows, but contains a single rhyolite lava erupted at circa 1 Ma. Despite its uniqueness, the petrogenesis of this rhyolite is poorly known. At nearby Coso volcanic field, an abundance of rhyolite relative to basalt suggests crustal melting by mafic magmas stalled in mid to upper crustal reservoirs, whereas the paucity of rhyolite relative to basalt at BPVF suggests only brief crustal residence of ascending mafic magmas (Mordick and Glazner, 2006). In order to determine the origin of rhyolite magmatism at BPVF (e.g., crustal melting versus extreme fractionation), we have examined the geochemical and petrographic characteristics of the Fish Springs high-silica rhyolite. The Fish Springs rhyolite comprises a single thick coulee with a volume of at least 0.05 km3 (DRE) of highly evolved (~76 wt.% SiO2) magma. The outer portions of the coulee are composed of autobrecciated and felsitic rhyolite, and internal portions, as exposed by quarrying, are pumiceous perlite with local obsidian. Fish Springs rhyolite is crystal poor (~1%), with small (<0.5 mm) phenocrysts of generally euhedral to subhedral plagioclase, sanidine, quartz, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, biotite, hornblende, Fe-Ti oxides, apatite, pyrrhotite, and zircon, as well as apparent xenoliths and xenocrysts of metamorphic and igneous wallrocks. Orthopyroxene phenocrysts show compositional zoning, with rims that contain higher Mg and lower Fe concentrations than cores. Trace element concentrations in Fish Springs rhyolite are characterized by very low concentrations of typically compatible elements such as Ba (~15 ppm), Sr (~8 ppm), La (~10 ppm) and Zr (~80 pm), as well as a pronounced europium anomaly, comparable to other high-silica rhyolites elsewhere in the Owens Valley, and suggesting high degrees of feldspar and accessory mineral fractionation. Samples

  8. Increased oil recovery from mature oil fields using gelled polymer treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G. Paul; Green, Down W.; McCool, Stan

    2000-02-23

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This research program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. This report describes the progress of the research during the first six months of work. A Dawn EOS multi-angle laser light scattering detector was purchased, installed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted to determine the permeabilities of a bulk gel and of a filter cake which forms when a gel is dehydrated. The pressure at which a gel in a tube is ruptured was measured and was correlated to the length and diameter of the gel.

  9. Study of Reservoir Heterogencities and Structural Features Affecting Production in the Shallow Oil Zone, Eastern Elk Hills Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Janice Gillespie

    2004-11-01

    Late Neogene (Plio-Pleistocene) shallow marine strata of the western Bakersfield Arch and Elk Hills produce hydrocarbons from several different reservoirs. This project focuses on the shallow marine deposits of the Gusher and Calitroleum reservoirs in the Lower Shallow Oil Zone (LSOZ). In the eastern part of the study area on the Bakersfield Arch at North and South Coles Levee field and in two wells in easternmost Elk Hills, the LSOZ reservoirs produce dry (predominantly methane) gas. In structurally higher locations in western Elk Hills, the LSOZ produces oil and associated gas. Gas analyses show that gas from the eastern LSOZ is bacterial and formed in place in the reservoirs, whereas gas associated with oil in the western part of the study area is thermogenic and migrated into the sands from deeper in the basin. Regional mapping shows that the gas-bearing LSOZ sands in the Coles Levee and easternmost Elk Hills area are sourced from the Sierra Nevada to the east whereas the oil-bearing sands in western Elk Hills appear to be sourced from the west. The eastern Elk Hills area occupied the basin depocenter, farthest from either source area. As a result, it collected mainly low-permeability offshore shale deposits. This sand-poor depocenter provides an effective barrier to the updip migration of gases from east to west. The role of small, listric normal faults as migration barriers is more ambiguous. Because our gas analyses show that the gas in the eastern LSOZ reservoirs is bacterial, it likely formed in-place near the reservoirs and did not have to migrate far. Therefore, the gas could have been generated after faulting and accumulated within the fault blocks as localized pools. However, bacterial gas is present in both the eastern AND western parts of Elk Hills in the Dry Gas Zone (DGZ) near the top of the stratigraphic section even though the measured fault displacement is greatest in this zone. Bacterial gas is not present in the west in the deeper LSOZ which

  10. Investigating the Seismicity and Stress Field of the Truckee -- Lake Tahoe Region, California -- Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Tyler

    The Lake Tahoe basin is located in a transtensional environment defined by east-dipping range--bounding normal faults, northeast--trending sinistral, and northwest-trending dextral strike-slip faults in the northern Walker Lane deformation belt. This region accommodates as much as 10 mm/yr of dextral shear between the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range proper, or about 20% of Pacific-North American plate motion. There is abundant seismicity north of Lake Tahoe through the Truckee, California region as opposed to a lack of seismicity associated with the primary normal faults in the Tahoe basin (i.e., West Tahoe fault). This seismicity study is focused on the structural transition zone from north-striking east-dipping Sierran Range bounding normal faults into the northern Walker Lane right-lateral strike-slip domain. Relocations of earthquakes between 2000-2013 are performed by initially applying HYPOINVERSE mean sea level datum and station corrections to produce higher confidence absolute locations as input to HYPODD. HYPODD applies both phase and cross-correlation times for a final set of 'best' event relocations. Relocations of events in the upper brittle crust clearly align along well-imaged, often intersecting, high-angle structures of limited lateral extent. In addition, the local stress field is modeled from 679 manually determined short-period focal mechanism solutions, between 2000 and 2013, located within a fairly dense local seismic network. Short-period focal mechanisms were developed with the HASH algorithm and moment tensor solutions using long-period surface waves and the MTINV code. Resulting solutions show a 9:1 ratio of strike-slip to normal mechanisms in the transition zone study area. Stress inversions using the application SATSI (USGS Spatial And Temporal Stress Inversion) generally show a T-axis oriented primarily E-W that also rotates about 30 degrees counterclockwise, from a WNW-ESE trend to ENE-WSW, moving west to east across the California

  11. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  12. Genomic and Genotoxic Responses to Controlled Weathered-Oil Exposures Confirm and Extend Field Studies on Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Native Killifish

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  13. ROLE OF SMALL OIL AND GAS FIELDS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Richard F.; Fleming, Mary L.

    1985-01-01

    The actual economic size cutoff is a function of such factors as depth, water depth offshore, and accessibility to transportation infrastructure. Because of the constraint of resource availability, price is now the principal force driving drilling activity. The proportion of new-field wildcats to other exploratory wells has fallen in recent years, but success in new-field wildcats has risen to about 20%. However, only very small fields, less than 1 million BOE, are being found in large numbers. Through 1979, almost 93% of known gas fields and 94. 5% of known oil fields were small, yet they contain only 14. 5% of the ultimately recoverable gas and 12. 5% of the oil. However, small fields are less capital intensive than equivalent-capacity synthetic-fuel plants, they are extremely numerous, and they are relatively easy and inexpensive to find and put on production. Refs.

  14. FIELD MANUAL FOR OIL SPILLS IN COLD CLIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual documents the state-of-the-art response techniques as of early 1979. The manual has been divided into two basic parts: A field manual and supporting data. The field manual consists of a set of matrices that summarizes applicable techniques for various conditions. The ...

  15. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  16. Visualization by light transmission of oil and water contents in transient two-phase flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Throop, James A.; DiCarlo, David A.; Rimmer, Alon; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves

    1998-06-01

    The difficulty of determining transient fluid contents in a soil-oil-water system is hampering an understanding of the system's flow characteristics. In this paper, we describe a light transmission method (LTM) which can rapidly obtain oil and water contents throughout a large two-dimensional flow field of silica sand. By appropriately coloring the water with 0.005% FD&C blue #1, the hue of the transmitted light is found to be directly related to the water content within the porous media. The hue provides a high resolution measurement of the water and oil contents in transient flow fields (such as unstable flow). Evaluation of the reliability of LTM was assessed by checking the mass balance for a known water injection and its utility in visualizing a whole flow field was exemplified for unstable fingered flow by comparing fluid contents to those obtained with synchrotron X-ray radiation.

  17. Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to <15%. The increased flooding has likely increased access to food resources for wintering waterfowl, but this benefit may not be available to some goose species, and may be at least partially countered by the increase of plowed fields, especially those left dry, and the decrease of fields left as harvested.We encourage waterfowl managers to implement a rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

  18. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik, J.

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  19. Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects--1990 update

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Thomas, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date and process type to identify trends in reservoir statistics and applications of process technologies. Twenty-two EOR projects starts were identified for 1989 and ten project starts for 1988. An obvious trend over recent years has been the decline in the number of project starts since 1981 until 1988 which corresponds to the oil price decline during that period. There was a modest recovery in 1989 of project starts, which lags the modest recovery of oil prices in 1987 that was reconfirmed in 1989. During the time frame of 1980 to 1989, there has been a gradual improvement in costs of operation for EOR technology. The perceived average cost of EOR has gone down from a $30/bbl range to low $20/bbl. These costs of operation seems to stay just at the price of oil or slightly above to result in marginal profitability. The use of polymer flooding has drastically decreased both in actual and relative numbers of project starts since the oil price drop in 1986. Production from polymer flooding is down more than 50%. Long-term plans for large, high-cost projects such as CO{sub 2} flooding in West Texas, steamflooding in California, and hydrocarbon flooding on the North Slope have continued to be implemented. EOR process technologies have been refined to be more cost effective as shown by the continued application and rising production attributable to EOR. 8 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. A new GPS velocity field for the Pacific Plate - Part 2: implications for fault slip rates in western California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C.; Márquez-Azúa, Bertha; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Lower and upper bounds for present deformation rates across faults in central California between the San Andreas Fault and Pacific coast are estimated from a new Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field for central, western California in light of geodetic evidence presented in a companion paper for slow, but significant deformation within the Pacific Plate between young seafloor in the eastern Pacific and older seafloor elsewhere on the plate. Transects of the GPS velocity field across the San Andreas Fault between Parkfield and San Juan Buatista, where fault slip is dominated by creep and the velocity field thus reveals the off-fault deformation, show that GPS sites in westernmost California move approximately parallel to the fault at an average rate of 3.4 ± 0.4 mm yr-1 relative to the older interior of the Pacific Plate, but only 1.8 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 if the Pacific Plate frame of reference is corrected for deformation within the plate. Modelled interseismic elastic deformation from the weakly coupled creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault is an order-of-magnitude too small to explain the southeastward motions of coastal sites in western California. Similarly, models that maximize residual viscoelastic deformation from the 1857 Fort Tejon and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes mismatch both the rates and directions of GPS site motions in central California relative to the Pacific Plate. Neither thus explains the site motions southwest of the San Andreas fault, indicating that the site motions measure deformation across faults and folds outboard of the San Andreas Fault. The non-zero site velocities thus constitute strong evidence for active folding and faulting outboard from the creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault and suggest limits of 0-2 mm yr-1 for the Rinconada Fault slip rate and 1.8 ± 0.6 to 3.4 ± 0.4 mm yr-1 for the slip rates integrated across near-coastal faults such as the Hosgri, San Gregorio and San Simeon faults.

  1. Pilot test of alkaline surfactant polymer flooding in Daqing Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Demin; Zhang Zhenhua; Cheng Jiecheng; Yang Jingchun; Gao Shutang; Li Lin

    1996-12-31

    After the success of polymer flooding in Daqing, two alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) floods have been conducted to (1) increase oil recovery further (2) study the feasibility of ASP flooding (3) provide technical and practical experience for expanding the ASP pilots. Inverted five spot pattern is adopted in both pilots. Pilot 1 (PO) is located in the West Central area of Daqing Oil Field and consists of 4 injectors and 9 producers. Pilot 2 (XF) is located in the South area of Daqing Oil Field and has 1 injector and 4 producers. The crude oil of both pilots have high paraffin content and low acid value. Compared to PO, XF has characteristics of lower heterogeneity, lighter oil and higher recovery by water flooding. For each pilot, after extensive screening, an ASP system has been determined. The ASP systems all feature very low surfactant concentration and wide range of ultra low interfacial tension with change of concentration of any of the three components. Core flooding and numerical simulation show more than 20% OOIP incremental recovery by ASP over water flooding for both pilots. By the end of May, 1995, 100% of ASP slug and 100% of the polymer buffer have been injected in the pilots. Production wells showed good responses in terms of large decrease in water cut and increase in oil production. The performance of each pilot has followed the numerical simulation predication very well, or even a bit better. Emulsions showed up in producers, but the emulsions are easy to be broken by a special de-emulsifier. No formation damage and scaling have been detected. The ASP flood pilot tests are technically successful and, based on the preliminary evaluation, economically feasible. Therefore, in the near future, much larger scale ASP flood field tests are going to be performed at several districts in Daqing Oil Field.

  2. Sterilization of oil-field re-injection water using combination treatment of pulsed electric field and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qing; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2009-01-01

    It was necessary to sterilize the oil-field re-injection water for biocorrosion inhibition. Saprophytic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria were the three main microorganisms resulting in the microbial contamination. To enhance the sterilization efficiency of oil-field re-injection water by pulsed electric field (PEF), the combined treatment of PEF and ultrasound was explored in the study. Meanwhile, the effects of PEF, ultrasound and the combination treatment on the three bacteria inactivation were investigated. The combination treatment had higher inactivation efficiency than independent PEF as well as ultrasound. Obvious synergistic effects were also observed on the inactivation of saprophytic bacteria and iron bacteria by the combined treatment. PMID:18567526

  3. NAFTA opportunities: Oil and gas field drilling machinery and services sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) significantly improves market access in Mexico and Canada for U.S. exports of oil and gas field equipment. Foreign markets account for more than 80 percent of U.S. shipments of oil and gas field machinery. Foreign markets are expected to continue their importance to this industry, in the long term. Mexico and Canada are moderate-sized markets for U.S. exports of oilfield products. In 1992, U.S. exports of this equipment amounted to about $113 million to Mexico and $11 million to Canada.

  4. Characterising oil and water in porous media using decay due to diffusion in the internal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Rhiannon T.; Djurhuus, Ketil; Seland, John Georg

    2015-10-01

    In the method Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), the diffusion behaviour of water molecules in the internal magnetic field makes it possible to determine a distribution of pore sizes in a sample. The DDIF experiment can also be extended to a DDIF-Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (DDIF-CPMG) experiment to measure correlations between the pore size and the transverse relaxation time, T2 . In this study we have for the first time applied the DDIF experiment and the DDIF-CPMG experiment to porous materials saturated with both water and oil. Because of the large difference in diffusion rates between water and oil molecules, the DDIF experiment will act as a filter for the signal from oil, and we are left with the DDIF-signal from water only. This has been verified in model systems consisting of glass beads immersed in separate layers of water and oil, and in a sandstone sample saturated with water and oil. The results show that the DDIF and DDIF-CPMG experiments enable the determination of the confining geometry of the water phase, and how this geometry is correlated to T2 . Data obtained in the sandstone sample saturated with water and oil also show that with the exception of the smallest pores there is no clear correlation between pore size and the relaxation time of water.

  5. Particle size reduction in debris flows: Laboratory experiments compared with field data from Inyo Creek, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    . Laboratory data are compared with longitudinal evolution of grain size and angularity of particles deposited by debris flows along Inyo Creek, Sierra Nevada, California. Preliminary results suggest wear rates can be scaled across drum sizes and to field conditions using non-dimensional metrics of flow dynamics including Savage, Bagnold, and Froude numbers.

  6. Aquatic Insect Emergence in Post-Harvest Flooded Agricultural Fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, R. C.; Blumenshine, S.; Fleskes, J.

    2005-05-01

    California's Southern San Joaquin Valley is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America, but has suffered a disproportionate loss of wetlands when compared to other California regions. This project analyzes the habitat value of post-harvest flooded cropland by measuring the emergence of aquatic insects across multiple crop types. Aquatic insect emergence was sampled from post-harvest flooded fields of four crop types (alfalfa, corn, tomato, wheat), August-October, 2003-2004. Emergence was measured using traps deployed with a stratified random distribution to sample between and within field variation. Emergence rate and emergent biomass was significantly higher in flooded tomato fields. Results from corn fields indicate that flooding depth was correlated (r=0.095) with both diel temperature fluctuation and emergence rate. Chironomus dilutus larvae were grown in environmental chambers, under two thermal treatments with the same mean but different amplitudes (high: 15°-32°C, low: 20°-26°C) to investigate thermal fluctuation effects on survival and biomass. Larval survival (4x) and biomass (2x) were significantly greater in the low versus high temperature fluctuation treatment. This research has the potential to affect agricultural management throughout the 12,600 km2 region, increase aquatic insect production and aid in the recovery of declining bird populations.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the deviatoric stress field from focal mechanisms and slip-line field from conjugate linear seismicity clusters in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Hauksson, E.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the deviatoric stress field and the geometric properties of conjugate linear seismicity clusters in the southern California region using earthquake data recorded by the SCSN from 1981 to 2011. Using a data set with approximate 179,000 high quality focal mechanisms that were determined from P first motions and S/P amplitude ratios, we invert for the variation in the stress field in time and space using several methods. The inversion results match with results from prior studies with a predominant north-south to northnortheast orientation of maximum horizontal stress, but our results reveal the stress field at a higher level of resolution because we use a larger data set than was available before. The results show that the stress field exhibits minimal regional temporal variations, but some variations exist in small areas close to large mainshocks. Similarly, localized depth variations in the stress field suggest the possible existence of vertical strain partitioning. We determine a data set with approximate 8,000 seismicity clusters using waveform cross-correlation and a clustering method. We calculate the geometrical properties of the clusters, such as orientation, area, and concentration. Pairs of conjugate linear clusters exist across southern California. The angles between conjugate linear clusters in the direction of maximum shortening range from 80 [deg] to 160 [deg], with a median value of 120 [deg] and a mode value of 115 [deg]. The bisection of conjugate linear clusters in the direction of maximum shortening generally matches with the maximum horizontal stress orientation, which implies a relation between orientation of the stress field and the orientation of clusters. For clusters located close to the San Andreas Fault (SAF), the strike of one of the conjugate cluster in a pair is often parallel to the local strike of the SAF, and the conjugate angle is relatively large. Also, the conjugate angles are large

  8. Demographic Age Study of Certificated Employees in California Public Community Colleges. Field Service Leaflet No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Tom S.

    California public community colleges (n=106) were surveyed regarding projected retirements at age 65 of certificated college staff and faculty members for the years 1977-78 through 1981-82. Survey responses identified 1,041 persons employed at least 60% of full-time that would reach age 65 between 1977 and 1982. By year, these figures were: 125 in…

  9. 2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

  10. Dispersal forcing of a southern California river plumes, based on field and remote sensing observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Mertes, Leal A.K.; Washburn, Libe; Siegel, David A.

    2004-01-01

    River plumes are important pathways of terrestrial materials entering the sea. In southern California, rivers are known to be the dominant source of littoral, shelf and basin sediment and coastal pollution, although a basic understanding of the dynamics of these river inputs does not exist. Here we evaluate forcing parameters of a southern California river plume using ship-based hydrographic surveys and satellite remote sensing measurements to provide the first insights of river dispersal dynamics in southern California. Our results suggest that plumes of the Santa Clara River are strongly influenced by river inertia, producing jet-like structures ~10 km offshore during annual recurrence (~two-year) flood events and ~30 km during exceptional (~10-year recurrence) floods. Upwelling-favorable winds may be strong following stormwater events and can alter dispersal pathways of thse plumes. Due to similar runoff relationships and other reported satellite observations, we hypothesize that interia-dominated dispersal may be an important characteristic of the small, mountainous rivers throughout southern California.

  11. Bilingualism, Cultural Transmutation, and Fields of Coexistence: California's Spanish Language Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Sara

    2006-01-01

    This is an historical analysis of English Only programs in California and their impact on bilingualism as a natural acquisition process. Factors that propagate bilingualism such as a continual flow of Spanish speaking immigrants, and social, economic and ethnic isolation, are delineated for theorizing about key aspects of multilingualism, the…

  12. Implementing Common Core State Standards in California: A Report from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; Glaab, Laura; Carrasco, Isabel Hilliger

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors present some initial findings on the early implementation of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in California. They report on their interviews with educators in all regions of the state, and on their views of how implementation is proceeding in their schools and districts. The authors then review some of the key…

  13. Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Cronobacter sp. Strain DJ34 Isolated from Crude Oil-Containing Sludge from the Duliajan Oil Fields, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Pal, Siddhartha; Das Banerjee, Tirtha; Roy, Ajoy; Sar, Pinaki; Kazy, Sufia K

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 4,856,096-bp draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Cronobacter sp. strain DJ34 isolated from crude oil-containing sludge from the Duliajan oil fields, India. DJ34 contains genes that mediate hydrocarbon degradation, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. This is the first report of the genome sequence of Cronobacter sp. inhabiting an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:26564043

  14. Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Cronobacter sp. Strain DJ34 Isolated from Crude Oil-Containing Sludge from the Duliajan Oil Fields, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Siddhartha; Das Banerjee, Tirtha; Roy, Ajoy; Sar, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 4,856,096-bp draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Cronobacter sp. strain DJ34 isolated from crude oil-containing sludge from the Duliajan oil fields, India. DJ34 contains genes that mediate hydrocarbon degradation, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. This is the first report of the genome sequence of Cronobacter sp. inhabiting an oil-contaminated environment. PMID:26564043

  15. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  16. Analysis of the ecological risk of opening new oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anikiev, V.V.; Mansurov, M.N.; Fleishman, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    Practical recommendations that would ensure the ecological safety of opening new marine oil and gas fields should include analysis of ecological risk. Such an analysis should precede the studies of ecological safety and resolve a sequence of problems in evaluating the ecological risk, the probability and scale of accidents at the oil and gas extraction complex, and economic damage that could occur. This paper presents a method of evaluation of risks for fish populations incurred by marine extraction of oil and gas, calculates the required limit of probability of accidents excluding the possibility of degradation of flatfish populations, estimates expenses incurred by accidental oil spills, and presents data on level of pollution. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  18. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Quan; Chen, Hong-Han; Li, Si-Tian; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya, respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian. PMID:15236484

  19. Hydro geochemistry Study of Yamama formation water in southern Iraqi oil Fields, Migration,Diagensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; SOC Team

    2013-05-01

    Yamama Formation (Lower Cretaceous) form one of the main oil reservoir in southern Iraq, the present study deals with the general physical and chemical characteristics of Yamama formation water in selected oil fields - southern Iraq. Via the collecting the available water analysis data in in selected 10 wells in southern Iraqi oil fields, Well Logs, as well as, the technical final well reports. The task of this study is to illustrate the chemical and physical variation among the study oil wells, and their relation with the depositional environment, the grading of temperature and pressure, the reason behind of over pressure phenomenon, besides the delineation of oil migration and water reservoir movement direction. The study confirms the occurrences of two types of formation water; the first one is the connate water, which is brine, hypersaline, and marine in nature reflects the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulations. And the second is mixing water reflects the mixing of original marine water with percolating meteoric water for various degree. Regarding the hydrochemical ratios, the direction of water movement and oil migration is from northeast toward west and south west starting from Messan oil Fields, moreover, the secondary migration of oil is in the same direction. The western migration of oil and water attributed to the enhancement of porosity and permeability in this direction, which in turn means the possibility of finding new stratigraphic traps in this direction mainly western of Nasiriya and Garraf areas. The relationship between depositional environment and diagenetic processes in one hand, and the sediment logical units; tidal lime granular unit revealed the occurrences of khidar al-may which extends up to Al-Managish in Kuwait and Nahar Umar - Majnoon, Nasiriya - Abu Amood, as well as the clayey units represented by isolated and semi isolated lagoonal deposits. Based on the ionic ratios in AlZubair, Nahar Umer and Al-Kifil oil fields, outer shelf

  20. Performance of methyl eugenol + matrix + toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Carvalho, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of many fruit crops worldwide. Current detection programs by federal and state agencies in the United States use a grid of traps consisting of liquid methyl eugenol (lure) and naled (toxicant) applied to cotton wicks and hung inside the trap. In recent years efforts have been made to incorporate these chemicals into various solid-type matrices that could be individually packaged to reduce human exposure to the chemicals and improve handling. New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate toxicants were compared with the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two reduced risk toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-matrix combinations were sent to California to be weathered under California climate conditions and then sent back to Hawaii for evaluation. The polymer matrices with lure and toxicant were found to be as attractive as baited wicks and have the same longevity of attraction regardless of being weathered in Hawaii or in California. The new ingestible toxicants were also effective, although further testing of these ingestible lure + toxicant + matrix products is necessary. PMID:23786060

  1. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin is a major petroleum province that forms the southern half of California’s Great Valley, a 700-km-long, asymmetrical basin that originated between a subduction zone to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Sedimentary fill and tectonic structures of the San Joaquin Basin record the Mesozoic through Cenozoic geologic history of North America’s western margin. More than 25,000 feet (>7,500 meters) of sedimentary rocks overlie the basement surface and provide a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the past ~100 m.y. Further, depositional geometries and fault structures document the tectonic evolution of the region from forearc setting to strike-slip basin to transpressional margin. Sedimentary architecture in the San Joaquin Basin is complicated because of these tectonic regimes and because of lateral changes in depositional environment and temporal changes in relative sea level. Few formations are widespread across the basin. Consequently, a careful analysis of sedimentary facies is required to unravel the basin’s depositional history on a regional scale. At least three high-quality organic source rocks formed in the San Joaquin Basin during periods of sea level transgression and anoxia. Generated on the basin’s west side, hydrocarbons migrated into nearly every facies type in the basin, from shelf and submarine fan sands to diatomite and shale to nonmarine coarse-grained rocks to schist. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources and future additions to reserves in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USGS San Joaquin Basin Province Assessment Team, this volume, chapter 1). Several research aims supported this assessment: identifying and mapping the petroleum systems, modeling the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, and defining the volumes of rock to be analyzed for additional resources. To better understand the three dimensional

  2. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  3. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  4. Analysis of radiolabelled thiocyanate tracer in oil field brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnstad, T.; Brendsdal, E.; Michelsen, O. B.; Rogde, S. A.

    1990-12-01

    Thiocyanate (SCN -) labelled with 14C or 35S is applicable for the tracing of the water flow in water-driven oil production. This work describes two improved methods for increasing the concentration of S 14CN - with sample sizes up to 1000 ml of sampled brine. The radioactivity detection is carried out by low-background liquid scintillation counting using standard-size counting vials of 20 ml. The first method is based on solvent extraction: two extraction/strip steps reduce the volume by the required factor of 100 down to 10 ml. The extraction agent is 0.5M tri-isooctylamine (TiOA) in Solvesso-150 and the stripping agent is 5M NH 3. A chemical yield of 70-75%, a somewhat unfavourable quenching factor and a moderate reproducibility lead to a detection limit LD of 0.04 Bq/1. The second method is based on anion exchange. 1000 ml tracer-containing brine may be loaded onto 6.1 ml of the anion-exchange resin AG1-x8 before significant breakthrough of the tracer. More than 98.4% is absorbed. By elution with 2.8M sodiumperchlorate, more than 99.5% of the absorbed tracer is concentrated in a sharp elution peak of 10 ml. With a total chemical yield of 98%, a lower quenching factor and higher reproducibility than for the solvent extraction method, an LD-value of 0.005 Bq/1 is obtained.

  5. Single-well evaluation program for micellar/polymer recovery, Main and 99 West Pools, West Coyote field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, K.M.; Porter, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Main and 99 West pools of the West Coyote field were selected as promising candidates for a micellar-polymer recovery project. Waterfloods initiated in 1961 are nearing their economic limit, with a current watered-oil ratio of 45. Well No. MC 374 was drilled in a water-out portion of the Main and 99 West reservoirs to accomplish an evaluation program with the following objectives: (1) provide data for an improved geologic model; (2) estimate current oil in place; and (3) determine the effectiveness of micellar-polymer chemicals in displacing residual oil. Well No. MC 374 was extensively cored and logged to provide the necessary geologic and reservoir data. A multi-well interference test was conducted to confirm reservoir continuity near the test well. Displacement tests were run in 2 intervals with micellar-polymer chemicals. 13 references.

  6. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  7. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  8. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  9. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  10. An examination of the southern California field test for the systematic accumulation of the optical refraction error in geodetic leveling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Brown, B.W., Jr.; Gilmore, T.D.; Mark, R.K.; Wilson, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Appraisals of the two levelings that formed the southern California field test for the accumulation of the atmospheric refraction error indicate that random error and systematic error unrelated to refraction competed with the systematic refraction error and severely complicate any analysis of the test results. If the fewer than one-third of the sections that met less than second-order, class I standards are dropped, the divergence virtually disappears between the presumably more refraction contaminated long-sight-length survey and the less contaminated short-sight-length survey. -Authors

  11. Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M.E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (<20% TR), whereas older source rocks are mature to overmature (100% TR). Comparison of these basin modeling results, in Basrah region, are performed with Kifle oil field in Hilla region of western Euphrates River whereas the Zubair Formation is immature within temperature range of 65-70??C (0. 50%Ro equivalent) with up to 12% (TR = 12%) hydrocarbon generation efficiency and hence poor generation could be assessed in this last location. The Zubair Formation was deposited in a deltaic environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the

  12. Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, D.I. )

    1993-09-27

    Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has seen very little development. The reservoirs produce a medium-to-heavy crude with a low gas/oil ratio, typically less than 20 scf/bbl. Problems faced in evaluating the field included drilling through unconsolidated sands with high flow capacity and subnormal reservoir pressure. CanOxy had to develop the technology to test the wells during the exploration phase, and intends to use new, or at least uncommon technology, for producing the wells. The paper describes testing the wells, the electric generators and variable speed drives, and the use of these pumps on production wells.

  13. A look at Bacon Flat, Grant Canyon oil fields of Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.H. )

    1993-05-17

    The prolific wells at Grant Canyon, and the puzzling geology, have intrigued explorationists and promoters. Many a Nevada prospect has been touted as 'another Grand Canyon.' But what processes formed Grant Canyon, and can others be found Last August, Equitable Resources Energy Co,'s Balcron Oil Division spudded a well at Bacon Flat, a mile west of Grant Canyon. A one well field, Bacon Flat had been abandoned in 1988. But just 900 ft north of the field opener, Balcron's well tested oil at a rate or 5,400 b/d. It turns out that Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon fields have a common geological history and, in fact, share the same faulted horst. However, they formed by an unusual combination of events that may be unique to those fields. This paper describes the geologic history, well logging interpretations, structures, the Jebco C seismic line, a geologic cross section, and the author's conclusions.

  14. The 1-AB block fields-a giant oil accumulation in Eastern Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, H.A.; Lay, V. ); Orosco, C. )

    1993-02-01

    The 1-Ab block fields are located in the northeastern part of Peru. Geologically, the area is the sub-Andean Maranon Basin, a continuation of the Napo Basin from eastern Ecuador. During the 20 years that Occidental has operated Block 1-AB, approximately 11,500 km of seismic data has been recorded and 34 exploratory wells have been drilled, resulting in the discovery of 18 fields, or 53% exploration success. The 1-AB oil accumulation discovered in 1972 is a group of medium to small asymmetric anticlines distributed along six northwest-southeast trending structural alignments: North Capahuari-South Capahuari-Tambo, Carmen-North San Jaacinto and Bartra. This concentration of productive structures in a relative small area is unique within the Maranon basin. The controlling factors include exceptional pre-Cretaceous uplifting and the presence of very good to excellent Cretaceous sandstones reservoirs. The two major Cretaceous producing zones, the Chonta and Vivian sandstones, have been defined within the Coniacian and Campanian ages respectively. The Chonta sands are related to shelfal deposition across Block 1-AB, represented by strand plain and barrier island sediments. The Vivian formation is a massive fluvial sandstone covering all of the Maranon basin and ranging in thickness between 40 and 200 feet. After oil was accumulated, fresh water influxes into the reservoirs of the northern and eastern fields caused oil biodegradation and salinity variation of the reservoir waters, depending upon the intensity of biodegradation. Oil remigration also has been documented for the South Huayari field.

  15. Quality of field pennycress oil obtained by screw pressing and solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (dry basis, db) with the major fatty acid being erucic acid (38 %). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a majo...

  16. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  17. FIELD MANUAL FOR PLUNGING WATER JET USE IN OIL SPILL CLEANUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of plunging water jets can often make possible the control (and, as a consequence, the cleanup) of spilled oil and other floating pollutants in currents too swift for conventional equipment. This short, illustrated manual provides practical information for field and plann...

  18. [The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikhaĭlova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

  19. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990450

  20. Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California. A Field Guide to the Duck Chart

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; O'Connell, Matthew; Brinkman, Gregory; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the California Independent System Operator published the 'duck chart,' which shows a significant drop in mid-day net load on a spring day as solar photovoltaics (PV) are added to the system. The chart raises concerns that the conventional power system will be unable to accommodate the ramp rate and range needed to fully utilize solar energy, particularly on days characterized by the duck shape. This could result in 'overgeneration' and curtailed renewable energy, increasing its costs and reducing its environmental benefits. This paper explores the duck chart in detail, examining how much PV might need to be curtailed if additional grid flexibility measures are not taken, and how curtailment rates can be decreased by changing grid operational practices. It finds that under "business-as-usual"" types of assumptions and corresponding levels of grid flexibility in California, solar penetrations as low as 20% of annual energy could lead to marginal curtailment rates that exceed 30%. However, by allowing (or requiring) distributed PV and storage (including new installations that are part of the California storage mandate) to provide grid services, system flexibility could be greatly enhanced. Doing so could significantly reduce curtailment and allow much greater penetration of variable generation resources. Overall, the work described in this paper points to the need to fully integrate distributed resources into grid system planning and operations to allow maximum use of the solar resource.

  1. Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California - A Field Guide to the Duck Chart

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Brinkman, Gregory; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the California Independent System Operator published the "duck chart,"" which shows a significant drop in mid-day net load on a spring day as solar photovoltaics (PV) are added to the system. The chart raises concerns that the conventional power system will be unable to accommodate the ramp rate and range needed to fully utilize solar energy, particularly on days characterized by the duck shape. This could result in "overgeneration"" and curtailed renewable energy, increasing its costs and reducing its environmental benefits. This paper explores the duck chart in detail, examining how much PV might need to be curtailed if additional grid flexibility measures are not taken, and how curtailment rates can be decreased by changing grid operational practices. It finds that under business-as-usual types of assumptions and corresponding levels of grid flexibility in California, solar penetrations as low as 20 percent of annual energy could lead to marginal curtailment rates that exceed 30 percent. However, by allowing (or requiring) distributed PV and storage (including new installations that are part of the California storage mandate) to provide grid services, system flexibility could be greatly enhanced. Doing so could significantly reduce curtailment and allow much greater penetration of variable generation resources in achieving a 50 percent renewable portfolio standard. Overall, the work described in this paper points to the need to fully integrate distributed resources into grid system planning and operations to allow maximum use of the solar resource.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, San Joaquin Basin Province, California, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean volumes of 21 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in two assessment units (AUs) that may contain continuous oil resources. Mean volumes of oil for the individual assessment units are 14 MMBO in the Monterey Buttonwillow AU and 7 MMBO in the Monterey Maricopa AU.

  3. Sisterhood in the oil field: informal support networks, gender roles and adaptation among women in the Oklahoma oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The petroleum drilling industry exhibits a number of definitive characteristics, which combined with the most recent boom/bust drilling cycle, affect women in much the same manner as factors commonly associated with the eroding of women's social and economic positions within modernizing societies. Recognizing that modernization has a negative impact on women, this study focuses on strategies of adaptation employed by women associated both directly and indirectly with the petroleum drilling industry in an oil boom/bust town in western Oklahoma. Utilizing the traditional techniques of ethnographic interview and participant observation, it was shown that informal support networks formed by women enhanced women's adaptation by extending their resource base beyond the nuclear family and encouraging solidarity. Gender-based division of labor was also modified by western energy development. Boom times facilitated a rigid division of labor that gave way to a more flexible arrangement during bust times without a concomitant change in gender-based ideology. This was accounted for by differences in the rates of change for the underlying habits and values associated with the public and private sectors.

  4. Estimation of oil recovery by in-situ combustion in the Jobo Field of Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Luengo-C, J.R.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1981-03-01

    A laboratory combustion experiment using samples from Jobo Field was completed. The data obtained by this experiment could be used for an approximate estimation of recovery for a pilot project in this field. An isolated pilot test would give enough information to determine the behavior of the combustion process for field applications. Aplication of recovery correlations indicate that a pilot test in an inverted 5-spot pattern (10 to 20 acres spacing) appears adequate for these field conditions. Air injection rates should be calculated and compared with injectivity tests, the ability of the producing wells to handle the oil, and the maximum pressure the reservoir can handle without fracturing.

  5. Application of electrical submersible pumps in heavy crude oil in Boscan Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolin, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    During recent years optimization of artificial lift methods has been applied in the oil industry, in order to evaluate the effect on oil well production and to establish a company`s optimal investment policies. Higher costs on new artificial lifting equipment and facilities for new fields have created the necessity to review the latest available technology of different lifting methods and specially that related to electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Few studies in the area of heavy crude oil production optimization using ESP as a lifting method have been published. This paper discusses the results of an ESP pilot project performed in 24 wells in Boscan field, and analyzes the performance of the equipment and its application range. The ESP equipment was installed in completions at depths ranging from 7000 to 9000 feet, with a 10{degrees}API gravity crude and bottomhole temperature of 180{degrees}F. It was concluded that despite a reduction of the pump`s efficiency, the ESP equipment does qualify as a good alternative lifting method for heavy oil production. It is also possible to obtain higher production rates. The results obtained in this pilot project, confirm that submersible pumps are an alternative method for lifting heavy crude oil from relatively deep reservoirs.

  6. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control. PMID:25996514

  7. The significance of large variations in oil properties of the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Behrenbruch, P.; Du, P.Q.

    1995-10-01

    The Dai Hung Oil field, offshore Vietnam, is comprised of a complex subsurface structure containing stacked reservoir sequences typically found in many other Southeast Asian fields. Combined with areal fault compartmentalization, this situation has led to the observed, large variations in oil properties. Furthermore, the depositional environment in terms of burial history has created a unique overpressure situation which also had an affect, particularly on the crude saturation conditions of individual reservoirs. For commercial and technical reasons, this situation required a detailed analysis, both in terms of variation in crude assay and live oil properties. For whole crude properties: gravity, K factor, wax content and pour point-graphs were drawn up using a large data base of worldwide crudes against which the Dai Hung data could be validated. In case of PVT properties (bubble point and formation volume factor) existing industry correlations were examined. It could be concluded that the sweet, medium gravity and moderately waxy Dai Hung crude has whole crude properties which are comparable to other, similar crudes. The general framework of crude properties established is suitable to type other crudes, even if limited information is available. Of the existing PVT correlations tested, it was found that Standing`s correlation for the oil formation volume factor and the Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt correlation for the bubble point fitted the Dai Hung crude data the best. For the lower shrinkage Dai Hung crudes the Malaysian oil formation volume factor correlation by Omar-Todd gave the best data fit.

  8. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  9. The tectonic crustal stress field and style of faulting along the Pacific North America Plate boundary in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenzheng; Hauksson, Egill

    2013-07-01

    We invert for the state of stress in the southern California crust using a catalogue of high quality earthquake focal mechanisms (1981-2010). The stress field is best resolved where seismicity rates are high and sufficient data are available to constrain the stress field across most of the region. From the stress field, we determine the maximum horizontal compressive stress (SHmax) orientations and the style of faulting across southern California. The trend of SHmax exhibits significant regional and local spatial heterogeneities. The regional trend of SHmax varies from north along the San Andreas system to NNE to the east in the Eastern California Shear Zone as well as to the west, within the Continental Borderland and the Western Transverse Ranges. The transition zones from one state of stress to the other occur over a distance of only a few kilometres, following a trend from Yucca Valley to Imperial Valley to the east, and the western edge of the Peninsular Ranges to the west. The local scale heterogeneities in the SHmax trend include NNW trends along the San Andreas Fault near Cajon Pass, Tejon Pass and the Cucapah Range, as well as NNE trends near the northern San Jacinto Fault and the Wheeler Ridge area. The style of faulting exhibits similar complexity, ranging from predominantly normal faulting in the high Sierra Nevada, to strike-slip faulting along the San Andreas system, to three consecutive bands of thrust faulting in the Wheeler Ridge area and the Western Transverse Ranges. The local variations in the style of faulting include normal faulting at the north end of the San Jacinto Fault and scattered areas of thrust faulting. The regional variations in the SHmax trends are very similar to the pattern of the GPS-measured maximum shortening axes of the surface strain rate tensor field although the strain field tends to be smoother and appears to capture some of the upper-mantle deformation field. The mean trend of SHmax departs about approximately 14° to

  10. Comparative zircon tephrochronology: correlating the Pliocene Bouse tephra, lower Colorado River trough, California, with the Lawlor Tuff of the Sonoma volcanic field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Identification, correlation, and absolute dating of glassy volcanic ash and cryptically reworked pyroclastic deposits can be problematic. This is especially the case in strongly weathered samples where primary glass chemistry may not be preserved, or in lacustrine and fluvial environments where detrital materials can heavily bias bulk analysis or produce complex age distributions in single crystal dating approaches. These problems have frustrated numerous attempts to date a singular key ash horizon from the Mio-Pliocene Bouse Formation in southern California (fine-grained carbonate beds and clastic sediments derived from the Colorado River, deposited in the lower Colorado River Trough). Constraining the depositional age of the Bouse Formation is important for understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system, the uplift history of the Colorado Plateau, and the climate conditions involved in Colorado River evolution. Prior attempts to directly date the ash have been inconclusive. A K-Ar in glass date of 5.47 × 0.20 Ma (Shafiqullah et al., 1980) was questioned because of the potential disturbance of both the parent and daughter products of potassium decay in glass, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on bulk glass and bulk plagioclase separates (Spencer et al., 2000) produced discordant results. Recent glass chemistry correlation of the ash horizon to the 4.83 × 0.011 Ma Lawlor Tuff, Sonoma volcanic field, California (Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 2011), has also been contentious, because that age appears to conflict with the proposed onset of the delivery of Colorado River sediment through to the Gulf of California (Dorsey et al., 2007). To resolve the persistent age arguments, comparative zircon tephrochronology has been undertaken utilizing the single-crystal analysis capabilities of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Here, U-Pb zircon crystallization age spectra, U and Th abundances, and oxygen isotopic composition are presented which confirm the correlation of the Bouse

  11. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2002-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  12. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  13. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner

    2004-10-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re- injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  14. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner

    2005-08-01

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  15. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner

    2006-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  16. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner

    2005-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  17. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-10-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  18. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner

    2004-07-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  19. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-07-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  20. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  1. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; del Rio, Tijana G.; Foster, Brian; Copeland, A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Pati, Amrita; Gilbert, Jack A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-02

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of the main constituents of crude oil. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.

  2. Maximum Magnitude and Probabilities of Induced Earthquakes in California Geothermal Fields: Applications for a Science-Based Decision Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, Deborah Anne

    Induced seismicity is occurring at increasing rates around the country. Brodsky and Lajoie (2013) and others have recognized anthropogenic quakes at a few geothermal fields in California. I use three techniques to assess if there are induced earthquakes in California geothermal fields; there are three sites with clear induced seismicity: Brawley, The Geysers, and Salton Sea. Moderate to strong evidence is found at Casa Diablo, Coso, East Mesa, and Susanville. Little to no evidence is found for Heber and Wendel. I develop a set of tools to reduce or cope with the risk imposed by these earthquakes, and also to address uncertainties through simulations. I test if an earthquake catalog may be bounded by an upper magnitude limit. I address whether the earthquake record during pumping time is consistent with the past earthquake record, or if injection can explain all or some of the earthquakes. I also present ways to assess the probability of future earthquake occurrence based on past records. I summarize current legislation for eight states where induced earthquakes are of concern. Unlike tectonic earthquakes, the hazard from induced earthquakes has the potential to be modified. I discuss direct and indirect mitigation practices. I present a framework with scientific and communication techniques for assessing uncertainty, ultimately allowing more informed decisions to be made.

  3. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) which consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1), referred to as the Elk Hills oil field and Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2), referred to as the Buena Vista oil field, each located near Bakersfield, California. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from November 12 to December 13, 1991, under the auspices of DOE`s Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES&H), and quality assurance (OA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of California, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPRC requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE/NPRC, CUSA, and BPOI management of the ES&H/QA programs was conducted.

  4. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) which consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1), referred to as the Elk Hills oil field and Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2), referred to as the Buena Vista oil field, each located near Bakersfield, California. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from November 12 to December 13, 1991, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES H), and quality assurance (OA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of California, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPRC requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE/NPRC, CUSA, and BPOI management of the ES H/QA programs was conducted.

  5. Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Immunomagnetically Captured Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Bjørn; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1992-01-01

    Immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were used to recover thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. IMB coated with polyclonal antibodies against whole-cell antigens of the thermophilic Thermodesulfobacterium mobile captured strains GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3. GFA1 was serologically and morphologically identical to T. mobile. GFA2 and GFA3 were spore forming and similar to the Desulfotomaculum strains T90A and T93B previously isolated from North Sea oil field waters by a classical enrichment procedure. Western blots (immunoblots) of whole cells showed that GFA2, GFA3, T90A, and T93B are different serotypes of the same Desulfotomaculum species. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against T. mobile type strain cells were produced and used as capture agents on IMB. These MAb, named A4F4, were immunoglobulin M; they were specific to T. mobile and directed against lipopolysaccharides. The prevailing cells immunocaptured with MAb A4F4 were morphologically and serologically similar to T. mobile type strain cells. T. mobile was not detected in these oil field waters by classical enrichment procedures. Furthermore, extraction with antibody-coated IMB allowed pure strains to be isolated directly from primary enrichment cultures without prior time-consuming subculturing and consecutive transfers to selective media. Images PMID:16348693

  7. Kinetics of lead and copper removal from oil-field brine by potential sorption.

    PubMed

    Nourafkan, E; Asachi, M; Marandi, R

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the kinetics of lead and copper removal from oil-field brine by potential sorption. A population balance equation, coupled with a mass balance equation, was used in the estimation of kinetic parameters. Metal removal was performed by potential sorption of lead and copper through CaCO3 precipitates induced by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2. The oil-field brine was selected from an oil well in Gachsaran, Iran. The crystal size distribution of the solid phase was measured by dynamic laser scattering analyzer, and the liquor phase was analyzed using atomic adsorption. The morphology of calcium carbonate particles was illustrated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the presence of copper and lead decreases the average size distribution of calcium carbonate particles by influencing the kinetic parameters. Lead and copper concentrations were reduced from 2.911 to 0.127 ppm (95.63% removal) and 0.476 to 0.025 ppm (94.74% removal), respectively, in exchange for 12 g CaCO3 consumption per 100 ml oil-field brine. PMID:25521137

  8. State Emergency Response and Field Observation Activities in California (USA) during the March 11, 2011, Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Goltz, J.; Fenton, J.; Long, K.; Dengler, L.; Rosinski, A.; California Tsunami Program

    2011-12-01

    This poster will present an overview of successes and challenges observed by the authors during this major tsunami response event. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami was the most costly to affect California since the 1964 Alaskan earthquake and ensuing tsunami. The Tohoku tsunami caused at least $50 million in damage to public facilities in harbors and marinas along the coast of California, and resulted in one fatality. It was generated by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake which occurred at 9:46PM PST on Thursday, March 10, 2011 in the sea off northern Japan. The tsunami was recorded at tide gages monitored by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), which projected tsunami surges would reach California in approximately 10 hours. At 12:51AM on March 11, 2011, based on forecasted tsunami amplitudes, the WCATWC placed the California coast north of Point Conception (Santa Barbara County) in a Tsunami Warning, and the coast south of Point Conception to the Mexican border in a Tsunami Advisory. The California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) activated two Regional Emergency Operation Centers (REOCs) and the State Operation Center (SOC). The California Geological Survey (CGS) deployed a field team which collected data before, during and after the event through an information clearinghouse. Conference calls were conducted hourly between the WCATWC and State Warning Center, as well as with emergency managers in the 20 coastal counties. Coordination focused on local response measures, public information messaging, assistance needs, evacuations, emergency shelters, damage, and recovery issues. In the early morning hours, some communities in low lying areas recommended evacuation for their citizens, and the fishing fleet at Crescent City evacuated to sea. The greatest damage occurred in the harbors of Crescent City and Santa Cruz. As with any emergency, there were lessons learned and important successes in managing this event. Forecasts by the WCATWC were highly accurate

  9. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders – and their metabolic capabilities – may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep. PMID:25197496

  10. Analysis of cause and mechanism for injection-induced seismicityat the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Oldenburg, Curtis

    2007-06-14

    We analyzed relative contributions to the cause andmechanism of injection-induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermalfield, California, using coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanicalmodeling. Our analysis shows that the most important cause forinjection-induced seismicity is injection-induced cooling and associatedthermal-elastic shrinkage that changes the stress state in such a waythat mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, thecooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shearstrength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are thenreactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slipalong fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced seismicityat The Geysers.

  11. Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, Stephen R.; Sorey, Michael L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, Elizabeth M.

    2000-01-01

    The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 °C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63°C in 1889 to 48°C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77°C in 1995 and neared boiling (98°C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3°C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition

  12. Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane over oil fields in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohjima, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.

    Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4) over oil fields in western Siberia were carried out on August 1, 1994. Extremely sharp CH4 peaks were observed in the horizontal distribution of CH4 at an altitude of 150 m above the ground surface; the half widths of the peaks were 3-4 km and the concentration of the largest peak exceeded 2.9 ppmv. Since the CH4 distribution was considered to reflect the distribution of CH4 emission strength on the surface, there was strong CH4 emission at the peak positions. All of the observed CH4 peak positions were located at or near oil production sites and/or oil pipelines, suggesting that natural gas was emitted from the facilities. Leakage or venting of natural gas are the probable CH4 sources.

  13. Evaluation of Slime-Producing Bacteria in Oil Field Core Flood Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Geesey, G. G.; Mittelman, M. W.; Lieu, V. T.

    1987-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy and carbohydrate determinations indicated that the decrease in permeability of oil reservoir sand to reclaimed sewage water was partially the result of biological plugging. Filtration and biocide addition studies demonstrated that the increase in bacterial densities and slime concentrations in flooded oil field cores appeared to be due to both deposition from the reclaimed water and in situ microbial growth and slime production. Although these biological components increased throughout the cores during flooding, the region where the water entered the core exhibited the highest cell densities and slime concentrations. The approach described in this report should be useful in predicting the potential of a water source to induce biological plugging of oil reservoir sand. PMID:16347276

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  15. California Cenozoic Biostratigraphy -- Paleogene: Chapter 4 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    The time transgressive nature of the California benthic foraminiferal stages is in most cases the result of poor taxonomy, use of local species ranges, and a lack of understanding about the type sections. Correcting these problems allows the stages to be consistently applied and enhances their ability to identify coeval strata. Each stage is identified by the first and last appearances of selected cosmopolitan benthic foraminiferal species and of reliable local species. Although further study is needed, the stages correlate with the international time scale. The revised age interpretation of the stages suggests that the Cheneyian Stage is coeval with planktic zone P1 through P3, the Ynezian Stage is coeval with planktic zone P4, the Bulitian Stage is missing in most section but when present is coeval with zones P5 and P6a, the Penutian Stage is coeval with planktic zones P6b through early P9 (no younger than the overlap between P9 and CP11), the Ulatisian Stage is coeval with P9 (younger than CP11) through P11, the Narizian Stage is coeval with zones P12 through P15, and the Refugian Stage is coeval with zones P16 and P17.

  16. Single-well evaluation program for micellar/polymer recovery, Main and 99 West Pools, West Coyote Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, K.M.; Porter, L.T.

    1983-10-01

    The Main and 99 West Pools of the West Coyote Field were selected as promising candidates for a micellar-polymer recovery project. Waterfloods initiated in 1961 are nearing their economic limit, with a current water-oil ratio of 45. Well MC 374 was drilled in a watered-out portion of the Main and 99 West reservoirs to accomplish an evaluation program with the following objectives: provide data for an improved geological model; estimate current oil in place; and determine the effectiveness of micellarpolymer chemicals in displacing residual oil. MC 374 was extensively cored and logged to provide the necessary geological and reservoir data. A multi-well interference test was conducted to confirm reservoir continuity near the test well. Displacement tests were run in two intervals with micellar-polymer chemicals. Oil saturations in the near-wellbore area were measured before and after the displacement tests using log-inject-log and single-well-tracer techniques. An extended polymer injectivity test was conducted in one of the intervals.

  17. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1998-03-03

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  18. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1997-08-08

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  19. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2 T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2∗, π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  20. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2(∗), π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging. PMID:27208417

  1. Exploitation of oil in a volcanic cone by horizontal drilling in the Elaine field, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, P.A.; Kushner, P.L.; Harbaugh, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    The Uvalde volcanic field west and southwest of San Antonio contains many buried volcanic cones that offer attractive places to exploit with horizontal drilling. These buried cones were formed by eruption of basaltic flows and cinders during the Cretaceous when the Austin Chalk and immediately overlying strate were deposited. The cones vary in size, some being as much as 2 mi in diameter and 1000 ft in vertical dimension. During eruptions, flows and ejecta reacted with sea water, producing intermixtures of basaltic material and limestone. These cones provide attractive targets for oil exploration. The Elaine field about 90 mi southwest of San Antonio is associated with a buried volcanic cone that is now being exploited with horizontal drilling. Horizontal Drilling and Production, Inc., ('HDP') drilled the Autumn 1 as the initial horizontal well at Elaine. A vertical hole was drilled through the cone and underlying Austin Chalk, reconfirming the presence of the oil zone at the contact between volcanics and chalk. Moving back up the hole, a cement plug was set within the volcanics, and a horizontal hole was directed on a N 70W azimuth. The inclined hole's vertical angle had progressively decreased with distance to about 30{degree} from the horizontal when the oil zone was reentered. The hole's inclination continued to decrease within the oil zone, becoming horizontal after about 600 ft. With further distance, the hole passed beneath the oil zone, where its inclination was then reversed so that it climbed gradually and reentered the oil zone before reaching its terminal distance of 1500 horizontal feet. The well was completed on August 17, 1990, with an indicated initial production of 1609 BOPD.

  2. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and <0.1% of the Ba was released. Potential for the release of 226Ra was demonstrated, and the 226 Ra release associated with sulfate-reducing activity was predictable from the amount of Ba released. As with Ba, only a fraction of the 226Ra expected from the amount of sulfide produced was released, and most of the Ra remained associated with the solid material.

  3. Studies of the effects of experimentally produced noise associated with oil and gas exploration and development on sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riedman, M.L.

    1983-11-15

    During the winter 1983 tape-recorded industrial noises associated with offshore oil and gas operations were projected underwater at Soberanes Point, California. Seismic-exploration sounds were produced using a multiple air gun array (4000 cu. in) and a single air gun (100 cu. in) along a 10-15 km transect paralleling the coastline from Rocky Point to Yankee Point. The behavior, density, and distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) within the vicinity of the sound projection area were not affected by the acoustic experiments. Foraging and diving behaviors of sea otters were normal and undisturbed. There were no movements of otters away from the sound source or out of the sound projection vicinity during either the winter or spring acoustic experiments.

  4. Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T. ); Sargeant, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

  5. Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T.; Sargeant, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

  6. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1991-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C4 through C6) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H2-CO2 and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78°C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131°C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed. Images PMID:16348538

  7. Interpretation of the magnetic anomaly over the Omaha Oil Field, Gallatin County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Sparlin, M.A. ); Lewis, R.D. . Waterways Experiment Station)

    1994-07-01

    A 40 nanoTesla (nT) magnetic anomaly identified in an aeromagnetic survey over southern Illinois contours as a localized magnetic high on the west flank of a regional magnetic low. This magnetic anomaly is generally coincident with the Omaha Oil Field in northwest Gallatin County, Illinois. It was initially assumed that cultural sources of steel associated with this oil field were the primary source of the magnetic feature; however, similar oil fields overflown by the survey do not exhibit magnetic anomalies in the data set. The Luther Rister et ux [number sign]1 well, drilled near the apex of the Omaha structural dome, encountered two zones of ultramafic intrusive rock containing 9.0% by volume magnetite. These intrusives were identified to be alnoeites which are a class of mantle-derived ultramafic rock that can be associated with the incipient stages of crustal rifting. A ground magnetic survey verified the presence of the anomaly, and provided detailed data for 3-D modeling of the source. Petrophysical evaluations, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thin section modal analysis were made on drill cuttings from the ultramafic intrusives encountered in the Luther Rister [number sign]1 well. These measurements were made to constrain the 3-D magnetic modeling by the petrophysical characteristics of the source. After removal of the regional magnetic field, the resulting 140 nT residual magnetic anomaly was successfully modeled using two ultramafic sills with an igneous feeder plug. The two igneous sills adequately account for the structural closure exhibited in the Omaha Oil Field and raise the interesting possibility of other hydrocarbon trapping structures generated by intrusives emplaced into the sedimentary section.

  8. Comparison and Field Validation of Binomial Sampling Plans for Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Hass Avocado in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lara, Jesus R; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, & Abatiello is a foliar pest of 'Hass' avocados [Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)]. The recommended action threshold is 50-100 motile mites per leaf, but this count range and other ecological factors associated with O. perseae infestations limit the application of enumerative sampling plans in the field. Consequently, a comprehensive modeling approach was implemented to compare the practical application of various binomial sampling models for decision-making of O. perseae in California. An initial set of sequential binomial sampling models were developed using three mean-proportion modeling techniques (i.e., Taylor's power law, maximum likelihood, and an empirical model) in combination with two-leaf infestation tally thresholds of either one or two mites. Model performance was evaluated using a robust mite count database consisting of >20,000 Hass avocado leaves infested with varying densities of O. perseae and collected from multiple locations. Operating characteristic and average sample number results for sequential binomial models were used as the basis to develop and validate a standardized fixed-size binomial sampling model with guidelines on sample tree and leaf selection within blocks of avocado trees. This final validated model requires a leaf sampling cost of 30 leaves and takes into account the spatial dynamics of O. perseae to make reliable mite density classifications for a 50-mite action threshold. Recommendations for implementing this fixed-size binomial sampling plan to assess densities of O. perseae in commercial California avocado orchards are discussed. PMID:26470355

  9. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  10. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oilfield is about 1.5 km (1 mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long. Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes. The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oilfields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface. These radar data show that parts of the oilfield were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimenters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oilfield, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999. Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oilfield are behaving, leading to improvements in oilfield operations. For more information, read Radar Helps Monitor Oil Fields. Images courtesy Eric Fielding, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  11. Evaluating GIS for establishing and monitoring environmental conditions of oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeil, R.W.; Ellis, J.W.

    1995-04-01

    Good management of an oil field and compliance with ever-increasing environmental regulations is enhanced by technologies that improve a company`s understanding of field/production facilities and environmental conditions that have occurred to both through time. In Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, and offshore Cabinda, remote sensing, computer-aided drafting (CAD) and Global Positioning System (GPF) technologies have effectively been used by Chevron to provide accurate maps of facilities and to better understand environmental conditions. Together these proven technologies have provided a solid and cost-effective base for planning field operation, verifying well and seismic locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often cartographic-quality hardcopy images and maps for use in the office and field. Chevron has been evaluating the capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to integrate images, maps, and tabular data into a useful database that can help managers and workers better evaluate conditions in an oil field, plan new facilities, and monitor/predict trends (for example, of air emissions, groundwater, soil chemistry, subsidence, etc.). Remote sensing, CAD (if formatted properly), and GPS data can be integrated to establish the spatial or cartographic base of the GIS. A major obstacle to establishing a sophisticated GIS for an overseas operation is the initial cost of data collection and conversion from legacy data base management systems and hardcopy to appropriate digital format. However, Chevron routinely uses GIS for oil spill modeling and is now using GIS in the field for integrating GPS data with field observations and programs.

  12. Raman distributed temperature sensor for oil leakage detection in soil: a field trial and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, Alessandro; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Gabella, Luca; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio; Latini, Gilberto; Ripari, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we perform field validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) for oil leakage detection in soil. The capability of the distributed Raman sensor in detecting and locating, with high accuracy and spatial resolution, drop leakages in soil is demonstrated through a water leakage simulation in a field trial. The future trends and the high potential of the Raman DTS technology for oil and gas leakage detection in long pipelines is then outlined in this paper by reporting lab experiments demonstrating accurate meter scale temperature measurement over more than 50 km of standard single mode fiber. The proposed solution, based on distributed Simplex coding techniques, can be competitive in terms of cost and performance with respect to other distributed sensing technologies.

  13. Truncated shifted pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a J-shape, and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment.

  14. Use of the truncated shifted Pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a "J-shape," and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. Bohai Oil corporation conceptual engineering of overall development scheme for SZ 36-1 oil field. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    SZ 36-1 oil field is located in the Liaodong Bay in the northeastern section of Bohai Bay, in approximately 32 meters water depth, 46 kilometers offshore the Suizhong Coast. The reservoir is highly heterogeneous and unconsolidated, and the crude has high viscosity, high specific gravity, and requires artificial lift for production. A phased development of the field is planned. The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) contracted for engineering services to perform conceptual engineering of the overall development scheme for the SZ 36-1 oil field. The study consisted of two parts: (1) concept selection, to assess various schemes for developing the SZ 36-1 field and selecting one to recommend to the Bohai oil corporation (BOC); (2) conceptual engineering of the recommended development concept. The final report covers both the concept selection and concept engineering phases of the study.

  16. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Il