Note: This page contains sample records for the topic oil rig explosion from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Oil well drilling rig mover  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil well drilling rig mover is formed from a pair of laterally spaced dollies detachably connected by braces between them. Each of the dollies includes a beam for resting on a support, and a pair of laterally spaced wheels at each end of the beam. An arm extends outwardly from the outer end of a tiltable support member that

C. Jenkins; J. R. Woolslayer

1983-01-01

2

Unique sled rig plugs oil leaking wells in surf zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several leaking oil wells drilled in the late 1800s in the surf zone in Southern California required a specially built rig and platform for proper abandonment. The abandonment operations were complicated because the beach is heavily used by the public and the condition of the wells was unknown. A mobile sled was designed to support a drilling rig safely in

Zylstra

1994-01-01

3

Heavy oil: new rig has heavy oil potential  

SciTech Connect

If extensive use of big hole drilling is indicated for future heavy oil production, a new rig now available could be just the right tool for the job. The rig is the Hughes Tool Co.'s CSD-300, big brother to the CSD-820 which was introduced over 10 years ago. The CSD-820 drilled a 7-ft diameter shaft to a depth of 491 ft in the field test of the Hot Plate heavy oil recovery method in the Kern River Field near Bakersfield, California. The CSD-820 proved to be a success in its part of the job. And now, Hughes officials believe the new generation of big hole rigs will be even more of one. The most obvious difference between the new CSD-300 and the older version is the size of the shaft it can drill. The new unit is capable of punching a hole 20 ft in diameter and 2000 ft deep. The CSD-820 was designed to drill 8-ft diameter holes. It has been used to drill shafts up to 15 ft in width. When it comes to power generated, the new CSD-300 puts out one million ft-lb of torque and has a 2 million-lb hoist capacity.

Grisham, J.

1981-04-01

4

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shales  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01

5

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01

6

An Improved Harmony Search algorithm for optimal scheduling of the diesel generators in oil rig platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is music based meta-heuristic optimization method which is analogous with the music improvisation process where musician continue to polish the pitches in order to obtain better harmony. The paper focuses on the optimal scheduling of the generators to reduce the fuel consumption in the oil rig platform. The accurate modeling of the specific fuel consumption is

Parikshit Yadav; Rajesh Kumar; S. K. Panda; C. S. Chang

2011-01-01

7

The Use of Nuclear Explosives in Oil and Gas Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear explosions are currently being planned for use in oil and gas production, recovery of oil from oil shale, gas storage, and copper leaching. The current status of each of these projects is discussed with emphasis on the economics of each application. The first commercial application of nuclear explosives will in gas stimulation. Project Gasbuggy is scheduled to be fired

H. F. Coffer; H. E. Grier; H. H. Aronson

1967-01-01

8

Use of nuclear explosives in oil and gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear explosions are currently being planned for use in oil and gas production recovery of oil from oil shale, gas storage, and copper leaching. The current status of each of these projects is discussed with emphasis on the economics of each application. The first commercial application of nuclear explosives will be in gas stimulation. Project Gasbuggy is scheduled to be

H. F. Coffer; H. E. Grier; H. H. Aronson

2008-01-01

9

The BP Oil Spill: Could Software be a Culprit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

No one yet knows what caused the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that killed 11 workers and poured millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. But considering the fact that offshore oil rigs comprise dozens of complex subsystems that use or are controlled by software, it is possible a software failure could have contributed to this disaster.

Don Shafer; Phillip A. Laplante

2010-01-01

10

Red Oil Explosions at the Savannah River Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two red-oil explosions occurred at the Savannah River Plant. The first of these was in an evaporator at the semiworks prior to plant operation. The second occurred 22 years later in an A-Line facility calciner (called a denitrator). (ERA citation 09:01826...

W. S. Durant

1984-01-01

11

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01

12

77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the...take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures...regulations. Reporting ExxonMobil has not used explosives for any rig structure removal...

2012-07-03

13

Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

Banker, John G. [Dynamic Materials Corp., 5405 Spine Rd., Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Massarello, Jack [Global Metallix, Consultant to DMC, 5405 Spine Rd., Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Pauly, Stephane [DMC., Nobelclad Business Unit, 1 Allee Alfred NOBEL, 66600 Rivesaltes (France)

2011-01-17

14

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm...APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm...used in approval testing of oil content meters and...

2011-10-01

15

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm...APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm...used in approval testing of oil content meters and...

2012-10-01

16

Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.  

PubMed

Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness. PMID:1546944

Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

1992-02-01

17

Assessment of gas and dust explosion hazards in oil shale mining using ANFO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental mine testing has shown that hot combustion products generated from a detonating explosive can result in a secondary dust or gas explosion. The common blasting agent ANFO (ammonium nitrate--6 pct fuel oil) has been shown in the Bruceton experimental mine (BEM) tests to readily ignite pre-existing explosive concentrations of oil shale dust and\\/or methane gas when detonated unstemmed. Tests

E. S. Weiss; M. J. Sapko; E. M. Bazala

1989-01-01

18

Sleep and health in oil rig workers-before and after a two week work period offshore.  

PubMed

This study compared subjective sleep and subjective health complaints among Norwegian oil rig workers, before and after a two week work period. The study also compared differences between two different work schedules. The workers worked either two weeks of day shift (n=90) or two weeks of a swing shift schedule (n=93), involving one week of night shifts, immediately followed by one week of day shifts. Overall, the workers reported significantly poorer sleep quality and more complaints of insomnia at the end compared to the start of the work period. However, there was no significant difference in terms of subjective health complaints. Furthermore, there were no clear differences in changes in sleep quality, insomnia or subjective health complaints during the work period between day- and swing shift workers. However, at the end of the work period a higher proportion of insomniacs were seen among swing shift workers compared with day workers. To conclude, sleep quality and complaints of insomnia became worse during the work period. However, there were few differences in changes in terms of sleep or subjective health complaints between day- and swing shift, suggesting that 12?h day shift affected sleep and health similarly to the schedule involving night work. PMID:23196391

Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Stle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bjorvatn, Bjrn

2012-11-28

19

Rig revolution  

SciTech Connect

New rig designs integrate the latest marine and well construction technologies to cut costs and improve suitability. Fifth-generation semisubmersibles on the horizon target emerging deepwater markets and offer an array of new features. Virtually every desirable attribute of floating drilling units has been investigated and, where possible, improved. The paper discusses carefully planned designs which have created 30,000 sq ft of unobstructed main deck area, customer requirements, weight distribution, and costs.

NONE

2000-02-01

20

Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves

Brian N. Bradford; Pedro J. Sanchez-Reyes

2011-01-01

21

Assessment of gas and dust explosion hazards in oil shale mining using ANFO  

SciTech Connect

Experimental mine testing has shown that hot combustion products generated from a detonating explosive can result in a secondary dust or gas explosion. The common blasting agent ANFO (ammonium nitrate--6 pct fuel oil) has been shown in the Bruceton experimental mine (BEM) tests to readily ignite pre-existing explosive concentrations of oil shale dust and/or methane gas when detonated unstemmed. Tests also show that these ignitions can be curtailed with the use of an inert stemming material. Current data on background methane emission studies at two western U.S. oil shale mines are also presented.

Weiss, E.S.; Sapko, M.J.; Bazala, E.M. (Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

1989-01-01

22

Oil in the Water, Fire in the Sky: Responding to Technological/Environmental Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On April 20, 2010, a massive explosion killed 11 workers on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Survivors of this explosion recounted terrifying near-death experiences and mourned the loss of coworkers and friends who had perished. Shock and grief spread through small coastal communities composed mostly of fishers and oil workers. However, this was

Lazarus, Philip J.; Sulkowski, Michael L.

2010-01-01

23

Explosively Produced Fracture of Oil Shale. Progress Report, April-June 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preshot and postshot characterization of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Colony Oil Shale Mine experiments and the geologic parameters affecting their interpretation are discussed. Because site-specific geologic features affect explosive rock ...

W. A. Morris

1980-01-01

24

[Results of psychometric and questionnaire methods in the evaluation of noise and vibration on floating oil rigs in the Caspian sea].  

PubMed

A psychometric study of noise and vibration was performed at different parts of the Caspian floating oil rigs. The analysis of 500 questionnaires received from the personnel showed that the correlation coefficients for different values, depending on the parameters of the levels, were 0.71-0.87 for noise and 0.33-0.44 for vibration. The noise levels calculated for oil workers of different professions, were: in cabins, recreation rooms and working sites 40-52, 57-63 and 73-74 dBA respectively, and the comparative vibration rate levels were 67-74, 79-85 and 90-97 dB, respectively. 273 questionnaires revealed that the acoustic conditions in the abins affected both the process of falling asleep and depth of sleep (correlation coefficients 0.88 and 0.93, respectively). Noise levels at 30-36 dBA did not cause any sleep discomfort. 84% questionnaires contained in average 3.5 complaints, with the maximum 5.2 complaints for the machine operators, and the minimum 3.2 complaints for the electricians who worked in acoustically more favorable conditions. The study proved that the psychometric and questionnaire data in 70% cases corresponded to the results of the laboratory techniques, such as audiometry, chronoreflexometry, tono- and pulsometry, electrocardiometry, etc. The research data received served a basis for noise and vibration hygienic norming in floating oil-rig sites. PMID:2210438

Volkov, A A; Igrevski?, A V

1990-01-01

25

Electrical Design Considerations for Drilling Rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following considerations in the selection and design of electrical apparatus for oil and gas well drilling rigs are discussed: 1) general rig environment and geographical environmental effects; 2) selection and\\/or verification of drilling motor torque requirements for draw works, rotary table, and pumps; 3) four quadrant (speed-torque) analysis for draw works and rotary table; 4) merits of application of

Frank A. Woodbury; Paul J. Thomas

1976-01-01

26

Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations.

Rappold

1995-01-01

27

Gulf Oil Spill Commission Report calls for major drilling safety reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion and the resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico last year were ``foreseeable and preventable,'' according to the report of a presidentially appointed commission, issued on 11 January, that recommended significant changes in U.S. government and industry practices to avoid future oil spill disasters. Among the recommendations of the National Commission on

Randy Showstack

2011-01-01

28

Explosion hazards in gassy and non-gassy oil shale mines  

SciTech Connect

As a part of its continuing research on the safety aspects of oil shale mining, the Bureau of Mines has adapted its tube-bundling sampling techniques, previously applied to coal-mine fires, to the monitoring of methane in a deep oil shale mine. The sampling techniques can be used to increase saftey during mining as well as to permit better prediction of gas to be found in future mining. Correlations are shown between the methane observed from the outgassing of core samples and the methane encountered in mining. Although background levels are low, considerable methane was observed following blasting. Tests in the Bureau's Experimental Mine demonstrated oil shale dust explosions in the absence of methane as well as the effect of small amounts of methane on the lower explosion limits of oil shale dust. Recent research on ignition or dust layers is reported. 20 refs.

Richmond, J.K.; Sapko, M.J.; Miller, L.F.; Dalverny, L.E.

1981-01-01

29

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Actions Needed to Reduce Evolving but Uncertain Federal Financial Risks. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 20, 2010, an explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig leased by BP America Production Company (BP) resulted in a significant oil spill. GAO was requested to (1) identify the financial risks to the federal government resulting from oil spills, p...

2011-01-01

30

Fault Tree Analysis of System Anomaly Leading to Red Oil Explosion in Plutonium Evaporator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of scenario identification, preparation of reliability data, fault tree construction and its analysis, are rendered for a system anomaly considered liable to lead to a red oil explosion in a Pu evaporator of a typical model of reprocessing facility.Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has introduced the model plant data, the basic failure frequency data together with the fault tree

Yasushi NOMURA; Rolf LEICHT; Philip ASHTON

1994-01-01

31

Research on FTA of Fire and Explosion in the Crude Oil Gatheringtransport Combination Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on FTA of safety-system engineering and analysis of risk or hazard factors of technological process and materials, it is determined of the fault tree factor table of crude oil gathering-transport combination station and established of the fire and explosion fault tree. By means of Boolean algebra simplification, the minimum path sets of the system are achieved. Then the occurrence

XUE Zhao-mei

2011-01-01

32

Somebody better find some rigs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah.

NONE

1997-08-01

33

Toxic Fumes from Explosives. Ammonium Nitrate-Fuel Oil Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out with prilled and pulverized AN-FO blasting agents containing varying amounts of fuel oil in an attempt to quantify the effects of stoichiometric composition, non-ideal detonation behavior and expa...

R. F. Chaiken E. B. Cook T. C. Ruhe

1974-01-01

34

The Gulf Coast oil spill: Extending the theory of image restoration discourse to the realm of social media and beyond petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, an oil-rig licensed to BP, set in motion a chain of unfortunate events that led to BP's ruptured oil well disgorging millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Since the spill, the corporate image of BP has been severely challenged. The company has used many strategies to preserve and restore the

Sidharth Muralidharan; Kristie Dillistone; Jae-Hwa Shin

2011-01-01

35

Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture and fragmentation studies on 80 ml\\/kg Anvil Points oil shale with plate impact, Hopkinson bar, capacitor discharge, and HE techniques have shown that the dynamic fracture stress, fracture energy, and fragment size depend on the rate of tensile loading. A model coupling fracture, fragmentation, and stress wave propagation and based on the activation and growth of an initial Weibull

D. E. Grady; M. E. Kipp

1980-01-01

36

Modern rig design, equipment ups efficiency  

SciTech Connect

With the prevailing lower oil prices, many drilling projects are not justified from an economical standpoint. One way for the drilling industry to survive and recover in the future, therefore, is to lower costs, increase efficiency, and become more attractive for the operators. Besides the logical reaction to reduce costs by cut backs in personnel and overhead, possibilities of increasing rig efficiency should be carefully studies. The efficiency of a drilling rig is increased when the maximum rig time is spent on bottom, making hole at optimum penetration rates. This means concentrating efforts to minimize rig moving time and increasing the percentage of time making hole. This can be achieved by study of the drilling process and designing, selecting, and matching components to it.

Spoeker, H.F.

1988-02-29

37

Use of air-deployed drogued drifting buoys for oil spill tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill resulting from the Macondo oil well blowout, catastrophic explosion, and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible offshore drilling rig is unprecedented. The complex oceanographic and environmental character of the spill location and the application of vast quantities of chemical dispersants combined to create greater challenges for those tasked with

Neha Sharma; Peter Brickley; George Owen; Patrice Coholan

2010-01-01

38

Social impact of the Gulf Oil Disaster: diverging views from communities in Florida and Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carsey researchers surveyed over two thousand residents of the Gulf Coast following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in 2010 to analyze their perception of the spill. Nearly one-half of all Gulf Coast residents perceived damage to the environment and wildlife as the most serious result of the oil spill. Perceptions regarding the impact of the spill reflect the

Jessica D. Ulrich

2011-01-01

39

The Great Advertising Campaign: The Effectiveness of British Petroleums Post-Oil Spill Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 20, 2010, one explosion on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig in the Gulf of Mexico caused the greatest oil spill disaster in United States history. The effects of the spill were realized almost immediately. Seafood fishers lost jobs and product, the Gulf was tainted, and people around the nation realized the damage was not going to go away

Brianne Painia

2012-01-01

40

Fire and explosion assessment on oil and gas floating production storage offloading (FPSO): An effective screening and comparison tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires and explosions have been identified as major potential hazards for Oil and Gas Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) installations and pose risk to personnel, assets, and the environment. Current fire and explosion assessment (FEA) tools require physical effect modeling software and follows standards from API, ISO, and engineering practices. However, the tools are not specific to any particular system

Jaffee A. Suardin; A. Jeff McPhate Jr.; Anthony Sipkema; Matt Childs; M. Sam Mannan

2009-01-01

41

Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Fracture and fragmentation studies on 80 ml/kg Anvil Points oil shale with plate impact, Hopkinson bar, capacitor discharge, and HE techniques have shown that the dynamic fracture stress, fracture energy, and fragment size depend on the rate of tensile loading. A model coupling fracture, fragmentation, and stress wave propagation and based on the activation and growth of an initial Weibull distribution of fracture-producing flaws has been found effective in describing the observed rate-dependent fracture phenomena from static to high strain-rate impulse loading. The fracture model has been incorporated into one- and two-dimensional stress-wave computer codes and is being used to evaluate blasting geometries and stress-pulse tailoring for in situ rubblization of oil shale.

Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

1980-06-01

42

Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

1985-01-01

43

Gulf of Mexico rig activity up, international lags  

SciTech Connect

Demand for jack up and semisubmersible rigs has improved in the Gulf of Mexico following a decline in activity earlier this year. International drilling activity, however, has shown slight declines in several regions. Relatively firm natural gas prices have helped buoy rig activity in North America. Rig day rates have not followed suit, mainly because of the influx of rigs from weaker international markets. Day rates in the US may not increase until international activity picks up and the world-wide drilling market tightens. Oil prices have hit almost $20/bbl, mainly because of the recent oil worker' strike in Nigeria and good demand. Natural gas prices in the US have hovered around $2.00/MMBTU, and many industry analysts expect gas prices to remain strong over the next few years. This paper gives data on drilling rig counts and crude oil and gas prices in the Gulf of Mexico and onshore.

Rappold, K.

1994-09-19

44

Public Scoping for Preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon BP Oil Spill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 20, 2010 an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon MC252 drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico caused the rig to sink, and oil began leaking into the Gulf. BP was unable to successfully cap the leak until mid-July, and millions of barrels of oil we...

2011-01-01

45

39th annual Reed rig census  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on cutbacks in U.S. exploration and development drilling during the first half of 1991 which squeezed most of the optimism out of the drilling industry. Just how rough the year has been is underscored by the results of this year's rig census. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling declined by only 69 units (3%) during the past 12 months. But despite those withdrawals from competition, only 66% of the remaining rigs were working at the time the census was taken. Results of the 1991 census contrasted sharply with the stability and optimism that seemed apparent a year ago when 72% of the available rig fleet met the census definition of active. At that time, the mini-boom in horizontal drilling coupled with tax-credit- driven gas drilling led to a relatively high rig utilization rate and suggested that rig supply and demand might be close to an economically acceptable balance. However, it quickly became apparent in early 1991 that industry optimism was unjustified. Horizontal drilling began to drop and the lowest natural gas prices in 12 years triggered rapid declines in gas drilling. Although oil prices have been relatively stable and above $18 per bbl since January 1989, most major operators have concluded that a better return on investment can be had outside the U.S. and have drastically cut their domestic drilling budgets. These factors, combined with softened energy demand from the worldwide recession, further slowed U.S. drilling. The long awaited balance between rig supply and demand has seemingly slipped away. The 1991 Reed rig census describes an industry facing several more rough years. Details of this year's census include: The available U.S. fleet now stands at 2,251 rigs, down by 69 from the 2,320-unit total in 1990, and the lowest since 1976. Rigs meeting the census definition of active numbered 1,485, down 192 (11.4%) from the 1,677 active rigs counted a year earlier.

Crowhurst, M.E.; Fitts, R.L. (Reed Tool Co., Houston, TX (US))

1991-10-01

46

Computer added monitoring of drilling rig systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a computer added system for monitoring and control for inland and offshore drilling rig applications. LabVIEW graphic oriented software provides a flexible and reliable support for SCADA. World wide drilling is developing for oil, gas or water resources and is demanding computer added monitoring and control for correct exploitation and safe use. This applied engineering software offers

Sorin Dan Grigorescu; Ion Potarniche; Octavian Mihai Ghita; Mircea Covrig

2011-01-01

47

Combination offshore drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

1986-01-01

48

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the

N. J. Blake; B. Barletta; S. Meinardi; I. Leifer; F. S. Rowland; D. R. Blake

2010-01-01

49

Troy rig designed for man-made islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Troy of Canada Ltd. has designed a rig to drill from man-made islands in the middle of Canada's MacKenzie River. Six man-made islands will be built in the Norman Wells oil field in the river in order to access a part of the field. The rig design is modular. The generator sets, silicon rectifier unit, mud system and pumps and

Keeley

1982-01-01

50

Prices affect rig count more than 3-D  

SciTech Connect

The idea is discounted that 3-D seismic works so well that fewer dry holes are drilled, the discoveries made are more prolific, and that fewer wells are needed to efficiently develop reservoirs. This line of reasoning suggests that the low rig counts (currently at 676 rigs working the onshore and offshore U.S.) are nothing to worry about - that oil is just being more efficiently discovered for fewer dollars. It is suggested that the low rig count, even though 3-D is a marvelous prospecting tool, is a serious matter. The rig count is essentially a measure of expectation and that expectation is about price. An operator starts with price, figures in costs and risks and decides whether the project generates cash flow.

Williams, P.; Lyle, D.

1995-07-01

51

Pattern of explosive reaction between uranium hexafluoride and hydrocarbon oils. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Examination of uranium hexafluoride release incidents occurring over the past three decades of ORGDP experience has identified only four which apparently involved an explosion of a container resulting from reaction between uranium hexafluoride and an impurity. These four incidents exhibit a certain degree of commonality. Each has involved: (1) condensed phase uranium hexafluoride, (2) a moderately elevated temperature, (3) a sufficient quantity of uranium hexafluoride for a significant partial pressure to be maintained independently above that which can be consumed by chemical reaction, and (4) an organic liquid (probably hydrocarbon oil) accidentally present in the container as a contaminant. The purpose of this investigative search was to establish some conditional pattern for these four incidents to which their violent consequences could be attributed. Fortunately, the number of such incidents is relatively small, which emphasizes even more pointedly the unfortunate fact that documentation ranges from thorough to very limited. Documented sources of information are given in the bibliography. Copies of those which are not readily available are contained in six appendices. 8 refs.

Rapp, K.E.

1986-03-21

52

Pressure rig for repetitive casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

Vasquez, Peter; Hutto, William R.; Philips, Albert R.

1989-09-01

53

Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment  

SciTech Connect

The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

1980-06-01

54

Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)  

SciTech Connect

This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

NONE

1995-06-01

55

Electricity on the rig. Part 3 - New electric rig technology  

SciTech Connect

The use of an SCR-controlled power system on an offshore drilling rig has lead to an increased acceptance of high technology equipment. Such equipment increases drilling productivity, reduces maintenance, and improves reliability. Most new rigs now have AC squirrel cage motors, brushless AC generators, silicon controlled rectifiers, DC motors, and swtichgear and motor starters. Several opportunities for cost reductions in SCR systems, such as improving the power factor, are studied in this paper.

McNair, W.L.

1983-07-01

56

Shaft drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

1986-06-17

57

Rock Springs Site 12 Hydraulic/Explosive True in Situ Oil Shale Fracturing Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and ...

R. L. Parrish R. R. Boade A. L. Stevens A. Long T. F. Turner

1980-01-01

58

Troy rig designed for man-made islands  

SciTech Connect

Troy of Canada Ltd. has designed a rig to drill from man-made islands in the middle of Canada's MacKenzie River. Six man-made islands will be built in the Norman Wells oil field in the river in order to access a part of the field. The rig design is modular. The generator sets, silicon rectifier unit, mud system and pumps and boilers will be set stationary, located in a central utility complex close to the drilling pad. The facility will allow the mast substructure, drawworks, and pipe racks to move independently from hole to hole. Conversion can be made quickly for minimum cost. Other features of the rig are cold weather weatherization, heat efficiency, ventilation system, onsite power systems, and safety design criteria.

Keeley, M.

1982-09-01

59

Evaluation of the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale mining and processing. Volume 1. Analytical studies and accident scenarios. Open file report, 16 June 1977-15 July 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to identify and evaluate potential fire and explosion hazards in oil-shale mining and processing by laboratory testing to provide recommendations for mitigation safety monitoring and to establish a basis for regulation. A series of scenarios were developed describing hypothetical fire and explosion incidents that might occur in oil-shale mining. The objectives were achieved through

R. B. Crookston; M. T. Atwood; R. E. Williams; M. E. McGuire

1983-01-01

60

Explosively Produced Fracture of Oil Shale. Progress Report, October-December 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major technological limit on the in situ retorting of oil shale is the effective rubbling of the rock. Consequently, efficient and economical recovery of oil from shale is dependent directly on developing a more sophisticated blasting technology. Crucia...

H. M. Sinoradzki

1981-01-01

61

Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO

Mark E. Fuller; Charles E. Schaefer; Robert J. Steffan

2009-01-01

62

Hoisting and rigging manual: Uncontrolled document  

SciTech Connect

This document is a draft copy of a Hoisting and Rigging Manual for the Department of Energy. The manual is divided into ten chapters. The chapter titles follow: terminology and definitions; operator training and qualification; overhead and gantry cranes; mobile cranes; forklift trucks; hoists; hooks; wire rope, slings, and rigging accessories; construction hoisting and rigging equipment requirements; references.

NONE

1991-05-01

63

Instrumentation and Evaluation of the Talley Energy Systems, Inc. Oil Shale Project. Part II. Explosive Insertion, Detonation and Post-Shot Evaluation Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

January 1979 marked the completion of Phase I of the Talley Energy Systems, Inc. (TESI) contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) which was undertaken to examine the hydraulic/explosive fracturing method for preparing an underground oil shale bed for t...

R. R. Beasley R. R. Boade

1980-01-01

64

Explosion hazards in gassy and non-gassy oil shale mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of its continuing research on the safety aspects of oil shale mining, the Bureau of Mines has adapted its tube-bundling sampling techniques, previously applied to coal-mine fires, to the monitoring of methane in a deep oil shale mine. The sampling techniques can be used to increase saftey during mining as well as to permit better prediction of

J. K. Richmond; M. J. Sapko; L. F. Miller; L. E. Dalverny

1981-01-01

65

New rig designs waiting: advancements and innovations in technology and design persists despite slump in drilling economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late in 1984, when offshore rig utilization was inching toward 90% from the low 70% area, some drilling contractors were optimistic enough about the future to order several rigs. A few jackups were ordered, but most were for deep-water semisubmersibles. Deep water was the future as oil companies began exploring further from shore and in deeper water than ever before.

Greenberg

1986-01-01

66

Evaluation of the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale mining and processing. Volume 1. Analytical studies and accident scenarios. Open file report, 16 June 1977-15 July 1983  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research were to identify and evaluate potential fire and explosion hazards in oil-shale mining and processing by laboratory testing to provide recommendations for mitigation safety monitoring and to establish a basis for regulation. A series of scenarios were developed describing hypothetical fire and explosion incidents that might occur in oil-shale mining. The objectives were achieved through the following accomplishments: (1) It was found that fire and explosion properties of oil shale increase with oil shale richness and decreasing particle size. (2) Data from dust loading study in several mines showed that the total potential yield of combustibles was about one-tenth the amount required to fuel a propagating explosion. (3) Aging of oil shale dusts over a period of several years reduces the content of volatile combustibles and the corresponding fire and explosion properties. (4) Data and information from the completed program indicate that the hazard of dust explosions is less severe than the hazard of fire in mine muck piles. Laboratory data were used to relate fire and explosivity properties of oil shales to those of coals and other carbonaceous materials and to assist in the identification and evaluation of potential hazardous situations that may be encountered in oil shale mining and processing.

Crookston, R.B.; Atwood, M.T.; Williams, R.E.; McGuire, M.E.

1983-07-15

67

Explosively Produced Fracture of Oil Shale. Progress Report, January-March 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to prepare a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. The first section of this report presents a mid-FY r...

1982-01-01

68

Modular designs highlight several new rigs  

SciTech Connect

A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

Rappold, K.

1995-12-04

69

Offshore safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Panama Canal/Outer Continental Shelf, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on the safety of life at sea and safety on oil and gas rigs on the Outer Continental Shelf, June 16, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Representatives of diving contractors, shippers, drilling consultants, safety inspectors, and government agencies testified at a hearing on offshore safety in connection with oil and gas rigs on the Outer Continental Shelf. The committee reviewed existing safety programs and practices, focusing on drilling operations in new areas where the environment is increasingly inhospitable. Among the issues aired at the hearing were the problem of insurance coverage and the level of compensation to workers in stressful and hazardous settings. Oil companies described their procedures for preparing equipment and employees for hurricanes and other natural and manmade problems that they will experience. Various consultants offered suggestions for improving the level of safety preparedness and engineering. Additional material submitted for the record follows the testimony of 21 witnesses.

Not Available

1983-01-01

70

Quartz lamp thermocycling rig for combustion liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved combustor liner durability is a major design objective for advanced combustors. Combinations of low cycle fatigue, creep, oxidation and crack propagation are the damage mechanisms that reduce durability. Each of these mechanisms is a consequence of cyclic thermal loading. Closely controlled rig tests can simulate these damage mechanisms. Although rig testing requires duplicating the actual thermal strain range on

Pfeifer

1986-01-01

71

39th annual Reed rig census  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on cutbacks in U.S. exploration and development drilling during the first half of 1991 which squeezed most of the optimism out of the drilling industry. Just how rough the year has been is underscored by the results of this year's rig census. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling declined by only 69 units (3%)

M. E. Crowhurst; R. L. Fitts

1991-01-01

72

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65...Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction...safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters...

2009-10-01

73

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65...Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction...safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters...

2010-10-01

74

TRU VU rig instrumentation. (Final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD d...

S. G. Boone

1993-01-01

75

Virtual durability test rigs for automotive engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years so-called virtual test rigs have become more and more important in the development process of cars and trucks. Originally, the idea was to substitute expensive durability tests with computer simulation. Meanwhile, the focus has changed towards a more cooperative usage of numerical and laboratory rig simulation. For many safety critical issues laboratory tests remain indispensable. In early

K. Dressler; M. Speckert; G. Bitsch

2009-01-01

76

27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.202 Classes of explosive materials. For... (For example, ammonium nitrate-fuel oil and certain water-gels (see also § 555.11). [T.D. ATF-87,...

2011-04-01

77

Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling  

SciTech Connect

Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology.

Smith, J. (George E. Failing Co., Enid, OK (US)); Edwards, B. (Sierra Drilling Co., Calgary (CA))

1992-03-30

78

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2009-10-01

79

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2010-10-01

80

Explosives tester  

DOEpatents

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11

81

{open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig  

SciTech Connect

New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

Rintoul, B.

1996-01-01

82

Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

2011-05-01

83

Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of those principal states dedicated neural network classifier were trained using the sensor data as input. As network architecture the completely connected perceptron was applied in combination with parallel learning. Automatic network growing was used to match the model complexity to the complexity of the particular classification problem and thus to prevent from over fitting. In addition forward selection method was used to identify the sensor data necessary to recognise the particular states. The approach was evaluated using real-time/real-world data and the results show that the proposed approach has the ability to classify drilling operations highly accurate. The performances of the classifiers were evaluated by cross-validation, the average correct classification rate was above 99%, for both, the training and the testing data sets.

Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

2012-04-01

84

Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives  

DOEpatents

By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

Benziger, Theodore M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1979-01-01

85

Rig scarcity prompts innovative drilling solution  

SciTech Connect

Unable to locate a shallow-water offshore rig for its program in Indonesia, British Gas International developed an innovative pad/ballasted barge configuration to utilize a land rig, which was available. Many non-typical problems were encountered and solved to establish the drilling location 600 m (2,000 ft) from the shore in Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, eastern Indonesia. The final hybrid configuration has sparked interesting debate as to whether the operation should be designated as onshore or offshore. The paper discusses the project overview, concept development, construction, and operations.

Lattimore, G.M.; Gott, T.; Feagin, J.

1997-11-01

86

Floating drilling rig apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus adapted for use with a floating drilling rig having a marine riser including a telescopic joint. The telescopic joint has a guide\\/index key. The joint has an upwardly facing unterminated connector for a riser choke\\/kill line. The apparatus comprises: a terminal end assembly, including: a frame, yoke means slidably disposed on the frame for securing

1987-01-01

87

Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) Startup Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work accomplished to date to design, procure, assemble, authorize, and startup the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the reasons for establishing this capability, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, initial success, and plans for completing the initial 1,000 hour test.

Charles Park

2011-02-01

88

Best Mast: a new way to design a rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most difficult tasks for a rig designer is to estimate the maximum loading condition for a rig. These loads determine the mast tube dimensions such as wall thickness and the stay diameters. The loads basically determine the total weight of a rig. The constant drive for better sailing performance pushes the design to the limits, even for

Robert Janssen Msc

89

Guyline anchor design keys rig stability  

SciTech Connect

Inadequate design and field installation of ground anchors at lease well sites have frequently led to the collapse of well service rigs operating in high surface wind conditions (>50 mph). Such catastrophes incur significant equipment damage and injury to operating personnel. Although collapse of a well service rig can be attributed to inadequate strength in the guyline connection to the mast or anchor or to deformed or inadequate wire rope strength in the guyline itself, most failures result from improperly placed anchors not meeting API specifications to withstand 14,000 lb of force in tension. This article defines the length, diameter, and depth necessary (based on soil conditions) for a buried guyline anchor to meet API specifications. Deficiencies in guyline connection and strength can be alleviated by following the manufacturer's guidance on size of wire rope, its inspection, and size connection criteria in mounting guyline connectors to the mast and anchor.

Murphy, R.J.; Laguros, J.G.

1983-09-01

90

New rig for ice platform drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new drilling rig designed for offshore service in the Canadian Arctic Islands operates from a thickened-ice platform using specially designed subsea equipment and controls. The system can drill 12,000-ft land wells in summer and 10,000-ft offshore wells in winter with little modification. Light enough for air transport, the compact subsea equipment easily fits through the small hole allowed in

E. Gaude; D. J. Baudais; J. S. Watts

1981-01-01

91

Factors in Selecting and Applying Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report commercial blasting compounds are classified according to their nitroglycerin (or equivalent explosive oil) and ammonium nitrate content as dynamites, gelatins, blasting agents, military explosives, and blasting accessories. The ingredients ...

R. A. Dick

1968-01-01

92

Influence of Mississippi River induced circulation on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion caused 7 105 m3 of oil gushing from the Northern Gulf of Mexico bottom. The close proximity of the rig to the Mississippi Delta raised early questions from disaster managers about possible influence of river induced circulation on oil patch evolution. In particular, it was hypothesized that the high Mississippi River (MR) discharge in May 2010 might have helped to initially keep oil from reaching coastal marshes. We have explored this intriguing hypothesis, quantifying similar and connecting patterns in the evolution of riverine and oil covered waters. We used numerical simulations, satellite and in situ data to show the unique influence of a large river plume on a surface oil patch resulting from a deep oil release. The MR induced circulation, modified by shelf and slope flows, was found to substantially influence the near surface transport of oil. The MR plume buoyancy-driven effects on oil transport had different aspects east and west of the Mississippi Delta. Anticyclonic circulation within the upstream plume region (east of the Delta, extending over the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida shelf) created a front that restrained onshore transport. Conversely, the shoreward tendency within the downstream plume region (west of the Delta, dominated by the westward, buoyancy-driven narrow coastal current) guided oil transport along the Louisiana-Texas shelf. Periods of low discharge reduced the dominance of buoyancy-driven effects, but an interval of sustained downwelling-favorable winds, combined with river induced stratification, resulted in a strong westward current and surface oil patch extension along the Louisiana coast.

Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Androulidakis, Yannis S.

2013-08-01

93

Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig  

SciTech Connect

Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

1996-05-01

94

46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-17 Separator test rig. (a)...

2012-10-01

95

46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-17 Separator test rig. (a)...

2011-10-01

96

The role of the rigged Hilbert space in quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is compelling evidence that, when a continuous spectrum is present, the natural mathematical setting for quantum mechanics is the rigged Hilbert space rather than just the Hilbert space. In particular, Dirac's bra-ket formalism is fully implemented by the rigged Hilbert space rather than just by the Hilbert space. In this paper, we provide a pedestrian introduction to the role the rigged Hilbert space plays in quantum mechanics, by way of a simple, exactly solvable example. The procedure will be constructive and based on a recent publication. We also provide a thorough discussion on the physical significance of the rigged Hilbert space.

de la Madrid, Rafael

2005-04-01

97

Corrosion evaluation of fuel canister crusher rigging  

SciTech Connect

A fuel canister crusher with attached rigging is located in the 105 K-East Basin discharge chute. This equipment is slated to be moved as part of seismic mitigation to prevent a major basin leak through a construction joint located in the base of the chute. This corrosion analysis assessed the load-bearing ability of the rigging, which consists of shackles and thimble-spliced wire rope. The K-East Basin demineralized water results in corrosion rates of <2 mil/year (<0.05 mm/year) for carbon, low-alloy carbon, and stainless steels. The galvanized carbon steel shackles (with low-alloy steel anchor pins) have experienced negligible corrosion and are judged to be mechanically unaffected by their water exposure. The carbon steel wire rope and stainless steel thimbles have undergone minimal corrosion. Due to the small amount of corrosion products (as seen from video inspection), the absence of wire breakage, and a Factor of Safety calculation, it is judged that the wire rope and thimbles would withstand the proposed relocation activities.

Graves, C.E.

1994-11-02

98

[Personal experience using radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS)].  

PubMed

Radio Immuno Guided Surgery (RIGS) is a technique that has numerous uses in oncology. It is characterised by a multidisciplinary approach by nuclear physician and surgeon for diagnosis and treatment; it uses colloid radiotracers, monoclonal antibodies or non-immunological tracers. We adopted this technique in 281 patients: 256 (91.9%) (range 26-82) with breast disease (breast cancer or occult breast lesions) and 25 (8.9%) (range 42-84) with colorectal cancer localized or recurrent. We used monoclonal antibodies (ArcitumoMab 99mTc-labelled) for colorectal carcinomas and aggregates of human serum albumin 99mTc-labelled for Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization (ROLL) and Sentinel Lymph-Node Biopsy (SLNB). All patients were studied preoperatively by routine blood tests, instrumental exams and tumoral markers. Amongst patients with breast disease, 142 breast cancers and 114 occult breast lesions were found. Among patients with colorectal disease, 8 cases had localized colorectal cancer and 17 cases had locoregional recurrence and/or metastasis. In all cases pathologic sites were detected by probe during surgery. The RIGS is indicated for ROLL and SLNB; nevertheless it is also suggested for pre- and intraoperatively staging of primary and recurrent colorectal cancers. This method gives a chance for a radical surgical and oncologic treatment in localized and recurrent cancer. Prospective studies are needed in order to estimate survival and usefulness of this methodology. PMID:18338553

Gioffr Florio, Maria Antonietta; Fam, Fausto; Gullo, Grazia; Mazzei, Sergio; Pollicino, Andrea; Scarf, Paola; Vindigni, Angelo

99

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.

1996-04-09

100

Explosives sensor  

SciTech Connect

A compact and supersensitive device that can rapidly detect minute trace vapors from concealed explosives has been developed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The new explosives sensor can detect and chemically identify organic nitrogen-oxygen compounds which are the building blocks of explosives such as TNT, plastiques, and nitroglycerine. The device could be used to scan persons entering airport terminals, nuclear power plants, defense installations, or other sensitive locations, providing greater security against potential terrorism. This device works on a glow discharge principle, and is more specifically called an ''Atmospheric Sampling Glow Discharge Ionization'' (ASGDI) source. The new detector is a highly automated, miniaturized version of research mass spectrometers widely used to trace constituents of chemical mixtures. Detail of this device's construction and advantages are discussed in this paper. 2 figs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

101

Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

Dan Davies

2004-10-30

102

Communicating Student Evaluation of Teaching Results: Rating Interpretation Guides (RIGs).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development at Macquarie University (Australia) of rating interpretation guides (RIGs), a method of interpreting student evaluations of teaching. RIGs take into account different teaching contexts and emphasize a range of scores rather than a single mean score. They are seen as appropriate for both formative and summative evaluation

Neumann, Ruth

2000-01-01

103

The Application of Roller Rigs to Railway Vehicle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Roller rigs have been built world-wide to research into the dynamics of railway vehicles and they have particularly been applied to the development of high-speed trains. This survey takes into consideration both full scale as well as small scale model roller rigs. Besides performance, most important experimental work and the emphasis of application, the scaling strategies of model test

Alfred Jaschinski; Hugues Chollet; Simon Iwnicki; Alan Wickens; JURGEN VON WURZEN

1999-01-01

104

Lateral stability analysis of a railway truck on roller rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing is being complemented by analytic studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles in order to guide development of the roller rigs and to establish an analytic framework for the design and interpretation of tests to be conducted on roller rigs. The

Rao V Dukkipati

2001-01-01

105

Lateral Stability Simulation of a Rail Truck on Roller Rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing is being complemented by analytic studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles in order to guide development of the Roller Rigs and to establish an analytic framework for the design and interpretation of tests to be conducted on Roller Rigs. The

Rao V. Dukkipati

2002-01-01

106

Parameter identification of the fatigue-testing rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the dynamic parameter identification of the novel fatigue-testing rig is presented. The applied identification method assumes a priori a simple dynamical model for which parameters are identified through free and forced vibration tests. The rig is comprised of two base excited oscillators providing the dynamic excitation for a fatigue sample and two pneumatic actuators preventing a loss

Nikola Jaki?; Chee-Hoe Foong; Marian Wiercigroch; Miha Boltear

2008-01-01

107

Fires and explosions in substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the age of transformers in substations increases, and as transformers are required to carry heavier overloads, the incidence of fires and explosions with oil-filled equipment has increased. Even 10 years ago most large users anticipated only one major fire every 5 years; current experience suggests that many users may suffer from more than one fire every year. Substations are

D. J. Allan

2002-01-01

108

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22

109

Explosive complexes  

SciTech Connect

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

110

1998 large directional drilling rig census  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline and Gas Journal`s 1998 large census of horizontal directional drilling contractors demonstrates the continued growth and popularity of this technology. For the purposes of this census, they`ve used the widely accepted industry definition for large rigs as having over 100,000 pounds of pull-back force. The drilled crossings of rivers, highway, canals and other surface and subsurface obstacles is a proven technology with a strong track record. Directionally controlled horizontal crossings are environmental friendly and cost effective. Using this technology, contractors around the world can successfully install pipelines, cable and conduit in areas where conventional methods are unacceptable or uneconomical. Years of experience and the best in modern technology enable the contractors listed to effectively perform projects that are within the listed range of their specific units.

NONE

1998-10-01

111

Floating drilling rig apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus adapted for use with a floating drilling rig having a marine riser including a telescopic joint. The telescopic joint has a guide/index key. The joint has an upwardly facing unterminated connector for a riser choke/kill line. The apparatus comprises: a terminal end assembly, including: a frame, yoke means slidably disposed on the frame for securing a drape hose terminated by a downwardly facing stab connector; means for moving the yoke means between an outer position and an inner position upon the frame; and slot means disposed on the yoke means for accepting the guide/index key of the telescopic joint when the yoke means is in the inner position.

Burton, J.A.

1987-05-26

112

Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling. Report to the President.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The explosion that tore through the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig last April 20, as the rigs crew completed drilling the exploratory Macondo well deep under the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, began a human, economic, and environmental disaster. Eleven cre...

2011-01-01

113

Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling. Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The explosion that tore through the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig last April 20th, as the rigs crew completed drilling the exploratory Macondo well deep under the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, began a human, economic, and environmental disaster. Eleven c...

2011-01-01

114

Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

2007-11-01

115

1997 Mid-to-large directional drilling rig census  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline and Gas Journal`s 1997 census of mid-to-large horizontal directional drilling contractors demonstrates the continued growth and popularity of this technology. For the purpose of this census, the authors have used the general industry definition of a mid-sized rig--over 50,000 pounds and less than 100,000 pounds of pullback force. Large rigs are those defined as having over 100,000 pounds of pullback force. Data are presented on the company name, address, phone and FAX numbers, specifications of drilling rigs, and operational area of the company. Approximately 47 companies are listed.

NONE

1997-10-01

116

Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems  

DOEpatents

Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

1999-09-28

117

Emerging Role of Ubiquitination in Antiviral RIG-I Signaling  

PubMed Central

Summary: Detection of viruses by the innate immune system involves the action of specialized pattern recognition receptors. Intracellular RIG-I receptors sense the presence of viral nucleic acids in infected cells and trigger signaling pathways that lead to the production of proinflammatory and antiviral proteins. Over the past few years, posttranslational modification of RIG-I and downstream signaling proteins by different types of ubiquitination has been found to be a key event in the regulation of RIG-I-induced NF-?B and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation. Multiple ubiquitin ligases, deubiquitinases, and ubiquitin binding scaffold proteins contribute to both positive and negative regulation of the RIG-I-induced antiviral immune response. A better understanding of the function and activity of these proteins might eventually lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for management of viral diseases.

Maelfait, Jonathan

2012-01-01

118

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

119

24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR OF MAIN BUILDING. NOTE CABLE DRIVE DRUM AND FLY WHEELS OF CARRIAGE DRIVE STEAM ENGINE IN FOREGROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

120

Overall Conceptual System Design Description, Large Leak Test Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the system design requirements and description of the Large Leak Test Rig. The system design description includes the following subsystems: water/steam injection supply subsystem; simulated secondary sodium subsystem; rupture relief...

L. E. Manners E. Powell C. R. Bell L. Goodman B. Katz

1973-01-01

121

ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program initiated this quarter, provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principle activity during this first reporting period were preparing for and conducting a project kick-off meeting, working through plans for the project implementation, and beginning the conceptual design of the test section.

Scott Reome; Dan Davies

2004-01-01

122

Gastrostomy Insertion: Comparing the OptionsPEG, RIG or PIG?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) and assess a hybrid gastrostomy technique (per-oral image-guided gastrostomy, PIG).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PEGs and 50 RIGs performed in three centres were prospectively compared and the endoscopic findings of 200 PEGs reviewed. A fluoroscopy-guided technique was modified to place 20 F over-the-wire PEG-tubes in 60 consecutive patients.RESULTS: Technical

H.-U. Laasch; L. Wilbraham; K. Bullen; A. Marriott; J. A. L. Lawrance; R. J. Johnson; S. H. Lee; R. E. England; G. E. Gamble; D. F. Martin

2003-01-01

123

Cantilevered mobile marine rig with hydraulic load equalizer  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a cantilever mobile marine rig with hydraulic load equalizer. The rig includes a deck structure and a cantilever assembly slidingly mounted on the deck structure. The hydraulic load equalizer includes a plurality of hydraulic cylinder and piston assemblies positioned between the deck structure and the cantilever assemblies. The hydraulic cylinder and piston assemblies each have substantially the same effective area and are interconnected so as to allow substantially free and unimpeded flow of hydraulic fluid among the cylinder and piston assemblies.

Johnson, T. P.

1984-11-20

124

Rig Rover System views wellhead from every angle  

SciTech Connect

The Rig Rover System (RRS), a new type of submersible remotely operated vehicle (ROV), has been introduced by Deep Ocean Technology, Oakland, California. It is described as a sophisticated wellhead TV with remote controlled arms, or a remotely controlled vehicle that is deployed like a wellhead TV. The RRS is available in 2 models. Rig Rover was designed specifically to support offshore exploration drilling to 2000 ft. of water.

Not Available

1983-09-01

125

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from...stored in the same magazine and in such a manner that oil does not contaminate the other explosives,...

2013-07-01

126

Explosion modelling for complex geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature review suggested that the combined effects of fuel reactivity, obstacle density, ignition strength, and confinement result in flame acceleration and subsequent pressure build-up during a vapour cloud explosion (VCE). Models for the prediction of propagating flames in hazardous areas, such as coal mines, oil platforms, storage and process chemical areas etc. fall into two classes. One class involves use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This approach has been utilised by several researchers. The other approach relies upon a lumped parameter approach as developed by Baker (1983). The former approach is restricted by the appropriateness of sub-models and numerical stability requirements inherent in the computational solution. The latter approach raises significant questions regarding the validity of the simplification involved in representing the complexities of a propagating explosion. This study was conducted to investigate and improve the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code EXPLODE which has been developed by Green et al., (1993) for use on practical gas explosion hazard assessments. The code employs a numerical method for solving partial differential equations by using finite volume techniques. Verification exercises, involving comparison with analytical solutions for the classical shock-tube and with experimental (small-scale, medium and large-scale) results, demonstrate the accuracy of the code and the new combustion models but also identify differences between predictions and the experimental results. The project has resulted in a developed version of the code (EXPLODE2) with new combustion models for simulating gas explosions. Additional features of this program include the physical models necessary to simulate the combustion process using alternative combustion models, improvement to the numerical accuracy and robustness of the code, and special input for simulation of different gas explosions. The present code has the capability of predicting venting failures by different combustion models, something that was not shown clearly in the open literature by the previous numerical studies in gas explosions. The work accomplished in this research was undertaken put of the need for an objective method to predict explosion parameters for vapour cloud explosions in confined and semi-confined areas. The thesis describes basic features of a numerical explosion model that has been developed for predicting explosion pressure and flame propagation in confined and semi confined regions. The validation of the code and combustion models against analytical and several experimental data supports the code and its combustion models as a good tool for prediction of VCEs. This thesis starts with a basic description of explosion, assessment methods, theory, turbulent combustion, different combustion models and concludes with a discussion of the results and areas of uncertainty.

Nehzat, Naser

127

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the locomotive is at rest. (c) A shock absorber may not be broken or leaking clearly formed droplets of oil or other...

2012-10-01

128

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the locomotive is at rest. (c) A shock absorber may not be broken or leaking clearly formed droplets of oil or other...

2011-10-01

129

Explosive stimulation of a geothermal well: GEOFRAC  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the first known explosive stimulation successfully conducted in a geothermal well. Two tests were performed in a 2690-meter-(8826-ft.) deep Union Oil well at the Geysers field in Northern California in December 1981. The heat-resistant process, called GEOFRAC, uses a new unique, explosive HITEX 2, which is a nondetonable solid at room temperature. Upon melting at a temperature of 177[degrees]C (350[degrees]F), the HITEX 2 liquid becomes an explosive that can be safely heated to temperatures greater than 260[degrees]C (500[degrees]F). These unique properties of the explosive were exploited in the GEOFRAC process through the cooperative efforts of Physics International Company (PI), Rocket Research Company (RRC), Union oil Company (UO), and the university of California Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL).

Mumma, D.M. (Physics International Co., San Leandro, CA (United States))

1982-07-01

130

Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought  

SciTech Connect

A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

Kelly, P. [Rowan Companies Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-10

131

Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by RIG-I  

SciTech Connect

Intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including RIG-I, MDA-5, and LGP2) recognize viral RNAs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an antiviral immune response. To understand the molecular basis of this process, we determined the crystal structure of RIG-I in complex with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The dsRNA is sheathed within a network of protein domains that include a conserved 'helicase' domain (regions HEL1 and HEL2), a specialized insertion domain (HEL2i), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD). A V-shaped pincer connects HEL2 and the CTD by gripping an {alpha}-helical shaft that extends from HEL1. In this way, the pincer coordinates functions of all the domains and couples RNA binding with ATP hydrolysis. RIG-I falls within the Dicer-RIG-I clade of the superfamily 2 helicases, and this structure reveals complex interplay between motor domains, accessory mechanical domains, and RNA that has implications for understanding the nanomechanical function of this protein family and other ATPases more broadly.

Luo, Dahai; Ding, Steve C.; Vela, Adriana; Kohlway, Andrew; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Pyle, Anna Marie (Yale)

2011-10-27

132

Klotho suppresses RIG-I-mediated senescence-associated inflammation.  

PubMed

It is well known that aged or senescent cells develop a complex senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is observed both in culture and in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of the SASP are largely unknown. We demonstrate that retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is induced through the ataxia telangiectasia mutated-interferon regulatory factor 1 (ATM-IRF1) axis in senescent cells and that RIG-I signalling mediates the expression of two important mediators of inflammation, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. Klotho has been associated with ageing. We show here that the intracellular, but not the secreted, form of klotho interacts with RIG-I and that this interaction inhibits RIG-I-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 both in vitro and in vivo. Our study uncovers a mechanism in which klotho functions as an anti-ageing factor through the suppression of RIG-I-mediated inflammation. PMID:21336305

Liu, Feng; Wu, Su; Ren, Hongwei; Gu, Jun

2011-02-20

133

Heavy duty diesel engine oil filterability  

SciTech Connect

The effect of water contamination on the filtration of HD diesel engine oils has been investigated. A proposed industry laboratory ''glassware'' test was found to be sensitive to multigrade oils. Certain viscosity index improver chemistries proved more critical with some, but not all, detergent inhibitor systems. Experiments using a full-scale filter rig test, designed to simulate the laboratory test, confirmed the possibility of filter plugging. In the full-scale rig test however, the oil's detergent inhibitor chemistry was found to be the major factor in determining performance. Extension of the studies to field engines indicated that it was difficult to produce filter plugging with water contaminated new oils. Furthermore, oils which ''failed'' the laboratory and full-scale rig tests when new, would ''pass'' after a few hours of engine service. The results indicated that further work is required before bench tests can be established to predict filter plugging tendencies of water contaminated HD engine oils in service.

Overton, R.; Rogers, W.N.

1984-01-01

134

Explosive Wave Shaper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive wave shaping system or wave shaper is disclosed. A 'flying' plate or disk of uniform thickness between the donor explosive and the acceptor explosive. The plate is driven against the acceptor explosive with sufficient force to detonate it. Th...

T. P. Liddiard

1965-01-01

135

Lumped parameter identification of a quarter car test rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quarter car model is a simple and widely used mathematical model to analyze the vibration and control problem of vehicles. In this study, a quarter car test rig is modeled as a lumped parameter system. Model parameters of the system are determined by measurements and experiments. Forced vibration method is used to identify the stiffness and damping parameters of the lumped model. A modal shaker is used to generate the road input in the test rig. The accelerations of the road input, sprung and unsprung masses are measured by piezoelectric accelerometers. The frequency response functions are obtained by using acceleration data. The identified parameters of the test rig are adjusted by comparing the experimental and simulation results.

Taskin, Y.; Yagiz, N.; Yuksek, I.

2013-02-01

136

New hydraulic lift rig for drilling and workover  

SciTech Connect

Maritime Hydraulics of Kristiansand, Norway, has developed a new concept for a drilling rig that utilizes long hydraulic rams for the basic lifting mechanism. By eliminating the conventional drawworks, traveling block and derrick, the new configuration offers distinct weight, safety and operational advantages for offshore applications. The new concept, called RamRig, was conceived in 1987 and was the subject of a two-year joint engineering study with BP Development Norway Ltd. In 1994, a Saga Petroleum initiative revitalized the concept, and a complete design for a deepwater exploration operation was completed in mid-1995. In August 1995, third-party verification was supplied by Sintef. An order was recently placed by Reading and Bates for a RamRig type system to be used on the company`s new deepwater work vessel Iolair. This paper briefly reviews the design and operation of this equipment.

NONE

1996-07-01

137

Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

Ege, J. R.

1967-01-01

138

Ammonium nitrate explosive systems  

DOEpatents

Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

139

Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional drilling. It has the advantage that the drill string stays in the drilled hole during the entire drilling process and prevents the drilled hole from collapsing while the inner core barrels comprising the drilled core sections are hooked up inside the drill string using a wire.

Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

2009-04-01

140

Properties Estimation of Main Oil Shale in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more countries have paid serious attention to oil shale as a kind of energy reserve. Both FuShun pyrolysis experimental rig and technological process of commercial plant are characterized in this article. Meanwhile, the article points out that oil length is the important quality index of oil shale. Properties of several kinds of main oil shale in our country

F. Yan; Y. Song

2009-01-01

141

75 FR 71455 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rigging...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...titled, ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling (29 CFR 1926.251),'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...Collection: Rigging Equipment for Material Handling (29 CFR 1926.251). OMB Control Number: 1218-0233. Affected...

2010-11-23

142

Saving diesel fuel in the oil field  

SciTech Connect

Describes how diesel electric SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) drilling rigs are helping drillers save fuel expense in the oil fields, along with other energy conservation methods. Compares SCR to conventional drilling rigs. Points out that on conventional rigs, diesel engines drive rig components directly, while on the SCR electric rigs, diesel engines turn a.c. electric generators which supply energy to d.c. electric motors for rig component power. Components of the SCR rigs include drawworks, mud pumps, rotary table, compressors, shakers, blenders and the camp load. Recommends economic principles such as supplying generators large enough to handle the low p.f. (power factor) as well as peak power requirements; and keeping the work load on diesel engines as high as possible for fuel economy. Presents tables of fuel consumed per 100 kW at various load factors; effect of power factor on engine hp required; electric drilling rig power modules; and engine and generator selection guide. Emphasizes consideration of the competitive difference in diesel engine economy.

Elder, B.

1982-11-01

143

Bioremediation of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

1995-09-01

144

Description of Resonances within the Rigged Hilbert Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of a quantum system has in general bound, scattering and resonant parts. The Hilbert space includes only the bound and scattering spectra, and discards the resonances. One must therefore enlarge the Hilbert space to a rigged Hilbert space, within which the physical bound, scattering and resonance spectra are included on the same footing. In this work, I will

Rafael de la Madrid; Rafael de la

2007-01-01

145

New methods allow evaluating cement from floating rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating cement in subsea wells from a floating rig presents some unique problems that can be solved. Two of the most common problems are the microannulus effect and tool centering of cement bond logs (CBL). Subsea completions cannot readily be pressured up to eliminate the microannulus effect that can make cement-bond logs appear poor. There are methods to minimize the

Pilkington

1988-01-01

146

46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge side. (c) The inlet piping of the test rig must be sized so that (1) Influent water flows at a Reynolds Number of at least 10,000; (2) The influent flow rate is between one and three meters per second; and (3)...

2009-10-01

147

Overall conceptual System Design Description, Large Leak Test Rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents the system design requirements and description of the Large Leak Test Rig. The system design description includes the following subsystems: water\\/steam injection supply subsystem; simulated secondary sodium subsystem; rupture relief sybsystem; sodium handling, cleanup and recovery subsystem; instrumentation and control subsystem; and facilities and structures subsystem.

L. E. Manners; E. Powell; C. R. Bell; L. Goodman; B. Katz; L. Martin

1973-01-01

148

Mixed Stream Test Rig Winter FY-2011 Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the data and analysis of the initial testing campaign of the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the test specimen selection, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, and data and analysis of specimens exposed in two environments designed to represent those expected for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE).

Chalres Park; Tedd Lister; Kevin DeWall

2011-04-01

149

Energy-recovering Workover Rig with Variable Inertia Flywheel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy-recovering workover rig with variable inertia flywheel is investigated, and its basic structure and working theory are introduced. The variable inertia flywheel is composed of three identically sized flywheels with a mass of 458 kg each. It stores the energy of an idle motor as the tubing string is raised, as well as the potential energy released by the

Zhang Lujun

2011-01-01

150

Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before

1997-01-01

151

Planetary-Gear-Support Bearing Test Rig Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test rig was designed to evaluate the performance of a spherical roller bearing with a geared outer ring operating under conditions similar to those of a planet bearing in a helicopter transmission. The configuration is an extension of the widely accept...

J. W. Rosenlieb

1985-01-01

152

Hoisting and rigging of critical components and related equipment. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This standard covers hoisting and rigging of critical items (3.2) and of materials, components, or supplies handled over, in, or around spaces in which critical items are located. The purpose of this standard is to provide requirements and rules that will minimize the likelihood of physical damage to critical items due to dropping, upset, impact, or other handling accident.

Not Available

1985-12-13

153

Development of material irradiation rig with precision temperature control in experimental fast reactor JOYO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the experimental fast reactor JOYO, an on-line instrumented material irradiation rig has been developed to acquire various irradiation data. Material Testing Rig with Temperature Control (MARICO) is capable of collecting creep rupture strength data for fast reactor fuel cladding materials. The specimen temperature in the MARICO-1 rig is controlled with an accuracy of 4C by the use of a

H. Kataoka; T Yasu; H Takatsudo; S Miyakawa

1998-01-01

154

Fire and Explosion Hazards of Grade E Cargo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was motivated by a cargo tank explosion incident involving No. 6 fuel oil at a temperature well below its flash point. The overall objective of the study has been to evaluate the general fire and explosion hazards of high flash point liquid car...

R. G. Zalosh D. M. Finnegan

1995-01-01

155

Fracture Mechanics Investigation of Oil Shale to Aid in Understanding the Explosive Fragmentation Process. Final Technical Report, January 1983-July 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes goals and findings achieved in developing technologies to improve the overall efficiency of oil shale recovery processes. The objectives are to (a) develop theoretical fracture mechanics tools that are applicable to transversely iso...

K. P. Chong

1984-01-01

156

Totally Confined Explosive Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for eliminating the noise and debris of explosive welding techniques by totally enclosing and applying the explosive pressure through the wall of an enclosure. This method eliminates the problem of scattering debris, and personnel ha...

L. J. Bement

1973-01-01

157

Intermittent Explosive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Intermittent explosive disorder By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intermittent-explosive-disorder/DS00730 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications ...

158

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

159

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

160

77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2012-02-22

161

76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2011-06-20

162

75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-06-03

163

75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-05-21

164

75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-07-01

165

76 FR 33704 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2011-06-09

166

Fracture mechanics investigation of oil shale to aid in understanding the explosive fragmentation process. Final technical report, January 1983-July 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes goals and findings achieved in developing technologies to improve the overall efficiency of oil shale recovery processes. The objectives are to (a) develop theoretical fracture mechanics tools that are applicable to transversely isotropic materials such as sedimentary rock, more particularly oil shale; and (b) develop a fracture mechanics test procedure that can be conveniently used for rock specimens. Such a test procedure would: utilize the geometry of a typical rock core for the test; require a minimum amount of specimen machining; and provide meaningful, reproducible data that corresponds well to test data obtained from conventional fracture mechanics tests. Critical review of the state-of-the-art of fracture mechanics on layered rocks has been completed. Recommendations are made for innovative and promising methods for oil shale fracture mechanics. Numerical and analytical studies of mixed mode fracture mechanics are investigated. Transversely isotropic properties of oil shale are input using isoparametric finite elements with singular elements at the crack tip. The model is a plate with an edge crack whose angle with the edge varies to study the effect of mixed mode fracture under various conditions. The three-dimensional plate is in tension, and stress, energy methods are used in the fracture analysis. Precracked disks of oil shale cored perpendicular to bedding planes are analyzed numerically. Stress intensity factors are determined by (i) strain energy method, and (ii) elliptic simulation method. 47 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Chong, K.P.

1984-09-01

167

Stimulation by explosives. Pt. 2. Powerful borehole slurry passes field tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most powerful commercially available explosive is used in a versatile and safe slurry form to release high energy in the well bore. Sustained 200 bpd increases from explosive fracturing have occurred in field tests by The Western Co. in producing oil wells. The key features of the method are wellbore loading with bagged or high viscosity explosive, and solid

A. M. Spencer; A. L. Anderson; G. R. Dysart

1970-01-01

168

Bioremediation of high explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite

C. L. Kitts; M. A. Alvarez; J. L. Hanners; K. L. Ogden; L. Vanderberg-Twary; P. J. Unkefer

1995-01-01

169

Totally Confined Explosive Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The s...

L. J. Bement

1974-01-01

170

75 FR 5545 - Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...terminating the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR...of the Act, OSHA promulgated its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29...

2010-02-03

171

Novel rig design for ultra- and microfiltration experiments  

SciTech Connect

The versatile rig for crossflow ultrafiltration and microfiltration experiments described in this paper can be operated at various concentrations of the feed stream by using a feed-and-bleed mode, either at controlled permeation flux or at controlled transmembrane pressure. Transmembrane pressure can be set as a static counterpressure through a bleed valve, or as a dynamic counterpressure achieved by circulating the permeate cocurrent to the retentate, to maintain an equal transmembrane pressure profile along the filtration path. The rig is equipped with extra independent controls (retentate and permeate temperature, retentate tangential flow velocity, retentate pressure) to enable to master filtration procedures by setting variables to the desired values through any operational pathway. It allows real time data monitoring and storing by a computer through a multichannel analyzer. 11 refs., 2 figs.

Daufin, G.; Radenac, J.F.; Gesan, G.; Kerherve, F.L.; Le Berre, O.; Michel, F. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Rennes (France)); Merin, U. (Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan (Israel))

1993-12-01

172

Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner  

SciTech Connect

Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

1995-07-01

173

New wave drilling rigs offer automation, ergonomics and economy  

SciTech Connect

The drilling industry is being pressured to do its job not just faster and cheaper, but also safer and cleaner. The latest land and offshore platform drilling rig designs incorporate modularization, mechanization, computers and environmental protection in an attempt to meet those demands. This paper reviews the technology of these new designs and how they can operate to ensure safety and environmental protection for lower costs.

Von Flatern, R.

1996-05-01

174

Offshore data base shows decline in rig accidents  

SciTech Connect

Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.

Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Maimaison (FR))

1991-09-16

175

Heavy duty diesel engine oil filterability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water contamination on the filtration of HD diesel engine oils has been investigated. A proposed industry laboratory ''glassware'' test was found to be sensitive to multigrade oils. Certain viscosity index improver chemistries proved more critical with some, but not all, detergent inhibitor systems. Experiments using a full-scale filter rig test, designed to simulate the laboratory test, confirmed

R. Overton; W. N. Rogers

1984-01-01

176

Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand  

PubMed Central

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater.

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

177

Phytoremediation of Toxic Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Widespread contamination of the environment by explosives resulting from the manufacture, disposal and testing of munitions\\u000a is becoming a matter of increasing concern. Most explosives are considered to be a major hazard to biological systems due\\u000a to their toxic and mutagenic effects. Interest on the bioremediation of lands contaminated with explosives has recently been\\u000a focused on phytoremediation. Unfortunately, whilst plants

Nand Lal; Neerja Srivastava

178

Explosives tester with heater  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10

179

Modeling of buried explosions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

1987-01-01

180

78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The list includes all mixtures containing any of the materials on the...after ``Black powder based explosive mixtures'' on the List of Explosive Materials...Explosive Materials under their chemical, mixture or common names, ATF believes that...

2013-10-28

181

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24

182

Testing methods for the properties of test rig used for solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary on the design, property tests and application experiences of test rigs was presented in this paper. The measuring systems of static characteristic and dynamic characteristic of test rigs were also introduced with attention focused on their composition, technical requirements, operating procedure and data processing methods. Since the largest error in thrust measurement in rig firing tests of solid rocket motors mainly comes from the rig, any measures that can decrease the measurement error in this link will greatly improve the accuracy in the thrust measurement.

Hou, Xiangrong

1994-04-01

183

Rig-site system allows water reuse, cuts cleanup costs  

SciTech Connect

A new well-site treatment system is described which extends the use of solids control equipment to help solve the common drilling problems of water supply and/or wastewater disposal. The new closed-loop system combines water treatment with more conventional solids handling to continuously create clean water. The results include: re-use of water for rig cleaning, mud, and even cement makeup with no need to eject liquid to the environment; greatly reduced water-input requirements; and division of the conventional wastewater pit into an active treatment operations pit and an overflow reserve pit for emergency storage.

Neidhardt, D.

1985-03-04

184

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated\\u000a combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3\\/Ni-16.2Cr5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in weight percent unless stated otherwise) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was\\u000a developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such

Philip E. Hodge; Stephan Stecura; Michael A. Gedwill; Isidor Zaplatynsky; Stanley R. Levine

1980-01-01

185

Explosive Auto-Enhancement Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive auto-enhancement device for providing higher detonation pressure than can be achieved with conventional explosives by the use of magnetic precompression for enhancing the detonation wave. A cylindrical armature containing an explosive charge ...

E. T. Toten E. Zimet

1980-01-01

186

Review of the present and announced future capabilities for commercial oil recovery beyond the 656 foot isobath  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a brief look at the commitment of the oil industry to deep offshore exploitation. A tabulation inventory of drilling rigs was undertaken to illustrate what the usage level was at the time of the counts. Considering that no growth in the 600-plus foot group has occurred until now, the 38 new rigs reflect the conclusions that 600-plus foot

1973-01-01

187

Explosively pumped laser light  

DOEpatents

A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

188

Entropy in supernova explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The explosion of a supernova forms because of the collapse to a neutron star. In addition an explosion requires that a region of relatively high entropy be in contact with the neutron star and persisting for a relatively protracted period of time. The hig...

S. A. Colgate

1990-01-01

189

Inside an Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From afar, an explosion may seem like one of the most incredible examples of chaotic interaction. But once you look closer, as in this video from QUEST, you will find that large-scale explosions require very precise interactions to occur in just the right sequence.

Kqed

2009-10-30

190

Bioremediation of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon

P. J. Unkefer; M. A. Alvarez; J. L. Hanners; C. J. Unkefer; M. Stenger; E. A. Margiotta

1990-01-01

191

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

192

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

193

Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

Huttrer, G.W. [Geothermal Management Company, Inc., Frisco, CO (United States)

1997-11-01

194

Reaction of preshocked explosives  

SciTech Connect

In experiments in which an explosive is subjected to two successive shocks ({approximately}2.5 and {approximately}6.0 GPa), detonation of the explosive is delayed. High compaction resulting from shock compression of an explosive probably results in the removal of voids from the material. To the extent that these voids comprise the hotspots in the material, the shock-compressed explosive might be expected to behave as a homogeneous material, and initiate more like a liquid explosive than like a normal solid PBX. While some evidence is available from the data record to support this idea that detonation develops in a homogeneous manner, predominant aspects of the data indicate heterogeneous development of detonation in the preshocked material.

Mulford, R.N.

1998-07-31

195

Rowan Gorilla I rigged up, heads for eastern Canada  

SciTech Connect

Designed to operate in very hostile offshore environments, the first of the Rowan Gorilla class of self-elevating drilling rigs has been towed to its drilling assignment offshore Nova Scotia. About 40% larger than other jackups, these rigs can operate in 300 ft of water, drilling holes as deep as 30,000 ft. They also feature unique high-pressure and solids control systems that are expected to improve drilling procedures and efficiencies. A quantitative formation pressure evaluation program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 handheld calculator computes formation pressures by three independent methods - the corrected d exponent, Bourgoyne and Young, and normalized penetration rate techniques for abnormal pressure detection and computation. Based on empirically derived drilling rate equations, each of the methods can be calculated separately, without being dependent on or influenced by the results or stored data from the other two subprograms. The quantitative interpretation procedure involves establishing a normal drilling rate trend and calculating the pore pressure from the magnitude of the drilling rate trend or plotting parameter increases above the trend line. Mobil's quick, accurate program could aid drilling operators in selecting the casing point, minimizing differential sticking, maintaining the proper mud weights to avoid kicks and lost circulation, and maximizing penetration rates.

Not Available

1984-03-01

196

Master sensors of pathogenic RNA - RIG-I like receptors.  

PubMed

Initiating the immune response to invading pathogens, the innate immune system is constituted of immune receptors (pattern recognition receptors, PRR) that sense microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Detection of pathogens triggers intracellular defense mechanisms, such as the secretion of cytokines or chemokines to alarm neighboring cells and attract or activate immune cells. The innate immune response to viruses is mostly based on PRRs that detect the unusual structure, modification or location of viral nucleic acids. Most of the highly pathogenic and emerging viruses are RNA genome-based viruses, which can give rise to zoonotic and epidemic diseases or cause viral hemorrhagic fever. As viral RNA is located in the same compartment as host RNA, PRRs in the cytosol have to discriminate between viral and endogenous RNA by virtue of their structure or modification. This challenging task is taken on by the homologous cytosolic DExD/H-box family helicases RIG-I and MDA5, which control the innate immune response to most RNA viruses. This review focuses on the molecular basis for RIG-I like receptor (RLR) activation by synthetic and natural ligands and will discuss controversial ligand definitions. PMID:23896194

Schlee, Martin

2013-07-01

197

Interlocking mats support drilling rig on frozen swamp  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses how a company employed a unique mat system to reduce environmental impact and to support the drilling rig on its Astosch No. 1 exploratory well at Granite Point in the Trading Bay Wildlife Refuge. The site is on the west side of Cook Inlet. During winter, the travel time from Anchorage to the base camp near the Tyonek Indian village was 5 hr by ice road or 45 min by fixed wing aircraft. Eighteen miles of existing gravel roads were used from this base camp to the edge of the frozen muskeg swamp, and from there, they constructed 7 miles of ice road to the well site. They constructed a snow and ice pad with two impermeable liners and then installed Uni-Mat International Inc.'s patented interlocking mats for the final foundation. After moving in the rig, a snow berm was built around the perimeter of the location and an impermeable liner was then draped and secured over the berm.

Not Available

1991-04-15

198

76 FR 12070 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the...take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures...bottlenose dolphin was unrelated to the use of explosives, and determined as unforeseen by...

2011-03-04

199

76 FR 23570 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the...take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures...previous years, the energy company used the explosives company, Demex International,...

2011-04-27

200

DOE explosives safety manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires that all activities be conducted in a manner that protects the safety of the public and provides a safe and healthful workplace for employees. DOE has also prescribed that all personnel be protected in any explosives operation undertaken. The level of safety provided shall be at least equivalent to that of the best industrial practice. The risk of death or serious injury shall be limited to the lowest practicable minimum. DOE and contractors shall continually review their explosives operations with the aim of achieving further refinements and improvements in safety practices and protective features. This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in explosives safety. In addition, it is essential that applicable criteria and requirements for implementing this policy be readily available and known to those responsible for conducting DOE programs. This document shall be periodically reviewed and updated to establish new requirements as appropriate. Users are requested to submit suggestions for improving the DOE Explosives Safety Manual through their appropriate Operations Office to the Office of Quality Programs.

1990-05-01

201

Simulation of high explosive explosion using adaptive material point method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of high explosive explosion problems is a big challenge to traditional numerical methods because explosion usually involves ex- tremely large deformation and multi-material interaction of different phases. Re- centlydevelopedmeshfreemethodsshowmuchadvantagesovermesh-basedmethod for problems associated with very large deformation. Some of them have been successfully applied to impact and explosion problems, such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Similar to SPH, material

Shang Ma; Xiong Zhang; Yanping Lian; Xu Zhou

2009-01-01

202

Numerical model of aviation gearbox test rig in a closed loop configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of computer techniques and computational systems based on the finite element method allows one to conduct a free vibration analysis of large systems like an aviation gearbox test rig. The object of this paper is to present a free vibration analysis of a gear fatigue test rig working in a closed loop configuration. A numerical model of the

Tadeusz Markowski; Stanislaw Noga; Stanislaw Rudy

2010-01-01

203

NASA Lewis Research Center Lean-, Rich-Burn Materials Test Burner Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lean-, rich-burn materials test burner rig at NASA LeRC is used to evaluate the high temperature environmental durability of aerospace materials. The rig burns jet fuel and pressurized air, and sample materials can be subjected to both lean-burn and r...

C. A. Stearns R. C. Robinson

1994-01-01

204

Identification and characterization of the retinoic acid response elements in the human RIG1 gene promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 (RIG1), a class II tumor suppressor gene, is induced in cells treated with retinoids. RIG1 has been shown to express ubiquitously and the increased expression of this gene appears to suppress cell proliferation. Recent studies also demonstrated that this gene may play an important role in cell differentiation and the progression of cancer.

Shun-Yuan Jiang; Meng-Shiun Wu; Liang-Ming Chen; Mei-Whey Hung; Huai-En Lin; Gu-Gang Chang; Tsu-Chung Chang

2005-01-01

205

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL TEST RIG  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design, construction, and installation of a fluidized-bed coal combustion sampling and analytical test rig in the High Bay Area (Wing G) of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The rig, to be u...

206

The rigged Hilbert space of the algebra of the one-dimensional rectangular barrier potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rigged Hilbert space of the algebra of the one-dimensional rectangular barrier potential is constructed. The one-dimensional rectangular potential provides another opportunity to show that the rigged Hilbert space fully accounts for Dirac's bra-ket formalism. The analogy between Dirac's formalism and Fourier methods is pointed out.

de la Madrid, Rafael

2004-08-01

207

Motion Estimation for Nonoverlapping Multicamera Rigs: Linear Algebraic and {\\\\rm L}_\\\\infty Geometric Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the problem of estimating the ego-motion of a multicamera rig from two positions of the rig. We describe and compare two new algorithms for finding the 6 degrees of freedom (3 for rotation and 3 for translation) of the motion. One algorithm gives a linear solution and the other is a geometric algorithm that minimizes the maximum measurement

Jae-Hak Kim; Hongdong Li; Richard I. Hartley

2010-01-01

208

Natural Gas in Lake Erie: A Reconnaissance Survey of Discharges from an Offshore Drilling Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field studies were conducted May 28-June 1, 1979, to determine the chemical composition and physical behavior of discharges from an offshore gas drilling rig in the central basin of Lake Erie. The drilling operation was observed for four days, from rig ja...

J. G. Ferrante E. H. Dettmann J. I. Parker

1980-01-01

209

LLNL explosives handbook: properties of chemical explosives and explosives and explosive simulants  

SciTech Connect

This handbook presents information and data for high explosives (HEs) of interest to programs at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It is intended to be useful to the scientist or engineer, the novice or expert, who needs to develop a new weapon system, design a physics experiment, or select and/or evaluate an existing explosive. This compilation is limited to production HEs and their components. High explosives are divided into two classes: initial detonating (or primary) and noninitiating (or secondary) explosives. The primary HEs, such as azides and fulminates, are extremely sensitive to ignition by heat, shock, and electrical discharge; ignition leads to high-order detonation of the material - even for milligram quantities. The use of these HEs is therefore limited to squibs and starting materials for low-energy detonators. Because primary explosives have little application at LLNL, this compilation includes only the properties of lead azide and lead styphnate. Secondary HEs as a class comprise single compounds of mixtures; the mixtures contain one or more explosive compounds and one or more of the following ingredients: metals, binders, plasticizers, sensitizers or desensitizers, oxidizers, and a coloring agent. Because many of the secondary high explosives are mixtures, the properties of the additives and binders used are included. The data are the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the compiler. The sources of information include textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. The reader is urged to consult the source document to properly evaluate and interpret the data given in this compilation. The compilation consists of sections on high explosives and mock explosives, formulation nomenclature (codes), data sheets on individual materials, and a bibliography.

Dobratz, B.M.

1981-03-16

210

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOEpatents

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01

211

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1986-05-29

212

Vapor cloud explosion analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new method (now commonly referred to as the Baker-Strehlow Method) for estimating pressure and impulse generated by vapor cloud explosions. Strehlow`s blast curves and concepts from the Multi-Energy method for determination of explosion energy are applied in this technique. New correlations for maximum flame speed based on obstacle density, fuel reactivity, and cloud confinement allow selection of the appropriate blast curve. Application of these correlations removes much of the subjectivity present in existing explosion estimates. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Baker, Q.A. [Wilfred Baker Engineering Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Tang, Ming Jun [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Scheier, E.A. [Occidental Chemical Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); Silva, G.J. [Occidental International Exploration & Production CO., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

213

Visualizing the determinants of viral RNA recognition by innate immune sensor RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Summary Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a key intracellular immune receptor for pathogenic RNAs, particularly from RNA viruses. Here we report the crystal structure of human RIG-I bound to a 5?tri-phosphorylated RNA hairpin and ADP nucleotide at 2.8 resolution. The RNA ligand contains all structural features that are essential for optimal recognition by RIG-I, as it mimics the panhandle-like signatures within the genome of negative stranded RNA viruses. RIG-I adopts an intermediate, semi-closed conformation in this product state of ATP hydrolysis. The structure of this complex allows us to visualize the first steps in RIG-I recognition and activation upon viral infection.

Luo, Dahai; Kohlway, Andrew; Vela, Adriana; Pyle, Anna Marie

2012-01-01

214

Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R

2012-01-19

215

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

216

Explosives Vapor Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vaporous emissions from seventeen explosives were investigated by gas chromatographic and combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques using a novel collection device. The vapor emission rates were followed as a function of time untile t...

F. H. Jarke S. M. Gordon

1982-01-01

217

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

2005-12-01

218

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

2004-10-01

219

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

220

Nuclear explosive driven experiments  

SciTech Connect

Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment.

Ragan, C.E.

1981-01-01

221

The AMTE/OUEL underwater jet noise rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An underwater acoustics test rig capable of sustained running over a continuous range of jet speed up to 119 ft/sec is presented. With a half inch diameter jet nozzle (but not with larger nozzles) the free air content of the water remains constant. At high cavitation numbers, the cavitation event rate can be measured and the noise generated by individual events can be recorded and near-instantaneously analyzed. Experiments with cavitating jets and air injection reveal the mechanism of noise generation by single bubbles, and the manner in which these events contribute to the time-averaged power spectrum. High speed cinephotography records the space/time pattern of cavitation in a jet. A technique for high speed filming of the very small cavitation bubbles formed at incipience was developed. Photographic films taken at 9,000 ppsec can be synchronized with event noise recording.

Franklin, R. E.; McMillan, J.

1983-09-01

222

Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics (DITA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on tactile sensitivity has been conducted since the last century and many devices have been proposed to study in detail this sense through experimental tests. The sense of touch is essential in every-day life of human beings, but it can also play a fundamental role for the assessment of some neurological disabilities and pathologies. In fact, the level of tactile perception can provide information on the health state of the nervous system. In this paper, authors propose the design and development of a novel test apparatus, named DITA (Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics), aiming to provide the measurement of the tactile sensitivity trough the determination of the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) curve of a subject. The paper reports the solution adopted for the system design and the results obtained on the set of experiments carried out on volunteers.

Cannella, F.; Scalise, L.; Olivieri, E.; Memeo, M.; Caldwell, D. G.

2013-09-01

223

Nuclear explosive safety study process  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

NONE

1997-01-01

224

Chemical Explosion Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A database containing information on chemical explosions, recorded and located by the International Data Center (IDC) of the CTBTO, should be established in the IDC prior to entry into force of the CTBT. Nearly all of the large chemical explosions occur in connection with mining activity. As a first step towards the establishment of this database, a survey of presumed mining areas where sufficiently large explosions are conducted has been done. This is dominated by the large coal mining areas like the Powder River (U.S.), Kuznetsk (Russia), Bowen (Australia) and Ekibastuz (Kazakhstan) basins. There are also several other smaller mining areas, in e.g. Scandinavia, Poland, Kazakhstan and Australia, with large enough explosions for detection. Events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC that are located in or close to these mining areas, and which therefore are candidates for inclusion in the database, have been investigated. Comparison with a database of infrasound events has been done as many mining blasts generate strong infrasound signals and therefore also are included in the infrasound database. Currently there are 66 such REB events in 18 mining areas in the infrasound database. On a yearly basis several hundreds of events in mining areas have been recorded and included in the REB. Establishment of the database of chemical explosions requires confirmation and ground truth information from the States Parties regarding these events. For an explosion reported in the REB, the appropriate authority in whose country the explosion occurred is encouraged, on a voluntary basis, to seek out information on the explosion and communicate this information to the IDC.

Johansson, Peder; Brachet, Nicolas

2010-05-01

225

The Explosion at Bailleul  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE reports referred to in NATURE of August 28 (p. 511) of the effects observed at Denmark Hill, Norwich, and elsewhere by the explosion of a munition dump at Bailleul at 1.10 p.m. G.M.T. on August 8 suggest that these effects were due mainly to earth tremors caused by the explosion, since the rattling of windows, extending in one case

Spencer Pickering

1919-01-01

226

Student involvement with the regionally important geomorphological site (RIGS) scheme: an opportunity to learn geomorphology and gain transferable skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines student involvement with a conservation project which aims to develop a Regionally Important Geological\\/Geomorphological Site network (RIGS) at a county level in the UK. The local RIGS scheme is administered through the Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust under the auspices of English Nature. The teaching initiative has used the RIGS scheme as a framework to support extended open?ended project

Lindsey McEwen

1996-01-01

227

Oil Slick Satellite Image  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Aqua Satellite image, captured on April 25, 2010, of an oil slick caused by the April 20, 2010 explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico off the coasts of Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida.

Nasa

2010-04-27

228

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

229

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

230

An Olympic framework for a green decommissioning of an offshore oil platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas offshore platform and installations have a limited life of operations. When oil runs out, many terms are used to describe the situation: abandonment, removal, disposal, decommissioning, etc. Even the issue of decommissioning is now at the forefront of deep water oil drilling for many reason (the enormous costs required for disposal, the increasing number of rigs which

Salem Y. Lakhal; M. I. Khan; M. Rafiqul Islam

2009-01-01

231

Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein.  

PubMed

RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways. PMID:23810392

Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

2013-06-26

232

Roles of RIG-I N-terminal tandem CARD and splice variant in TRIM25-mediated antiviral signal transduction  

PubMed Central

The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of intracellular adaptors and sensors plays a critical role in the assembly of signaling complexes involved in innate host defense against pathogens and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The cytosolic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) recognizes viral RNA in a 5?-triphosphate-dependent manner and initiates an antiviral signaling cascade. Upon viral infection, the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I undergo the K63-linked ubiquitination induced by tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25), critical for the interaction of RIG-I with its downstream signaling partner MAVS/VISA/IPS-1/Cardif. Here, we demonstrate the distinct roles of RIG-I first and second CARD in TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination: TRIM25 binds the RIG-I first CARD and subsequently ubiquitinates its second CARD. The T55I mutation in RIG-I first CARD abolishes TRIM25 interaction, whereas the K172R mutation in the second CARD eliminates polyubiquitin attachment. The necessity of the intact tandem CARD for RIG-I function is further evidenced by a RIG-I splice variant (SV) whose expression is robustly up-regulated upon viral infection. The RIG-I SV carries a short deletion (amino acids 3680) within the first CARD and thereby loses TRIM25 binding, CARD ubiquitination, and downstream signaling ability. Furthermore, because of its robust inhibition of virus-induced RIG-I multimerization and RIG-I-MAVS signaling complex formation, this SV effectively suppresses the RIG-I-mediated IFN-? production. This study not only elucidates the vital role of the intact tandem CARD for TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation but also identifies the RIG-I SV as an off-switch regulator of its own signaling pathway.

Gack, Michaela U.; Kirchhofer, Axel; Shin, Young C.; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Cui, Sheng; Myong, Sua; Ha, Taekjip; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Jung, Jae U.

2008-01-01

233

Coexpressed RIG-I Agonist Enhances Humoral Immune Response to Influenza Virus DNA Vaccine ?  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of plasmid vector-mediated activation of innate immune signaling pathways is an approach to improve DNA vaccine-induced adaptive immunity for infectious disease and cancer applications. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a critical cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) pattern receptor required for innate immune activation in response to viral infection. Activation of RIG-I leads to type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokine production through interferon promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1)-mediated activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-?B signaling. DNA vaccines coexpressing antigen and an expressed RNA (eRNA) RIG-I agonist were made, and the effect of RIG-I activation on antigen-specific immune responses to the encoded antigen was determined. Plasmid vector backbones expressing various RIG-I ligands from RNA polymerase III promoters were screened in a cell culture assay for RIG-I agonist activity, and optimized, potent RIG-I ligands were developed. One of these, eRNA41H, combines (i) eRNA11a, an immunostimulatory dsRNA expressed by convergent transcription, with (ii) adenovirus VA RNAI. eRNA41H was integrated into the backbone of DNA vaccine vectors expressing H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). The resultant eRNA vectors potently induced type 1 IFN production in cell culture through RIG-I activation and combined high-level HA antigen expression with RNA-mediated type I IFN activation in a single plasmid vector. The eRNA vectors induced increased HA-specific serum antibody binding avidity after naked DNA intramuscular prime and boost delivery in mice. This demonstrates that DNA vaccine potency may be augmented by the incorporation of RIG-I-activating immunostimulatory RNA into the vector backbone.

Luke, Jeremy M.; Simon, Gregory G.; Soderholm, Jonas; Errett, John S.; August, J. Thomas; Gale, Michael; Hodgson, Clague P.; Williams, James A.

2011-01-01

234

Offshore oil and gas technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years offshore drilling and production technology has evolved in response to the challenges of deep waters and Arctic conditions. In this paper we discuss the development of offshore drilling rigs, platforms, subsea completion systems, pipelines, and tanker loading facilities. We conclude that current technologies modified to meet site-specific requirements are capable of drilling and producing oil and gas

L. Otteman; R. Crooke; R. Shoemaker

1985-01-01

235

Detection of Explosive Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High explosives present a challenge for detection methods because of their range of physical properties, which range from volatile liquids to nonvolatile solids. They share the common feature of possessing both oxidizing and reducing chemical properties within a single molecule or an intimate chemical mixture. Our research group has been focused on the synthesis of new luminescent polymers, which undergo electron transfer quenching by a variety of organic high explosives, such as TNT, RDX, and PETN. The application to imaging trace explosive particle residues will be described. Density functional calculations show an excellent correlation between the sensor response and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the explosive analyte. For volatile high explosives, such as organic peroxides (e.g. TATP), vapor sensors based on chemically sensitive transistors containing different metal phthalocyanines have been explored. The mechanism of current response in these films has been shown to be a result of surface Lewis acid-base chemistry or redox catalysis at the metal centers. The link between surface chemistry and electronic resonse has led to a simple peroxide specific vapor sensor array.

Trogler, William

2008-03-01

236

Explosion containment device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

Benedick, William B. (Albuquerque, NM); Daniel, Charles J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1977-01-01

237

Molecular models for explosives  

SciTech Connect

Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of formation, etc. for explosives. As a result of this extensive experimental work, a large and ever increasing number of observed properties of explosives are available. Given sufficient data, models for the prediction of molecular properties can be developed and calibrated. Nevertheless, many desirable molecular properties can be obtained with considerable effort and, in many cases, experimental measurements are not possible for practical reasons; e.g., bond dissociation energies are very difficult to obtain for explosives. Consequently, theoretical methods for obtaining these properties are quite desirable. In addition, it is oftentimes desired to estimate the properties of unknown molecules. Consequently, methods for the estimation of molecular properties, which might seem quite crude by other standards, can be of considerable practical value. We present in this paper some of our recent efforts at extending and developing molecular models for explosives. These efforts fall into three main areas: Estimation of crystal densities of organic nitrates and perchlorates by an entirely empirical group additivity method; calculation of molecular heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (BDE's) by a semi-empirical molecular orbital method (AM1); and the electronic structure of nitrobenzene as obtained from non-empirical (sometimes called ab initio molecular orbital calculations. 10 refs.

Ritchie, J.P.; Bachrach, S.M.

1987-01-01

238

Explosively separable casing  

SciTech Connect

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

Jacobson, A.K.; Kychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

1985-02-19

239

5?-Triphosphate-RNA-independent activation of RIG-I via RNA aptamer with enhanced antiviral activity  

PubMed Central

RIG-I is a cytosolic receptor for non-self RNA that mediates immune responses against viral infections through IFN?/? production. In an attempt to identify novel tools that modulate IFN?/? production, we used SELEX technology to screen RNA aptamers that specifically target RIG-I protein. Most of the selected RIG-I aptamers contained polyU motifs in the second half regions that played critical roles in the activation of RIG-I-mediated IFN? production. Unlike other known ligands, RIG-I aptamer bound and activated RIG-I in a 5?-triphosphate-independent manner. The helicase and RD domain of RIG-I were used for aptamer binding, but intact RIG-I protein was required to exert aptamer-mediated signaling activation. Furthermore, replication of NDV, VSV and influenza virus in infected host cells was efficiently blocked by pre- or post-treatment with RIG-I aptamer. Based on these data, we propose that RIG-I aptamer has strong potential to be an antiviral agent that specifically boosts the RIG-I-dependent signaling cascade.

Hwang, Sun-Young; Sun, Hwa-Young; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha; Cha, Yu Jin; Kim, Byeang Hyean; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

2012-01-01

240

Stress wave propagationin the site 12 hydraulic\\/explosive fracturing experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site 12 experiment was a heavily instrumented field event performed to examine the hydraulic\\/explosive fracturing concept for preparing an underground oil shale bed for true in situ processing. One of the key phases of this fracturing concept is the blasting operation which involves the insertion and detonation of slurry explosive in a pre-formed system of hydrofractures. To obtain a

R. R. Boade; R. P. Reed

1980-01-01

241

Effect of cryogenic temperatures on the performance of selected explosives. Technical report, Feb--Jul 1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of liquid nitrogen temperature on the performance of eleven detonating and deflagrating compositions was stuided experimentally. The detonating explosives included two military explosives, medium velocity dynamite and composition C-4, and five commercially available compositions. They included two 60% strength dynamites, 60% strength nitrostarch, ammonium nitrate\\/fuel oil, and Red Dot smokeless powder. The smokeless powder is included with the

Trott

1972-01-01

242

Nuclear Explosives in Peacetime, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed are the commercial uses of nuclear explosives as well as the testing of nuclear weapons. Case histories of the use of nuclear explosives to stimulate oil and natural gas production are examined, and problems associated with nuclear blasting are discussed with special reference to canal construction. Effects of nuclear weapons testing

Brodine, Virginia, Ed.; Bradford, Albert, Ed.

243

Explosion and Explosives, Volume 32, Number 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

244

Explosion and Explosives. Vol 32, No. 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

245

Destruction of peroxide explosives.  

PubMed

Chemicals containing multiple peroxide functionalities, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), or hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), can be explosive. They are impractical and are not used by legitimate military groups because they are shock and heat sensitive compared to military explosives. They are attractive to terrorists because synthesis is straightforward, requiring only a few easily obtained ingredients. Physical removal of these synthesis products is highly hazardous. This paper discusses methods to degrade peroxide explosives chemically, at room temperature. A number of mixtures containing metals (e.g., zinc, copper) and metal salts (e.g., zinc sulfate, copper chloride) were found effective, some capable of destroying TATP solutions in a few hours. Strong acids proved useful against solid peroxide materials; however, on a 1 g scale, addition of concentrated sulfuric acid caused TATP to detonate. Thus, this technique should only be used to destroy small-laboratory quantities. PMID:19737243

Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Huang, Jiaorong; Luo, Wei

2009-09-01

246

Bioremediation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon dioxide. The focus of this paper will be on our present understanding of the microbial metabolism of the explosives, TNT and RDX, which have been used most extensively in the United States. To assure that an efficient process is developed for TNT biodegradation, we are conducting appropriate lab scale tests with TNT contaminated soil. First, we are testing their efficiency in soil/water slurries; we are also testing their efficiency in a column system designed to simulate composting conditions. A pilot scale test of this bacterial degradation will be conducted as soon as weather permits. 36 refs., 5 figs.

Unkefer, P.J.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Unkefer, C.J.; Stenger, M.; Margiotta, E.A.

1990-01-01

247

Negative Feedback Regulation of RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling by Interferon-Induced ISG15 Conjugation?  

PubMed Central

RIG-I senses intracellular virus-specific nucleic acid structures and initiates an antiviral response that induces interferon (IFN) production, which, in turn, activates the transcription of RIG-I to increase RIG-I protein levels. Upon intracellular poly(I:C) stimulation, however, the levels of RIG-I protein did not correlate with the expression patterns of RIG-I transcripts. When the ISG15 conjugation system was overexpressed, ISG15 was conjugated to RIG-I and cellular levels of the unconjugated form of RIG-I decreased. The ISGylation of RIG-I reduced levels of both basal and virus-induced IFN promoter activity. Levels of unconjugated RIG-I also decreased when 26S proteasome activity was blocked by treatment with MG132, ALLN, or Lactacystin. In the presence of MG132, ISG15 conjugation to RIG-I increased, and hence, the unconjugated form of RIG-I was reduced. In Ube1L?/? cells, which lack the ability to conjugate ISG15, basal levels of both RIG-I protein and transcripts were increased compared to those in wild-type cells. As a result, enhanced production of ISGs and enhanced IFN promoter activity in Ube1L?/? cells were observed, and the phenotype was restored to that of wild-type cells by the overexpression of Ube1L. Based on these results, we propose a novel negative feedback loop which adjusts the strength of the RIG-I-mediated antiviral response and IFN production through the regulation of RIG-I protein by IFN-induced ISG15 conjugation.

Kim, Min-Jung; Hwang, Sun-Young; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

2008-01-01

248

Negative Role of RIG-I Serine 8 Phosphorylation in the Regulatin of Interferon-beta Production  

SciTech Connect

RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25) have emerged as key regulatory factors to induce interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses to limit viral replication. Upon recognition of viral RNA, TRIM25 E3 ligase binds the first caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I and subsequently induces lysine 172 ubiquitination of the second CARD of RIG-I, which is essential for the interaction with downstream MAVS/IPS-1/CARDIF/VISA and, thereby, IFN-beta mRNA production. Although ubiquitination has emerged as a major factor involved in RIG-I activation, the potential contribution of other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, to the regulation of RIG-I activity has not been addressed. Here, we report the identification of serine 8 phosphorylation at the first CARD of RIG-I as a negative regulatory mechanism of RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. Immunoblot analysis with a phosphospecific antibody showed that RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation steady-state levels were decreased upon stimulation of cells with IFN-beta or virus infection. Substitution of serine 8 in the CARD RIG-I functional domain with phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate results in decreased TRIM25 binding, RIG-I ubiquitination, MAVS binding, and downstream signaling. Finally, sequence comparison reveals that only primate species carry serine 8, whereas other animal species carry an asparagine, indicating that serine 8 phosphorylation may represent a primate-specific regulation of RIG-I activation. Collectively, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of RIG-I serine 8 operates as a negative switch of RIG-I activation by suppressing TRIM25 interaction, further underscoring the importance of RIG-I and TRIM25 connection in type I IFN signal transduction.

E Nistal-Villan; M Gack; G Martinez-Delgado; N Maharaj; K Inn; H Yang; R Wang; A Aggarwal; J Jung; A Garcia-Sastre

2011-12-31

249

An explosion in Tunguska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on 30 June 1908 is given, including that of a meteor impact, asteroid impact, atomic explosion (F. Zigel and other), comet impact (V.G. Fesenkov and other). The theory sustained by author is that of a methan gas explosion initialazed by a meteor in a volume of about 0.25-2.5 billions m3 of methan. The shape of the place could be explained by few gaseous pouches, which could explode in a chain reaction. A review of similar explosions on the level of ground is given in the USSR as well as elsewhere. The soil fluidization is reviewed during earthquakes and similar phenomena. The original hypothesis by author was published in the "Lumea" N 41 magazin (Romania) on October 12 1989. The author disagree with atomic hypotesis enounced by F. Zigel, while the main factor of the explosion is the formation of one or few methan pouches above the soil. The programe of one of the most important international workshops (Tunguska 96 in Bologna on July 14-17) is attached. The site by Ioan Nistor gives a collection of informations about the event from elsewhere as well as the "gaseous pouches" hypothesis by the author.

Nistor, Ioan

250

30 CFR 57.22606 - Explosive materials and blasting units (III mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...placement of holes, possible breakthrough, and water. Ammonium nitrate blasting agents shall not be loaded into wet holes. ...Nonapproved explosives shall be used only as primers with ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents. Such primers shall be placed...

2013-07-01

251

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

252

High-nitrogen explosives  

SciTech Connect

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

2002-01-01

253

Effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of rocks at large deformations is characterized, including the effects of crack growth when unstable, the effects of anisotropy, the distinction between open and closed cracks, the influence of crack intersections, the role of pore pressure, and a calculation of permeability. The theory is quite general, and is intended for use in a computer program rather than as a vehicle for obtaining analytic results. When a spherical explosive charge is embedded in oil shale it produces an aspirin-shaped cavity at late times as a result of the bedded structure of the rock. In this paper a calculation of the cavity produced by a spherical explosive is compared with a radiograph, showing remarkable agreement between the two. The shape of the cavity is explained by the behavior of cracks lying in the bedding planes.

Dienes, J.K.

1981-01-01

254

K0 - K0???? System in the Rigged Hilbert Space Quantum Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction CP Violation Unstable Particles Hilbert Space Description of the K0- K0???? Rigged Hilbert Space Quantum Mechanics Basic Definitions Scattering K Meson Decays in RHS Quantum Mechanics Interpretation of the Background Integral Conclusions

Kielanowski, P.

255

16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig...SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test...

2009-01-01

256

Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences.

Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

1989-01-01

257

16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig...SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test...

2013-01-01

258

High Explosives Handbook. Volume 1. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This High Explosives Handbook provides information related to the design of nuclear systems. This volume contains information on Primary explosives, High explosives, Squibs and Primacord, Adhesives, Fillers, and coatings used with explosives and Solid Pro...

1967-01-01

259

Coal Dust Explosions and Their Suppression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The problem of coal dust explosions; Basic information about the explosibility of coal dust; Main parameters of the explosibility of coal dust; Limit explosibility of coal dust and its dependence upon the basic parameters; The effect of the init...

W. Cybulski

1975-01-01

260

Explosives Test and Evaluation Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is provided as a reference document for explosive hardware. The successful development of explosive devices used in ordnance or other defense or space application requires a rigorous test and evaluation program to assure high reliability in us...

D. D. Kerstetter

1972-01-01

261

Friction Sensitivity of Primary Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Bundesanstalt fur Materialprufung (BAM) small friction tester, manufactured in West Germany, has been used to rank primary explosives in their order of friction sensitivity. Primary explosives RD 1333 lead azide, dextrinated lead styphnate, polyvinyl-al...

J. Harris

1982-01-01

262

The RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway in cancer cell-selective apoptosis  

PubMed Central

A replication-incompetent hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Fragments of the viral RNA genome transported by HVJ-E are recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). Specific pro-apoptotic factor are selectively upregulated in cancer cells downstream of the RIG-I/MAVS pathway.

Kaneda, Yasufumi

2013-01-01

263

Fully suspended, five-axis, three-magnetic-bearing dynamic spin rig with forced excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant advancement in the dynamic spin rig (DSR), i.e., the five-axis, three-magnetic-bearing DSR, is used to perform\\u000a vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under rotating and non-rotating conditions in a vacuum. The rig has\\u000a three magnetic bearings as its critical components: two heteropolar radial active magnetic bearings and a magnetic thrust\\u000a bearing. The bearing configuration allows full vertical

C. R. Morrison; A. Provenza; A. Kurkov; G. Montague; K. Duffy; O. Mehmed; D. Johnson; R. Jansen

2005-01-01

264

Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate immune system senses viral infection by recognizing a variety of viral components (including double-stranded (ds)RNA) and triggers antiviral responses. The cytoplasmic helicase proteins RIG-I (retinoic-acid-inducible protein I, also known as Ddx58) and MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard) have been implicated in viral dsRNA recognition. In vitro studies suggest that both RIG-I and MDA5

Hiroki Kato; Osamu Takeuchi; Shintaro Sato; Mitsutoshi Yoneyama; Masahiro Yamamoto; Kosuke Matsui; Satoshi Uematsu; Andreas Jung; Taro Kawai; Ken J. Ishii; Osamu Yamaguchi; Kinya Otsu; Tohru Tsujimura; Chang-Sung Koh; Caetano Reis E Sousa; Yoshiharu Matsuura; Takashi Fujita; Shizuo Akira

2006-01-01

265

Development of a test-rig for large scale wind turbine emulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research describes the development of a test-rig for observing the behavior of a large wind turbine system and investigates the design of power electronics and controller performances in a laboratory environment. The test-rig consists of a PC, Lab Master I\\/O board, power electronics circuitry and a 3HP separately-excited DC motor which drives a wound rotor induction generator with the

P. K. Banerjee; M. Arifujjaman

2010-01-01

266

Origin and evolution of the RIG-I like RNA helicase gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The DExD\\/H domain containing RNA helicases such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for detecting nucleotide pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of invading viruses. The RIG-I and MDA5 proteins differentially recognise conserved PAMPs in double stranded or single stranded viral RNA molecules, leading to activation of

Jun Zou; Mingxian Chang; Pin Nie; Chris J Secombes

2009-01-01

267

Safe explosives for shaped charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was demonstrated that high-performance shaped charges could be developed using as the explosive charge mixtures of ingredients that are not, by themselves, considered explosives. At least one of the ingredients needed to be a liquid, stored separately, that could be quickly injected into the shaped charge cavity to generate the active explosive. Precision copper shaped charge cones in diameters

K. J. Scribner; J. O. Davis

1977-01-01

268

Hand held explosives detection system  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

269

Electromagnetic field effects in explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of

Douglas Tasker

2009-01-01

270

Explosives signatures and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable

Jonathan M. Oyler

2008-01-01

271

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

272

Bioremediation of Explosive Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses several methods currently available for the treatment of nitramine- type explosive contaminants in soil environments as well give a brief description of several research projects that were recently conducted in this area. The review begins by first discussing where RDX, HMX, TNT and CL-20 contaminants come from and what avenues through which they can travel to enter

Matt Mahler

273

Explosions and blast injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful explosions have the potential to inflict many different types of injuries on victims, some of which may be initially occult. Flying debris and high winds commonly cause conventional blunt and penetrating trauma. Injuries caused by blast pressures alone result from complex interactions on living tissues. Interfaces between tissues of different densities or those between tissues and trapped air result

John M. Wightman; Sheri L. Gladish

2001-01-01

274

Explosive Safety Container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The container is in the form of a plastic block with a hole for containing an explosive. The plastic is loaded into a tubular vessel such as glass or polyethylene. The plastic block is made of a plastic material which does not shatter like metal.

M. F. T. Zimmer L. K. Asaoka

1965-01-01

275

Explosions During Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an idealized model of the effects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of filaments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N-body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale-free test-bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH/P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas located inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy-release for galaxies of different mass in the CDM model can relate these results to scale-dependent questions of blow-out and blow-away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxies.

Martel, H.; Shapiro, P. R.

2001-03-01

276

Ecotoxicology of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical

Rebecca Ann Efroymson; Neil R Giffen; Valerie Morrill; Thomas Jenkins

2009-01-01

277

CBC: Halifax Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the evening of December 6, 1917, a massive explosion rocked the harbor of the rapidly growing city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, located in eastern Canada. Caused by the collision of two ships (one of which was carrying a tremendous amount of explosive material), the explosion killed over 1500 people outright, and devastated the settlements around the area. Working with various historical groups, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has created this engrossing multimedia look into the events leading up to that dreadful incident, along with offering a broader historical perspective on the development of the city of Halifax and the aftermath of these tragic events. Starting from the main page, visitors will learn about Halifax's history, along with having the opportunity to view significant interactive features, such as maps of the area and recently-discovered archival footage of the city and its environs. The interactive features here are quite amazing, as visitors can view video clips of survivors' recollections, and watch footage of various commemoration activities associated with the explosion.

278

LLNL explosives handbook: properties of chemical explosives and explosives and explosive simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook presents information and data for high explosives (HEs) of interest to programs at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It is intended to be useful to the scientist or engineer, the novice or expert, who needs to develop a new weapon system, design a physics experiment, or select and\\/or evaluate an

Dobratz

1981-01-01

279

The combustion of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

2001-01-01

280

DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is divided into the following sections: introduction, operational safety, explosives and personnel limits and personnel control, training, quantity-distance and level of protection criteria for explosives activities, operating procedures, formulation scaleup, and insensitive high explosives qualification. (DLC)

Not Available

1983-12-01

281

Paramyxovirus V Proteins Interact with the RNA Helicase LGP2 To Inhibit RIG-I-Dependent Interferon Induction  

PubMed Central

RIG-I and mda-5 are activated by viral RNA and stimulate type I interferon production. Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) shares homology with RIG-I and mda-5 but lacks the CARD domains required for signaling. The V proteins of paramyxoviruses limit interferon induction by binding mda-5 and preventing its activation; however, they do not bind RIG-I and have not been considered inhibitors of RIG-I signaling. Here we uncover a novel mechanism of RIG-I inhibition in which the V protein of parainfluenzavirus type 5 (PIV5; formerly known as simian virus type 5 [SV5]) interacts with LGP2 and cooperatively inhibits induction by RIG-I ligands. A complex between RIG-I and LGP2 is observed in the presence of PIV5-V, and we propose that this complex is refractory to activation by RIG-I ligands. The V proteins from other paramyxoviruses also bind LGP2 and demonstrate LGP2-dependent inhibition of RIG-I signaling. This is significant, because it demonstrates a general mechanism for the targeting of the RIG-I pathway by paramyxoviruses.

Childs, Kay; Randall, Richard

2012-01-01

282

Measurement of friction force and effects of oil fortifier in engine journal bearings under dynamic loading conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial base oil and oil fortifier added to this oil are used to investigate the frictional behavior of the engine journal bearings using the theoretical Reynolds equation and experimental test rig. In the theoretical part of the study, the Reynolds equation that states the pressure distribution and friction force with finite width was solved by using the finite difference method.

Ertu?rul Durak; Cahit Kurbano?lu; Ayd?n B?y?kl?o?lu; Hakan Kaleli

2003-01-01

283

Explosive performance measurements on large, multiple-hole arrays and large masses of conventional explosive  

SciTech Connect

The COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time EXperiment (CORRTEX) system was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for determining the energy released in a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system, fielding techniques, and the methods and software for data reduction and analysis were developed over a 15 year period with hundreds of measurements made on nuclear tests and high explosive experiments. CORRTEX is a compact, portable, fast-sampling, microprocessor-controlled system, based on time domain reflectometry, requiring only a 24 volt power source and a sensing element. Only the sensing element (a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable) is expended during the detonation. In 1979, the CORRTEX system was shown to be ideally suited for chemical explosive performance measurements. Its utility for diagnosing chemical explosives was further demonstrated with successful measurements on large multiple-hole chemical shots in rock quarries and strip mines. Accurate timing of the detonation of sequenced or ripple fired arrays, as well as data characterizing the initiation, explosive performance and detonation anomalies are obtained. This information can serve as the basis for empirical or modeled improvements to blasting operations. A summary of the special CORRTEX features and well developed analysis techniques together with the experiment designs, data, and conclusions regarding the measurements and explosive performance from several array detonations and the Chemical Kiloton Experiment, 2.9 million pounds of an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) and emulsion blend conducted on the Nevada Test Site in 1993, are presented.

McKown, T.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Eilers, D.D. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Williams, P.E. [New Mexico Tech., Socorro, New Mexico (United States). Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center

1994-11-01

284

Biodegradation of nitro-explosives.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination by nitro compounds is associated principally with the explosives industry. However, global production and use of explosives is unavoidable. The presently widely used nitro-explosives are TNT (Trinitrotoluene), RDX (Royal Demolition Explosive) and HMX (High Melting Explosive). Nevertheless, the problems of these nitro-explosives are almost parallel due to their similarities of production processes, abundance of nitro-explosives and resembling chemical structures. The nitro-explosives per se as well as their environmental transformation products are toxic, showing symptoms as methaemoglobinaemia, kidney trouble, jaundice etc. Hence their removal/degradation from soil/water is essential. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of TNT and RDX have been reported, while for HMX anaerobic or anoxic degradation have been described in many studies. A multisystem involvement using plants in remediation is gaining importance. Thus the information about degradation of nitro-explosives is available in jigsaw pieces which needs to be arranged and lacunae filled to get concrete degradative schemes so that environmental pollution from nitro-explosives can be dealt with more successfully at a macroscale. An overview of the reports on nitro-explosives degradation, future outlook and studies done by us are presented in this review. PMID:15242292

Kanekar, Pradnya; Dautpure, Premlata; Sarnaik, Seema

2003-09-01

285

Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

Hurley, Christoph

286

Molecular hydrodynamics of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

High explosives release mechanical energy through chemical reactions. Applications of high explosives are vast in the mining and military industries and are beginning to see more civilian applications such as the deployment of airbags in modern automobiles. One of the central issues surrounding explosive materials is decreasing their sensitivity, necessary for their safe handling, while maintaining a high yield. Many practical tests have been devised to determine the sensitivity of explosive materials to shock, to impact, to spark, and to friction. These tests have great value in determining yield and setting precautions for safe handling but tell little of the mechanisms of initiation. How is the mechanical energy of impact or friction transformed into the chemical excitation that initiates explosion? The answer is intimately related to the structure of the explosive material, the size and distribution of grains, the size and presence of open areas such as voids and gas bubbles, and inevitably the bonding between explosive molecules.

Belak, J.

1994-11-01

287

Effect of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifiers on engine fuel economy and gear oil efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifier additives was tested comparatively in engine dynamometer tests on gasoline and diesel engines; the tests measured variations in brake specific fuel consumption with speed. A similar selection of molybdenum-containing additives was evaluated in terms of transmission efficiency in a hypoid-gear, rear-axle test rig; the baseline oil was a formulated SAE-75W gear oil. Bench-scale

A. B. Greene; T. J. Risdon

1981-01-01

288

QGP fireball explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange\\u000ahadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of\\u000athe ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in\\u000arelativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical\\u000aproperties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an\\u000aanalysis of

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-01-01

289

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 1520% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

290

Explosives signatures and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

2008-05-01

291

Adhesion of explosives.  

PubMed

It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

2013-05-17

292

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel R/V Eugenie during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

2010-12-01

293

Post explosion analysis of explosives by mass spectrometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Analysis of trace amounts of explosives from post-explosion debrisone of the most difficult problems in forensic chemistry-is still carried out in many laboratories by chromatographic methods only. In recent years several new methods have been applied to the analysis of explosives. These include mass spectrometric methods (GC\\/MS, LC\\/MS and MS\\/MS) and NMR methods. The possible application of these methods

Shmuel Zitrin

1986-01-01

294

A test rig for the measurement of vibration in hand-held power tools.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present project was to study the possibility of using a test rig for the measurement of vibration and noise from hand-held power tools. A test rig was designed to give the same effect on tool handle vibration as the human hand/arm system. Work was simulated by feeding the material to be processed against the tool, clamped into the rig, with the aid of a co-ordinate table. It was designed for use in studies of impact drills, chain saws, grinders and similar power tools. The report describes a proposal for testing the vibration properties of impact drills. Drilling with the test rig was compared with manual drilling. The difference in the acceleration level between the two methods was about 1 dB for ISO-weighted values in the critical direction. Both methods showed good reproducibility. The possibility of conducting noise level tests of a power tool in the rig was studied and the results are reported separately. PMID:15676459

Hansson, J E; Kihlberg, S

1983-03-01

295

Natural gas in Lake Erie: a reconnaissance survey of discharges from an offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted May 28-June 1, 1979, to determine the chemical composition and physical behavior of discharges from an offshore gas drilling rig in the central basin of Lake Erie. The drilling operation was observed for four days, from rig jackup to the circulation of mud through the borehole after drilling had been completed. Resuspension studies using nephelometry, supplemented with chemical analyses, indicated little resuspension of lake bottom materials or release of metals to the water column during rig jack-up. Portions of the turbidity plumes generated during drilling were buoyant. Three surface turbidity plumes were mapped with nephelometry to a point at which particulate concentrations reached background levels in the Lake. Detectable plumes were approx. 400 to 1500 m in length and had maximum widths < 230 m. A chemical survey conducted in the plume during early gas shows indicated that discharged inorganic chemical species were rapidly diluted to background concentrations and that methane and ethane concentrations were substantially reduced within 330 m of the rig. There was no evidence of carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons (CTEH) above background concentrations during this chemical plume survey. However, a pair of water samples taken within 100 m of the rig approximately 3 hours after drilling of the target zone was completed had CTEH concentrations that were a factor of 2.4 above background.

Ferrante, J.G.; Dettmann, E.H.; Parker, J.I.

1980-10-01

296

Numerical Modeling of Underwater Explosion Properties for Nonideal Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater experiments for an ideal explosive, TNT, and two nonideal explosives, CETR emulsion and DXD-04, were performed, and numerically simulated. For TNT, calculations done by using program-burn models based on the rate-independent Chapman-Jouguet theory were in a good agreement with experimental results, which validated the wide use of program-burn models for ideal explosives. For CETR emulsion and DXD-04, experimental observations could be reproduced with high precision only when reaction rates were employed. These results demonstrated that detonation in nonideal explosives can be modeled only by using properly calibrated reaction rates.

Lee, Jaimin

297

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes ``re-freezing'' the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the ``re-freezing'' temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude ``re-freezing'' of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

Makhov, M. N.

2004-07-01

298

Calibration methods for explosives detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airport security has become an important concern to cultures in every corner of the world. Presently, efforts to improve airport security have brought additional technological solutions, in the form of advanced instrumentation for the detection of explosives, into use at airport terminals in many countries. This new generation of explosives detectors is often used to augment existing security measures and provide a more encompassing screening capability for airline passengers. This paper describes two calibration procedures used for the Thermedics' EGIS explosives detectors. The systems were designed to screen people, electronic components, luggage, automobiles, and other objects for the presence of concealed explosives. The detectors have the ability to detect a wide range of explosives in both the vapor state or as surface adsorbed solids, therefore, calibrations were designed to challenge the system with explosives in each form.

MacDonald, Stephen J.; Rounbehler, David P.

1992-05-01

299

Methane Flux to the Atmosphere from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfortunate blowout at the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig on April 20, which killed 11 people, was releasing oil and methane at an average rate of 58,000 barrels per day into the deep ocean, until it was recently capped resulting in a total of 4.9 million barrels released (National Incident Command Report, 2010). The methane component of the

S. A. Yvon-Lewis; L. Hu; J. D. Kessler; F. Garcia Tigreros; E. W. Chan; M. Du

2010-01-01

300

77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2012-09-20

301

76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2011-10-19

302

75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2010-11-17

303

75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2010-01-08

304

Thermionic Fuel Element Test Rig: Testing of Single Cell Thermionic Fuel Element Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermionic Fuel Element Test Rig is designed for non-nuclear testing of individual single cell thermionic fuel elements utilizing electric heaters as a part of the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Facility, at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI), in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The test rig was purchased from the Republic of Russia and assembled jointly by Russian and American specialists from JV Inertek, a Russian Corporation and the New Mexico Strategic Alliance (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico). Initial certification testing and system qualifications testing were completed in December 1992. In the fall of 1993, US personnel completed certification as operators of the test rig and conducted additional testing to verify previous results. The testing is being funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and is being executed by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory.

Luchau, David W.; Follis, Hoby D.; Schreiber, Christopher A.; Izhvanov, Oleg L.; Vibivanets, Valeri I.; Androsov, Victor N.; Shadrin, Eugeni O.

1994-07-01

305

Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms  

SciTech Connect

The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-10

306

Molecular characterization, expression patterns, and subcellular localization of RIG-I in the Jinding Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) have recently been identified as cytoplasmic sensors for RNA virus. Recent research has shown that RIG-I, a member of this family, play an important role in innate immunity. In this study, we cloned the RIG-I gene from Jinding duck by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). We determined that the cDNA of duRIG-I contains a 14-bp 5' UTR, a 2802-bp open reading frame, and alternative 3' UTRs (295-bp and 927-bp) and encodes a polypeptide of 933 amino acids. Based on this sequence, the duRIG-I protein is predicted to have conserved domains typical of RLRs. In addition, duRIG-I was found to be distributed throughout DF1 cells by indirect immunofluorescence, as predicted. duRIG-I mRNA was scarcely detected in healthy tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR). To study the role of RIG-I in innate immunity, we used synthetic double-stranded RNA to mimic viral infection in vivo and detected duRIG-I transcripts in spleen and liver by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of duRIG-I mRNA was significantly elevated at 8h post-injection (P<0.05) and was indistinguishable from control levels at other time points (P>0.05). These results suggest that duRIG-I plays an important role in innate immune responses to double-stranded RNA viruses and warrant further studies to reveal the possible mechanism. PMID:23916689

Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Zhengyang; Xu, Qi; Zhu, Zhen; Tong, Yiyu; Yu, Qinmin; Ding, Jiatong; Chen, Guohong

2013-08-02

307

Suppression Effect on Explosive Percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percolation transitions (PTs) of networks, leading to the formation of a macroscopic cluster, are conventionally considered to be continuous transitions. However, a modified version of the classical random graph model was introduced in which the growth of clusters was suppressed, and a PT occurs explosively at a delayed transition point. Whether the explosive PT is indeed discontinuous or continuous becomes controversial. Here, we show that the behavior of the explosive PT depends on detailed dynamic rules. Thus, when dynamic rules are designed to suppress the growth of all clusters, the discontinuity of the order parameter tends to a finite value as the system size increases, indicating that the explosive PT could be discontinuous.

Cho, Y. S.; Kahng, B.

2011-12-01

308

Spectral analysis on explosive percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectral properties of the process of explosive percolation. In particular, we explore how the maximum eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network which governs the spreading efficiency evolves as the density of connection increases. Interestingly, for networks with connectivity that grow in an explosive way, information spreading and mass transport are found to be carried out inefficiently. In the conventional explosive percolation models that we studied, the sudden emergences of large-scale connectivity are found to come with relatively lowered efficiency of spreading. Nevertheless, the spreading efficiency of the explosive model can be increased by introducing heterogeneous structures into the networks.

Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.; Lai, C. H.

2013-03-01

309

Explosive scabbling of structural materials  

DOEpatents

A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

310

Modeling of explosion thermal radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic and radiation processes accompanying explosions of chemical explosives and fuel-air mixtures have been considered. Computer modeling of the radiation from a fire ball of explosion and a flame of diffusion combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel has been performed. The dependences of the heat flux density from the region occupied by explosion and combustion products on its temperature and geometric characteristics have been determined. Thermal load distributions on targets of different orientations in the vicinity of the energy release zone have been obtained. A comparison of the thermal parameters on radiation detectors with the criteria of thermal affection of people and ignition of combustible materials has been made.

Stepanov, K. L.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stankevich, Yu. A.

2011-01-01

311

Intrinsic fluctuations in explosive reactions  

SciTech Connect

A reaction is called explosive when the amount of a reactant becomes infinite in a finite time. When the intrinsic stochastic character of the reaction is taken into account, the explosion time is a random quantity. The authors compute its probability distribution, or at least its average and variance, for various kinds of reactions. If a reaction is unstable, so that a reactant can either explode or disappear, one first has to compute the probability for an explosion to occur at all, and then the average explosion time. Finally, the same ideas are applied to more general Markov processes.

van Kampen, N.G.

1987-03-01

312

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

DOEpatents

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

313

Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01

314

Towards optoelectronic detection of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of explosives is an important challenge for contemporary science and technology of security systems. We present an application of NOx sensors equipped with concentrator in searching of explosives. The sensors using CRDS with blue violet diode lasers (410 nm) as well as with QCL lasers (5.26 ?m and 4.53 ?m) are described. The detection method is based either on reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides emitted by explosives or to NOx produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX the detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved.

Wojtas, J.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Rutecka, B.; Medrzycki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.

2013-06-01

315

Development of a fluid structure interaction tool for the study and prevention of transformer tank explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil filled transformers explosions and their prevention is a complex industrial issue. Experimental tests showed that when an electrical fault occurs in a transformer, it generates dynamic pressure waves that propagate in the oil. Reflections of these waves on the walls build up high static pressure which transformer tanks cannot withstand. The tank's ability to withstand this pressure is thus

B. Landis; R. Brady

2010-01-01

316

Characterization of HCV Interactions with Toll-Like Receptors and RIG-I in Liver Cells  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of IFN induction and viral escape. In order to accomplish the goal we compared our new hepatoma cell line LH86, which has intact TLR3 and RIG-I expression and responds to HCV by inducing IFN, with Huh7.5 cells which lack those features. Methods The initial interaction of LH86 cells, Huh7.5 cells or their transfected counter parts (LH86 siRIG-I, siTLR3 or siTLR7 and Huh7.5 RIG-I, TLR3 or TLR7) after infection with HCV (strain JFH-1) was studied by measuring the expression levels of IFN?, TRAIL, DR4, DR5 and their correlation to viral replication. Results HCV replicating RNA induces IFN in LH86 cells. The IFN induction system is functional in LH86, and the expression of the RIG-I and TLR3 in LH86 is comparable to the primary hepatocytes. Both proteins appear to play important roles in suppression of viral replication. We found that innate immunity against HCV is associated with the induction of apoptosis by RIG-I through the TRAIL pathway and the establishment of an antiviral state by TLR3. HCV envelope proteins interfere with the expression of TLR3 and RIG-I. Conclusion These findings correlate with the lower expression level of PRRs in HCV chronic patients and highlight the importance of the PRRs in the initial interaction of the virus and its host cells. This work represents a novel mechanism of viral pathogenesis for HCV and demonstrates the role of PRRs in viral infection.

Eksioglu, Erika A.; Zhu, Haizhen; Bayouth, Lilly; Bess, Jennifer; Liu, Hong-yan; Nelson, David R.; Liu, Chen

2011-01-01

317

Systems Analysis of a RIG-I Agonist Inducing Broad Spectrum Inhibition of Virus Infectivity  

PubMed Central

The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5? triphosphate (5?ppp) terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5?pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN) signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5?pppRNA, and not by IFN?-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5?pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5?pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5?pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents.

Goulet, Marie-Line; Olagnier, David; Xu, Zhengyun; Paz, Suzanne; Belgnaoui, S. Mehdi; Lafferty, Erin I.; Janelle, Valerie; Arguello, Meztli; Paquet, Marilene; Ghneim, Khader; Richards, Stephanie; Smith, Andrew; Wilkinson, Peter; Cameron, Mark; Kalinke, Ulrich; Qureshi, Salman; Lamarre, Alain; Haddad, Elias K.; Sekaly, Rafick Pierre; Peri, Suraj; Balachandran, Siddharth; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John

2013-01-01

318

Systems analysis of a RIG-I agonist inducing broad spectrum inhibition of virus infectivity.  

PubMed

The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp) terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5'pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN) signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5'pppRNA, and not by IFN?-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5'pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5'pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5'pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:23633948

Goulet, Marie-Line; Olagnier, David; Xu, Zhengyun; Paz, Suzanne; Belgnaoui, S Mehdi; Lafferty, Erin I; Janelle, Valrie; Arguello, Meztli; Paquet, Marilene; Ghneim, Khader; Richards, Stephanie; Smith, Andrew; Wilkinson, Peter; Cameron, Mark; Kalinke, Ulrich; Qureshi, Salman; Lamarre, Alain; Haddad, Elias K; Sekaly, Rafick Pierre; Peri, Suraj; Balachandran, Siddharth; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John

2013-04-25

319

Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.  

PubMed

We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741

Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

2013-06-17

320

Explosions on the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System - these are the eruptions and flaring that occur on the Sun. They can release as much energy as 10 million volcanoes, and throw out material into the solar system with similar mass to Mount Everest! The theories of what can produce such an explosion are based around the magnetic field that confines the gas. These events can produce emission right across the electromagnetic spectrum. The status of our ability to predict these events is discussed.

Harra, Louise K.

2005-10-01

321

Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

Higashimori, K.; Yokoi, N.; Hoshino, M.

2013-06-01

322

Test rig and particulate deposit and cleaning evaluation processes using the same  

DOEpatents

A rig and test program for determining the amount, if any, of contamination that will collect in the passages of a fluid flow system, such as a power plant fluid delivery system to equipment assemblies or sub-assemblies, and for establishing methods and processes for removing contamination therefrom. In the presently proposed embodiment, the rig and test programs are adapted in particular to utilize a high-pressure, high-volume water flush to remove contamination from substantially the entire fluid delivery system, both the quantity of contamination and as disposed or deposited within the system.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Schenectady, NY); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01

323

Identification and characterization of the retinoic acid response elements in the human RIG1 gene promoter  

SciTech Connect

The expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 (RIG1), a class II tumor suppressor gene, is induced in cells treated with retinoids. RIG1 has been shown to express ubiquitously and the increased expression of this gene appears to suppress cell proliferation. Recent studies also demonstrated that this gene may play an important role in cell differentiation and the progression of cancer. In spite of the remarkable regulatory role of this protein, the molecular mechanism of RIG1 expression induced by retinoids remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to study the molecular mechanism underlying the all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-mediated induction of RIG1 gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a total of 10 luciferase constructs that contain various fragments of the RIG1 5'-genomic region. These constructs were then transfected into human gastric cancer SC-M1 and breast cancer T47D cells for transactivation analysis. atRA exhibited a significant induction in luciferase activity only through the -4910/-5509 fragment of the 5'-genomic region of RIG1 gene relative to the translation initiation site. Further analysis of this promoter fragment indicated that the primary atRA response region is located in between -5048 and -5403 of the RIG1 gene. Within this region, a direct repeat sequence with five nucleotide spacing, 5'-TGACCTctattTGCCCT-3' (DR5, -5243/-5259), and an inverted repeat sequence with six nucleotide spacing, 5'-AGGCCAtggtaaTGGCCT-3' (IR6, -5323/-5340), were identified. Deletion and mutation of the DR5, but not the IR6 element, abolished the atRA-mediated activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extract from atRA-treated cells indicated the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers specifically to this response element. In addition to the functional DR5, the region contains many other potential sequence elements that are required to maximize the atRA-mediated induction. Taken together, we have identified and characterized the functional atRA response element that is responsible for the atRA-mediated induction of RIG1 gene.

Jiang, S.-Y. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, M.-S. [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-M. [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hung, M.-W. [Department of Medical Research and Education, Veteran's General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.-E. [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, G.-G. [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: tcchang@ndmctsgh.edu.tw

2005-06-03

324

Dynamic analysis of a rig shafting vibration based on finite element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recently, finite elements method (FEM) has been used most popular for analysis of stress, vibration, heat flow and many other phenomena. Taking a rig shafting as an example, this paper studies the lateral vibration of the rig shafting with multi-degree-of-freedom by using FEM. The FEM model is created and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated and analyzed to find natural frequencies, critical speeds, mode shapes and unbalance responses. Then critical and mode shapes are determined. Finally, responses of unbalance force are analyzed in case of undamped and damped system, and peaks of response are compared.

Ngo, Van Thanh; Xie, Danmei; Xiong, Yangheng; Zhang, Hengliang; Yang, Yi

2013-09-01

325

Dynamic analysis of a rig shafting vibration based on finite element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recently, finite elements method (FEM) has been used most popular for analysis of stress, vibration, heat flow and many other phenomena. Taking a rig shafting as an example, this paper studies the lateral vibration of the rig shafting with multi-degree-of-freedom by using FEM. The FEM model is created and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated and analyzed to find natural frequencies, critical speeds, mode shapes and unbalance responses. Then critical and mode shapes are determined. Finally, responses of unbalance force are analyzed in case of undamped and damped system, and peaks of response are compared.

Ngo, Van Thanh; Xie, Danmei; Xiong, Yangheng; Zhang, Hengliang; Yang, Yi

2013-05-01

326

77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...issued one-year LOAs to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2012-03-21

327

78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...issued one-year LOAs to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2013-03-01

328

78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...NMFS has issued LOAs to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2013-04-16

329

Explosive components facility certification tests  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01

330

Oil shale mining method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for mining underground oil-shale formations consists of drilling a series of small diameter shot holes from the surface vertically downward to near or into the roof of a room previously dug out and mined from the formation, lowering explosive charges to the same depth in each hole and simultaneously exploding these charges to bring down into the room

Arendy

1970-01-01

331

Oil Storage Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vessels for the storage of liquid, such as crude oil, are formed by detonating a nuclear (or conventional) explosive under the surface of a permafrost area such as occurs in arctic and subarctic regions, to form an open crater. The walls of such a crater ...

R. S. Hague

1972-01-01

332

Oil and gas platform ocean current profile data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately forty deep water oil production platforms and drilling rigs continue to provide real-time current profile data to NOAA's National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). NDBC receives and quality controls the data and transmits it over the Global Telecommunications System. NDBC stores the raw binary current profile data where it can be extracted by private concerns in order to forecast the

Richard L. Crout

2008-01-01

333

Lower prices wreak havoc on Alaska oil patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in oil prices has slowed drilling activity at Prudhoe Bay even while offshore field construction work continues. By winter, the layoff of about 14 drilling rigs will mean unemployment for an estimated 1400 workers at one field. New construction projects include a plant to process natural gas liquids for the trans-Alaska pipeline and a miscible injection project. The

Bradner

1986-01-01

334

Rig-I regulates NF-?B activity through binding to Nf-?b1 3?-UTR mRNA  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) senses viral RNAs and triggers innate antiviral responses through induction of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. However, whether RIG-I interacts with host cellular RNA remains undetermined. Here we report that Rig-I interacts with multiple cellular mRNAs, especially Nf-?b1. Rig-I is required for NF-?B activity via regulating Nf-?b1 expression at posttranscriptional levels. It interacts with the multiple binding sites within 3?-UTR of Nf-?b1 mRNA. Further analyses reveal that three distinct tandem motifs enriched in the 3?-UTR fragments can be recognized by Rig-I. The 3?-UTR binding with Rig-I plays a critical role in normal translation of Nf-?b1 by recruiting the ribosomal proteins [ribosomal protein L13 (Rpl13) and Rpl8] and rRNAs (18S and 28S). Down-regulation of Rig-I or Rpl13 significantly reduces Nf-?b1 and 3?-UTRmediated luciferase expression levels. These findings indicate that Rig-I functions as a positive regulator for NF-?B signaling and is involved in multiple biological processes in addition to host antivirus immunity.

Zhang, Hong-Xin; Liu, Zi-Xing; Sun, Yue-Ping; Lu, Shun-Yuan; Liu, Xue-Song; Huang, Qiu-Hua; Xie, Yin-Yin; Dang, Su-Ying; Zheng, Guang-Yong; Li, Yi-Xue; Kuang, Ying; Fei, Jian; Chen, Zhu; Wang, Zhu-Gang

2013-01-01

335

Rig-I regulates NF-?B activity through binding to Nf-?b1 3'-UTR mRNA.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) senses viral RNAs and triggers innate antiviral responses through induction of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. However, whether RIG-I interacts with host cellular RNA remains undetermined. Here we report that Rig-I interacts with multiple cellular mRNAs, especially Nf-?b1. Rig-I is required for NF-?B activity via regulating Nf-?b1 expression at posttranscriptional levels. It interacts with the multiple binding sites within 3'-UTR of Nf-?b1 mRNA. Further analyses reveal that three distinct tandem motifs enriched in the 3'-UTR fragments can be recognized by Rig-I. The 3'-UTR binding with Rig-I plays a critical role in normal translation of Nf-?b1 by recruiting the ribosomal proteins [ribosomal protein L13 (Rpl13) and Rpl8] and rRNAs (18S and 28S). Down-regulation of Rig-I or Rpl13 significantly reduces Nf-?b1 and 3'-UTR-mediated luciferase expression levels. These findings indicate that Rig-I functions as a positive regulator for NF-?B signaling and is involved in multiple biological processes in addition to host antivirus immunity. PMID:23553835

Zhang, Hong-Xin; Liu, Zi-Xing; Sun, Yue-Ping; Zhu, Jiang; Lu, Shun-Yuan; Liu, Xue-Song; Huang, Qiu-Hua; Xie, Yin-Yin; Zhu, Hou-Bao; Dang, Su-Ying; Chen, Hai-Feng; Zheng, Guang-Yong; Li, Yi-Xue; Kuang, Ying; Fei, Jian; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu; Wang, Zhu-Gang

2013-04-03

336

Controlled by Distant Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cdric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

2007-03-01

337

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01

338

Tenderizing Meat with Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

2001-06-01

339

77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. DATES: Effective November...site where solid propellants, energetic liquids, or other explosives are located to prepare...quantity of solid propellants, energetic liquids, and other explosives located...

2012-09-07

340

14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...each public area, including the launch site boundary; (2) A list of the maximum quantity of energetic liquids, solid propellants and other explosives to be located at each explosive hazard facility, including explosive class and division;...

2013-01-01

341

Marine riser protector for use on offshore oil drilling rigs in icy waters  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for protecting a marine riser extending downwardly from a platform of an offshore station above a sea level toward a sea bottom. A tubular protector is removably mounted on the underside of the platform in surrounding relation to the marine riser in the vicinity of the sea level. According to another embodiment, a tubular protector has an upper portion in the shape of a truncated cone for contact with ice floes and a lower portion shaped as a grid-like truncated cone flaring downwardly for diverting ice floes away from the tubular protector.

Yashima, N.

1985-03-19

342

Marine riser protector for use on offshore oil drilling rigs in icy waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for protecting a marine riser extending downwardly from a platform of an offshore station above a sea level toward a sea bottom. A tubular protector is removably mounted on the underside of the platform in surrounding relation to the marine riser in the vicinity of the sea level. According to another embodiment, a tubular protector has an upper

Yashima

1985-01-01

343

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING FAULT DIAGNOSIS IN ROTATING MACHINES OF OIL EXTRACTION RIGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents vibration analysis techniques for fault detection in rotating machines. Rolling element bearing defects inside a motor pump are the subject of study. Signal processing techniques, like frequency filters, Hilbert tra ns- form, and spectral analysis are used to extract features use d later as a base to classify the condition of machines. Also, pattern recognition techniques are

E. Mendel; T. W. Rauber; F. M. Varej; R. J. Batista

2009-01-01

344

Explosives Detection for Aviation Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

Fainberg, Anthony

1992-03-01

345

Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.  

PubMed

Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

2003-06-01

346

Explosive Sensing Using Polymer Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated polymers are attractive materials that have been used to make a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Recently they have been used as explosive sensors as there is currently an urgent need for high sensitivity explosive detection due to the increased security issues across the world. This review outlines the attractive properties of organic polymers as gain media in lasers,

Yue Wang; Ying Yang; Graham A. Turnbull; Ifor D. W. Samuel

2012-01-01

347

Applying NASA's Explosive SEAM Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length...

L. J. Bement

1991-01-01

348

NONMILITARY USES OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of the sudden release of energy in explosions at ertremely ; high temperature and pressure into the form of useful work, either mechanical, ; chemical, or thermal, must be accomplished in order for such explosions to have ; nomailitary uses. The technical feasibility of such conversion in a number of ; different instances is discussed along with nuisance effects.

1960-01-01

349

After an explosion, what happens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever an explosion or fire occurs in the presence of LP-gas, an investigation is usually necessary to determine the cause and to protect the marketer from unreasonable lawsuits. Haag Engineering Co., Dallas, urges that the evidence be studied carefully so that mistakes do not obliterate evidence before a conclusion is reached. Overall effects of the explosion should be examined to

1975-01-01

350

Explosive-Powder Compaction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a pressure-control system and a test fixture to study the behavior of explosive materials during compaction. Both the pressure-control system and the test fixture are self-contained and portable. Explosive materi...

A. P. Montoya M. L. Reichenbach

1981-01-01

351

TRENDS IN NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear explosion monitoring is as important today as it was at the dawn of the atomic age. Over the past several decades the scientific understanding and technological sophistication that underpin monitoring have advanced tremendously. We still face challenges, however, because the United States (U.S.) needs to monitor a growing range of events, from earthquakes to mining explosions that can cause

Dale N. Anderson; Raymond J. Willemann; Harry S. Miley; C. L. Edwards; Preston B. Herrington; J. Mark Harris; Joseph C. Wehlburg; David B. Harris; John J. Zucca; Leslie A. Casey

352

Explosive detection research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of explosives carried by a passenger or included in checked baggage is a priority objective of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Security Research and Development Program. Significant accomplishments have been made in the detection of explosives in checked baggage. A technology, thermal neutron analysis, has been developed and tested extensively in airports with actual passenger baggage. The screening

Malotky

1988-01-01

353

Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors  

SciTech Connect

Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2008-01-01

354

BP, Corporate R&D, and the University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|April 20, 2010, and the days following, provided the world with graphic images of a burning oil rig, a perception that the oil industry and state and federal governments were helpless, and a pervasive sense of the devastation wrought on coastal residents by the rig explosion and the oil spill. The residents of the Gulf Coast soon realized that

Lea, Russ

2010-01-01

355

Water treatment and heating in spent shale oil retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in situ fragmented permeable mass of particles containing treated oil shale is formed by excavating a void in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, explosively expanding formation toward such a void to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale, and retorting the particles containing oil shale in the fragmented mass. Water containing impurities is introduced

1979-01-01

356

A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)  

SciTech Connect

This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

Bart Patton

2007-09-30

357

RIG-I-Like Receptors Mediate Innate Antiviral Response in Mouse Testis.  

PubMed

The testis is an immune privileged organ in which the tissue-specific cells have adopted effective innate immune functions against microbial pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate innate immune response in the testis. The current study demonstrates that melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) initiate the testicular innate antiviral response. Both MDA5 and RIG-I are expressed in Leydig cells, and MDA5 is also expressed in spermatids. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a common agonist of MDA5 and RIG-I, significantly induces the expression of type I interferons (IFN-?/?) and antiviral proteins, including IFN-stimulated gene 15, 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, and Mx GTPase 1, in primary TLR3-deficient (TLR3(-/-)) Leydig and germ cells. Moreover, major proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-? and IL-6, are significantly up-regulated by poly(I:C) in these testicular cells. The poly(I:C)-induced innate antiviral response in the testicular cells is significantly reduced by knockdown of individual MDA5 and RIG-I using specific small interfering RNA. We also provide evidence that local injection of poly(I:C) induces antiviral response in the testis of TLR3(-/-) mice. These data provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying testicular antiviral response. PMID:23820901

Zhu, Weiwei; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Yan, Keqin; Liu, Zhenghui; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Lili; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

2013-07-02

358

Asynchronous electric motors for variable-frequency electric drives of drilling rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation peculiarities of the main drilling rig mechanisms are considered. The key specification requirements to asynchronous\\u000a variable-frequency electric motors of the main drives are presented. The possibility of designing and developing the batch\\u000a production of competitive, domestically produced drilling electric motors at enterprises of RUSELPROM concern is grounded.

B. I. Abramov; L. N. Makarov; B. M. Breslav; V. M. Ponomarev; B. M. Parfenov

2009-01-01

359

Development of rig for systematic irradiation tests of fusion reactor materials in a fission reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of systematic irradiation data are essential for understanding fundamental processes of irradiation effects and for establishment of a reliable database for irradiation effects in fusion reactor materials. It will take several years with expensive several different irradiation rigs in a fission reactor irradiation. There, it will take a long time to carry out the needed iterations between irradiation tests

Minoru Narui; Tsutomu Sagawa; Tatsuo Shikama

1998-01-01

360

Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Fasteners Exposed in a Combustion Liner Rig Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion tests on SiC/SiC CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) components were performed in an aircraft combustion environment using the Rich-burn, Quick-quench, Lean-burn (RQL) sector rig. SiC/SiC fasteners were used to attach several of these components to ...

M. J. Verrilli D. Brewer

2002-01-01

361

77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Rigging Equipment for Material Handling...provisions to remove the tables in Sec. 1926.251 (construction; tables H-1, and...This notice, therefore, amends Sec. 1926.251 by removing most of the...

2012-04-18

362

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar\\/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This

Galica

1994-01-01

363

Gear performance and catch comparison trials between a single trawl and a twin rigged gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fishing and engineering performance of single and twin rigged scraper trawls were compared during trials aboard a commercial fishing boat. These trawls had differences both in performance and in mean catch. There were three major differences in the geometry of the two gears (door spread, wing spread and bridle angle) and thus the area of seabed effectively fished by

G. I. Sangster; M. Breen

1998-01-01

364

Rig Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5211.1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graduate of the Rig Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) take responsibility for personal safety and the safety of others; (2) supervise, coach and train apprentices and floor hands; (3) perform the duties of a motorhand, derrickhand or driller; and (4) perform assigned tasks in accordance

Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

2011-01-01

365

The Italian Job: Match Rigging, Career Concerns and Media Concentration in Serie A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the literature on competition and corruption, by drawing on records from Calciopoli, a judicial inquiry carried out in 2006 on corruption in the Italian soccer league. Unlike previous studies, we can estimate the determinants of match rigging and use this information in identifying corruption episodes in years in which there are no pending judicial inquiries. We

Tito Boeri; Battista Severgnini

2008-01-01

366

Turbo test rig with hydroinertia air bearings for a palmtop gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a turbo test rig to test the compressor of a palmtop gas turbine generator at low temperature (<100 C). Impellers are 10 mm in diameter and have three-dimensional blades machined using a five-axis NC milling machine. Hydroinertia bearings are employed in both radial and axial directions. The performance of the compressor was measured at 50% (435 000

Shuji Tanaka; Kousuke Isomura; Shin-ichi Togo; Masayoshi Esashi

2004-01-01

367

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

368

Investigation of Liner Characteristics in the NASA Langley Curved Duct Test Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR), which is designed to investigate propagation of sound in a duct with flow, has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The duct incorporates an adaptive control system to generate a tone in the duct at a specific f...

C. H. Gerhold M. C. Brown M. G. Jones W. R. Watson

2007-01-01

369

A Three-Stage Counter Current Leaching Rig for the Senior Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a reliable and predictable laboratory experiment which represents the result of an integrated approach to design with an emphasis on teaching. Notes the flat-celled rig has logged over 100 hours service in 2 years without any problems. (MVL)

Davies, Wayne A.

1989-01-01

370

On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives  

SciTech Connect

Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.

1997-07-01

371

Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions  

SciTech Connect

The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

1983-01-01

372

Explosive molecular ionic crystals.  

PubMed

In ionic crystals of the form M(+)X(-), certain covalently bonded anion groups X(-) are particularly associated with instability. The heavier metal cations M(+) enhance this. Very sensitive explosives occur within the extended azide family, where X(-) = CNO(-), N(3)(-), NCO(-), or NCS(-) (an isoelectronic set of unsaturated linear triatomic anions). Another such family are the globular oxyanions X(-) = ClO(2)(-), ClO(3)(-), ClO(4)(-), NO(3)(-), and MnO(4)(-). Mishandling of NH(4)NO(3) or NH(4)ClO(4) has caused major disasters. An irreversible cyclic mechanism is proposed for such decomposition, involving mechanoelectronic band-gap excitation and coalescence of X with X(-). From an intracrystalline ion-molecule collision complex, the singly charged dianion X(2)(-), exothermic reactions proceed with high yield. PMID:17787990

Faust, W L

1989-07-01

373

Dynamic test rig and test technique for the aircraft models unsteady aerodynamic characteristics measurements in high subsonic and transonic wind tunnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new dynamic test rig is designed in TsAGI to investigate the aerodynamic damping derivatives of the aircraft models in wind tunnels at high subsonic and transonic speeds. The action of the rig is based on the free oscillations method with the use of elastic elements. The dynamic test rig is equipped with the five component strain gage balance. Both

S. V. Kabin; K. A. Kolinko; A. N. Khrabrov; P. D. Nushtaev

1995-01-01

374

Thermochemistry of mixed explosives  

SciTech Connect

In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole/sup -1/ and Z = 4.62 X 10/sup 16/ s/sup -1/.

Janney, J.L.; Rogers, R.N.

1982-01-01

375

Direct imaging of explosives.  

PubMed

Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field. PMID:11003510

Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

376

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2010-04-01

377

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2009-04-01

378

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2011-04-01

379

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2013-04-01

380

(Packaging regulations for chemical explosives)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the trip was to visit Nobel Chemicals in Sweden and to confer with the Department of Transportation personnel in Sweden and in England on the technical and regulatory problems in the bulk shipping of the high explosives RDX and HMX. It is customary in the United States (US) to add isopropyl alcohol to the bulk shipment of water-wet high explosives RDX and HMX. The explosives are packed in cloth bags which are placed in plastic-lined fiber drums. The addition of alcohol presumably prevents mildewing of cloth bags and freezing of the wet explosives in cold weather. In Europe, however, these explosives are shipped in polyethylene-lined fiber drums with not less than 15% water only, even in cold weather. Water-wet frozen explosives have not proved to be any more sensitive than its unfrozen counterpart and no mildew problem has been encountered. It looks promising that the US Department of Transportation regulations can be changed to permit the bulk shipment of these explosives in water only without the addition of isopropyl alcohol. This is expected to cut down the packaging cost considerably. In addition, the packaging procedure in the US can be modernized by introducing more mechanical and efficient handling as seen at Nobel Chemicals. 2 figs.

Pal, B.C.

1988-02-17

381

Detection of explosives in soils  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

382

Shock desensitizing of solid explosive  

SciTech Connect

Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

Davis, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

383

Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.  

PubMed

The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients. PMID:19069034

Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

384

Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

Bernier, Evan Thomas

385

Oil well blow-out safety system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for delaying the ignition of, or for extinguishing, an oil well rig fire, by injecting an admixture of for example pressurized CO2 and mono-potassium phosphate into the flow of hydrocarbons from the drill pipe and casing, through a plurality of holds in the wall of a spool apparatus located in the ''stack'' above the ''hydril'' and blow-out preventers

Poole

1982-01-01

386

Friction and wear of tribofilms formed by zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate antiwear additive in low viscosity engine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear characteristics of low viscosity SAE 5W-20 engine oils containing different amounts of phosphorus were studied using two different test devices. One was a laboratory high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) testing new and used oils at low and elevated temperatures. A direct acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) sliding valvetrain bench test apparatus was used to measure the friction and

J. S. McQueen; H. Gao; E. D. Black; A. K. Gangopadhyay; R. K. Jensen

2005-01-01

387

Lofting of dust by very large explosions  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the Minor Scale test was to determine the quantity, form, and composition of dust lofted by a large detonation of a conventional high explosive at ground level. The explosive charge was 4427 tonnes of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), whose blast effect is approximately equal to that of an 8 kT nuclear device. The experimental techniques used to determine the amount of dust were (1) use of elements in soil as natural tracers, (2) inclusion of tracer elements in the ANFO charge and the immediate surroundings, (3) airborne collection of the lofted dust on filter media, and (4) analysis of the samples for both tracers and dust. The tracer content of the sample can then relate the dust collected to the total amount lofted and to the location of its origin within the experimental setup. Indium, in the oxide form, was placed within the explosive charge, and tantalum as very fine dust, was placed near the soil surface immediately adjacent to the charge container. The amounts of the tracers and of dust collected by each filter were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A research aircraft equipped with well-characterized high-volume filter samplers was flown through the dust cloud at 10 levels between the top at 4.6 km and the bottom at 1.7 km above ground level. The cloud dust density was distinctly biomodal; its maxima were at 4.1 and 2.9 km. The majority of the indium was associated with the dust in the upper part of the cloud, and the majority of the tantalum was in the lower part. The estimate of the total dust lofted by use of the naturally occurring tracers was 3.0 x 10/sup 9/ g. Samples are being studied by scanning electron microscopy to determine their particle size and composition distributions as functions of location within the cloud.

Mason, A.S.; Finnegan, D.L.; Hagan, R.C.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Cocks, G.G.; Zoller, W.H.; Peach, C.L.

1987-08-01

388

Explosion and Explosives. Volume 32, Number 2, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic progress and safety; Lead salt of mono-di - and tri-nitro resorcinol (Report II, sensitivity characteristic and some other properties); Observation on detonation phenomenon in rectangular cartridge by x-ray flash method; Explosive nitra...

1971-01-01

389

High Explosive Radio Telemetry System  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.

Bracht, R.R.; Crawford, T.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Mclaughlin, B.M.

1998-11-04

390

The Structural Basis of 5? Triphosphate Double-stranded RNA Recognition by RIG-I C-terminal Domain  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY RIG-I is a cytosolic sensor of viral RNA that plays crucial roles in the induction of type I interferons. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I is responsible for the recognition of viral RNA with 5? triphosphate (5? ppp). However, the mechanism of viral RNA recognition by RIG-I is still not fully understood. Here we show that RIG-I CTD binds 5? ppp dsRNA or ssRNA, as well as blunt-ended dsRNA, and exhibits the highest affinity for 5? ppp dsRNA. Crystal structures of RIG-I CTD bound to 5? ppp dsRNA with GC- and AU- rich sequences revealed that RIG-I recognizes the termini of the dsRNA and interacts with the 5? triphosphate through extensive electrostatic interactions. Mutagenesis and RNA binding studies demonstrated that similar binding surfaces are involved in the recognition of different forms of RNA. Mutations of key residues at the RNA binding surface affected RIG-I signaling in cells.

Lu, Cheng; Xu, Hengyu; Ranjith-Kumar, C. T.; Brooks, Monica T.; Hou, Tim Y.; Hu, Fuqu; Herr, Andrew B.; Strong, Roland K.; Kao, C. Cheng; Li, Pingwei

2010-01-01

391

Toscana virus NSs protein inhibits the induction of type I interferon by interacting with RIG-I.  

PubMed

Toscana virus (TOSV) is a phlebovirus, of the Bunyaviridae family, that is responsible for central nervous system (CNS) injury in humans. Previous data have shown that the TOSV NSs protein is a gamma interferon (IFN-?) antagonist when transiently overexpressed in mammalian cells, inhibiting IRF-3 induction (G. Gori Savellini, F. Weber, C. Terrosi, M. Habjan, B. Martorelli, and M. G. Cusi, J. Gen. Virol. 92:71-79, 2011). In this study, we investigated whether an upstream sensor, which has a role in the signaling cascade leading to the production of type I IFN, was involved. We found a significant decrease in RIG-I protein levels in cells overexpressing TOSV NSs, suggesting that the nonstructural protein interacts with RIG-I and targets it for proteasomal degradation. In fact, the MG-132 proteasome inhibitor was able to restore IFN-? promoter activation in cells expressing NSs, demonstrating the existence of an evasion mechanism based on inhibition of the RIG-I sensor. Furthermore, a C-terminal truncated NSs protein (?NSs), although able to interact with RIG-I, did not affect the RIG-I-mediated IFN-? promoter activation, suggesting that the NSs domains responsible for RIG-I-mediated signaling and interaction with RIG-I are mapped on different regions. These results contribute to identify a novel mechanism for bunyaviruses by which TOSV NSs counteracts the early IFN response. PMID:23552410

Gori-Savellini, Gianni; Valentini, Melissa; Cusi, Maria Grazia

2013-04-03

392

Induction of apoptosis by the retinoid inducible growth regulator RIG1 depends on the NC motif in HtTA cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1), also known as tazarotene-induced gene 3 or retinoic-acid receptor responder 3, is a growth regulator, which induces apoptosis and differentiation. RIG1 is classified into the NC protein family. This study investigated functional domains and critical amino acids associated with RIG1-mediated cell death and apoptosis. Results Using enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged RIG1 variants, RIG1 proteins with deletion at the NC domain significantly decreased cell death induced by RIG1, and fusion variants containing only the NC domain significantly induced apoptosis of HtTA cervical cancer cells. The EGFP-RIG1-induced apoptosis was significantly decreased in cells expressing N112C113 motif double- (NC?FG) or triple- (NCR?FGE) mutated RIG1 variants. Using dodecapeptides, nuclear localization and profound cell death was observed in HtTA cells expressing wild type RIG1111123 or Leu121-mutated RIG1111123:L? C peptide, but peptides double- or triple-mutated at the NC motif alone, RIG1111123:NC?FG or RIG1111123:NCR?FGE, were cytoplasmically localized and did not induce apoptosis. The RIG1111123 also induced apoptosis of A2058 melanoma cells but not normal human fibroblasts. Conclusion The NC domain, especially the NC motif, plays the major role in RIG1-mediated pro-apoptotic activity. The RIG1111123 dodecapeptide exhibited strong pro-apoptotic activity and has potential as an anticancer drug.

Tsai, Fu-Ming; Shyu, Rong-Yaun; Lin, Su-Ching; Wu, Chang-Chieh; Jiang, Shun-Yuan

2009-01-01

393

EXPLOSIVE WELDING SIMULATION OF MULTILAYER TUBES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Explosive welding is a process which uses explosive detonation to propel the flyer plate material into the base material to produce a sound joint. Experimental tests have been performed to explosively welded aluminum 5056, aluminum 1015 and stainless steel 304 tubes in one step. The tests have been carried out using various stand-off distances and explosive ratios. Various interface

A. A. Akbari Mousavi; G. Joodaki

394

Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.  

PubMed

The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

2001-12-01

395

Rdx, HMX and Explosive Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical properties, physical properties, and specification requirements are given for cyclonite (RDX) and homocyclonite (HMX). Also included is a list of explosive compositions produced from RDX, HMX, TNT, and various binding agents. The latter listing i...

1965-01-01

396

Nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes  

SciTech Connect

The US Plowshare programme, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957 to 1973 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) Treaty was signed in 1976. The US programme explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare programme, which has involved roughly 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT).

Borg, I.Y.

1986-07-01

397

Nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes  

SciTech Connect

The US Plowshare program, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957-73 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty was signed in 1976. The US program explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare program, which has involved more than 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty. 24 refs.

Borg, I.Y.

1986-11-01

398

Detonation probabilities of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The probability of a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) following various events is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons dismantlement. In this paper, we describe the development of response curves for insults to PBX 9404, a conventional high-performance explosive used in US weapons. The insults during dismantlement include drops of high explosive (HE), strikes of tools and components on HE, and abrasion of the explosive. In the case of drops, we combine available test data on HEVRs and the results of flooring certification tests to estimate the HEVR probability. For other insults, it was necessary to use expert opinion. We describe the expert solicitation process and the methods used to consolidate the responses. The HEVR probabilities obtained from both approaches are compared.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Bement, T.R.

1995-07-01

399

Risk Management of Explosives Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) procedures to manage the safety and control of explosives has been stimulated by ever increasing demands for more efficient operation, and by the requirements of recently extended Health and Safety Legislation...

D. J. Hewkin G. B. Jones I. Self R. A. Drake V. J. Gill

1994-01-01

400

Fundamental Research in Explosive Magnetohydrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background experimental work with explosive driven MHD generators is reviewed and the major parametric factors are outlined. Previously unpublished data on the effects of the density and composition of gases originally in the channel is reviewed and i...

M. S. Jones

1976-01-01

401

The heterogeneous explosive reaction zone  

SciTech Connect

The calculated reaction zone of PBX-9404 using solid HMX Arrhenius kinetics is stable to perturbations. The calculated reaction zone Von Neumann spike pressure agrees with the experimental observations within experimental uncertainty associated with different experimental techniques. The calculated homogengeous explosive reaction zone thickness is larger than observed for the heterogeneous explosive. The effect of two volume percent air holes on the reaction zone was modeled using the three-dimensional Eulerian reactive hydrodynamic code, 3DE. The air holes perturb the reaction zone. A complicated, time-dependent, multidimensional reaction region proceeds through the heterogeneous explosive. The experimentally observed reaction zone characteristic of heterogeneous explosives are mean values of an irregular, three-dimensional reaction region. 20 refs., 6 figs.

Mader, C.L.; Kershner, J.D.

1989-01-01

402

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

403

Calculations for Explosive Magnetic Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a translation of a Soviet paper which develops generalized criteria for optimum design of an explosive magnetic generator. Studies on techniques for pulsed compression of magnetic fields, with the resultant high pulse power generation, were active...

S. G. Hibben

1976-01-01

404

Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material in the Gulf of Mexico surface waters and along coastal beaches shortly after the explosion of Deepwater Horizon sparked debate about its origin and the oil covering it. We show that the unknown pieces of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material collected in the Gulf of Mexico were pieces of the riser pipe

Catherine A Carmichael; J Samuel Arey; William M Graham; Laura J Linn; Karin L Lemkau; Robert K Nelson; Christopher M Reddy

2012-01-01

405

On coupling factors of explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the seismic effect of an explosion plays an important part in the theory and practice of demolition engineering, antiseismic engineering, nuclear explosion engineering, seismic exploration, and seismic depth sounding. A still unresolved issue in this regard is concerned with the calculation of energy conversion process. An attempt is made to explore this issue by drawing on the research done in the field of seismic depth sounding.

Shao-Quan, Z.

1985-04-01

406

System for analysis of explosives  

DOEpatents

A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-06-29

407

Gas explosion during diathermy gastrotomy.  

PubMed

The first report of rupture of the stomach due to diathermy-elicited gas explosion during gastrotomy in a patient with intestinal ischemia resulting in obstruction and jejunal and gastric dilatation is presented. In the obstructed stomach or small bowel, a proliferation of hydrogen- and methane-producing bacteria can occur, leading to the accumulation of these combustible gases in explosive concentrations. In cases of gastrointestinal tract obstruction, the diathermy knife should not be used in entering the gastrointestinal lumen. PMID:2910765

Joyce, F S; Rasmussen, T N

1989-02-01

408

Explosive-powder compaction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a pressure-control system and a test fixture to study the behavior of explosive materials during compaction. Both the pressure-control system and the test fixture are self-contained and portable. Explosive materials are compacted in a bridged header charge holder assembly by means of a test fixture and a pneumatic cylinder arrangement. Forces are measured with load

A. P. Montoya; M. L. Reichenbach

1981-01-01

409

External ballistic of volcanic explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the kinetic energy of an explosion it is necessary to know the initial velocities of ejected fragments.\\u000a \\u000a Calculations of initial velocities made earlier with few exceptions did not take into account the resistance of the air and\\u000a therefore, greatly underestimated the initial velocities, and consequently the energy of the explosions. A solution of the\\u000a inverse problem

G. S. Steinberg; V. Lorenz

1983-01-01

410

Microbial remediation of explosive waste.  

PubMed

Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed. PMID:22497284

Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

2012-05-01

411

Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m^3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V^1/3 (dp/pt)max 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC 10^1 -10^2 g/m^3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2.

Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

2013-03-01

412

Involvement of the prostaglandin D2 signal pathway in retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-mediated suppression of cell invasion in testis cancer cells.  

PubMed

Retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1), also called tazarotene-induced gene 3, belongs to the HREV107 gene family, which contains five members in humans. RIG1 is expressed in high levels in well-differentiated tissues, but its expression is decreased in cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. We found RIG1 to be highly expressed in testicular cells. When RIG1 was expressed in NT2/D1 testicular cancer cells, neither cell death nor cell viability was affected. However, RIG1 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in NT2/D1 cells. We found that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) interacted with RIG1 using yeast two-hybrid screens. Further, we found PTGDS to be co-localized with RIG1 in NT2/D1 testis cells. In RIG1-expressing cells, elevated levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), cAMP, and SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX9) were observed. This indicated that RIG1 can enhance PTGDS activity. Silencing of PTGDS expression significantly decreased RIG1-mediated cAMP and PGD2 production. Furthermore, silencing of PTGDS or SOX9 alleviated RIG1-mediated suppression of migration and invasion. These results suggest that RIG1 will suppress cell migration/invasion through the PGD2 signaling pathway. In conclusion, RIG1 can interact with PTGDS to enhance its function and to further suppress NT2/D1 cell migration and invasion. Our study suggests that RIG1-PGD2 signaling might play an important role in cancer cell suppression in the testis. PMID:22960220

Wu, Chang-Chieh; Shyu, Rong-Yaun; Wang, Chun-Hua; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Wang, Lu-Kai; Chen, Mao-Liang; Jiang, Shun-Yuan; Tsai, Fu-Ming

2012-08-30

413

A Distinct Role of Riplet-Mediated K63-Linked Polyubiquitination of the RIG-I Repressor Domain in Human Antiviral Innate Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infections, but several viruses have evolved strategies to escape innate immunity. RIG-I is a cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor that triggers the signal to induce type I interferon production in response to viral infection. RIG-I activation is regulated by the K63-linked polyubiquitin chain mediated by Riplet and TRIM25 ubiquitin ligases. TRIM25 is required for RIG-I oligomerization and interaction with the IPS-1 adaptor molecule. A knockout study revealed that Riplet was essential for RIG-I activation. However the molecular mechanism underlying RIG-I activation by Riplet remains unclear, and the functional differences between Riplet and TRIM25 are also unknown. A genetic study and a pull-down assay indicated that Riplet was dispensable for RIG-I RNA binding activity but required for TRIM25 to activate RIG-I. Mutational analysis demonstrated that Lys-788 within the RIG-I repressor domain was critical for Riplet-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination and that Riplet was required for the release of RIG-I autorepression of its N-terminal CARDs, which leads to the association of RIG-I with TRIM25 ubiquitin ligase and TBK1 protein kinase. Our data indicate that Riplet is a prerequisite for TRIM25 to activate RIG-I signaling. We investigated the biological importance of this mechanism in human cells and found that hepatitis C virus (HCV) abrogated this mechanism. Interestingly, HCV NS3-4A proteases targeted the Riplet protein and abrogated endogenous RIG-I polyubiquitination and association with TRIM25 and TBK1, emphasizing the biological importance of this mechanism in human antiviral innate immunity. In conclusion, our results establish that Riplet-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination released RIG-I RD autorepression, which allowed the access of positive factors to the RIG-I protein.

Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Miyashita, Moeko; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

2013-01-01

414

Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?  

SciTech Connect

The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

Simmons, M.R. [Simmons and Co. International, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-02-01

415

Caspase-12 controls West Nile virus infection via the viral RNA receptor RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Caspase-12 has been shown to negatively modulate inflammasome signaling during bacterial infection. Its function in viral immunity, however, has not been characterized. We now report an important role for caspase-12 in controlling viral infection via the pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I. After challenge with West Nile virus (WNV), caspase-12-deficient mice had greater mortality, higher viral burden and defective type I interferon response compared with those of challenged wild-type mice. In vitro studies of primary neurons and mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that caspase-12 positively modulated the production of type I interferon by regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25mediated ubiquitination of RIG-I, a critical signaling event for the type I interferon response to WNV and other important viral pathogens.

Wang, Penghua; Arjona, Alvaro; Zhang, Yue; Sultana, Hameeda; Dai, Jianfeng; Yang, Long; LeBlanc, Philippe M; Doiron, Karine; Saleh, Maya; Fikrig, Erol

2013-01-01

416

Estimates of Crater Dimensions for Near-Surface Explosions of Nuclear and High-Explosive Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crater data from numerous high-explosive (HE) experiments and from fewer nuclear explosive (NE) tests are used to develop an empirically based procedure for predicting crater dimensions from nuclear explosions in various geologic media. The HE crater data...

H. F. Cooper

1976-01-01

417

Wear in Slurry Pipelines: Experiments with 38mm Diameter Specimens in a Closed-Loop Test Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abrasive slurry was circulated through 38mm diameter pipe in a closed-loop test rig and the amount of wear was assessed by measuring the weight loss of short removable lengths. (Copyright (c) Crown Copyright 1983)

J.G. James B.A. Broad

1983-01-01

418

Study of aeropropulsion laboratory pressure drop rig and recommended test procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the results of a study of a pressure drop rig for measuring pressure drop across samples of foam. In addition, a test procedure and two evaluation programs are presented which reduce test data to standard day conditions so that the results are independent of the test ambient conditions. An analysis of instrument reading error effects is provided to determine their maximum cumulative effect on the assigned value of foam pressure drop.

Lawson, M. O.; Minardi, J. E.

1986-11-01

419

Factors affecting the exposure of ground- rig applicators to 2,4-D dimethylamine salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report on exposure to and absorption of the herbicide 2,4-D dimethylamine salt by farmers carrying out spray operations with tractor-drawn ground-rigs, involving handling, transferring, mixing, and applying the herbicide to wheat. The 30 individual spray operations lasted 55 to 870 min, and involved 1 to 11 tank fills, and application of 6.7 to 88.3 kg 2,4-D (acid

R. Grover; A. J. Cessna; N. I. Muir; D. Riedel; C. A. Franklin; K. Yoshida

1986-01-01

420

Distinct RIG-I and MDA5 Signaling by RNA Viruses in Innate Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha\\/beta interferon immune defenses are essential for resistance to viruses and can be triggered through the actions of the cytoplasmic helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation- associated gene 5 (MDA5). Signaling by each is initiated by the recognition of viral products such as RNA and occurs through downstream interaction with the IPS-1 adaptor protein. We directly compared

Yueh-Ming Loo; Jamie Fornek; Nanette Crochet; Gagan Bajwa; O. Perwitasari; L. Martinez-Sobrido; S. Akira; M. A. Gill; A. Garcia-Sastre; M. G. Katze; Michael Gale Jr

2008-01-01

421

Wear mechanism of disc-brake block material for new type of drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve friction and wear performance and service life of the disc-brake pair material of a drilling rig, a new type of\\u000a asbestos-free frictional material with better performance for disc-brake blocks is developed, and its wear mechanism is investigated\\u000a by friction and wear experiments. Topography and elementary components of the brake blocks wear surface are analyzed by employing\\u000a SEM and

Xinhua Wang; Simin Wang; Siwei Zhang; Deguo Wang

2008-01-01

422

Design of multi-module experiment-rig of vessel electrical propulsion prime mover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined power plant is widely used in large or medium surface vessel for its predominant performance. It is important to research on using combined power plant as electrical propulsion prime mover for developing the electric propulsion warship. This paper, designs a multi-module experiment-rig and introduces its composition, working principle and disposition scheme, and carried out the dynamic characteristic experiment of the GTD350 gas turbine.

Xie, Chun-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hui

2005-03-01

423

Torsional Vibration Control and Cosserat Dynamics of a Drill-Rig Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of drill-string vibrations in the context of a recently developed integrated model of a drill-rig assembly based on the Cosserat theory of rods are discussed. Computer simulations are used to compare existing rotary feedback strategies currently in use to optimise drilling performance where torsional slip-stick vibrations are a hazard. Guided by the wave nature of axial and torsional vibrations

Robin W. Tucker; Charles Wang

2003-01-01

424

Non-linear modelling and optimal control of a hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the modelling, parameter identification and control of an unidirectional hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig. The plant is characterized by non-linearities such as the valve dead zone and frictions. A non-linear model is derived and then employed for parameter identification. The results concerning the model validation are illustrated and they fully confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model.The testing procedure of the isolation systems is based on the definition of a target displacement time history of the sliding table and, consequently, the precision of the table positioning is of primary importance. In order to minimize the test rig tracking error, a suitable control system has to be adopted. The system non-linearities highly limit the performances of the classical linear control and a non-linear one is therefore adopted. The test rig mathematical model is employed for a non-linear control design that minimizes the error between the target table position and the current one. The controller synthesis is made by taking no specimen into account. The proposed approach consists of a non-linear optimal control based on the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE). Numerical simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the soundness of the designed control with and without the specimen under test. The results confirm that the performances of the proposed non-linear controller are not invalidated because of the presence of the specimen.

Pagano, Stefano; Russo, Riccardo; Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario

2013-02-01

425

Analysis and modification of a single-mesh gear fatigue rig for use in diagnostic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-mesh gear fatigue rig was analyzed and modified for use in gear mesh diagnostic research. The fatigue rig allowed unwanted vibration to mask the test-gear vibration signal, making it difficult to perform diagnostic studies. Several possible sources and factors contributing to the unwanted components of the vibration signal were investigated. Sensor mounting location was found to have a major effect on the content of the vibration signal. In the presence of unwanted vibration sources, modal amplification made unwanted components strong. A sensor location was found that provided a flatter frequency response. This resulted in a more useful vibration signal. A major network was performed on the fatigue rig to reduce the influence of the most probable sources of the noise in the vibration signal. The slave gears were machined to reduce weight and increase tooth loading. The housing and the shafts were modified to reduce imbalance, looseness, and misalignment in the rotating components. These changes resulted in an improved vibration signal, with the test-gear mesh frequency now the dominant component in the signal. Also, with the unwanted sources eliminated, the sensor mounting location giving the most robust representation of the test-gear meshing energy was found to be at a point close to the test gears in the load zone of the bearings.

Zakrajsek, James J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Decker, Harry J.

1992-05-01

426

The Modeling and Simulating Research of Electrical Synchronization Speed-regulating System in Rolling Test-rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rolling test-rig is a sort of larger test apparatus, which can test electric locomotive's pulling and braking performance scientifically. The principle of rolling test-rig is to simulate the same rail with four rail wheels, and rotational speed of four rail wheels must be completely consistent. Based on the following three factors: the pulling characteristic of SS8 electric locomotive, dynamic

Zhongquan Zhang; Yupeng Tang; Xingzhen Zhang

2005-01-01

427

Type I IFN Triggers RIG-I/TLR3/NLRP3-dependent Inflammasome Activation in Influenza A Virus Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

Influenza A virus (IAV) triggers a contagious and potentially lethal respiratory disease. A protective IL-1? response is mediated by innate receptors in macrophages and lung epithelial cells. NLRP3 is crucial in macrophages; however, which sensors elicit IL-1? secretion in lung epithelial cells remains undetermined. Here, we describe for the first time the relative roles of the host innate receptors RIG-I (DDX58), TLR3, and NLRP3 in the IL-1? response to IAV in primary lung epithelial cells. To activate IL-1? secretion, these cells employ partially redundant recognition mechanisms that differ from those described in macrophages. RIG-I had the strongest effect through a MAVS/TRIM25/Ripletdependent type I IFN signaling pathway upstream of TLR3 and NLRP3. Notably, RIG-I also activated the inflammasome through interaction with caspase 1 and ASC in primary lung epithelial cells. Thus, NS1, an influenza virulence factor that inhibits the RIG-I/type I IFN pathway, strongly modulated the IL-1? response in lung epithelial cells and in ferrets. The NS1 protein derived from a highly pathogenic strain resulted in increased interaction with RIG-I and inhibited type I IFN and IL-1? responses compared to the least pathogenic virus strains. These findings demonstrate that in IAV-infected lung epithelial cells RIG-I activates the inflammasome both directly and through a type I IFN positive feedback loop.

Pothlichet, Julien; Meunier, Isabelle; Davis, Beckley K.; Ting, Jenny P-Y.; Skamene, Emil; von Messling, Veronika; Vidal, Silvia M.

2013-01-01

428

Induction of Siglec-G by RNA viruses inhibits the innate immune response by promoting RIG-I degradation.  

PubMed

RIG-I is a critical RNA virus sensor that serves to initiate antiviral innate immunity. However, posttranslational regulation of RIG-I signaling remains to be fully understood. We report here that RNA viruses, but not DNA viruses or bacteria, specifically upregulate lectin family member Siglecg expression in macrophages by RIG-I- or NF-?B-dependent mechanisms. Siglec-G-induced recruitment of SHP2 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl to RIG-I leads to RIG-I degradation via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys813 by c-Cbl. By increasing type I interferon production, targeted inactivation of Siglecg protects mice against lethal RNA virus infection. Taken together, our data reveal a negative feedback loop of RIG-I signaling and identify a Siglec-G-mediated immune evasion pathway exploited by RNA viruses with implication in antiviral applications. These findings also provide insights into the functions and crosstalk of Siglec-G, a known adaptive response regulator, in innate immunity. PMID:23374343

Chen, Weilin; Han, Chaofeng; Xie, Bin; Hu, Xiang; Yu, Qian; Shi, Liyun; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Dongling; Wang, Jianli; Zheng, Pan; Liu, Yang; Cao, Xuetao

2013-01-31

429

Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental picture that shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives is caused by the linking of hot spots formed at inhomogeneities was put forward by several researchers in the 1950's and 1960's, and more recently. Our work uses the computer hardware and software developed in the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the U.S. Department of Energy to explicitly include heterogeneities at the scale of the explosive grains and to calculate the consequences of realistic although approximate models of explosive behavior. Our simulations are performed with ALE-3D, a three-dimensional, elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler finite-difference program, which includes chemical kinetics and heat transfer, and which is under development at this laboratory. We developed the parameter values for a reactive-flow model to describe the non-ideal detonation behavior of an HMX-based explosive from the results of grain-scale simulations. In doing so, we reduced the number of free parameters that are inferred from comparison with experiment to a single one - the characteristic defect dimension. We also performed simulations of the run to detonation in small volumes of explosive. These simulations illustrate the development of the reaction zone and the acceleration of the shock front as the flame fronts start from hot spots, grow, and interact behind the shock front. In this way, our grain-scale simulations can also connect to continuum experiments directly.

Reaugh, J E

2004-05-10

430

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

Kuhl, A L

2009-10-16

431

Explosively driven fragmentation of granular materials.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the explosively driven dynamics of dry and wet sand. Contrary to popular belief, wet sand under high strain rate loadings (10(4)s(-1)) is observed to have reduced resistance against flow compared to the dry sand, which is supported by a noticeably enhanced expansion before the breakup followed by an increased number of fragments. Even a small amount of interstitial oil (3.2 wt.%) suffices to substantially reduce the size of fragments whose average mass only amounts to 60% of the mass of the dry sand fragments. To predict the instability onset of the expanding sand shell, a kinetic instability model is proposed based on an instability criterion involving the opposing forces of stabilizing inertial pressures and destabilizing viscous resistance. The interstitial oil leads to a smaller viscous resistance of wet sand by the lubrication effect as well as lessening the degree of shock compaction. The dominance of viscous resistance thus commences later for the wet sand shell until a smaller thickness allows the inertial forces to be overtaken. Moreover, multi-shear localizations rather than interface instability are identified as the dominant mechanism for the instability onset of the expanding sand shells. PMID:23989757

Xue, Kun; Li, Fangfang; Bai, Chunhua

2013-08-30

432

77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the Gulf of Mexico...20, 2010 blowout of the Macondo well and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. The Complaint...as a co-lessee of the Macondo well and as...

2012-02-24

433

Insensitive fuze train for high explosives  

DOEpatents

A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

434

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

435

The Most Powerful Stellar Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results from our 3D simulations of thermonuclear supernovae from the stars with initial masses above 80 solar masses by using CASTRO, a new, massively parallel, multidimensional Eulerian, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), radiation-hydrodynamics code. We first use Kepler, a one-dimensional spherically-symmetric Lagrangian code to model the possible explosions beyond hypernovae. These extreme explosions include two types of electron/positron production instability supernovae and one type of general relativity instability supernovae. The resulting 1D presupernova profiles are mapped onto 3D grids of CASTRO as initial conditions. We simulate the explosion in 3D and resolve the emergent fluid instabilities. In this talk, we will discuss the energetics, nucleosynthesis, and possible observational signatures of these supernovae.

Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Woosley, Stan; Almgren, Ann; Zhang, Weiqun

2013-04-01

436

Design of explosive logic elements  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos has been exploring explosive logic systems to see if they might provide advantages in weapon safety or weapon command and control. We use the extrudable explosive EXTEX (80% PETN, 20% Sylgard) for this work. These systems contain at least one but usually several discrete logic elements, and the worth - the reliability - of the system is directly dependent on the reliability of these elements. We perceive that the troubles encountered in the early attempts to use explosive logic can be attributed to the lack of a truly reliable design for one or more of the elements being used. At Los Alamos, we express this as the need for a Safety/Reliability Window. In this short presentation, that concept will be emphasized. The development of three elements for which working windows are available will be discussed.

Meyers, W.H.

1984-01-01

437

Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure. PMID:19750406

Brtveit, Magne; Steinsvg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

2009-11-01

438

Investigation of an explosion and flash fire in a fixed bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

An explosion and flash fire in a fixed bed reactor occurred at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Two employees were injured in the accident. The accident occurred in an ozone treatment building where ozone was used to treat odors from the offgas of the sludge concentration units. Excess ozone manually was routed to the fixed bed reactor (ozone destruct unit) where the ozone is catalytically transformed into oxygen before being discharged to the atmosphere. An investigation of the accident was conducted to determine the root cause of the explosion and flash fire and identify corrective actions which the WWTP management could undertake to prevent a recurrence. This investigation included site inspections, interview with the injured employees, sampling and analysis of various materials, an explosion dynamics analysis, and a root cause analysis. It was concluded that cooling oil from one of the ozone generation units entered the main ozone gas line due to a crack in one of the reactor`s dielectric tubes. The cooling oil was vented into the ozone destruct unit when an employee opened a ball valve on the main ozone gas line. The cooling oil, essentially a saturated hydrocarbon mixture, reacted exothermically when it contacted the manganese dioxide catalyst. The exothermic reaction resulted in an explosion which propelled the access panel outwards and dispersed the catalyst pellets. A flash fire followed the explosion.

Ogle, R.A.; Schumacher, J.L. [Packer Engineering, Inc., Naperville, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

439

Explosive blasting method and means  

SciTech Connect

An explosive blasting method and apparatus are claimed for producing rock fragmentation and reducing the amplitude of seismic effects (ground vibration) in the vicinity of the blast. It utilizes an air gap method and apparatus for superheating the air surrounding the charge in a borehole. This raises the pressure therein coupled with the use of multiple detonation points along the borehole for the reduction of burn time. This reduces the quantity of explosives used along with a marked reduction of seismic shock, sound, and dust effects to the surrounding area.

Bowling, D.S.; Moore, R.N.

1983-05-10

440

Nonequilibrium detonation of composite explosives  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nonequilibrium diffusional flow on detonation velocities in composite explosives is examined. Detonation conditions are derived for complete equilibrium, temperature and pressure equilibrium, and two forms of pressure equilibrium. Partial equilibria are associated with systems which have not had sufficient time for transport to smooth out the gradients between spatially separate regions. The nonequilibrium detonation conditions are implemented in the CHEQ equation of state code. We show that the detonation velocity decreases as the non-chemical degrees of freedom of the explosive are allowed to equilibrate. It is only when the chemical degrees of freedom are allowed to equilibrate that the detonation velocity increases.

Nichols III, A.L.

1997-07-01

441

Generalized Pseudo-Reaction Zone Model for Non-Ideal Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pseudo-reaction zone model was proposed to improve engineering scale simulations with high explosives that have a slow reaction component. In this work an extension of the pseudo-reaction zone model is developed for non-ideal explosives that propagate well below the steady-planar Chapman-Jouguet velocity. A programmed burn method utilizing Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) and a detonation velocity dependent pseudo-reaction rate has been developed for non-ideal explosives and applied to the explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO). The pseudo-reaction rate is calibrated to the experimentally obtained normal detonation velocity-shock curvature relation. Cylinder test simulations predict the proper expansion to within 1% even though significant reaction occurs as the cylinder expands.

Wescott, B. L.

2007-12-01

442

Generalized Pseudo-Reaction Zone Model for Non-Ideal Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pseudo-reaction zone model was proposed to improve engineering scale simulations when using Detonation Shock Dynamics with high explosives that have a slow reaction component. In this work an extension of the pseudo-reaction zone model is developed for non-ideal explosives that propagate well below their steady-planar Chapman-Jouguet velocity. A programmed burn method utilizing Detonation Shock Dynamics and a detonation velocity dependent pseudo-reaction rate has been developed for non-ideal explosives and applied to the explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO). The pseudo-reaction rate is calibrated to the experimentally obtained normal detonation velocity---shock curvature relation. The generalized pseudo-reaction zone model proposed here predicts the cylinder expansion to within 1% by accounting for the slow reaction in ANFO.

Wescott, Bradley

2007-06-01

443

30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

2013-07-01

444

30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102 Section 56.6102...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material...

2013-07-01

445

29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Explosive-actuated power devices. Explosive-actuated power deviceany tool or special mechanized...proximity to other explosives. Tools used for opening packages...storage of any metal tools nor any commodity except explosives, but this...

2007-07-01

446

29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Explosive-actuated power devices. Explosive-actuated power deviceany tool or special mechanized...proximity to other explosives. Tools used for opening packages...storage of any metal tools nor any commodity except explosives, but this...

2008-07-01

447

29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Explosive-actuated power devices. Explosive-actuated power deviceany tool or special mechanized...proximity to other explosives. Tools used for opening packages...storage of any metal tools nor any commodity except explosives, but this...

2011-07-01

448

29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Explosive-actuated power devices. Explosive-actuated power deviceany tool or special mechanized...proximity to other explosives. Tools used for opening packages...storage of any metal tools nor any commodity except explosives, but this...

2006-07-01

449

29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Explosive-actuated power devices. Explosive-actuated power deviceany tool or special mechanized...proximity to other explosives. Tools used for opening packages...storage of any metal tools nor any commodity except explosives, but this...

2012-07-01

450

29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Explosive-actuated power devices. Explosive-actuated power deviceany tool or special mechanized...proximity to other explosives. Tools used for opening packages...storage of any metal tools nor any commodity except explosives, but this...

2005-07-01

451

Study on Surface Initiation of Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a continued military demand for controlled explosive wave shaping, this study was undertaken to establish basic conditions and to demonstrate the feasibility of an explosive system capable of being initiated uniformly along its entire surfa...

J. Roth

1966-01-01

452

46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion; i.e. , with substantially...

2012-10-01

453

46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion; i.e. , with substantially...

2011-10-01

454

Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

Clements, D.A.

1994-08-01

455

EUExNet - A European Explosives Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An understanding of explosives science and technology, and the competence to harness it is central to maintaining Explosives capability, national security, and in sustaining a competitive industry. A consequence of eroding this competence is the increased...

E. Nilsson H. Wallin

2010-01-01

456

Military Engineering Application of Commercial Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explosive excavation is a relatively new technology for creating barriers, destroying targets, and constructing military aids (e.g., bunker emplacements) in the theater of operations. This technology stems from research in explosive excavation performed s...

J. Briggs

1972-01-01

457

Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) consist of explosive components bound together by a polymeric binder. The most common binder systems in current PBXs are polyurethane based and contain plasticisers and other chemicals that alter processability, mechanical...

M. A. Daniel

2006-01-01

458

Underwater Explosion Bubble Jetting Effects on Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underwater explosions present a significant risk to structures because they were not designed for these types of loads and because water transmits explosive energy much more efficiently than air. The US Navy demonstrated that the effect of bubble jetting ...

G. Chahine G. Harris J. Fortune J. L. O'Daniel R. Ilamni

2011-01-01

459

THRESHOLD STUDIES ON TNT, COMPOSITION B, C-4, AND ANFO EXPLOSIVES USING THE STEVEN IMPACT TEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steven Impact Tests were performed at low velocity on the explosives TNT (trinitrotolulene), Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, and 1% wax by weight), C-4 (91% RDX, 5.3% Di (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate, 2.1% Polyisobutylene, and 1.6% motor oil by weight) and ANFO (94% ammonium Nitrate with 6% Fuel Oil) in attempts to obtain a threshold for reaction. A 76 mm helium

K S Vandersall; L L Switzer; F Garcia

2006-01-01

460

Boom Configuration Tests for Calm-Water, Medium-Current Oil Spill Diversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this test program was to determine the effects of boom angle, length, and rigging configuration on diversion of oil floating on moving streams. The B.F. Goodrich Seaboom was chosen for the program because of its availability, durability, an...

M. K. Breslin

1978-01-01

461

Functional Characterizations of RIG-I to GCRV and Viral/Bacterial PAMPs in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella  

PubMed Central

Background RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene-I) is one of the key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for detecting nucleotide pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and mediating the induction of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines in innate immune response. Though the mechanism is well characterized in mammals, the study of the accurate function of RIG-I in teleosts is still in its infancy. Methodology/Principal Findings To clarify the functional characterizations of RIG-I in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (CiRIG-I), six representative overexpression plasmids were constructed and transfected into C. idella kidney (CIK) cell lines to obtain stably expressing recombinant proteins, respectively. A virus titer test and 96-well plate staining assay showed that all constructs exhibited the antiviral activity somewhat. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that mRNA expressions of CiIPS-1, CiIFN-I and CiMx2 were regulated by not only virus (GCRV) or viral PAMP (poly(IC)) challenge but also bacterial PAMPs (LPS and PGN) stimulation in the steadily transfected cells. The results showed that the full-length CiRIG-I played a key role in RLR pathway. The repressor domain (RD) exerted an inhibitory function of the signaling channel under all utilized challenges. Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) showed a positive role in GCRV and poly(I:C) challenge. Helicase motifs were crucial for the signaling pathway upon LPS and PGN stimulation. Interestingly, ?CARDs (CARDs deleted) showed postive modulation in RIG-I signal transduction. Conclusions/Significance The results provided some novel insights into RIG-I sensing with a strikingly broad regulation in teleosts, responding not only to the dsRNA virus or synthetic dsRNA but also bacterial PAMPs.

Chen, Lijun; Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Peng, Limin; Wan, Quanyuan; Wang, Lan

2012-01-01

462

The Essential, Nonredundant Roles of RIG-I and MDA5 in Detecting and Controlling West Nile Virus Infection.  

PubMed

Virus recognition and response by the innate immune system are critical components of host defense against infection. Activation of cell-intrinsic immunity and optimal priming of adaptive immunity against West Nile virus (WNV), an emerging vector-borne virus, depend on recognition by RIG-I and MDA5, two cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein family that recognize viral RNA and activate defense programs that suppress infection. We evaluated the individual functions of RIG-I and MDA5 both in vitro and in vivo in pathogen recognition and control of WNV. Lack of RIG-I or MDA5 alone results in decreased innate immune signaling and virus control in primary cells in vitro and increased mortality in mice. We also generated RIG-I(-/-) MDA5(-/-) double-knockout mice and found that a lack of both RLRs results in a complete absence of innate immune gene induction in target cells of WNV infection and a severe pathogenesis during infection in vivo, similar to findings for animals lacking MAVS, the central adaptor molecule for RLR signaling. We also found that RNA products from WNV-infected cells but not incoming virion RNA display at least two distinct pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) containing 5' triphosphate and double-stranded RNA that are temporally distributed and sensed by RIG-I and MDA5 during infection. Thus, RIG-I and MDA5 are essential PRRs that recognize distinct PAMPs that accumulate during WNV replication. Collectively, these experiments highlight the necessity and function of multiple related, cytoplasmic host sensors in orchestrating an effective immune response against an acute viral infection. PMID:23966395

Errett, John S; Suthar, Mehul S; McMillan, Aimee; Diamond, Michael S; Gale, Michael

2013-08-21

463

Modeling initiation of explosives by projectile impact  

SciTech Connect

A shock initiation model was developed for the initiation of bare or clad explosives impacted by flat or hemispherical-tipped projectiles. The model requires Hugoniot data for the unreacted explosive, cladding material and projectile material, and the shock run distance to detonation as function of the shock pressure imparted to the explosive. Model results are compared to experimental data for flat and hemispherical-tipped steel projectiles impacting bare and clad PBX 9404 explosive.

Yactor, R.J.

1992-07-01

464

Modeling initiation of explosives by projectile impact  

SciTech Connect

A shock initiation model was developed for the initiation of bare or clad explosives impacted by flat or hemispherical-tipped projectiles. The model requires Hugoniot data for the unreacted explosive, cladding material and projectile material, and the shock run distance to detonation as function of the shock pressure imparted to the explosive. Model results are compared to experimental data for flat and hemispherical-tipped steel projectiles impacting bare and clad PBX 9404 explosive.

Yactor, R.J.

1992-01-01

465

Pulsed Power to Energize Explosive Replacements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We have developed an electrically-activated replacement for explosives called Metafexreg (for metal-fueled explosive replacement) that is inert until activated and twice as energetic as conventional explosives such as RDX. Because it is inert until activated (a moment before use), it offers profound logistics advantages over conventional explosives. Activation of Metafex requires a significant, short-duration electrical pulse.

D. Davison; R. Johnson; D. Pratt

2006-01-01

466

Numerical simulation of underwater explosion loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of TNT underwater explosion was carried out with AUTODYN software. Influences of artificial viscosity\\u000a and mesh density on simulation results were discussed. Detonation waves in explosive and shock wave in water during early\\u000a time of explosion are high frequency waves. Fine meshes (less than 1,mm) in explosive and water nearby, and small linear viscosity\\u000a coefficients and quadratic viscosity

Chunliang Xin; Gengguang XU; Kezhong Liu

2008-01-01

467

Proceedings of the sixth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen papers were presented at this symposium. They dealt with properties and performance of chemical explosives, including two papers on underwater applications and another for use in flammable atmospheres (oil shale mines); control and mapping of ground vibrations; research on fragmentation of rock; and measurement of the velocity of detonation. Papers have been indexed separately.

Not Available

1990-01-01

468

On the geophysical fingerprint of Vulcanian explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrusion of viscous magma and the subsequent formation of a lava dome is often interspersed by short-lived vigorous (Vulcanian) explosions. The causes for and the timing of the transition from effusive to explosive activity during dome formation are poorly understood and forecasting this transition remains a challenge. Here, we describe and interpret a robust and unique multi-parameter data set documenting the subsurface processes associated with Vulcanian explosions at Soufrire Hills Volcano, Montserrat (W.I.) in July and December 2008. We quantify explosion priming by processes in either the shallow (< 2 km depth) or the deep magmatic system and quantify syn-eruptive processes. The July 29 explosion has a signature related exclusively to shallow dynamics including conduit destabilisation, syn-eruptive decompression and magma fragmentation, conduit emptying and expulsion of juvenile pumice. In contrast, the December 3 explosion was triggered by unprecedented sudden pressurisation of the entire plumbing system from depths of about 10 km (including the magma chambers) resulting in surficial dome carapace failure, a violent cannon-like explosion, propagation of pressure waves and pronounced ballistic ejection of dome fragments. With timescales for explosion priming on the order of a few minutes, the precursory geophysical signatures are indicative of the nature of ensuing Vulcanian explosions. The short precursory phases characterise Vulcanian explosions as freak events triggered by abrupt rather than gradual changes in subsurface dynamics. Our findings provide important constraints for theoretical and experimental investigations of the effusive to explosive transition, forecasting of Vulcanian explosions and volcanic risk mitigation.

Gottsmann, J.; de Angelis, S.; Fournier, N.; van Camp, M.; Sacks, S.; Linde, A.; Ripepe, M.

2011-06-01

469

Failure analysis for cylindrical explosion containment vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic or elasticplastic dynamical response of the explosion containment vessels (ECVs) subject to the impulsive loading have been studied intensively, however the damage mechanism of ECVs is still scarcely investigated. In this work two cylindrical explosion containment vessels under the different explosion loads are tested. The overpressure is measured and compared with the numerical result. The damage mechanism of

Li Ma; Yang Hu; Jinyang Zheng; Guide Deng; Yongjun Chen

2010-01-01

470

Miniaturization of Explosive Technology and Microdetonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed phase explosives used in conventional explosive systems have a charge size on the order of a meter or a sizable fraction of a meter. We discuss a range of issues, theoretical, computational and experimental, required to scale the size of explosive systems downwards by a factor of one hundred to one thousand, applications and prospects for a ubiquitous new

D. Scott Stewart

471

Towards the miniaturization of explosive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed phase explosives used in conventional explosive systems have a charge size on the order of a meter or a sizable fraction of a meter. This paper addresses a range of issues required to scale downwards the size of explosive systems by a factor of one hundred to one thousand.

D. S. Stewart

2002-01-01

472

Towards the miniaturization of explosive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Condensed phase explosives used in conventional explosive systems have a charge size on the order of a meter or a sizable\\u000a fraction of a meter. This paper addresses a range of issues required to scale downwards the size of explosive systems by a\\u000a factor of one hundred to one thousand.

D. S. Stewart

2002-01-01

473

46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 ...Operational Requirements § 153.921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load...this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written...

2011-10-01

474

46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 ...Operational Requirements § 153.921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load...this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written...

2012-10-01

475

Explosive composition containing high density hydrocarbon liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blasting composition is composed of a mixture of inorganic nitrate, e.g., ammonium nitrate, and a high density hydrocarbon liquid. This explosive has more explosive force than an equal volumetric amount of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel. The latter is a commercial explosive currently used in large quantities. A high-density hydrocarbon liquid is one having a density

W. L. Borkowski; A. Schneider

1977-01-01

476

78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amdt. No. 420-6A] RIN 2120-AJ73 Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction AGENCY...regulations to the requirements for siting explosives under a license to operate a launch...and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. The FAA inadvertently did not...

2013-01-08

477

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype system that uses moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of moths trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as bombs or landmines, are present. The device was designed to be portable by making it lightweight, battery-powered,

T. L. King; Frank Moore Horine; K. C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2003-01-01

478

Suppressants for the control of industrial explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosion suppression is now a well established means of mitigation against the consequences of a gas or dust explosion in industrial processing. Such systems were first deployed by Graviner Ltd (Maisey, H.R. Chem. Process Eng., March 1959) in the early 1950s following development of the technology for military purposes. The first industrial explosion suppression systems used proprietary halons as the

P. E. Moore

1996-01-01

479

Firing complex for explosive pulsed power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern firing complex has been constructed for the dedicated development and application of explosive pulsed power (i.e., flux compression generators). The complex consists of three underground and interconnected buildings. The buildings, which employ several types of structural design, are engineered for above ground, open air detonations involving up to 1000 kg (TNT-equivalent) of high explosive. The explosive rating is

D. J. Erickson; B. L. Freeman; J. E. Vorthman; R. S. Caird; C. M. Fowler; J. C. King; A. R. Martinez; J. V. Repa; J. B. VanMarter; R. G. Vaughn

1986-01-01

480

Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

2008-05-23

481

Explosive fracturing and propping of petroleum wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of stimulating the flow of petroleum fluids in a well. Explosive fracturing of the petroleum formation adjacent to the well is carried out in the presence of a propping agent, such as glass beads, sand or aluminum particles. The propping agent-explosive combination is preferably surrounded by granular ammonium nitrate explosive to insure the absence of voids

Lozanski

1973-01-01

482

Supernova explosions in the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the lifetime of our Milky Way galaxy, there have been something like 100 million supernova explosions, which have enriched the Galaxy with the oxygen we breathe, the iron in our cars, the calcium in our bones and the silicon in the rocks beneath our feet. These exploding stars also influence the birth of new stars and are the source

Adam Burrows

2000-01-01

483

Nuclear Explosion over the Taiga.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are reviewed suggesting that the mysterious body which exploded on 30 June 1908 in the Siberian taiga near the Tunguska River released nuclear energy and that the explosion was actually some sort of nuclear blast. An examination of previously establi...

F. Y. Zigel'

1964-01-01

484

Underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena have been studied by using a thermodynamic equation of state for water and a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. The study showed that surface cavitation is caused by the main blast wave and a bubble pulse from rebound of a release wave moving toward the center of the exploding bubble. Gravity has little effect

Kamegai

1979-01-01

485

IONOSPHERIC EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dieminger and Kohl (Nature, 193: 983(1982)) described some ionospheric ; phenomena observed at Lindau, Germany, on October 30, 1961, following a large ; nuclear explosion at Novaya Zemlya in the arctic. Since the recordings were made ; at 1\\/2-hourly intervals, the precise time of the onset of the disturbance could ; not be pinpointed. For a large part of the

W. J. G. Beynon; E. S. O. Jones

1962-01-01

486

Numerical simulation of underground explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical method to calculate stress wave propagation in rock mass and to estimate damage zone around an underground borehole generated by explosion. Numerical calculations are carried out by using a commercial software AUTODYN2D, which is a finite difference code with Lagrange, Euler and combined Lagrange-Euler processors, and is especially suitable for modelling high velocity nonlinear dynamic

Hong Hao; Guowei Ma; Yingxin Zhou

1998-01-01

487

Episodic explosions in interstellar ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the formation of large organic molecules in dark clouds. The molecules are produced in the high-density gas phase that exists immediately after ice mantles are explosively sublimated. The explosions are initiated by the catastrophic recombination of trapped atomic hydrogen. We propose that, in molecular clouds, the processes of freeze-out on to ice mantles, accumulation of radicals, explosion and then rapid (three-body) gas-phase chemistry occurs in a cyclic fashion. This can lead to a cumulative molecular enrichment of the interstellar medium. A model of the time-dependent chemistries, based on this hypothesis, shows that significant abundances of large molecular species can be formed, although the complexity of the species is limited by the short expansion time-scale in the gas, immediately following mantle explosion. We find that this mechanism may be an important source of smaller organic species, such as methanol and formaldehyde, as well as precursors to bio-molecule formation. Most significantly, we predict the gas-phase presence of these larger molecular species in quiescent molecular clouds and not just dynamically active regions, such as hot cores. As such the mechanism that we propose complements alternative methods of large molecule formation, such as those that invoke solid-state chemistry within activated ice mantles.

Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Viti, S.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Duley, W. W.

2013-03-01

488

Mound calorimetry for explosive surveillance  

SciTech Connect

Heat of reaction determinations of pyrotechnics and explosives is made at MRC-Mound by bomb calorimetry. Energy releases from ten calories to 94 kilocalories have been measured accurately using four different calorimeter systems. Each system is described and some heat of reaction results are given. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Shockey, G.C.; Rodenburg, W.W.

1985-01-01

489

Neutrino mechanism of supernova explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decades, scientifics have tried to understand the explosion mechanism of stars that is responsible for the simultaneous formation of neutron star and supernova outburst.The main problem is the determination of a source of energy in the ejection of a supernova envelope. The gravitation energy as a source of energy in supernova is placed first. However, subsequent studies

V. M. Chechetkin

1997-01-01

490

Explosive Ordnance Disposal Protective Suit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive ordnance disposal protective suit which includes trousers, a coat with collar, a protective helmet and a combination face shield-chest plate. The face shield-chest plate is supported and held in place by a pocket on the front of the coat. The...

R. Martone

1984-01-01

491

Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

2007-05-04

492

Transuranic drum hydrogen explosion tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste can produce flammable ({gt}4%) mixtures of hydrogen gas in 55 gallon vented waste storage drums. Explosion testing was conducted at the E. I. duPont Explosion Hazards Laboratory to determine the minimum concentration at which a drum lid removal occurs. A secondary objective was to investigate the maximum pressure and rate of pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. Prior to beginning any drum explosion tests, small-scale pressure vessel tests and drum mixing tests were completed. The pressure vessel tests established a relationship between hydrogen concentration and the maximum pressure and pressure rise. These small-scale tests were used to establish the concentration range over which a drum lid removal might occur. Mixing tests were also conducted to determine the equilibration times for two different hydrogen-air mixtures in a TRU drum. Nine successful drum explosion tests were conducted over a hydrogen concentration range of 13--36% (v/v), test results suggest total integrity failure via drum lid removal will not occur below 15% (v/v). Controlled small-scale pressure vessel tests were conducted over a range of 5--50% (v/v) to determine the pressure and pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. No similar relationship could be established for the drum explosion tests due to the variability in drum lid sealing and retaining ring closure. Mixing tests conducted at 5% and 25% (v/v) indicate adding pure hydrogen to the middle of a drum causes some initial stratification along the drum length, but the air and hydrogen become well-mixed after 50 minutes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

1991-06-01

493

Molecular mechanisms of viral inhibitors of RIG-I-like receptors.  

PubMed

Activation of innate immune signaling pathways through cytosolic RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) is a crucial response that is antagonized by many viruses. A variety of RNA-related pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) have been identified and their role in RLR activation has been examined. Recent studies suggest that several virus-encoded components that antagonize RLR signaling interact with and inhibit the interferon (IFN)-?/? activation pathway using both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms. The structural basis for these RLR inhibitory mechanisms, as well as the multifunctional nature of viral RLR antagonists, is reviewed in the context of recent biochemical and structural studies. PMID:22325030

Leung, Daisy W; Basler, Christopher F; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

2012-02-08

494

Passenger vehicle tire rolling resistance can be predicted from a flat-belt test rig  

SciTech Connect

The rolling resistance of fifteen different types of tire was determined on-road by coastdown tests, using several vehicles variously fitted with 14 and 15 inch wheels. Corrections for tire pressure, and for external temperature, were deduced by data regression. The rolling resistance of the same tires was measured on a flat-belt tire test machine, and correction for tire pressure was determined in a like manner. In this paper, the results, in terms of the characteristic rolling resistance, are compared between rig and road. The various test procedures are discussed.

Ivens, J.

1989-01-01

495

Explosive shocks in air (2nd edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an initial qualitative characterization of the properties of explosions in the atmosphere and their blast and shock propagation effects, attention is given to the underlying quantitative principles of explosive energy release, including the scaling laws for explosions and internal blast effects from confined explosions. The dynamic loads that blast waves impose on representative structures are then characterized, with attention to resulting structural damage. A major feature of the present treatment is the use of the dimensionless Mach number in all shock equations; a further simplification is furnished by first developing mathematical equations for shock in steady flow, and then applying these equations to explosive shock by simple transformation of coordinates.

Kinney, G. F.; Graham, K. J.

496

Storage stability of Kraton-bonded HMX-based explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressed pieces of X-0287 (97\\/1.8\\/1.2 (wt %)-HMX\\/Kraton G-6500\\/B²-wax 170) and X-0298 ((97.5\\/1.12\\/1.38 (wt %)-HMX\\/Kraton G-6500\\/Cenco Hyvac oil)) were stored for various time intervals at oven temperatures ranging from 40 to 90°C. Amounts of evolved-gas, polymer molecular-weight changes, and tensile property differences were used to assess the stability of the explosives stored under the test conditions. After 1 yr in open

E. D. Loughran; H. L. Flaugh

1978-01-01

497

Calorimetry studies of explosion heat of non-ideal explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heats of explosion of non-ideal RDX-based compositions in four various atmospheres (argon, nitrogen, air and argon\\/oxygen\\u000a mixture) were measured. Charges of phlegmatized RDX containing 30% of two types of aluminium powders, coarse aluminium oxide,\\u000a or fine lithium fluoride particles were fired in a calorimetric bomb of 5.6 dm3 in volume. The influence of inert and reactive additives and the atmosphere

W. Kici?ski; W. A. Trzci?ski

2009-01-01

498

Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.  

PubMed

The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studie