Science.gov

Sample records for oil rig explosion

  1. JackVR: A Virtual Reality Training System for Landing Oil Rigs

    E-print Network

    Sharlin, Ehud

    [4] proposed a virtual prototyping system to validate the design of an offshore drilling platform jackup oil rigs. Jackup rigs are among the most common offshore drilling units for extracting oil practicing offshore oil rig land- ing. We propose JackVR, an interactive training system that supports domain

  2. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

  4. Rotary torque and rpm indicator for oil well drilling rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, L.C.

    1981-08-25

    Monitoring the torque applied by the rotary table to the drill string and the rpm of the drill string is provided. An intermediate adapter is positioned between the drill kelly and the rotary table. A strain gauge is attached to the intermediate adapter to measure torsional deformation and provide an indication of rotary torque. Transmission of torque data is accomplished by radio frequency transmission utilizing a transmitter on the intermediate adapter. A receiver is mounted to the side of the drill rig floor to receive and demodulate the torque signal. The intermediate adapter is rotating at the same rate as the drill string. Detection of the revolutions utilizing the changing R.F. Field strength is accomplished at the edge of the drill rig platform or elsewhere with a stationary sensor which doubles as the torque receiver. A highly directional torque transmitter antenna mounted on the adapter is used with the major lobe lying parallel to the rig floor and perpendicular to the pipe. By detecting the envelope of the radio frequency field strength, each rotation is marked by a peak. This enables continuous torque and rpm monitoring.

  5. Procedure-Authoring Tool Improves Safety on Oil Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Dark, cold, and dangerous environments are plentiful in space and on Earth. To ensure safe operations in difficult surroundings, NASA relies heavily on procedures written well ahead of time. Houston-based TRACLabs Inc. worked with Ames Research Center through the SBIR program to create an electronic procedure authoring tool, now used by NASA and companies in the oil and gas industry.

  6. Flight investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to oil rigs using airborne weather and mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Phillips, J. D.; Sturgeon, W. R.; Hunting, A. W.; Pate, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne weather and mapping radar is a near-term, economical method of providing 'self-contained' navigation information for approaches to offshore oil rigs and its use has been rapidly expanding in recent years. A joint NASA/FAA flight test investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico was initiated in June 1978 and conducted under contract to Air Logistics. Approximately 120 approaches were flown in a Bell 212 helicopter by 15 operational pilots during the months of August and September 1978. The purpose of the tests was to collect data to (1) support development of advanced radar flight director concepts by NASA and (2) aid the establishment of Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria by the FAA. The flight test objectives were to develop airborne radar approach procedures, measure tracking errors, determine accpetable weather minimums, and determine pilot acceptability. Data obtained will contribute significantly to improved helicopter airborne radar approach capability and to the support of exploration, development, and utilization of the Nation's offshore oil supplies.

  7. Navigation errors encountered using weather-mapping radar for helicopter IFR guidance to oil rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 a joint NASA-FAA helicopter flight test was conducted to examine the use of weather-mapping radar for IFR guidance during landing approaches to oil rig helipads. The following navigation errors were measured: total system error, radar-range error, radar-bearing error, and flight technical error. Three problem areas were identified: (1) operational problems leading to pilot blunders, (2) poor navigation to the downwind final approach point, and (3) pure homing on final approach. Analysis of these problem areas suggests improvement in the radar equipment, approach procedure, and pilot training, and gives valuable insight into the development of future navigation aids to serve the off-shore oil industry.

  8. Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...162.050-17(e) and must be in a vertical portion of the test rig piping. (c) Each test rig must have a centrifugal pump that is designed to operate at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more. (d) The mixture pipe on a test rig...

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...162.050-17(e) and must be in a vertical portion of the test rig piping. (c) Each test rig must have a centrifugal pump that is designed to operate at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more. (d) The mixture pipe on a test rig...

  11. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...162.050-17(e) and must be in a vertical portion of the test rig piping. (c) Each test rig must have a centrifugal pump that is designed to operate at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more. (d) The mixture pipe on a test rig...

  12. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill - Duration: 116 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  13. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  14. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-17

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  15. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the...take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures...regulations. Reporting ExxonMobil has not used explosives for any rig structure removal...

  16. Explosives: The Ammonium Nitrate in Oil Exemption Order, 1958 

    E-print Network

    Agnew, W.G.

    1958-01-01

    Under section 50 of the Explosives Act, 1875, certain explosives there named and any other explosives prescribed by Order in Council (or the purpose are exempted from certain provisions of the Act requiring that explosives ...

  17. Ambient Pressure Test Rig Developed for Testing Oil-Free Bearings in Alternate Gases and Variable Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team at the NASA Glenn Research Center is conducting research to develop turbomachinery systems that utilize high-speed, high temperature foil (air) bearings that do not require an oil lubrication system. Such systems combine the most advanced foil bearings from industry with NASA-developed hightemperature solid-lubricant technology. New applications are being pursued, such as Oil- Free turbochargers, auxiliary power units, and turbine propulsion systems for aircraft. An Oil-Free business jet engine, for example, would be simpler, lighter, more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain than current engines. Another application is NASA's Prometheus mission, where gas bearings will be required for the closed-cycle turbine based power-conversion system of a nuclear power generator for deep space. To support these applications, Glenn's Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team developed the Ambient Pressure Test Rig. Using this facility, researchers can load and heat a bearing and evaluate its performance with reduced air pressure to simulate high altitude conditions. For the nuclear application, the test chamber can be purged with gases such as helium to study foil gas bearing operation in working fluids other than air.

  18. 44. Annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, T.A.; Rodriguez, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    Reed Tool Company`s 44th annual rotary rig census found a spirit of increased optimism in the US oil and gas drilling industry. Rig utilization rose to 77% this year, the highest since the boom times of 15 years ago. A combination of a higher number of active rigs and another decline in available units to a historical low, led to this higher-than-average utilization rate. The paper discusses results from the survey.

  19. The minimum area rig concept--A unique bootstrap drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry, C.W.; Armstrong, J.E.; Lynch, S.C.

    1983-02-01

    The Minimum Area Rig Concept (MARC) is a cost-effective alternative to the typical self-contained platform rig. The MARC rig has been developed to provide a 16,000-ft rated drilling rig which can rig up in a limited area of approximately 75% of the original platform drill deck. The rig can also be moved without a derrick barge. The MARC rig was designed by an engineering consultant and is being built to drill and workover wells for ARCO Oil and Gas Company (ARCO) in the Gulf of Mexico, starting in the South Pass Block 61 field.

  20. Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).

    PubMed

    Flin, Rhona

    2014-03-01

    On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf. PMID:24720059

  1. Material response from Mach 0. 3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture. [40 wt % micron size coal in No. 2 fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, G.J.; Calfo, F.D.; Kohl, F.J.

    1981-06-01

    Wedge-shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron-size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900/sup 0/C and the test duration was about 44 one-hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel-base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt-base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

  2. Oil in the Water, Fire in the Sky: Responding to Technological/Environmental Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Philip J.; Sulkowski, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, a massive explosion killed 11 workers on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Survivors of this explosion recounted terrifying near-death experiences and mourned the loss of coworkers and friends who had perished. Shock and grief spread through small coastal communities composed mostly of fishers and oil workers. However, this was…

  3. 25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL ENDLESS-WIRE RIG IN VOLCANO. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  4. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  5. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  6. 42nd Annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, T.A.; Rodriquez, M.R. )

    1994-10-01

    The eleven-year trend of attrition in the US rig fleet slowed significantly this year as only 12 rigs, or less than 1%, left the available fleet. The number of rotary rigs available for drilling in the US now stands at 1,841. but for the 42-year history of the Reed Tool Co. Rotary Rig Census, the 1973 available rig count of 1,767 remains the record low for yet another year. The count of rigs active during the 45-day census period also declined since last year's census. The active count was down 4.5% to 1,221 from 1,279 in 1993. As a consequence, rig utilization fell to 66.3% in 1994, from 69.0% last year. Notably, a strong shift to gas from oil drilling has occurred. Of the 1,221 rigs active in the census period, 540 were drilling for gas on the last well vs. 356 drilling for oil. Compared to last year, this is an increase in gas drilling of 29% and a decrease in oil drilling 22%. (Rigs targeting both oil and gas totaled 325 in 1994.)

  7. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  8. Hydraulic rigs allow for live well workovers

    SciTech Connect

    Moak, R.

    1982-04-01

    Advanced technology and increased knowledge of hydraulic workover rigs are responsible for an upsurge in the oil industry's acceptance of these rigs. Technical advertising and advanced training programs share responsibility for increases in applications. The main feature of the hydraulic workover rig is its ability to snub tubing into the hole - force it into the well when pressure under the stripping rubber is greater than tubing weight. Working over a live well rather than killing it eliminates fluid cost, reduces pumping equipment cost, and reduces risk of formation damage from weighted mud. Hydraulic workover rigs advantages are discussed.

  9. Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    Fracture and fragmentation studies on 80 ml/kg Anvil Points oil shale with plate impact, Hopkinson bar, capacitor discharge, and HE techniques have shown that the dynamic fracture stress, fracture energy, and fragment size depend on the rate of tensile loading. A model coupling fracture, fragmentation, and stress wave propagation and based on the activation and growth of an initial Weibull distribution of fracture-producing flaws has been found effective in describing the observed rate-dependent fracture phenomena from static to high strain-rate impulse loading. The fracture model has been incorporated into one- and two-dimensional stress-wave computer codes and is being used to evaluate blasting geometries and stress-pulse tailoring for in situ rubblization of oil shale.

  10. Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

    1985-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Britoil's Beatrice gets unique workover rig

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, M.J.; Hogan, K.G.

    1983-11-15

    On the expectation of continuous downhole production problems in its Beatrice field in the UK sector of the North Sea, Britoil selected a unique workover rig, with some drilling capability, for permanent installation on its B platform. Experience on Beatrice A platform provided inputs for the rig's design, which was accomplished by a multidisciplined group of engineers and draftsmen, including an experienced toolpusher. The rig features a kelly racking system, in the absence of space for a rathole, and a spooler unit to handle downhole pump electrical cables, small-bore chemical injection lines, and downhole instrument cables (Fig. 1). The rig is fully instrumented to ensure safe, pollution-free operation. Britoil PLC is the operator of the Beatrice field in Block 11at30 in the Inner Moray Firth off Scotland's East Coast, on behalf of a consortium including Deminex UK Oil and Gas Ltd., Hunt Overseas Oil Inc., Kerr-McGee Oil (UK) Ltd., and Lasmo North Sea Ltd.

  12. Somebody better find some rigs

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah.

  13. Auxiliary workover rig

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.D.; Gunther, A.W. Jr.; Gunther, A.W. Sr.

    1984-09-11

    An auxiliary rig is used in combination with a primary drilling or workover rig. The primary drilling rig typically includes an elongated upstanding drill tower, a base and a crown block. The auxiliary rig of the present invention includes a racking tower detachably mounted with the upper end of the drill tower to form an extension to the drill tower for receiving interconnected pairs of tubular members to reduce the tripping time of the tubular members into and out of the well. A movable slip and a controller therefor of the auxiliary rig are operably guided by the racking tower for releasably supporting the pairs of tubular members.

  14. Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-21

    Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

  15. 40th annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Fitts, R.L.; Stokes, T.A. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that declines characterize the 1992 rig census-in the number of available drilling rigs, in the number of active rigs, in rig utilization rate, in the number of rig owners and in industry optimism. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling fell by 255 units (11.3%) during the past 12 months, an attrition rate almost four times greater than in 1991. But despite the high attrition, only 59.7% of remaining rigs were working during the time the census was taken. Results of the 1992 census bring emphasis to an industry trend that became apparent in early 1991. The major oil companies, and many independents, continued their exodus form the U.S., and the remaining independents, which were hurt by low natural gas prices and unfavorable tax treatment of intangible drilling costs, were not able to pick u the drilling slack. Consequently, the past year has been disastrous for many U.S. drilling contractors, and the outlook for this industry segment remains bleak.

  16. Four rigs refurbished for West Africa drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-10

    In April and May 1990, Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria Ltd. awarded Noble Drilling West Africa Inc. four separate contracts to drill oil and gas wells in the inland waterways of Nigeria. The contracted rigs included a shallow water jack up, the NN-1, and three posted barges, the Gene Rosser, the Chuck Syring, and the Lewis Dugger. The jack up was built in 1978, and the three posted barges are 1980s vintage. Three of the rigs have been idle for a number of years. The Shell Nigeria contracts required major modifications to the rigs before putting them into international service. Noble replaced or refurbished all major pieces of equipment in the drilling, power, and service systems on the rigs. Rig crews serviced all other equipment. A significant amount of general service piping and electrical wiring was replaced. Each rig also required additional motor control centers to support the new drilling and mud processing equipment. Alfa-Laval waste-heat water desalination plants and new sewage treatment units were installed on all four rigs. Because of the tidal variances and high silt conditions expected in the African waterways, all engine cooling systems were converted from heat exchangers to radiators. Rotary tables were made common on all rigs at 37 1/2 in. Noble had all traveling equipment completely inspected and modified as necessary. Strict attention was paid to certification and documentation of all equipment. Safety upgrades conformed to both Shell and Noble standards. Fire and gas detection systems were installed throughout each rig. Water and foam deluge systems were installed in the wellhead areas, and new foam systems and monitors were installed on the helldecks.

  17. Steam explosion pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) using autocatalytic hydrolysis: A biorefinery approach.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jesus David Coral; Woiciechowski, Adenise; Filho, Arion Zandona; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are an attractive source of carbon for the production of biochemical products, therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the steam explosion (SE) pretreatment under autocatalytic conditions on EFB using a full experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the operational variables studied. The EFB treated at 195°C for 6min showed an increase of 34.69% in glycan (mostly cellulose), and a reduction of 68.12% in hemicelluloses, with increased enzymatic digestibility to 33% producing 4.2gL(-1) of glucose. Scanning electron micrographs of the steam treated EFB exhibited surface erosion and an increased fiber porosity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the solubilization of hemicellulose and modification of cellulose in treated EFB. PMID:26343575

  18. Rig activity; 1989 was the worst year on record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the quantity of oil rotary rigs running in the United States during 1989. Rotary rigs running in 1989 averaged 870, down 7.1% from 1988 and arguably the worst performance since anyone bothered to count. A quick check into dusty historical records reveals that in 1942 the rotary rig count averaged 761 (this was the result of a deliberate government policy of scaling back drilling). However, the number is misleading, because in the early 1940s cable-tool rigs were around 40% to 45% of the total operating at any given time.

  19. Rig activity; 1991 is now the worst year on record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports that U.S. rotary oil well drilling rig activity reached year-end levels above 1,100 rigs and averaged over 1,000 in 1990, the first increase since 1984. In 1991, however, operating rigs dropped once again, this time to an all time recorded low and once again, most forecasters erred on the high side. Rotary rigs running in 1991 averaged 862.8, a 14.4% drop below the 1990 activity level of 1007.8 rigs. The rig count, began at 1,068 in January, but fell steadily for the remainder of the year. A brief upturn at mid-year failed to hold up and the year-end increases in drilling we had come to expect since 1986 never materialized.

  20. TRU VU rig instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, S.G.

    1993-02-15

    TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.

  1. Minimum area rig concept update: H and P 101 modifications and first infield move

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdson, S.R.

    1987-03-01

    The minimum area rig concept (MARC) is a cost-effective alternative to the typical self-contained platform rig (SCPR). Helmerich and Payne (HandP) built the first MARC rig, HandP 101, to drill and to work over wells up to 16,000 ft (4877 m) measured depth. This rig began operation in May 1983 in the Gulf of Mexico at Arco Oil and Gas Co.'s South Pass Block 61 field and has undergone one infield move. Since the rig's initial mobilization, several rig modifications have been added to increase storage area, to promote safety, to provide a more efficient drilling/workover rig, and to reduce overall move time. This paper describes the modifications and recaps the rig's first move. This provides further insight into the MARC rig and show the benefits of the MARC design in relation to a move.

  2. 26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL WELL HOOK-UP. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  3. 27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 5. EARLIER ENDLESS-WIRE TRANSMISSION NOW IN RUINS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  4. 28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 2. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL POWERHOUSE AT VOLCANO - NOW DISMANTLED. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  5. 39th annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, M.E.; Fitts, R.L. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports on cutbacks in U.S. exploration and development drilling during the first half of 1991 which squeezed most of the optimism out of the drilling industry. Just how rough the year has been is underscored by the results of this year's rig census. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling declined by only 69 units (3%) during the past 12 months. But despite those withdrawals from competition, only 66% of the remaining rigs were working at the time the census was taken. Results of the 1991 census contrasted sharply with the stability and optimism that seemed apparent a year ago when 72% of the available rig fleet met the census definition of active. At that time, the mini-boom in horizontal drilling coupled with tax-credit- driven gas drilling led to a relatively high rig utilization rate and suggested that rig supply and demand might be close to an economically acceptable balance. However, it quickly became apparent in early 1991 that industry optimism was unjustified. Horizontal drilling began to drop and the lowest natural gas prices in 12 years triggered rapid declines in gas drilling. Although oil prices have been relatively stable and above $18 per bbl since January 1989, most major operators have concluded that a better return on investment can be had outside the U.S. and have drastically cut their domestic drilling budgets. These factors, combined with softened energy demand from the worldwide recession, further slowed U.S. drilling. The long awaited balance between rig supply and demand has seemingly slipped away. The 1991 Reed rig census describes an industry facing several more rough years. Details of this year's census include: The available U.S. fleet now stands at 2,251 rigs, down by 69 from the 2,320-unit total in 1990, and the lowest since 1976. Rigs meeting the census definition of active numbered 1,485, down 192 (11.4%) from the 1,677 active rigs counted a year earlier.

  6. International land rig locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Mechanical specifications, ratings, locations, and status are listed for each of the 5,000 contract rotary drilling rigs operated by more than 700 independent drilling contractors throughout the Free World.

  7. International land rig locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Mechanical specifications, ratings, locations, and status are listed for each of the 5,000 contract rotary drilling rigs operated by the more than 700 independent drilling contractors throughout the Free World.

  8. Well servicing/workover rig preparedness for the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Oil well servicing has long been a very basic segment of the oil business. Three basic jobs are performed: (1) well servicing--the normal maintenance and repair of equipment in a well; (2) workover--perform various tasks to try to increase the oil and gas production from a well; and (3) completion--after the drilling rig makes the hole, the servicing rig moves in to complete it into a producing well. The well servicing industry operates at a record level with almost full utilization of available daylight rigs and crews. Considering the number of these rigs that also are capable of running 24 hr/day, this represents a total utilization of ca 80%.

  9. DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

  10. Newest mobile drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The weighing half of what a standard jackknife rig with the same drilling capacities weights this rig cuts transportation costs while reducing transportation time. Also, rig-up and rig-down time is shortened half-a-day each way because of the light structure and the ability to hydraulically raise and lower the substructure and mast. It is powered by three Caterpillar 3412 diesel engines - 600 hp each at 1,800 rpm - delivering 1,500 hp to the drawworks through single-stage torque converters. Chain-type drawworks, set on the trailer flatbed next to the diesel engines instead of on the rig floor, consist of a 25-in. diam by 50-in.-long drum barrel, 50-in. diam by 12-in.-wide brakes, and 1/one quarter/-in. line, capable of a 75,000-lb single line pull. The mast - a 127-ft API-rated, vertical freestanding, telescoping type - is extended and telescoped in the horizontal position before being hydraulically raised. Gross nominal capacity of the mast is 1 million lb, with a rotary load of 715,000 lb and a setback load of 400,000 lb.

  11. Product Module Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence time. Minimal sensitivity was observed for all of these parameters.

  12. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. New depths with mobile rig

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    Magee-Poole Drilling Company, a drilling contractor operating out of the south Texas drilling center of Alice, claims it operates the largest mobile drilling rig in the world. That is, it's the only wheel mounted portable rig that drills to 16,000 feet with 4 1/2-inch drill pipe - at least 3000 feet deeper than the previous mobile drilling rig ratings. The unit is designated the Ingersoll-Rand 1500 Series. What's more significant, according to co-owner Don Magee, is that the rig's portability gets the rotary table turning to the right sooner; it drills more footage per year. It rigs up in 1 1/2 days versus 3 to 4 days for a conventional skid type rig normally used at these depths. The unit's compact arrangement, with more components combined into single loads, makes possible its higher mobility. A conventional skid rig might require 25 to 30 truckloads to move the rig components, mud system, fuel and water tank, houses for utilities, storage and crew change, generators, and drill pipe. The new rig moves in anywhere from four to nine loads less. Further, the rig components weigh less without sacrificing durability.

  14. Comparing rig power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gutsche, W.; Noevig, T.

    1989-04-01

    Installed power on drilling rigs has increased steadily since the inception of rotary drilling technology as a result of technical advances and the need to penetrate deeper horizons. Higher power levels for the pumps, rotary table and drawworks are also required for drilling deep wells within an economically reasonable period. Power initially available on a rig had been about 35 kW on average, whereas power values on modern rigs drilling ultra-deep wells are on the order of several thousand kW. The installed power values on modern drilling rigs, subdivided with respect to depth range, are shown. After safety, economic factors are of paramount importance to rig operators. Among these, which include low acquisition cost, long service life and ease of maintenance, a particularly decisive factor is high efficiency.

  15. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  16. Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C. III

    1992-12-31

    From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

  17. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  18. Subjective Health Complaints Among Workers in the Aftermath of an Oil Tank Explosion.

    PubMed

    Tjalvin, Gro; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Lygre, Stein Håkon Låstad; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether exposed workers had more subjective health complaints than controls 1 1/2 years after a chemical explosion involving a mixture of hydrocarbons and sulfurous compounds. A cross-sectional survey based on the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SHC) was conducted among 147 exposed workers and 137 controls. A significantly higher total SCH score (linear regression, p =.01) was found for the exposed workers compared with controls when adjusting for gender, age, smoking habits, and educational level. The exposed workers reported significantly more headache, hot flashes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, and sadness/depression. The cause of these complaints is unknown, but health personnel should be aware that health complaints might be related to polluting episodes even when exposure levels are below occupational guideline levels. PMID:25136935

  19. Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

  20. New service rig operates with two-man crew

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Two Bakersfield, California, entrepreneurs have developed a partially automated and remote-controlled workover rig that can complete tubing and rod jobs on relatively shallow, singles-rig type wells with a total crew of two people on the ground. The system, called Autorig, was developed by Louis Witte, president of Witte Enterprise, and James Hansen, Paragon Engineering, Bakersfield. Initial field tests in E and B Natural Resources Management Corp.`s Blackwells Corner oil field culminated two years of development work. The new system is described in this paper using photographs from a testwell demonstration.

  1. Focus on rotary drill rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    This article discusses the drill rig, focusing on the rotary drill rigs. There are two principal drilling methods - rotary and percussion. In certain situations, percussion drilling is the most practical method, but for most applications, rotary drilling using the rotary-tricone bit with either steel-toothed cones or carbide inserts, is the common and accepted drilling technique. There are four principal reasons for a rotary drill rig: to provide power to the rotary-tricone bit; to provide air to clean the hole; to provide a life-support system for the rotary-tricone bits; and, to provide a stable and efficient platform from which to drill the hole.

  2. Earth drill rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rassieur, C.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes an earth drill rig wherein an upwardly and downwardly moving drill-string-turning rotary table is rotated by a kelly bar connected at its lower end to a vertical drive shaft, the kelly bar being journalled for rotation in and fixed against axial movement with respect to a drill frame assembly and the rotary table being mounted for axial movement on and along the drill frame assembly. The drill frame assembly is pivotally mounted on a vehicle on a substantially horizontal axis for pivoting between an upright position and a substantially horizontal position for transportation. The improvement described here comprises the drill frame assembly pivot axis positioned below the lower end of the kelly bar and above the upper end of the vertical drive shaft, and a universal coupling connecting the lower end of the kelly bar and the vertical drive shaft the universal coupling comprising universal joints at opposite ends of an elongated slip joint connector and connected there-by for relative axial movement but driving coupling between the universal joints. The universal joints lie generally on a circle of which the drill frame assembly pivot axis is the center. The drill frame assembly can be moved between the upright and the substantially horizontal positions without disconnecting the kelly bar from the vertical drive shaft, the kelly bar being revolvable by the drive shaft through substantially the entire range of movement of the drill frame assembly.

  3. 34th annual reed rotary rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.; Pastusek, P.E.

    1986-10-01

    This article reports that the number of rigs active according to the 1986 census is 1052, which represents a decline of 1573 rigs from 1985 figures. This 60 percent decrease is the largest decline of active rigs in the 34-year history of the census. The 1986 census takers found 3993 rigs are available with the capacity to drill deeper than 3000 ft. The count has thus declined by 416 rigs (9 percent) from the 1985 total of 4409. Rig availability declined for the fourth consecutive year following nine straight years of fleet expansion (1974-1982). During the past four years, 1651 rigs have been removed from the drilling fleet representing a 29 percent decline from the record high number of rigs available in 1982. The 1986 decline in the available U.S. fleet is considerably less than what many industry observers had been anticipating. A larger decrease in the rig fleet has not been realized for a number of reasons.

  4. Tracking the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Hu, Chuanmin; Zheng, Lianyuan

    2011-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was caused by a drilling rig explosion on 20 April 2010 that killed 11 people. It was the largest oil spill in U.S. history and presented an unprecedented threat to Gulf of Mexico marine resources. Although oil gushing to the surface diminished after the well was capped, on 15 July 2010, much remains to be known about the oil and the dispersants beneath the surface, including their trajectories and effects on marine life. A system for tracking the oil, both at the surface and at depth, was needed for mitigation efforts and ship survey guidance. Such a system was implemented immediately after the spill by marshaling numerical model and satellite remote sensing resources available from existing coastal ocean observing activities [e.g., Weisberg et al., 2009]. Analyzing this system's various strengths and weaknesses can help further improve similar systems designed for other emergency responses.

  5. Rig upkeep vital in the downturn

    SciTech Connect

    Leabo, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    As operations came to a close in 1982, many oil and gas contractors were facing the door of no return - subsequent years worsened matters. Drilling and workover units were returned to the lender and left stacked on and off location. Lending institutions began to weaken and, in some cases, collapse. However, many of the contractors with time and grade in providing contract drilling or workover services have had no desires or options other than to continue to operate in a downward spiraling market, much as they had done in the 50s and 60s. Operating under these circumstances requires a lot less flare and flame, and careful rearrangement of financial obligations. Contractors with equipment overloads reduced inventories and stacked the leftovers. This article shows that stacking or immobilizing a modern drilling rig or workover unit can be achieved economically. A sound preventive maintenance schedule can put the equipment on the stand-by board-ready to work. Several articles have been written on the ''new way to stack rigs.'' Most of these are simply a sensible realistic approach to maintaining a corporation's assets until they can be returned to the work force.

  6. 77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the Gulf of Mexico...Macondo well and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. The Complaint alleges...Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the Gulf of...

  7. 45th annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, T.A.; Rodriguez, M.R.

    1997-10-01

    Since 1983, Reed Tool Co.`s annual rotary rig census has reported 14 consecutive annual reductions in the U.S. rig fleet. This year, the downward trend has reversed and more rigs have been added to the available fleet than have left. Robust drilling activity has also spurred higher rig utilization in 1997. Utilization climbed to 86.9% this year, more than ten percentage points higher than a year ago and the highest since 1981. Data and trends are discussed.

  8. Rigged Hilbert spaces for chaotic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchanecki, Z.; Antoniou, I.; Tasaki, S.; Bandtlow, O. F.

    1996-11-01

    We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators of the Renyi and the baker maps. We show that the rigged Hilbert space for the Renyi maps has some of the properties of a strict inductive limit and give a detailed description of the rigged Hilbert space for the baker maps.

  9. Rigged Hilbert spaces for chaotic dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Suchanecki, Z.; Tasaki, S.; Bandtlow, O.F.

    1996-11-01

    We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators of the Renyi and the baker maps. We show that the rigged Hilbert space for the Renyi maps has some of the properties of a strict inductive limit and give a detailed description of the rigged Hilbert space for the baker maps. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Hoisting and rigging manual: Uncontrolled document

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-01

    This document is a draft copy of a Hoisting and Rigging Manual for the Department of Energy. The manual is divided into ten chapters. The chapter titles follow: terminology and definitions; operator training and qualification; overhead and gantry cranes; mobile cranes; forklift trucks; hoists; hooks; wire rope, slings, and rigging accessories; construction hoisting and rigging equipment requirements; references.

  11. PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Haynie, Todd O.; Fullmer, Michael W.

    2008-12-29

    This manual describes the safe and cost effective operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair requirements for cranes, hoists, fork trucks, slings, rigging hardware, and hoisting equipment. It is intended to be a user's guide to requirements, codes, laws, regulations, standards, and practices that apply to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its subcontractors.

  12. 36th annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Fitts, R.L.; Crowhurst, M.E. )

    1988-10-01

    For the sixth straight year, the number of rigs available in the U.S. declined. Five hundred and seventy-nine rotary rigs dropped out of drilling industry competition during the past 12 months as attrition forced rig supply closer toward balance with demand. Significant highlights of this year's census are: The U.S. rig fleet now stands at 2,752 drilling rigs, a 17.4% reduction from the census count in 1987. This is the largest percentage decline and the third largest absolute decline in available rigs in census history; The 1988 census active count was 1,532 rigs, up 10% over 1987; The 1988 census utilization rate was 55.7%, up from the 41.7% reported last year and a 110% improvement over the all-time low of 26.3% in 1986; Every region in the country reported a reduction in total available rigs. Each region also reported an increase in the active ring count with the exception of Ark-La-Tex; California had the highest utilization rate in the census (63.9%), and all regions reported a utilization rate greater than 50% with the exception of Ark-La-Tex, which reported a 45.5% rate; The number of rig owners declined 12% from 691 to 608. The decline in available rigs would have been greater, but owners brought back 226 rigs that had been dropped from previous census tabulations.

  13. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

  14. Gulf Oil Spill Commission Report Calls for Major Drilling Safety Reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion and the resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico last year were “foreseeable and preventable,” according to the report of a presidentially appointed commission, issued on 11 January, that recommended significant changes in U.S. government and industry practices to avoid future oil spill disasters. Among the recommendations of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling are that Congress and the Obama administration create an independent safety agency within the Department of the Interior (DOI) to oversee all aspects of offshore drilling safety and that the oil and gas industry establish a “safety institute” to develop and enforce safety standards.

  15. Testing the Generalization Efficiency of Oil Slick Classification Algorithm Using Multiple SAR Data for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.; Kalkan, K.; Bal?k Sanl?, F.

    2012-07-01

    Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

  16. Modular designs highlight several new rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-12-04

    A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

  17. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  18. RQL Integrated Module Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, Frederick S.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Siskind, Kenneth S.; Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the activities conducted under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Components (CPC) Program to evaluate the low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor capable of achieving the program goal of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOxEI) less than 5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic light condition while maintaining combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.9 percent. The chosen combustor module would then be tested in the subscale annular rig test prior to testing in the subscale core engine demonstrator, if the RQL concept were to be chosen at the Combustor Downselect.

  19. Environmental disaster or just a drop in the bucket?: Texas scientists on the real effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    .pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=windows-1252 Winter 2011 tx H2O 3 or just a drop in thebucket?Texas scientists on the real e?ects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 4 tx H2O Winter 2011 Environmental Disaster Continued What if gasoline... was anything but forgo?en as the wreckage of the Deepwater Horizon MC??? drilling platform sank into its waters. A crude awakening Like any large oil spill, this one took its toll in many ways. Eleven BP employees on the rig died in the explosion...

  20. Environmental disaster or just a drop in the bucket: Texas scientists on the real effects of the Deewater Horizon oil spill 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    .pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=windows-1252 Winter 2011 tx H2O 3 or just a drop in thebucket?Texas scientists on the real e?ects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 4 tx H2O Winter 2011 Environmental Disaster Continued What if gasoline... was anything but forgo?en as the wreckage of the Deepwater Horizon MC??? drilling platform sank into its waters. A crude awakening Like any large oil spill, this one took its toll in many ways. Eleven BP employees on the rig died in the explosion...

  1. User's guide and history of ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) as a nuclear weapons effect simulation explosive. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Petes, J.; Miller, R.; McMullan, F.

    1983-03-31

    The history of the development and use of ANFO as a nuclear-weapons blast, cratering, and ground-shock simulation source, is traced from 1966 to 1976 when the first full-scale target-testing operation was conducted on DICE THROW with a 600-ton ANFO charge. The results of the development tests, of DICE THROW, and of subsequent tests with ANFO through PRE-DIRECT COURSE in 1982, are given and analyzed in terms of explosive-charge performance. The results indicate that ANFO is a safe, economical, and reliable explosive source for effects simulation purposes. The details presented serve as a guide for utilization of ANFO for future similar and more-demanding simulation purposes.

  2. Unique rig fulfills unusual mobility requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This article describes a unique rig designed by SEDCO FOREX operating in the Paris basin of France. Built to drill clusters of wells from a single pad, Rig 47 significantly reduces the time needed to move from well to well on a pad and from location to location.

  3. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  4. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  8. Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1985-07-01

    Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

  9. TRU VU rig instrumentation. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, S.G.

    1993-02-15

    TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.

  10. The catcher in the RIG-I.

    PubMed

    Weber, Friedemann

    2015-11-01

    Retinoic-acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a major pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. RIG-I is a cytoplasmic RNA helicase that is able to bind virus-specific RNA structures. Activated RIG-I switches into a conformation that locks the ligand RNA and signals via the MAVS-IRF-3 axis, resulting in the upregulation of antiviral interferons. Recent evidence suggests that the binding of RIG-I to regulatory RNA structures of two major human pathogens, influenza A virus and hepatitis B virus, can inhibit viral replication independent of the subsequent signal transduction. Thus, RIG-I rides a two-pronged attack, with an early-hitting, direct inhibition via occupancy of viral regulatory RNA structures, and a delayed response via signaling and induction of interferons. PMID:26168692

  11. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  12. Cranes, hoists, and rigging. A safety training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, L.

    1986-07-01

    The handling equipment discussed in this manual is the type that lifts, lowers, and locates (positions) heavy material - cranes and hoists. The crane/hoist family of equipment may be as small as a single pulley/rope system handling several pounds, or as large as a marine crane system that recently (1985) hoisted a 5005-metric ton oil drilling rig from a barge and placed it on the seabed of England's North Atlantic offshore oil field. An equivalent ''pick'' would be a 6-ft-high solid pine board, 360 ft long and 160 ft wide (the dimensions of a football field). The capacity of the cranes and hoists at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNLA) fits somewhere within the first 2% of the marine pick or lift described above. SNLA has several mobile cranes and more than 500 other types of cranes and hoists located in more than 100 buildings. The Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL have safety policies and directives that require the operators of heavy equipment to be trained and authorized. The Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety Training Program, sponsored by the SNLA Safety Department, is an effort to fulfill those safety policy requirements. This manual will be used as a safety training aid and will be issued as a reference document for supervisors, operators, inspectors, and service personnel who use cranes or hoists during their regular duties.

  13. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, Vol. 22, No. 3 (2012) 1230012 (12 pages) c World Scientific Publishing Company

    E-print Network

    Bollt, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , 2010, an oil well cap explosion below the Deepwater Horizon, an off-shore oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico]. Following the initial explosion beneath the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig on April 20, 2010, oil continued

  14. Influence of Mississippi River induced circulation on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Androulidakis, Yannis S.

    2013-08-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion caused ˜7 × 105 m3 of oil gushing from the Northern Gulf of Mexico bottom. The close proximity of the rig to the Mississippi Delta raised early questions from disaster managers about possible influence of river induced circulation on oil patch evolution. In particular, it was hypothesized that the high Mississippi River (MR) discharge in May 2010 might have helped to initially keep oil from reaching coastal marshes. We have explored this intriguing hypothesis, quantifying similar and connecting patterns in the evolution of riverine and oil covered waters. We used numerical simulations, satellite and in situ data to show the unique influence of a large river plume on a surface oil patch resulting from a deep oil release. The MR induced circulation, modified by shelf and slope flows, was found to substantially influence the near surface transport of oil. The MR plume buoyancy-driven effects on oil transport had different aspects east and west of the Mississippi Delta. Anticyclonic circulation within the upstream plume region (east of the Delta, extending over the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida shelf) created a front that restrained onshore transport. Conversely, the shoreward tendency within the downstream plume region (west of the Delta, dominated by the westward, buoyancy-driven narrow coastal current) guided oil transport along the Louisiana-Texas shelf. Periods of low discharge reduced the dominance of buoyancy-driven effects, but an interval of sustained downwelling-favorable winds, combined with river induced stratification, resulted in a strong westward current and surface oil patch extension along the Louisiana coast.

  15. Modular workover rig designed for quick moves between platforms

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    A new workover rig has a modular design for quick rig up and rig down and easy transport between offshore platforms using field supply boats and platform cranes. Pool Energy Services Co.`s new electric-powered platform workover rig recently left Houston bound for Australia`s Bass Strait, where it began offshore operations for Esso Australia Ltd. in July. This SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) rig is rated at 1,000 hp. A sister rig began operations offshore Malaysia for Esso Production Malaysia Inc. in late 1994. The offshore platforms in Bass Strait are within close proximity of each other. The rig must be able to make quick moves from one location to another. The 427-ton rig has a modular configuration, allowing it to be rigged down, transported, and reassembled in this field in about 5--7 days, depending on the weather and supply boat schedule. The paper describes the design and operation of the workover rig.

  16. {open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1996-01-01

    New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

  17. Chemical dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico oil crisis are cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-07-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico drew attention to the need for toxicological studies of chemical dispersants. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. Little is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527). Corexit 9500 and 9527 were both cytotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts. Corexit 9527 was less cytotoxic than 9500. S9 mediated metabolism did not alter cytotoxicity of either dispersant. Both dispersants were genotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts; S9 mediated metabolism increased Corexit 9527 genotoxicity. PMID:24813266

  18. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  19. Explosive nucleosynthesis

    E-print Network

    M. Hernanz

    2001-03-26

    Many radioactive nuclei relevant for gamma-ray astrophysics are synthesized during explosive events, such as classical novae and supernovae. A review of recent results of explosive nucleosynthesis in these scenarios is presented, with a special emphasis on the ensuing gamma-ray emission from individual nova and supernova explosions. The influence of the dynamic properties of the ejecta on the gamma-ray emission features, as well as the still remaining uncertainties in nova and supernova models is also reviewed.

  20. Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of those principal states dedicated neural network classifier were trained using the sensor data as input. As network architecture the completely connected perceptron was applied in combination with parallel learning. Automatic network growing was used to match the model complexity to the complexity of the particular classification problem and thus to prevent from over fitting. In addition forward selection method was used to identify the sensor data necessary to recognise the particular states. The approach was evaluated using real-time/real-world data and the results show that the proposed approach has the ability to classify drilling operations highly accurate. The performances of the classifiers were evaluated by cross-validation, the average correct classification rate was above 99%, for both, the training and the testing data sets.

  1. Electricity on the rig; part I -- electric applications on drilling and workover rigs

    SciTech Connect

    McNair, W.L.

    1983-03-01

    This article points out that not only have electric motors replaced diesel engines and mechanical transmissions, but solid-state equipment is rapidly taking the place of rotary equipment in variable speed drivers and control systems. The SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) type of speed control has replaced other types by a large margin of acceptance on drilling rigs and has begun to be used on workover and service rigs. In most cases, electrical power is generated at the rig site with diesel-AC generators. On mechanically driven rigs, single diesel-generator sets operate to supply power for lighting and electrical motor loads. When high levels of power are required, such as on SCR-powered rigs, multiple generators are operated in electrical-parallel and each contributes to the total power required.

  2. Rig maintenance: An expensive, but necessary task

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    When times are tough-like they are today - the areas most drilling contractors cut back first are rig maintenance, training, and safety programs. However, all three are imperative programs that must be substained if a contractor expects to stay in business. Further, all three programs are interdependent. There's no doubt proper rig maintenance is expensive. For cash-strapped contractors, the seemingly extra financial burden of a rig maintenance program may appear too heavy. But according to the more successful contractors operating today, a planned preventive maintenance program is a necessity in saving the company money, reducing downtime, keeping a high standard of drilling performance, and providing safer operating conditions for workers. Suppose the mud pump, rotary table, or drill string fails. Immediately several problems can occur: Downtime could result, which in turn causes the contractor to lose revenue he may never recover. The failure could damage other rig components or jeopardize the safety of the rig crew. More than likely the cost to repair the failed piece of equipment is greater than what proper preventive maintenance would have cost. While repairs take place, the contractor has an idled crew and may be required to bring in additional workers to assist in repairs.

  3. A constructive presentation of rigged Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celeghini, Enrico

    2015-07-01

    We construct a rigged Hilbert space for the square integrable functions on the line L2(R) adding to the generators of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra a new discrete operator, related to the degree of the Hermite polynomials. All together, continuous and discrete operators, constitute the generators of the projective algebra io(2). L2(R) and the vector space of the line R are shown to be isomorphic representations of such an algebra and, as both these representations are irreducible, all operators defined on the rigged Hilbert spaces L2(R) or R are shown to belong to the universal enveloping algebra of io(2). The procedure can be extended to orthogonal and pseudo-orthogonal spaces of arbitrary dimension by tensorialization. Circumventing all formal problems the paper proposes a kind of toy model, well defined from a mathematical point of view, of rigged Hilbert spaces where, in contrast with the Hilbert spaces, operators with different cardinality are allowed.

  4. A constructive presentation of rigged Hilbert spaces

    E-print Network

    Enrico Celeghini

    2015-02-17

    We construct a rigged Hilbert space for the square integrable functions on the line L^2(R) adding to the generators of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra a new discrete operator, related to the degree of the Hermite polynomials. All together, continuous and discrete operators, constitute the generators of the projective algebra io(2. L^2(R) and the vector space of the line R are shown to be isomorphic representations of such an algebra and, as both these representations are irreducible, all operators defined on the rigged Hilbert spaces L^2(R) or R are shown to belong to the universal enveloping algebra of io(2). The procedure can be extended to orthogonal and pseudo-orthogonal spaces of arbitrary dimension by tensorialization. Circumventing all formal problems the paper proposes a kind of toy model, well defined from a mathematical point of view, of rigged Hilbert spaces where, in contrast with the Hilbert spaces, operators with different cardinality are allowed.

  5. Shipping lanes or offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This information was from the Los Angeles Steamship Association (LASSA) luncheon meeting. The problems of limiting access and availability of the Santa Barbara/Santa Catalina channels to commercial vessel traffic and other related uses. LASSA speaks for about 85% of the maritime industry in Southern California. The Association is actively seeking a compromise with the oil companies in keeping the Vessel Traffic Separation Scheme (VTSS) in the channels; however, the Western Oil and Gas Association (WOGA) is seeking to abolish VTSS as currently established in the channels and move the sea lanes outside the Channel Islands, and open up the entire Santa Barbara Channel to unlimited drilling sites. LASSA claims that moving the VTSS sea lanes outside of the Channel Islands would add 18 to 22 miles to the average trip from San Francisco to Los Angeles, with fuel cost etc. would make for a big loss to the merchant ship operators. LASSA has offered to support the concept of opening up the Buffer Zone that separates the Sea Lanes themselves to exploratory drilling. This two mile wide stretch of water is off limits to vessels and it would open new areas to the oil companies heretofore unaccessible to them. (DP)

  6. Magnetic Suspension for Dynamic Spin Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Rig, located in Building 5, Test Cell CW-18, is used to test turbomachinery blades and components by rotating them in a vacuum chamber. A team from Lewis' Machine Dynamics Branch successfully integrated a magnetic bearing and control system into the Dynamic Spin Rig. The magnetic bearing worked very well both to support and shake the shaft. It was demonstrated that the magnetic bearing can transmit more vibrational energy into the shaft and excite some blade modes to larger amplitudes than the existing electromagnetic shakers can.

  7. Rig scarcity prompts innovative drilling solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimore, G.M.; Gott, T.; Feagin, J.

    1997-11-01

    Unable to locate a shallow-water offshore rig for its program in Indonesia, British Gas International developed an innovative pad/ballasted barge configuration to utilize a land rig, which was available. Many non-typical problems were encountered and solved to establish the drilling location 600 m (2,000 ft) from the shore in Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, eastern Indonesia. The final hybrid configuration has sparked interesting debate as to whether the operation should be designated as onshore or offshore. The paper discusses the project overview, concept development, construction, and operations.

  8. Design and development of a high-speed bearing test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockburn, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a high-speed test rig, to be used for compiling an experimental data base of bearing signatures for bearings with known faults, is described. This bearing test rig can be adapted to test oil-film bearings as well as rolling element bearings. This is achieved by mounting the test bearing in one of two special test housings, either of which can be mounted onto a common test shaft which can be driven up to 30,000 rpm. The test bearing housing for rolling element bearings can accommodate proximity displacement transducers, accelerometers, thermocouples, and acoustic emission sensors. The test bearing housing for the fluid-film bearings can accommodate the same instrumentation as well as Bourdon tube-type transducers for measuring oil film pressures around the bearing circumference.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...boom angle indicators, boom stops, boom kick out devices, anti-two block devices, and load moment indicators where required...be rigged with members: (i) Attached at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably level; (ii) Rigged from top...

  10. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  11. The bottom-supported walking drilling rig Shengli-2

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Xinyi; Bin Ruji; Ma Zhiliang; Chen Jianyuan

    1993-12-31

    A new type of offshore rig--the bottom supported walking drilling rig was developed in China and has been completed successfully. It is rig Shengli-2. Rig Shengli-2 consists of an inner body and outer body. In condition of mutual support they can be seated down and lifted up alternatively and can also be moved forward (or backward) by means of the hydraulic walking mechanism which makes the walking possible.

  12. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  13. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 2 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? ? 250.405 ? Section 250.405 ? Mineral Resources ? MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? OFFSHORE ? OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.251 - Rigging equipment for material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rigging equipment for material handling. 1926.251 Section..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.251 Rigging equipment for material handling. (a) General. (1) Rigging equipment for material handling shall be inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.251 - Rigging equipment for material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rigging equipment for material handling. 1926.251 Section..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.251 Rigging equipment for material handling. (a) General. (1) Rigging equipment for material handling shall be inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during...

  16. Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) Startup Report

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Park

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the work accomplished to date to design, procure, assemble, authorize, and startup the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the reasons for establishing this capability, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, initial success, and plans for completing the initial 1,000 hour test.

  17. RIGGED HILBERT SPACES FOR CHAOTIC DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Bandtlow, Oscar

    , Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom 7 July 1995 Abstract. We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman systems evolve according to the Koopman operator [14] V f(x) = f(Sx); where S is an endomorphism or an automorphism of a measure space, and f is a square-integrable phase function. The spectrum of the Koopman

  18. RIGGED HILBERT SPACES FOR CHAOTIC DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Bandtlow, Oscar

    July 1995 Abstract. We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators to the Koopman operator [14] V f(x) = f(Sx), where S is an endomorphism of the Koopman operator determines the time scales of the ap- proach to equilib

  19. Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance

    2009-01-01

    Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

  20. La Belle: Rigging in the days of the spritsail topmast, a reconstruction of a seventeenth-century ship's rig 

    E-print Network

    Corder, Catharine Leigh Inbody

    2009-05-15

    La Belle’s rigging assemblage has provided a rare and valuable source of knowledge of 17th-century rigging in general and in particular, French and small-ship rigging characteristics. With over 400 individual items including nearly 160 wood and iron...

  1. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oil Record Book. 151.25 Section... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil tanker... fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I...

  2. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oil Record Book. 151.25 Section... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil tanker... fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I...

  3. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oil Record Book. 151.25 Section... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil tanker... fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I...

  4. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Record Book. 151.25 Section... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil tanker... fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I...

  5. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oil Record Book. 151.25 Section... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil tanker... fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I...

  6. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.

    1996-04-09

    A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

  7. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

  8. Undersea plumes of oil and dissolved gas and sedimented oil along the seafloor alter the ocean system following the BP oil well blowout. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, S. B.; Diercks, A. R.; Teske, A.; Valentine, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The explosion and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig resulted in a deepwater blowout that injected vast quantities of crude oil and low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases into Gulf of Mexico for almost three months. The depth of the blowout (1500m), the rate of oil and gas injection, and the duration of the event underscore the unprecedented nature of this environmental disaster. While most of the released crude oil reached the ocean surface, generating massive surface slicks, some of the oil was trapped in extensive undersea plumes. These oil plumes occupied discrete layers of varying thickness between 1000 and 1300m water depth to the southwest of the wellhead. Unlike the crude oil, the vast majority of methane released from the wellhead appears to have dissolved into the deep cold seawater: concentrations of thermogenic gases (methane, ethane, propane, butane and pentane) were 10,000 to 1,000,000 times higher than previous concentrations measured at similar depths in the Gulf of Mexico. Very little gas appears to have fluxed to the atmosphere; most of the released gas was trapped in the undersea plumes. The injection of hydrocarbons into undersea plumes generated a swift phylogenetic and metabolic response in the microbial community -- hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms flourished and rates of methane oxidation and oxygen consumption were elevated by several orders of magnitude relative to background rates. Oil on the surface ocean was weathered and dispersed, resulting in an “oil aggregate snow storm” on the seafloor. Oil deposition to the seafloor generated substantial changes in microbial community and patterns of microbial activity.

  9. Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

  10. A New Foil Air Bearing Test Rig for Use to 700 C and 70,000 rpm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris

    1997-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for evaluating foil air bearings at high temperatures and speeds. These bearings are self acting hydrodynamic air bearings which have been successfully applied to a variety of turbomachinery operating up to 650 C. This unique test rig is capable of measuring bearing torque during start-up, shut-down and high speed operation. Load capacity and general performance characteristics, such as durability, can be measured at temperatures to 700 C and speeds to 70,000 rpm. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the preliminary characterization of several bearings. The bearing performance data from this facility can be used to develop advanced turbomachinery incorporating high temperature oil-free air bearing technology.

  11. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  13. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  14. Computers make rig life extension an option

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  15. Development of a test rig for a helium twin-screw compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B. M.; Hu, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Li, Q.

    2014-01-29

    A large helium cryogenic system is being developed for use in great science projects, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Large Helical Device (LHD), and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In this cryogenic system, a twin-screw compressor is a key component. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the compressor performance. To obtain the performance characteristics, a test rig for the compressor has been built. All the important performance parameters, including adiabatic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, oil injection characteristic, and noise characteristic can be acquired with the rig when sensors are installed in the test system. With the test performance, the helium twin-screw compressor can be evaluated. Using these results, the design of the compressor can be improved.

  16. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  17. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  18. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

    1996-05-01

    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

  19. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update) - Duration: 2 minutes, 37 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  20. A method for improving test rig performance using passive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Anders T.; Abrahamsson, Thomas J. S.

    2015-02-01

    The time waveform replication (TWR) algorithm is presently used in industry for calculating the actuation force needed to replicate a certain reference sensor output in a test rig. Power and force rate limitations restrict the feasible range of that actuation force. If the input force distribution of the reference test cannot be replicated in the test rig, the required test rig input force magnitudes may be large or the replication properties poor due to lack of controllability. To circumvent this, a theory of passive components to improve replication and limit the input force demands of dynamic test rigs is developed. The theory fits within the framework of the TWR algorithm.

  1. The role of the rigged Hilbert space in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Madrid, Rafael

    2005-04-01

    There is compelling evidence that, when a continuous spectrum is present, the natural mathematical setting for quantum mechanics is the rigged Hilbert space rather than just the Hilbert space. In particular, Dirac's bra-ket formalism is fully implemented by the rigged Hilbert space rather than just by the Hilbert space. In this paper, we provide a pedestrian introduction to the role the rigged Hilbert space plays in quantum mechanics, by way of a simple, exactly solvable example. The procedure will be constructive and based on a recent publication. We also provide a thorough discussion on the physical significance of the rigged Hilbert space.

  2. Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes

    2006-05-09

    The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of time is divided among the remaining four functions of rig up/rig down, logging, lay down bottomhole assembly, and pick up bottomhole assembly. Observations made during all phases of CT rig operation at each of the project well installations have verified a number of characteristics of the technology that represent advantages that can produce significant savings of 25-35 percent per well. Attributes of the CT rig performance include: (1) Excellent hole quality with hole deviation amounting to 1-2 degrees; (2) Reduced need for auxiliary equipment; (3) Efficient rig mobilization requiring only four trailers; (4) Capability of ''Zero Discharge'' operation; (5) Improved safety; and, (6) Measurement while drilling capability. In addition, commercial cost data indicates that the CT rig reduces drilling costs by 25 to 35% compared to conventional drilling technology. Widespread commercial use of the Microhole Coiled Tubing technology in the United States for onshore Lower-48 drilling has the potential of achieving substantially positive impacts in terms of savings to the industry and resource expansion. Successfully commercialized Microhole CT Rig Technology is projected to achieve cumulative savings in Lower-48 onshore drilling expenditures of approximately 6.8 billion dollars by 2025. The reduced cost of CT microhole drilling is projected to enable the development of gas resources that would not have been economic with conventional methods. Because of the reduced cost of drilling achieved with CT rig technology, it is estimated that an additional 22 Tcf of gas resource will become economic to develop. In the future, the Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig represents an important platform for the continued improvement of drilling that draws on a new generation of various technologies to achieve goals of improved drilling cost and reduced impact to the environment.

  3. Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

  4. NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

  5. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  6. Group Based Rigging of Realistically Feathered Wings 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Heather Vernette

    2012-02-14

    stream_source_info Heather_Howard-AppendixA_WingCreatorCode-10-20-11.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 106173 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Heather_Howard-AppendixA_WingCreatorCode-10-20-11.pdf...) Open WingBase.ma. # 3) To run the rig program, copy and paste the FeatherGenerator.py text into the script editor # and run it; this will open up the graphic user interface (GUI) for the program. # 4) In the GUI input how many feathers for each...

  7. Open Rigging Through XML: Character Setup Utilizing Metadata and Node Based Editing 

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Logan Scott

    2014-02-19

    Modular rigging systems exist to automate many of the labor intensive tasks associated with setting up character motion and control systems for 3D animation production. In this paper, a modular rigging system is described that encodes rig...

  8. 46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...a). FIGURE 162.050-17(a)—SEPARATOR TEST RIG ER16JA09.005 (b) Each mixture pump on a test rig must— (1) Be a centrifugal pump capable of operating at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more; (2) Have a delivery...

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...a). FIGURE 162.050-17(a)—SEPARATOR TEST RIG ER16JA09.005 (b) Each mixture pump on a test rig must— (1) Be a centrifugal pump capable of operating at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more; (2) Have a delivery...

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...a). FIGURE 162.050-17(a)—SEPARATOR TEST RIG ER16JA09.005 (b) Each mixture pump on a test rig must— (1) Be a centrifugal pump capable of operating at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more; (2) Have a delivery...

  11. Universe Explosions

    E-print Network

    Ram Brustein; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

    2012-09-24

    A scenario for a quantum big crunch to big bang transition is proposed. We first clarify the similarities between this transition and the final stages of black hole evaporation. The black hole and the universe are thought of as quantum states. The importance of an external observer for understanding the big crunch to big bang transition is emphasized. Then, relying on the similarities between the black hole and the universe, we propose that the transition should be described as an explosion that connects the contracting phase to the expanding one. The explosion occurs when entropy bounds are saturated, or equivalently when the states cease to be semiclassically (meta)stable. We discuss our scenario in three examples: collapsing dust, a brane universe falling into a bulk black hole in anti-de Sitter space, and a contracting universe filled with a negative cosmological constant and a small amount of matter. We briefly discuss the late time observables that may carry some information about the state of the universe before the transition.

  12. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr.; Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  13. Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

    2014-08-01

    In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24582034

  14. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  15. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    SciTech Connect

    Asdonk, Tobias; Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  16. Chaotic Explosions

    E-print Network

    Eduardo G. Altmann; Jefferson S. E. Portela; Tamás Tél

    2015-01-22

    We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

  17. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1952-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made by means of a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and the outer-race bearing operating temperatures are computed for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. A method is given that enables the designer to predict the inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures from single curves, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter, or any combination of these parameters.

  18. Numerical Simulation of the RTA Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Buehrle, Robert; Liu, Nan-Suey; Winslow, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator (RTA)/Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) project is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space. NASA Glenn Research Center and GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) planned to develop a ground demonstrator engine for validation testing. The demonstrator (RTA-1) is a variable cycle, turbofan ramjet designed to transition from an augmented turbofan to a ramjet that produces the thrust required to accelerate the vehicle from Sea Level Static (SLS) to Mach 4. The RTA-1 is designed to accommodate a large variation in bypass ratios from sea level static to Mach 4 conditions. Key components of this engine are new, such as a nickel alloy fan, advanced trapped vortex combustor, a Variable Area Bypass Injector (VABI), radial flameholders, and multiple fueling zones. A means to mitigate risks to the RTA development program was the use of extensive component rig tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

  19. Fracture mechanics investigation of oil shale to aid in understanding the explosive fragmentation process. Final technical report, January 1983-July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.P.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes goals and findings achieved in developing technologies to improve the overall efficiency of oil shale recovery processes. The objectives are to (a) develop theoretical fracture mechanics tools that are applicable to transversely isotropic materials such as sedimentary rock, more particularly oil shale; and (b) develop a fracture mechanics test procedure that can be conveniently used for rock specimens. Such a test procedure would: utilize the geometry of a typical rock core for the test; require a minimum amount of specimen machining; and provide meaningful, reproducible data that corresponds well to test data obtained from conventional fracture mechanics tests. Critical review of the state-of-the-art of fracture mechanics on layered rocks has been completed. Recommendations are made for innovative and promising methods for oil shale fracture mechanics. Numerical and analytical studies of mixed mode fracture mechanics are investigated. Transversely isotropic properties of oil shale are input using isoparametric finite elements with singular elements at the crack tip. The model is a plate with an edge crack whose angle with the edge varies to study the effect of mixed mode fracture under various conditions. The three-dimensional plate is in tension, and stress, energy methods are used in the fracture analysis. Precracked disks of oil shale cored perpendicular to bedding planes are analyzed numerically. Stress intensity factors are determined by (i) strain energy method, and (ii) elliptic simulation method. 47 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Chromospheric explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

    1986-01-01

    Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

  1. 77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... February 17, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in In Re: Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in... resulting from the April 20, 2010 blowout of the Macondo well and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig..., DC 20044-7611, and should refer to In Re: Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the...

  2. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  3. Initiative for Explosives Detection

    E-print Network

    Initiative for Explosives Detection Highly Concealed Bulk Explosives Detection This focus area emphasizes the detection of explosives or IEDs hidden in vehicles, buildings or various types of containers of highly concealed explosives include the development of enhanced energy sources, improved electronics

  4. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  5. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center High Speed Turbopump Bearing Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Howard; Moore, Chip; Thom, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a unique test rig that is used to test and develop rolling element bearings used in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. The tester is unique in that it uses liquid hydrogen as the coolant for the bearings. This test rig can simulate speeds and loads experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. With internal modifications, the tester can be used for evaluating fluid film, hydrostatic, and foil bearing designs. At the present time, the test rig is configured to run two ball bearings or a ball and roller bearing, both with a hydrostatic bearing. The rig is being used to evaluate the lifetimes of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride rolling elements and steel races.

  7. Associated Shale Gas- From Flares to Rig Power 

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Elizabeth Michelle

    2014-10-16

    rig and frac spreads. After reviewing power sources that can use natural gas (including turbines, dual-fuel, and dedicated spark ignited engines) and associated gas separation technologies, we are able to make recommendations for the best use of flared...

  8. 3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Land rigs benefit from portable top drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-14

    A small, portable topdrive system, which can be installed in as little as 4 hr with little or no derrick modification, can help land rigs drill difficult or extended reach wells, according to Tesco Drilling Technology in Calgary. The units are designed for rigs that must be dismantled and moved after each well. To reduce the amount of derrick modifications, the systems are designed to fit on any rig that can make a conventional kelly connection with a 42-ft kelly and a 31-ft single. The compact unit can operate in tapered area above the monkey board. The first portable skid package went into the field in 1992. In its first 6 months of operation, this unit was installed on six rigs, drilled seven horizontal wells, and operated for about 2,000 hr with only 12.5 hr total downtime.

  10. Regenerative Fuel Cell Test Rig at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Bents, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell development effort at Glenn Research Center (GRC) involves the integration of a dedicated fuel cell and electrolyzer into an energy storage system test rig. The test rig consists of a fuel cell stack, an electrolysis stack, cooling pumps, a water transfer pump, gas recirculation pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), heat exchangers, isolation valves, pressure regulators, interconnecting tubing, nitrogen purge provisions, and instrumentation for control and monitoring purposes. The regenerative fuel cell (RFC) thus formed is a completely closed system which is capable of autonomous cyclic operation. The test rig provides direct current (DC) load and DC power supply to simulate power consumption and solar power input. In addition, chillers are used as the heat sink to dissipate the waste heat from the electrochemical stack operation. Various vents and nitrogen (N2) sources are included in case inert purging is necessary to safe the RFC test rig.

  11. Offshore operations report. Britoil's Beatrice gets unique workover rig

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, M.J.; Hogan, K.G.

    1983-11-15

    On the expectation of continuous down-hole production problems in its Beatrice field in the UK sector of the North Sea, Britoil selected a unique workover rig, with some drilling capability, for permanent installation on its B platform. Experience on Beatrice A platform provided inputs for the rig's design, which was accomplished by a multi-disciplined group of engineers and draftsmen, including an experienced toolpusher. The rig features a kelly racking system, in the absence of space for a rathole, and a spooler unit to handle down-hole pump electric cables, small-bore chemical injection lines, and down-hole instrument cables. The rig is fully instrumented to insure safe, pollution-free operation.

  12. A Rigging Convention for Isosurface-Based Characters 

    E-print Network

    Davalath, Megha Nataraj

    2011-08-08

    This thesis presents a prototype system for generating animation control systems for isosurface-based characters that blurs the distinction between a skeletal rig and a particle system. Managing articulation and deformation set-up can be challenging...

  13. Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew; Kurkov, Anatole; Mehmed, Oral; Johnson, Dexter; Montague, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Jansen, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig is an apparatus for vibration testing of turbomachine blades in a vacuum at rotational speeds from 0 to 40,000 rpm. This rig includes (1) a vertically oriented shaft on which is mounted an assembly comprising a rotor holding the blades to be tested, (2) two actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearings at opposite ends of the shaft, and (3) an actively controlled magnetic thrust bearing at the upper end of the shaft. This rig is a more capable successor to a prior apparatus, denoted the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR), that included a vertically oriented shaft with a mechanical thrust bearing at the upper end and a single actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearing at the lower end.

  14. Using rigging and transfer to animate 3D characters

    E-print Network

    Baran, Ilya, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Transferring a mesh or skeletal animation onto a new mesh currently requires significant manual effort. For skeletal animations, this involves rigging the character, by specifying how the skeleton is positioned relative ...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices, anti-two block devices, and load moment indicators where required; (D) Air, hydraulic, and other... members: (i) Attached at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably level; (ii) Rigged from...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices, anti-two block devices, and load moment indicators where required; (D) Air, hydraulic, and other... members: (i) Attached at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably level; (ii) Rigged from...

  17. Multi-Axis Gimble Rig in AWT with Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Multi-Axis Space Test Inertia Facility (MASTIF) also known as the Gimbal Rig in Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) with pilot during Project Mercury. The Gimbal Rig was used to train astronauts how to pull the space capsule out of a potentially dangerous spin and regain control of the spacecraft. And boy, doesn't it look like fun?! The training and tests were run at the Altitude Wind Tunnel at Lewis Research Center, now John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  18. Description of an oscillating flow pressure drop test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Miller, Eric L.; Gedeon, David R.; Koester, Gary E.

    1988-01-01

    A test rig designed to generate heat exchanger pressure drop information under oscillating flow conditions is described. This oscillating flow rig is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. A frequency capability of 120 hertz and a mean test pressure up to 15 mPA (2200 psi) allows for testing at flow conditions found in modern high specific power Stirling engines. An important design feature of this rig is that it utilizes a single close coupled dynamic pressure transducer to measure the pressure drop across the test sample. This eliminates instrumentation difficulties associated with the pressure sensing lines common to differential pressure transducers. Another feature of the rig is that it utilizes a single displacement piston. This allows for testing of different sample lengths and configurations without hardware modifications. All data acquisition and reduction for the rig is performed with a dedicated personal computer. Thus the overall system design efficiently integrates the testing and data reduction procedures. The design methodology and details of the test rig are described.

  19. Description of an oscillating flow pressure drop test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Miller, Eric L.; Gedeon, David R.; Koester, Gary E.

    1988-01-01

    A test rig designed to generate heat exchanger pressure drop information under oscillating flow conditions is described. This oscillating flow rig is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. A frequency capability of 120 hertz and a mean test pressure up to 15 mPA (2200 psi) allows for testing at flow conditions found in modern high specific power Stirling engines. An important design feature of this rig is that it utilizes a single close coupled dynamic pressure transducer to measure the pressure drop across the test sample. This eliminates instrumentation difficulties associated with the pressure sensing lines common to differential pressure transducers. Another feature of the rig is that it utilizes a single displacement piston. This allows for testing of different sample lengths and configurations without hardware modifications. All data acquisition and reduction for the rig is performed with a dedicated personal computer. Thus the overall system design efficiently integrates the testing and data reduction procedures. The design methodology and details of the test rig is described.

  20. Bioremediation of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1995-09-01

    Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

  1. Local Frequency Based Estimators for Anomaly Detection in Oil and Gas Applications

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    to positively impact the bottom line. In the oil and gas industry, modern oil rigs are outfitted with thousands in the bore well which is typical in oil production. The short time Fourier transform and dynamical systems of oil and gas -from rock formations in the sea bed that contain deposits- to distribution systems

  2. Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.

    PubMed

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  3. Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand

    PubMed Central

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  4. 76 FR 23570 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the...Northstar Interests), Northstar Offshore Energy Partners, LLC. (Northstar...

  5. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  6. 75 FR 8921 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOAs) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  7. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  8. 76 FR 33704 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  9. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  10. 77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  11. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  12. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  13. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  14. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  15. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  16. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  17. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  18. Workover well control. Part 3. Conventional rigs, snubbing units handle a variety of workover jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N.

    1981-08-31

    The conventional rig, the most widely used rig for workovers, performs several common functions: tripping in and out of the hole, rotating the work string, and circulating fluid. Its primary component groups are the derrick, hoisting systems, rotary tools, circulating systems, and tubular goods. Rig sizing depends on the job requirements; the typical workover rig is a small-capacity, single unit used for concentric work. A workover rig's most important feature is its portability; compartmentalizing the rig permits transporting it offshore in packages smaller than 8000 lb and allows small cranes to replace derrick barges for loading operations.

  19. Conoco installs eight-pile rig on four-pile platform

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1983-11-01

    Rig 122 recently became the largest standard self-contained drilling rig ever to be mounted on a four-pile, tender-style platform. The conversion sacrificed none of the rig's deep drilling capability, and enabled Conoco to utilize a self-contained platform drilling rig on a satellite platform in the same field. Two cantilever beams, extending some 42 ft beyond platform columns on two sides, support rig weight. Modifications to the rig include separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe-rack extension and a novel skidding system.

  20. Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by RIG-I

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Dahai; Ding, Steve C.; Vela, Adriana; Kohlway, Andrew; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2011-10-27

    Intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including RIG-I, MDA-5, and LGP2) recognize viral RNAs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an antiviral immune response. To understand the molecular basis of this process, we determined the crystal structure of RIG-I in complex with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The dsRNA is sheathed within a network of protein domains that include a conserved 'helicase' domain (regions HEL1 and HEL2), a specialized insertion domain (HEL2i), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD). A V-shaped pincer connects HEL2 and the CTD by gripping an {alpha}-helical shaft that extends from HEL1. In this way, the pincer coordinates functions of all the domains and couples RNA binding with ATP hydrolysis. RIG-I falls within the Dicer-RIG-I clade of the superfamily 2 helicases, and this structure reveals complex interplay between motor domains, accessory mechanical domains, and RNA that has implications for understanding the nanomechanical function of this protein family and other ATPases more broadly.

  1. Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.

    1997-03-10

    A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

  2. Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins

    E-print Network

    Ravenel, Douglas

    Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

  3. 2534 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 50, NO. 7, JULY 2012 Mapping Surface Oil Extent From the Deepwater

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    Oil Extent From the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using ASCAT Backscatter Richard D. Lindsley, Student Member, IEEE, and David G. Long, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf THE OIL spill from the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the largest environmental

  4. Higher antiviral response of RIG-I through enhancing RIG-I/MAVS-mediated signaling by its long insertion variant in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng Fei; Chang, Ming Xian; Li, Ying; Huan Zhang, Shu; Fu, Jian Ping; Chen, Shan Nan; Nie, Pin

    2015-03-01

    As an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is responsible for the recognition of cytosolic viral nucleic acids and the production of type I interferons (IFNs). In the present study, an insertion variant of RIG-I with 38 amino acids inserted in the N-terminal CARD2 domain, as well as the typical type, named as RIG-Ia and RIG-Ib respectively were identified in zebrafish. RIG-Ia and RIG-Ib were all up-regulated following the infection of a negative ssRNA virus, the Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV), and an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda, indicating the RLR may have a role in the recognition of both viruses and bacteria. The over-expression of RIG-Ib in cultured fish cells resulted in significant increase in type I IFN promoter activity, and in protection against SVCV infection, whereas the over-expression of RIG-Ia had no direct effect on IFN activation nor antiviral response. Furthermore, it was revealed that both RIG-Ia and RIG-Ib were associated with the downstream molecular mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, MAVS, and interestingly RIG-Ia when co-transfected with RIG-Ib or MAVS, induced a significantly higher level of type I IFN promoter activity and the expression level of Mx and IRF7, implying that the RIG-Ia may function as an enhancer in the RIG-Ib/MAVS-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:25524497

  5. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  6. Energy efficient engine: High pressure turbine uncooled rig technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained from testing five performance builds (three vane cascades and two rotating rigs of the Energy Efficient Engine uncooled rig have established the uncooled aerodynamic efficiency of the high-pressure turbine at 91.1 percent. This efficiency level was attained by increasing the rim speed and annulus area (AN(2)), and by increasing the turbine reaction level. The increase in AN(2) resulted in a performance improvement of 1.15 percent. At the design point pressure ratio, the increased reaction level rig demonstrated an efficiency of 91.1 percent. The results of this program have verified the aerodynamic design assumptions established for the Energy Efficient Engine high-pressure turbine component.

  7. New hydraulic lift rig for drilling and workover

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Maritime Hydraulics of Kristiansand, Norway, has developed a new concept for a drilling rig that utilizes long hydraulic rams for the basic lifting mechanism. By eliminating the conventional drawworks, traveling block and derrick, the new configuration offers distinct weight, safety and operational advantages for offshore applications. The new concept, called RamRig, was conceived in 1987 and was the subject of a two-year joint engineering study with BP Development Norway Ltd. In 1994, a Saga Petroleum initiative revitalized the concept, and a complete design for a deepwater exploration operation was completed in mid-1995. In August 1995, third-party verification was supplied by Sintef. An order was recently placed by Reading and Bates for a RamRig type system to be used on the company`s new deepwater work vessel Iolair. This paper briefly reviews the design and operation of this equipment.

  8. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  9. Jerrie Cobb, Lady Pilot, testing Gimbal Rig in AWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Jerrie Cobb, a well known female pilot in the 1950s, testing Gimbal Rig in the Altitude Wind Tunnel, AWT in April 1960. The Gimbal Rig, formally called MASTIF or Multiple Axis Space Test Inertia Facility, was used to train astronauts to control the spin of a tumbling spacecraft. Jerrie Cobb was the first female to pass all three phases of the Mercury Astronaut Program but NASA rules stipulated that only military test pilots could become astronauts and there were no female military test pilots. Jerrie completed this astounding feat in 1961. The MASTIF was installed at the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Research Center, now John H. Glenn Research Center.

  10. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional drilling. It has the advantage that the drill string stays in the drilled hole during the entire drilling process and prevents the drilled hole from collapsing while the inner core barrels comprising the drilled core sections are hooked up inside the drill string using a wire.

  11. 49 CFR 173.59 - Description of terms for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... replace proper shipping names prescribed in § 172.101 of this subchapter. Ammonium-nitrate—fuel oil mixture (ANFO). A blasting explosive containing no essential ingredients other than prilled ammonium nitrate and fuel oil. Ammunition. Generic term related mainly to articles of military...

  12. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  13. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1951-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made using a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and outer-race bearing operating temperatures are compared for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. Inner- and outer-race cooling-correlation curves were obtained for the turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing with the same inner- and outer-race correlation parameters and exponents as those determined for the laboratory test-rig bearing. The inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures may be predicted from a single curve, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter or any combination of these parameters. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing inner-race temperatures were 30 to 60 F greater than the outer-race-maximum temperatures, the exact values depending on the operating condition and oil viscosity; these results are in contrast to the laboratory test-rig results where the inner-race temperatures were less than the outer-race-maximum temperatures. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing, maximum outer-race circumferential temperature variation was approximately 30 F for each of the oils used. The effect of oil viscosity on inner- and outer-race turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing temperatures was found to be significant. With the lower viscosity oil (6x10(exp -7) reyns (4.9 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 83), the inner-race temperature was approximately 30 to 35 F less than with the higher viscosity oil (53x10(exp -7) reyns (42.8 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 150); whereas the outer-race-maximum temperatures were 12 to 28 F lower with the lower viscosity oil over the DN range investigated.

  14. Mobile laboratory “Explosive destruction of natural materials”: Investigation of the behavior of ice and limestone under explosive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, M. Yu; Orlova, Yu N.; Tolkachev, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the behavior of ice and natural limestone under explosion condition was investigated. The objects of study were the river ice and natural limestone quarry on Siberia. The practical significance of research due to the need to increase production of oil and gas in permafrost regions, the fight against ice jams, etc. We organized a mobile laboratory ’’Explosive destruction of the natural materials” at the National Research Tomsk State University. The main purpose of the laboratory is express analyzing of explosive destruction of natural materials. The diameters and depths of explosive craters in the limestone and explosive lane in the ice were obtained. The results can be used to test new models and numerical methods for calculating shock and explosive loading of different materials, including ice.

  15. The Oil and Gas Journal databook, 1986 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This annual contains the following: Foreword by Gene Kinney; OGJ 400; Crude Oil Assays; Worldwide Petrochemical Survey; Midyear Forecast and Review; Worldwide Gas Processing Report; Ethylene Report; Sulfur Survey; International Refining; Catalyst Compilation; Pipeline Economics Report; Worldwide Production and Refining Report; Annual Refining Survey; Morgan Pipeline Cost Index, Oil and Gas; Nelson Cost Index; Hughes Rig Count; Smith Rig Count; OGJ Production Report and the API Refinery Reports. Also featured is the Oil and Gas Journal Index, which lists every article published in the Journal in 1985, referenced by article title or subject.

  16. Whirl Motion of a Seal Test Rig with Squeeze-Film Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Gunter, Edgar J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental behavior and dynamic analysis of a high speed test rig with rolling element bearings mounted in squeeze film oil damper bearings. The test rotor is a double overhung configuration with rolling element ball bearings mounted in uncentered squeeze-film oil dampers. The damper design is similar to that employed with various high-speed aircraft HP gas turbines. The dynamic performance of the test rig with the originally installed dampers with an effective damper length of length 0.23-inch was unacceptable. The design speed of 40,000 RPM could not be safely achieved as nonsynchronous whirling at the overhung seal test disk and high amplitude critical speed response at the drive spline section occurred at 32,000 RPM. In addition to the self excited stability and critical speed problems, it was later seen from FFT data analysis, that a region of supersynchronous dead band whirling occurs between 10,000 to 15,000 RPM which can lead to bearing distress and wear. The system was analyzed using both linear and nonlinear techniques. The extended length damper design resulting from the analysis eliminated the rotor subsynchronous whirling, high amplitude critical speed, and the dead band whirling region allowing the system to achieve a speed of 45,000 RPM. However, nonlinear analysis shows that damper lockup could occur with high rotor unbalance at 33,000 RPM, even with the extended squeeze-film dampers. The control of damper lockup will be addressed in a future paper.

  17. 75 FR 20372 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel RIG RUNNER

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel RIG RUNNER AGENCY: Coast...Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel RIG RUNNER as required...parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel RIG RUNNER, O.N....

  18. 75 FR 20372 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel RIG RUNNER

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel RIG RUNNER AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel RIG RUNNER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR... issued for the offshore supply vessel RIG RUNNER, O.N. 1222591. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS...

  19. Toxiological Considerations in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deep Water Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20, 2010, resulting in an ongoing release of light sweet petroleum crude oil and methane into Gulf of Mexico waters. The release from the deepwater wellhead 41 miles from Louisiana is at approximately 1 mile depth, and flow rates e...

  20. Mixed Stream Test Rig Winter FY-2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chalres Park; Tedd Lister; Kevin DeWall

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the data and analysis of the initial testing campaign of the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the test specimen selection, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, and data and analysis of specimens exposed in two environments designed to represent those expected for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE).

  1. Design, Fabrication and Preliminary Testing of Experimental Rock Drilling Rig 

    E-print Network

    Tingey, Dustin John

    2015-08-03

    Due to the foreseen need in literature to develop a more complete bit to formation interface law to be used in petroleum drilling applications, a full-scale bit force measurement drilling test rig was developed to measure the various forces acting...

  2. DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    E-print Network

    , others in the industry became interested and many have subsequently contributed to the successful are frequently made by members of the shrimp industry. #12;/ Figure 1 - DetailS of the rigging arrangementsO) on trawl winch. O. Center drum for try net wire. Q. Towing wire. R. ~ading block for try net. 8-1, 8-2, S-3

  3. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  4. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  5. 78 FR 33431 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for a... state natural resource trustees for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Trustees) intend to prepare a PEIS... discharges from the rig and from the wellhead on the seabed. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the...

  6. Deepwater Horizon Study Finds Crude Oil Harmful to Bluefin, Yellowfin Tuna

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    , as a large plume of smoke rises from fires on BP's Deepwater Horizon offshore oil rig. Image: Gerald Herbert Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused malformations in developing hearts of yellowfin and bluefin tuna into how the largest oil spill in U.S. history might have harmed young members of large fish species

  7. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  8. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  9. Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks Diego Alcala and Katherine Sytwu With Shane Squires ­ Directed and undirected networks ­ Percolation ­ Explosive percolation · Methodology · Results · Conclusion, infrastructure, etc. · Grow by the addition of links · New class of transitions: "explosive percolation" Taken

  10. Reaction of preshocked explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, R.N.

    1998-07-31

    In experiments in which an explosive is subjected to two successive shocks ({approximately}2.5 and {approximately}6.0 GPa), detonation of the explosive is delayed. High compaction resulting from shock compression of an explosive probably results in the removal of voids from the material. To the extent that these voids comprise the hotspots in the material, the shock-compressed explosive might be expected to behave as a homogeneous material, and initiate more like a liquid explosive than like a normal solid PBX. While some evidence is available from the data record to support this idea that detonation develops in a homogeneous manner, predominant aspects of the data indicate heterogeneous development of detonation in the preshocked material.

  11. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  12. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  13. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOEpatents

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  14. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. Methods: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Results: Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. Conclusions: For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Citation: Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:24678440

  15. Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

  16. Energy efficient engine sector combustor rig test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Greene, W.; Sundt, C. V.; Tanrikut, S.; Zeisser, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft has successfully completed a comprehensive combustor rig test using a 90-degree sector of an advanced two-stage combustor with a segmented liner. Initial testing utilized a combustor with a conventional louvered liner and demonstrated that the Energy Efficient Engine two-stage combustor configuration is a viable system for controlling exhaust emissions, with the capability to meet all aerothermal performance goals. Goals for both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were surpassed and the goal for oxides of nitrogen was closely approached. In another series of tests, an advanced segmented liner configuration with a unique counter-parallel FINWALL cooling system was evaluated at engine sea level takeoff pressure and temperature levels. These tests verified the structural integrity of this liner design. Overall, the results from the program have provided a high level of confidence to proceed with the scheduled Combustor Component Rig Test Program.

  17. High-Flow Jet Exit Rig Designed and Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Robert J.; Trimarchi, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to test single flow jet nozzles and to measure the appropriate thrust and noise levels. The rig has been designed for the maximum hot condition of 16 lbm/sec of combustion air at 1960 R (maximum) and to produce a maximum thrust of 2000 lb. It was designed for cold flow of 29.1 lbm/sec of air at 530 R. In addition, it can test dual-flow nozzles (nozzles with bypass flow in addition to core flow) with independent control of each flow. The High- Flow Jet Exit Rig was successfully fabricated in late 2001 and is being readied for checkout tests. The rig will be installed in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig consists of the following major components: a single component force balance, the natural-gas-fueled J-79 combustor assembly, the plenum and manifold assembly, an acoustic/instrumentation/seeding (A/I/S) section, a table, and the research nozzles. The rig will be unique in that it is designed to operate uncooled. The structure survives the 1960 R test condition because it uses carefully selected high temperature alloy materials such as Hastelloy-X. The lower plenum assembly was designed to operate at pressures to 450 psig at 1960 R, in accordance with the ASME B31.3 piping code. The natural gas-fueled combustor fires directly into the lower manifold. The hot air is directed through eight 1-1/2-in. supply pipes that supply the upper plenum. The flow is conditioned in the upper plenum prior to flowing to the research nozzle. The 1-1/2-in. supply lines are arranged in a U-shaped design to provide for a flexible piping system. The combustor assembly checkout was successfully conducted in Glenn's Engine Component Research Laboratory in the spring of 2001. The combustor is a low-smoke version of the J79 combustor used to power the F4 Phantom military aircraft. The natural gas-fueled combustor demonstrated high-efficiency combustion over a wide range of operating conditions. This wide operating envelope is required to support the testing of both single- and dual-flow nozzles. Key research goals include providing simultaneous, highly accurate acoustic, flow, and thrust measurements on jet nozzle models in realistic flight conditions, as well as providing scaleable acoustic results. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig is a second-generation high-flow test rig. Improvements include cleaner flow with reduced levels of particulate, soot, and odor. Choked-flow metering is required with plus or minus 0.25-percent accuracy. Thrust measurements from 0 to 2000 lbf are required with plus or minus 0.25-percent accuracy. Improved acoustics will be achieved by minimizing noise through large pipe bend radii, lower internal flow velocities, and microdrilled choke plates with thousands of 0.040-in.- diameter holes.

  18. New wave drilling rigs offer automation, ergonomics and economy

    SciTech Connect

    Von Flatern, R.

    1996-05-01

    The drilling industry is being pressured to do its job not just faster and cheaper, but also safer and cleaner. The latest land and offshore platform drilling rig designs incorporate modularization, mechanization, computers and environmental protection in an attempt to meet those demands. This paper reviews the technology of these new designs and how they can operate to ensure safety and environmental protection for lower costs.

  19. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  20. RIG-I Self-Oligomerization Is Either Dispensable or Very Transient for Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Louber, Jade; Kowalinski, Eva; Bloyet, Louis-Marie; Brunel, Joanna; Cusack, Stephen; Gerlier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Effective host defence against viruses depends on the rapid triggering of innate immunity through the induction of a type I interferon (IFN) response. To this end, microbe-associated molecular patterns are detected by dedicated receptors. Among them, the RIG-I-like receptors RIG-I and MDA5 activate IFN gene expression upon sensing viral RNA in the cytoplasm. While MDA5 forms long filaments in vitro upon activation, RIG-I is believed to oligomerize after RNA binding in order to transduce a signal. Here, we show that in vitro binding of synthetic RNA mimicking that of Mononegavirales (Ebola, rabies and measles viruses) leader sequences to purified RIG-I does not induce RIG-I oligomerization. Furthermore, in cells devoid of endogenous functional RIG-I-like receptors, after activation of exogenous Flag-RIG-I by a 62-mer-5?ppp-dsRNA or by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, a dsRNA analogue, or by measles virus infection, anti-Flag immunoprecipitation and specific elution with Flag peptide indicated a monomeric form of RIG-I. Accordingly, when using the Gaussia Luciferase-Based Protein Complementation Assay (PCA), a more sensitive in cellula assay, no RIG-I oligomerization could be detected upon RNA stimulation. Altogether our data indicate that the need for self-oligomerization of RIG-I for signal transduction is either dispensable or very transient. PMID:25259935

  1. Micro-explosion of compound drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

  2. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  3. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  4. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials.... Display fireworks. DNPA . DNPD . Dynamite. E EDDN . EDNA . Ednatol. EDNP . EGDN . Erythritol...

  5. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 ?g m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 ?g m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 ?g m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas. PMID:26020723

  6. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development. This review of MMS NEPA policies, practices and procedures is being conducted as a result of the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well and drilling rig... QUALITY Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration...

  7. 75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission...Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire and oil spill and develop options to guard...

  8. Disorder induces explosive synchronization

    E-print Network

    Per Sebastian Skardal; Alex Arenas

    2014-06-02

    We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on either the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

  9. Explosive Collisions at RHIC?

    E-print Network

    Adrian Dumitru; Robert D. Pisarski

    2001-02-02

    Motivated by experimental results from RHIC, we suggest how a condensate for the Polyakov loop might produce explosive behavior at the QCD phase transition. This is due to a rapid rollover of the condensate field below the transition temperature.

  10. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  11. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  12. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  13. Nuclear explosive driven experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment.

  14. Explosive Nucleosynthesis: Prospects

    E-print Network

    David Arnett

    1999-08-16

    Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions---the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of SN1987A, SN1998bw (GRB980425?), and eta Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

  15. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  16. ( 'tams Dlvllan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ~ ( ·'tams Dlvl·lan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE THERMAL CONSTRAINTS LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE presents the study of LSPE High Explosive Package and transport frame stowage thermal constraints subsequent to LM touchdown and prior to lunar deployment. Approved by: #12;LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE

  17. Effect of Velocity of Detonation of Explosives on Seismic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    We studied seismic body wave generation from four fully contained explosions of approximately the same yields (68 kg of TNT equivalent) conducted in anisotropic granite in Barre, VT. The explosions were detonated using three types of explosives with different velocities of detonation (VOD): Black Powder (BP), Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil/Emulsion (ANFO), and Composition B (COMP B). The main objective of the experiment was to study differences in seismic wave generation among different types of explosives, and to determine the mechanism responsible for these differences. The explosives with slow burn rate (BP) produced lower P-wave amplitude and lower corner frequency, which resulted in lower seismic efficiency (0.35%) in comparison with high burn rate explosives (2.2% for ANFO and 3% for COMP B). The seismic efficiency estimates for ANFO and COMP B agree with previous studies for nuclear explosions in granite. The body wave radiation pattern is consistent with an isotropic explosion with an added azimuthal component caused by vertical tensile fractures oriented along pre-existing micro-fracturing in the granite, although the complexities in the P- and S-wave radiation patterns suggest that more than one fracture orientation could be responsible for their generation. High S/P amplitude ratios and low P-wave amplitudes suggest that a significant fraction of the BP source mechanism can be explained by opening of the tensile fractures as a result of the slow energy release.

  18. Explosive Welding and Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuken, D.; Carton, E. P.

    2004-07-01

    Explosive welding or cladding is usually performed on relative thick plates by means of a large scale parallel plate set-up. At TNO-PML several of the explosive welding configurations that were developed mainly in the nineteen sixties and seventies are being investigated for their potential use in modern industrial applications. Configurations for explosive cladding of curved surfaces such as tubes and rods are also being examined. This can be used to make special bimetallic heat exchanger tubes, or for the protection of electrodes that are used in electrolysis. Explosive line and seam welding are important bonding techniques that allow the welding of both similar and dissimilar metal plates and sheets. Here, bonding occurs over a small overlapping fraction of the two surfaces. This requires only a small amount of explosive (e.g. 5 g/m for line welds in thin ductile sheets). Explosive foil cladding can be used as an alternative coating technique. Plates that are clad with a foil on one or both sides were fabricated in one process step. They can be further machined or deformed using conventional techniques, due to the ductility of the bond and clad material.

  19. Burngrange Nos.1 and 2 (oil Shale) Mine, Midlothian 

    E-print Network

    Bryan, A. M.

    1947-01-01

    BURNGRANGE Nos. I AND 2 (Oil Shale) MINE, MIDLOTHIAN REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending, the Explosion and Fire which occurred on the 10th January, 1947, at the Burngrange Nos. I and 2 (Oil Shale) ...

  20. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J. Fern´andez Bonder, UBA J.D. Rossi, UBA ERPEM, November 29th, 2006 Pablo Groisman UBA Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

  1. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  2. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  3. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  4. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  5. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  6. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  7. Impacts of the Explosive Removal of Offshore Petroleum Platforms on Sea Turtles and Dolphins

    E-print Network

    offshore waters. Drift bottles re leased at the site of one of the explosions were recovered with some Continental Shelf (OCS) waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Beginning in 1987, companies planning to remove oil

  8. 30 CFR 57.22606 - Explosive materials and blasting units (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...placement of holes, possible breakthrough, and water. Ammonium nitrate blasting agents shall not be loaded into wet holes. ...Nonapproved explosives shall be used only as primers with ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents. Such primers shall be placed...

  9. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  10. Nuclear Explosives in Peacetime, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodine, Virginia, Ed.; Bradford, Albert, Ed.

    Discussed are the commercial uses of nuclear explosives as well as the testing of nuclear weapons. Case histories of the use of nuclear explosives to stimulate oil and natural gas production are examined, and problems associated with nuclear blasting are discussed with special reference to canal construction. Effects of nuclear weapons testing are…

  11. Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

  12. Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

  13. Planetary-gear-support bearing test rig design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A test rig was designed to evaluate the performance of a spherical roller bearing with a geared outer ring operating under conditions similar to those of a planet bearing in a helicopter transmission. The configuration is an extension of the widely accepted four-square gearbox arrangement. It provides for testing of two bearings simultaneously with outer ring rotation, misalignment, diametrically opposed loading through the gear teeth, and under race lubrication. Instrumentation permits the measurement of inner and outer ring temperature, bearing drag torque, degree of misalignment, outer ring speed, cage speed, and applied load.

  14. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. ); Mumford, G. )

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  15. Singular solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations and rigged configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Anatol N.; Sakamoto, Reiho

    2014-05-01

    We provide a conjecture for the following two quantities related to the spin-\\frac{1}{2} isotropic Heisenberg model defined over rings of even lengths: (i) the number of solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations which correspond to non-zero Bethe vectors; (ii) the number of physical singular solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations in the sense of Nepomechie and Wang 2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 325002. The conjecture is based on a natural relationship between the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations and the rigged configurations.

  16. Disc brake squeal characterization through simplified test rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, A.; Giannini, O.; Massi, F.; Sestieri, A.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a review of recent investigations on brake squeal noise carried out on simplified experimental rigs. The common theme of these works is that of approaching the study of squeal noise on experimental set-ups that are much simpler than commercial disc brakes, providing the possibility of repeatable measurements of squeal occurrence. As a consequence, it is possible to build consistent and robust models of the experimental apparatus to simulate the squeal events and to understand the physics behind squeal instabilities.

  17. Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill - Landsat 5

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to cap the leaking well system and contain the growing oil slick before it reaches wildlife refuges, fisheries, and beaches along the southern...

  18. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  19. Molecular models for explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.P.; Bachrach, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of formation, etc. for explosives. As a result of this extensive experimental work, a large and ever increasing number of observed properties of explosives are available. Given sufficient data, models for the prediction of molecular properties can be developed and calibrated. Nevertheless, many desirable molecular properties can be obtained with considerable effort and, in many cases, experimental measurements are not possible for practical reasons; e.g., bond dissociation energies are very difficult to obtain for explosives. Consequently, theoretical methods for obtaining these properties are quite desirable. In addition, it is oftentimes desired to estimate the properties of unknown molecules. Consequently, methods for the estimation of molecular properties, which might seem quite crude by other standards, can be of considerable practical value. We present in this paper some of our recent efforts at extending and developing molecular models for explosives. These efforts fall into three main areas: Estimation of crystal densities of organic nitrates and perchlorates by an entirely empirical group additivity method; calculation of molecular heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (BDE's) by a semi-empirical molecular orbital method (AM1); and the electronic structure of nitrobenzene as obtained from non-empirical (sometimes called ab initio molecular orbital calculations. 10 refs.

  20. Effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dienes, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The behavior of rocks at large deformations is characterized, including the effects of crack growth when unstable, the effects of anisotropy, the distinction between open and closed cracks, the influence of crack intersections, the role of pore pressure, and a calculation of permeability. The theory is quite general, and is intended for use in a computer program rather than as a vehicle for obtaining analytic results. When a spherical explosive charge is embedded in oil shale it produces an aspirin-shaped cavity at late times as a result of the bedded structure of the rock. In this paper a calculation of the cavity produced by a spherical explosive is compared with a radiograph, showing remarkable agreement between the two. The shape of the cavity is explained by the behavior of cracks lying in the bedding planes.

  1. Explosive Synchronization is Discontinuous

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Vlasov; Yong Zou; Tiago Pereira

    2014-11-25

    Spontaneous explosive is an abrupt transition to collective behavior taking place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated to the node degree. This explosive transition was conjectured to be discontinuous. Indeed, numerical investigations reveal a hysteresis behavior associated with the transition. Here, we analyze explosive synchronization in star graphs. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the transition to (and out) collective behavior is indeed discontinuous. The discontinuous nature of the transition is related to the nonlinear behavior of the order parameter, which in the thermodynamic limit exhibits multiple fixed points. Moreover, we unravel the hysteresis behavior in terms of the graph parameters. Our numerical results show that finite size graphs are well described by our predictions.

  2. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  3. EVENT,EVENT84. Explosive Transients in Flow Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Moore, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    EVENT was developed to investigate the effects of explosive transients through fluid-flow networks. Since in EVENT the effect of the explosion, not the characteristics of the explosion itself, is of interest, the transient is simulated in the simplest possible way. A rapid addition of mass and energy to the system at certain locations is used. This representation is adequate for all of the network except the region where the explosion actually occurs. The complexity of the problem requires a numerical solution. The governing equations are ordinary differential equations in time with pressure, density (nodes), and mass flow rate (branches) as the basic unknowns. The mass flow is expressed as the sum of an estimated value and two correction terms that are proportional to the variations of nodal pressure and density. The pressure and density variations are calculated from the mass and energy balances at each node, and the new nodal quantities are updated by summing the variations and the previous values. Convergence is reached when the variation is less than a given convergence factor. EVENT84 is a modification of EVENT which includes a new explosion chamber model subroutine based on the NOL BLAST program developed at the Naval Ordinance Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland. This subroutine calculates the confined explosion near-field parameters and supplies the time functions of energy and mass injection. Solid-phase or TNT-equivalent explosions (which simulate point source explosions in nuclear facilities) as well as explosions in gas-air mixtures can be simulated. The four types of explosions EVENT84 simulates are TNT, hydrogen in air, acetylene in air, and tributyl phosphate (TBP or red oil). Graphical output from EVENT and EVENT84 is provided by the EXPLOT and EVPLOT postprocessor programs, respectively. Both programs require the ISSCO proprietary DISSPLA graphics software system.

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H.; Lee, R. J.

    2009-12-28

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  5. An explosion in Tunguska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Ioan

    A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on 30 June 1908 is given, including that of a meteor impact, asteroid impact, atomic explosion (F. Zigel and other), comet impact (V.G. Fesenkov and other). The theory sustained by author is that of a methan gas explosion initialazed by a meteor in a volume of about 0.25-2.5 billions m3 of methan. The shape of the place could be explained by few gaseous pouches, which could explode in a chain reaction. A review of similar explosions on the level of ground is given in the USSR as well as elsewhere. The soil fluidization is reviewed during earthquakes and similar phenomena. The original hypothesis by author was published in the "Lumea" N 41 magazin (Romania) on October 12 1989. The author disagree with atomic hypotesis enounced by F. Zigel, while the main factor of the explosion is the formation of one or few methan pouches above the soil. The programe of one of the most important international workshops (Tunguska 96 in Bologna on July 14-17) is attached. The site by Ioan Nistor gives a collection of informations about the event from elsewhere as well as the "gaseous pouches" hypothesis by the author.

  6. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. PMID:22858504

  7. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  8. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

  9. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  10. Rowan Gorilla I rigged up, heads for eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Designed to operate in very hostile offshore environments, the first of the Rowan Gorilla class of self-elevating drilling rigs has been towed to its drilling assignment offshore Nova Scotia. About 40% larger than other jackups, these rigs can operate in 300 ft of water, drilling holes as deep as 30,000 ft. They also feature unique high-pressure and solids control systems that are expected to improve drilling procedures and efficiencies. A quantitative formation pressure evaluation program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 handheld calculator computes formation pressures by three independent methods - the corrected d exponent, Bourgoyne and Young, and normalized penetration rate techniques for abnormal pressure detection and computation. Based on empirically derived drilling rate equations, each of the methods can be calculated separately, without being dependent on or influenced by the results or stored data from the other two subprograms. The quantitative interpretation procedure involves establishing a normal drilling rate trend and calculating the pore pressure from the magnitude of the drilling rate trend or plotting parameter increases above the trend line. Mobil's quick, accurate program could aid drilling operators in selecting the casing point, minimizing differential sticking, maintaining the proper mud weights to avoid kicks and lost circulation, and maximizing penetration rates.

  11. Evolutionary conservation of the insulinoma gene rig and its possible function

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, C.; Shiga, K.; Takasawa, S.; Kitagawa, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Okamoto, H.

    1987-10-01

    The authors have identified a gene, rig (rat insulinoma gene), that is activated in chemically induced rat insulinomas but not in normal pancreatic islets or in regenerating islets. In the present study, they have found that the insulinoma gene was activated in a BK virus-induced hamster insulinoma cell line and in a spontaneously occurring human insulinoma. From the hamster and human insulinoma cDNA libraries, rig homologues were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. In the same manner as the rat gene, both hamster and human homologues contained one open reading frame of 435 nucleotides, differing by 32- and 41-base substitutions, respectively. All the base substitutions were same-sense mutations. Accordingly, the deduced 145-amino acid sequence remained invariant in hamster, human, and rat insulinomas, suggesting that rig has evolved under extraordinarily strong selective constraints. Computerized structure analysis indicated that rig-encoded protein is a possible DNA-binding protein. The antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary to hamster rig mRNA was synthesized and injected into the hamster insulinoma cells. The antisense rig oligodeoxyribouncleotide inhibited DNA synthesis in the insulinoma cells, whereas the sense rig oligodeoxyribonucleotide or antisense insulin oligodeoxyribonucleotide had no inhibitory effect. These results strongly suggest that the activation of rig is both common and potentially significant in the oncogenic growth of pancreatic B cells of islets of Langerhans.

  12. Automatic detection and tracking of pedestrians from a moving stereo rig

    E-print Network

    Schindler, Konrad

    inner-city scenarios are presented, in which the system achieves promising results. Keywords: 1 submitted to IJPRS July 19, 2010 #12;(a) CharioBot (b) CharioBot II (c) SmartTer Figure 1: Recording platforms used in this work. (a), (b) stereo rig mounted on child strollers. (c) stereo rig mounted on Smart

  13. Numerical and experimental determination of neutron characteristics in irradiation rigs operated in LVR-15 research reactor.

    PubMed

    Koleska, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodova, Zdena; Ernest, Jaroslav; Zmitkova, Jelena; Marek, Milan

    2014-10-01

    The LVR-15 reactor is a 10-MW research reactor mostly dedicated to material research and isotope production. Material testing can be performed in various irradiation loops and rigs. For specimen irradiation, several rig constructions can be used, including standard single-cell CHOUCA rigs or special dedicated multi-cell rigs. The temperature in the rigs is controlled by a temperature control system, which can be operated in a stable or pulsed mode, with regard to the rig design. Irradiation conditions in the rig are monitored by a set of various fluence detectors. From these detectors, neutron fluence and its energy distribution can be determined for the whole volume of irradiation samples. Besides measurement, irradiation conditions are calculated by the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, which provides a complete review of irradiation conditions including neutron fluence and its energy distribution in samples and detectors, radiation damage and radiation heating conditions for the rig. A set of experimental and theoretical characteristics for dedicated irradiation positions in the core reflector and in fuel will be provided. PMID:24972899

  14. The rigged Hilbert space of the algebra of the one-dimensional rectangular barrier potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Madrid, Rafael

    2004-08-01

    The rigged Hilbert space of the algebra of the one-dimensional rectangular barrier potential is constructed. The one-dimensional rectangular potential provides another opportunity to show that the rigged Hilbert space fully accounts for Dirac's bra-ket formalism. The analogy between Dirac's formalism and Fourier methods is pointed out.

  15. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

  16. The design of a test rig for the identification of dynamic coefficients of a high temperature magnetic bearing 

    E-print Network

    Rahtika, I Putu Gede Sopan

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is a report on the research and Micrographics. development to design a test rig for the identification of the dynamic coefficients of a radial magnetic bearing. The test rig development is intended for dynamic coefficient observation...

  17. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to...

  18. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to...

  19. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to...

  20. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to...

  1. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver....

  2. Deposition and material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of SRC 2 fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.; Johnson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Collectors at 1173K (900 C) were exposed to the combustion products of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with various industrial turbine liquid fuels from solvent refined coals. Four fuels were employed: a naphtha, a light oil, a wash solvent and a mid-heavy distillate blend. The response of four superalloys (IN-100, U 700, IN 792 and M-509) to exposure to the combustion gases from the SRC-2 naphtha and resultant deposits was also determined. The SRC-2 fuel analysis and insights obtained during the combustion experience are discussed. Particular problems encountered were fuel instability and reactions of the fuel with hardware components. The major metallic elements which contributed to the deposits were copper, iron, chromium, calcium, aluminum, nickel, silicon, titanium, zinc, and sodium. The deposits were found to be mainly metal oxides. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis was employed to predict the chemical composition of the deposits. The agreement between the predicted and observed compounds was excellent. No hot corrosion was observed. This was expected because the deposits contained very little sodium or potassium and consisted mainly of the unreactive oxides. However, the amounts of deposits formed indicated that fouling is a potential problem with the use of these fuels.

  3. Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

  4. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...the Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill. After careful consideration, BOEM...reforms since the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the economic and energy security...infrastructure includes advanced oil spill response infrastructure that...

  5. 76 FR 56683 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Revisions to Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...of the Deepwater Horizon, and an oil spill of national significance. Although...environmental protection for offshore oil, gas, and sulphur development...Deepwater Horizon explosion and resulting oil spill. This proposed rulemaking...

  6. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...EIS) and in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2013-2014...the Deepwater Horizon explosion, oil spill, and response. The CPA Supplemental...potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas leasing,...

  7. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...Multisale EIS) and the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2013-2014...the Deepwater Horizon explosion, oil spill, and response. The WPA Lease Sales...potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas leasing,...

  8. New ultra-deepwater rig with dual rotaries will reduce costs

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.C.; Herrmann, R.P.; Scott, R.J.; Shaughnessy, J.M.

    1997-05-26

    The Discoverer Enterprise, a next generation, ultra-deepwater drill ship with a dual rotary system, will decrease drilling and completion costs by reducing bottom hole assembly (BHA) and tubular preparation time. Transocean Offshore received a contract from Amoco Corp. to build the ultra-deep floating rig and is scheduled to spud its first well in July 1998. It will generally work in water deeper than 6,000 ft. The rig design involves a new approach that addresses the overall well-construction process and equipment required to decrease significantly deepwater drilling time. The Discoverer is the first ultra-deepwater rig designed specifically for handling subsea completions and extended well tests. The paper discusses increased deepwater rig demand, rig construction costs, drillship design, well construction, development drilling, and cost justification.

  9. Nanosecond resolution of .E, .H and .I in aircraft lightning test rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, B. J. C.

    1983-06-01

    Many designs of test rig have emerged in recent years incorporating hardwired connections and design incorporating series open arcs at each end of the aircraft. Important characteristics of the test rigs are not specified, but these characteristics control the generation of large (and usually HF) transients through the fast coupling processes. Both lumped element and distributed element representation of these test rigs and the capacitor banks driving them are given, and the effects of parameter and geometry variations are highlighted. It is shown that quantitative analysis of fast transients (dot-D, dot-B) requires much closer specification of the test rig performance including switch closure time, capacitor bank and connecting line inductance, and the transmission line impedance of the test rig. Tests on the Fly-by-Wire Jaguar at Warton near Preston in England showed the need for developing a quantitative relationship between HF transients and the fast coupling processes.

  10. Establishing the role of ATP for the function of the RIG-I innate immune sensor.

    PubMed

    Rawling, David C; Fitzgerald, Megan E; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) initiates a rapid innate immune response upon detection and binding to viral ribonucleic acid (RNA). This signal activation occurs only when pathogenic RNA is identified, despite the ability of RIG-I to bind endogenous RNA while surveying the cytoplasm. Here we show that ATP binding and hydrolysis by RIG-I play a key role in the identification of viral targets and the activation of signaling. Using biochemical and cell-based assays together with mutagenesis, we show that ATP binding, and not hydrolysis, is required for RIG-I signaling on viral RNA. However, we show that ATP hydrolysis does provide an important function by recycling RIG-I and promoting its dissociation from non-pathogenic RNA. This activity provides a valuable proof-reading mechanism that enhances specificity and prevents an antiviral response upon encounter with host RNA molecules. PMID:26371557

  11. Explosion at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire 

    E-print Network

    Jones, T.A.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT GLYNCORRWG COLLIERY, GLAMORGANSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the Explosion which occurred at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire, on 13th January, ...

  12. Explosion at Walton Colliery Yorkshire 

    E-print Network

    Rogers, T. A.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT WALTON COLLIERY YORKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Walton Colliery, Yorkshire, on 22nd April, 1959 by T. A. ROGERS, C.B.E. H.M. ...

  13. Explosion at Cardowan Colliery Lanarkshire 

    E-print Network

    Houston, H. R.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT CARDOWAN COLLIERY LANARKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Cardowan Colliery, Lanarkshire, on 25th July, 1960 BY H. R. HOUSTON, C.B.E ...

  14. Explosive inventory program

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.; Taylor, R.S.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the computer program used at the Tonopah Test Range to maintain the explosive inventory. The program, which uses dBASE III or dBASE III Plus and runs on an IBM PC or compatible, has the capabilities to update (add or subtract) items, edit or delete, append, and generate various reports.

  15. Naked Singularity Explosion

    E-print Network

    Tomohiro Harada; Hideo Iguchi; Ken-ichi Nakao

    2000-03-09

    It is known that the gravitational collapse of a dust ball results in naked singularity formation from an initial density profile which is physically reasonable. In this paper, we show that explosive radiation is emitted during the formation process of the naked singularity.

  16. Ecotoxicology of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Giffen, Neil R; Morrill, Valerie; Jenkins, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecological receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

  17. Explosive Z Pinch

    E-print Network

    Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

    2006-11-08

    We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

  18. Managing the data explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    1993-01-01

    The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

  19. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  20. Crashing Waves, Awesome Explosions,

    E-print Network

    Varadarajan, Veeravalli S.

    's an exploding fire- ball in Star Wars: Episode 3 or a swirling maelstrom in Pirates of the Caribbean: At World in movie and video game special effects include water, fire, smoke, explosions, rigid body dynamics-based special effects for smoke, fire, water, and other fluids have become much more prevalent. The governing

  1. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Administration (OSHA); Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; termination. SUMMARY: In this notice, OSHA is terminating... its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109 (36 FR 10553-10562). OSHA based the... revisions to the standard (37 FR 6577, 57 FR 6356, and 63 FR 33450). On July 29, 2002, the Institute...

  2. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  3. LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

  4. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  5. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  6. Explosive performance measurements on large, multiple-hole arrays and large masses of conventional explosive

    SciTech Connect

    McKown, T.O.; Eilers, D.D.; Williams, P.E.

    1994-11-01

    The COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time EXperiment (CORRTEX) system was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for determining the energy released in a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system, fielding techniques, and the methods and software for data reduction and analysis were developed over a 15 year period with hundreds of measurements made on nuclear tests and high explosive experiments. CORRTEX is a compact, portable, fast-sampling, microprocessor-controlled system, based on time domain reflectometry, requiring only a 24 volt power source and a sensing element. Only the sensing element (a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable) is expended during the detonation. In 1979, the CORRTEX system was shown to be ideally suited for chemical explosive performance measurements. Its utility for diagnosing chemical explosives was further demonstrated with successful measurements on large multiple-hole chemical shots in rock quarries and strip mines. Accurate timing of the detonation of sequenced or ripple fired arrays, as well as data characterizing the initiation, explosive performance and detonation anomalies are obtained. This information can serve as the basis for empirical or modeled improvements to blasting operations. A summary of the special CORRTEX features and well developed analysis techniques together with the experiment designs, data, and conclusions regarding the measurements and explosive performance from several array detonations and the Chemical Kiloton Experiment, 2.9 million pounds of an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) and emulsion blend conducted on the Nevada Test Site in 1993, are presented.

  7. Influenza A Virus Panhandle Structure Is Directly Involved in RIG-I Activation and Interferon Induction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, GuanQun; Park, Hong-Su; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important innate immune sensor that recognizes viral RNA in the cytoplasm. Its nonself recognition largely depends on the unique RNA structures imposed by viral RNA. The panhandle structure residing in the influenza A virus (IAV) genome, whose primary function is to serve as the viral promoter for transcription and replication, has been proposed to be a RIG-I agonist. However, this has never been proved experimentally. Here, we employed multiple approaches to determine if the IAV panhandle structure is directly involved in RIG-I activation and type I interferon (IFN) induction. First, in porcine alveolar macrophages, we demonstrated that the viral genomic coding region is dispensable for RIG-I-dependent IFN induction. Second, using in vitro-synthesized hairpin RNA, we showed that the IAV panhandle structure could directly bind to RIG-I and stimulate IFN production. Furthermore, we investigated the contributions of the wobble base pairs, mismatch, and unpaired nucleotides within the wild-type panhandle structure to RIG-I activation. Elimination of these destabilizing elements within the panhandle structure promoted RIG-I activation and IFN induction. Given the function of the panhandle structure as the viral promoter, we further monitored the promoter activity of these panhandle variants and found that viral replication was moderately affected, whereas viral transcription was impaired dramatically. In all, our results indicate that the IAV panhandle promoter region adopts a nucleotide composition that is optimal for balanced viral RNA synthesis and suboptimal for RIG-I activation. IMPORTANCE The IAV genomic panhandle structure has been proposed to be an RIG-I agonist due to its partial complementarity; however, this has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we provide direct evidence that the IAV panhandle structure is competent in, and sufficient for, RIG-I activation and IFN induction. By constructing panhandle variants with increased complementarity, we demonstrated that the wild-type panhandle structure could be modified to enhance RIG-I activation and IFN induction. These panhandle variants posed moderate influence on viral replication but dramatic impairment of viral transcription. These results indicate that the IAV panhandle promoter region adopts a nucleotide composition to achieve optimal balance of viral RNA synthesis and suboptimal RIG-I activation. Our results highlight the multifunctional role of the IAV panhandle promoter region in the virus life cycle and offer novel insights into the development of antiviral agents aiming to boost RIG-I signaling or virus attenuation by manipulating this conserved region. PMID:25810557

  8. Engine-Scale Combustor Rig Designed, Fabricated, and Tested for Combustion Instability Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Low-emission combustor designs are prone to combustor instabilities. Because active control of these instabilities may allow future combustors to meet both stringent emissions and performance requirements, an experimental combustor rig was developed for investigating methods of actively suppressing combustion instabilities. The experimental rig has features similar to a real engine combustor and exhibits instabilities representative of those in aircraft gas turbine engines. Experimental testing in the spring of 1999 demonstrated that the rig can be tuned to closely represent an instability observed in engine tests. Future plans are to develop and demonstrate combustion instability control using this experimental combustor rig. The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is leading the Combustion Instability Control program to investigate methods for actively suppressing combustion instabilities. Under this program, a single-nozzle, liquid-fueled research combustor rig was designed, fabricated, and tested. The rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor, including an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, and an effusion-cooled liner. Prior to designing the experimental rig, a survey of aircraft engine combustion instability experience identified an instability observed in a prototype engine as a suitable candidate for replication. The frequency of the instability was 525 Hz, with an amplitude of approximately 1.5-psi peak-to-peak at a burner pressure of 200 psia. The single-nozzle experimental combustor rig was designed to preserve subcomponent lengths, cross sectional area distribution, flow distribution, pressure-drop distribution, temperature distribution, and other factors previously found to be determinants of burner acoustic frequencies, mode shapes, gain, and damping. Analytical models were used to predict the acoustic resonances of both the engine combustor and proposed experiment. The analysis confirmed that the test rig configuration and engine configuration had similar longitudinal acoustic characteristics, increasing the likelihood that the engine instability would be replicated in the rig. Parametric analytical studies were performed to understand the influence of geometry and condition variations and to establish a combustion test plan. Cold-flow experiments verified that the design values of area and flow distributions were obtained. Combustion test results established the existence of a longitudinal combustion instability in the 500-Hz range with a measured amplitude approximating that observed in the engine. Modifications to the rig configuration during testing also showed the potential for injector independence. The research combustor rig was developed in partnership with Pratt & Whitney of West Palm Beach, Florida, and United Technologies Research Center of East Hartford, Connecticut. Experimental testing of the combustor rig took place at United Technologies Research Center.

  9. Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  10. Slim-hole system uses special rig, drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, D.; Fanuel, P.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reviews the new Euroslim drilling system which allows deep penetration of small diameter exploration and production wells. The Euroslim approach is an optimized conventional rotary drilling technique that allows continuous coring of the zone of interest. The initial project set the requirements of power transmission and hydraulic optimization to drill 4 3/4 inch holes to 3,500 meters with a single drill pipe size. A second drill string has now been designed to reach 4,000 meters with hole sizes ranging from 3 inches to 3 11/32 inches. This paper reviews the specifications of the drill pipe, core barrels, drill rig, stabilizers, drill bits, and deviation tools. A cost benefit analysis is also provided comparing the slim-bore drilling to conventional drilling.

  11. Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  12. RIG-I-like receptors and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) plays an essential role in antiviral innate immune responses and also in adaptive immune responses. Defects in the production of IFN markedly increase susceptibility to viral invasion and attenuate the acquired immunity. Recently an increased expression of type I IFN, also termed IFN signature, has been reported in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). The evidence clearly shows that the initiation and termination of IFN production should be tightly controlled. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are viral RNA sensors and are essential for type I IFN induction. We herein summarize recent reports on RLR mutations in patients and MDA5 mutant mice, and discuss possible mechanisms by which aberrant activation of RLRs can cause autoimmunity. PMID:26530735

  13. V/STOL model fan stage rig design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, J. G.; Creason, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A model single-stage fan with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) was designed to demonstrate efficient point operation while providing flow and pressure ratio modulation capability required for a V/STOL propulsion system. The fan stage incorporates a split-flap VIGV with an independently actuated ID flap to permit independent modulation of fan and core engine airstreams, a flow splitter integrally designed into the blade and vanes to completely segregate fan and core airstreams in order to maximize core stream supercharging for V/STOL operation, and an EGV with a variable leading edge fan flap for rig performance optimization. The stage was designed for a maximum flow size of 37.4 kg/s (82.3 lb/s) for compatibility with LeRC test facility requirements. Design values at maximum flow for blade tip velocity and stage pressure ratio are 472 m/s (1550 ft/s) and 1.68, respectively.

  14. Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics (DITA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, F.; Scalise, L.; Olivieri, E.; Memeo, M.; Caldwell, D. G.

    2013-09-01

    Research on tactile sensitivity has been conducted since the last century and many devices have been proposed to study in detail this sense through experimental tests. The sense of touch is essential in every-day life of human beings, but it can also play a fundamental role for the assessment of some neurological disabilities and pathologies. In fact, the level of tactile perception can provide information on the health state of the nervous system. In this paper, authors propose the design and development of a novel test apparatus, named DITA (Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics), aiming to provide the measurement of the tactile sensitivity trough the determination of the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) curve of a subject. The paper reports the solution adopted for the system design and the results obtained on the set of experiments carried out on volunteers.

  15. A non-canonical role of the p97 complex in RIG-I antiviral signaling.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qian; Jiao, Shi; Shi, Zhubing; Li, Chuanchuan; Meng, Xia; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanyan; Song, Xiaomin; Wang, Wenjia; Zhang, Rongguang; Zhao, Yun; Wong, Catherine Cl; Zhou, Zhaocai

    2015-12-01

    RIG-I is a well-studied sensor of viral RNA that plays a key role in innate immunity. p97 regulates a variety of cellular events such as protein quality control, membrane reassembly, DNA repair, and the cell cycle. Here, we report a new role for p97 with Npl4-Ufd1 as its cofactor in reducing antiviral innate immune responses by facilitating proteasomal degradation of RIG-I. The p97 complex is able to directly bind both non-ubiquitinated RIG-I and the E3 ligase RNF125, promoting K48-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I at residue K181. Viral infection significantly strengthens the interaction between RIG-I and the p97 complex by a conformational change of RIG-I that exposes the CARDs and through K63-linked ubiquitination of these CARDs. Disruption of the p97 complex enhances RIG-I antiviral signaling. Consistently, administration of compounds targeting p97 ATPase activity was shown to inhibit viral replication and protect mice from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. Overall, our study uncovered a previously unrecognized role for the p97 complex in protein ubiquitination and revealed the p97 complex as a potential drug target in antiviral therapy. PMID:26471729

  16. Active control of the acoustic boundary conditions of combustion test rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothien, Mirko R.; Moeck, Jonas P.; Oliver Paschereit, Christian

    2008-12-01

    In the design process of burners for gas turbines, new burner generations are generally tested in single or multi burner combustion test rigs. With these experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and finite element calculations, the burners' performance in the full-scale engine is sought to be predicted. Especially, information about the thermoacoustic behaviour and the emission characteristics is very important. As the thermoacoustics strongly depend on the acoustic boundary conditions of the system, it is obvious that test rig conditions should match, or be close to those of the full-scale engine. This is, however, generally not the case. Hence, if the combustion process in the test rig is stable at certain operating conditions, it may show unfavourable dynamics at the same conditions in the engine. In this work, a method is proposed which uses an active control scheme to manipulate the acoustic boundary conditions of the test rig. Using this method, the boundary conditions can be continuously modified, ranging from anechoic to fully reflecting in a broad frequency range. The concept is applied to an atmospheric combustion test rig with a swirl-stabilized burner. It is shown that the test rig's properties can be tuned to correspond to those of the full-scale engine. For example, the test rig length can be virtually extended, thereby introducing different resonance frequencies, without having to implement any hardware changes. Furthermore, the acoustic boundary condition can be changed to that of a choked flow without actually needing the flow to be choked.

  17. Cytosolic Low Molecular Weight FGF2 Orchestrates RIG-I-Mediated Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Luo, Deyan; Yang, Ning

    2015-11-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2,which is one of the 22 members of the FGF family, functions as an extracellular molecule involved in canonical receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. It has been implicated in angiogenesis and the development of the CNS. In this article, we reveal that cytosolic low m.w. isoform (LMW) FGF2 (18 kDa), not its secreted form, plays an unexpected role in the innate immune response. Cytosolic LMW FGF2 directly associated with inactivated RIG-I under physiological conditions, which enhanced RIG-I protein stability, thereby maintaining basal RIG-I levels. However, during RIG-I activation induced by viral RNA, cytosolic FGF2 bound to the caspase recruitment domains of activated RIG-I, which blocked RIG-I-MAVS complex formation. LMW FGF2 deficiency increased type I IFN production, whereas the overexpression of LMW FGF2 exerted the opposite effect. Cytosolic LMW FGF2 functions as a negative regulator in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. This work provides insight into the role of FGF2 in innate immune response. PMID:26466960

  18. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  19. Prediction of the explosion effect of aluminized explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Xiang, Cong; Liang, HuiMin

    2013-05-01

    We present an approach to predict the explosion load for aluminized explosives using a numerical calculation. A code to calculate the species of detonation products of high energy ingredients and those of the secondary reaction of aluminum and the detonation products, velocity of detonation, pressure, temperature and JWL parameters of aluminized explosives has been developed in this study. Through numerical calculations carried out with this code, the predicted JWL parameters for aluminized explosives have been compared with those measured by the cylinder test. The predicted JWL parameters with this code agree with those measured by the cylinder test. Furthermore, the load of explosion for the aluminized explosive was calculated using the numerical simulation by using the JWL equation of state. The loads of explosion for the aluminized explosive obtained using the predicted JWL parameters have been compared with those using the measured JWL parameters. Both of them are almost the same. The numerical results using the predicted JWL parameters show that the explosion air shock wave is the strongest when the mass fraction of aluminum powder in the explosive mixtures is 30%. This result agrees with the empirical data.

  20. Fan Rig Noise Spectral Correction for NASA 9'x 15' Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nick; Brown, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. Fan noise testing, however, requires a significant support system including a drive mechanism to turn the fan, a device to smooth the flow into the fan, and a stand to raise the fan off the ground each of which has the potential to create its own noise. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise was then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9x15 LSWT setup in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery that characterizes fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and speed. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise. A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  1. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  2. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Olga

    2007-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was ˜2%.

  3. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  4. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenping; Shao, Qiang; Zang, Yunlong; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Li, Zandong

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR), can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice) and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese) are essential for type I interferon (IFN) synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2) (ZB07), Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS) and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801) strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-?, Mx, and PKR) mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2) mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose) and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5)/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral ability against AIV H9N2 and IBDV in chicken DF-1 cells but not in human 293T cells. PMID:26205406

  5. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenping; Shao, Qiang; Zang, Yunlong; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Li, Zandong

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR), can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice) and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese) are essential for type I interferon (IFN) synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., "dead end" hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2) (ZB07), Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS) and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801) strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-?, Mx, and PKR) mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2) mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose) and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5)/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral ability against AIV H9N2 and IBDV in chicken DF-1 cells but not in human 293T cells. PMID:26205406

  6. Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Lien C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

  7. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  8. Negative Role of RIG-I Serine 8 Phosphorylation in the Regulatin of Interferon-beta Production

    SciTech Connect

    E Nistal-Villan; M Gack; G Martinez-Delgado; N Maharaj; K Inn; H Yang; R Wang; A Aggarwal; J Jung; A Garcia-Sastre

    2011-12-31

    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25) have emerged as key regulatory factors to induce interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses to limit viral replication. Upon recognition of viral RNA, TRIM25 E3 ligase binds the first caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I and subsequently induces lysine 172 ubiquitination of the second CARD of RIG-I, which is essential for the interaction with downstream MAVS/IPS-1/CARDIF/VISA and, thereby, IFN-beta mRNA production. Although ubiquitination has emerged as a major factor involved in RIG-I activation, the potential contribution of other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, to the regulation of RIG-I activity has not been addressed. Here, we report the identification of serine 8 phosphorylation at the first CARD of RIG-I as a negative regulatory mechanism of RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. Immunoblot analysis with a phosphospecific antibody showed that RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation steady-state levels were decreased upon stimulation of cells with IFN-beta or virus infection. Substitution of serine 8 in the CARD RIG-I functional domain with phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate results in decreased TRIM25 binding, RIG-I ubiquitination, MAVS binding, and downstream signaling. Finally, sequence comparison reveals that only primate species carry serine 8, whereas other animal species carry an asparagine, indicating that serine 8 phosphorylation may represent a primate-specific regulation of RIG-I activation. Collectively, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of RIG-I serine 8 operates as a negative switch of RIG-I activation by suppressing TRIM25 interaction, further underscoring the importance of RIG-I and TRIM25 connection in type I IFN signal transduction.

  9. Change in the length of the northern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, September 5, 2010, through September 3, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the northern section are described in this report.

  10. Change in the length of the southern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, January 13, 2011, through September 3, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Guy, Kristy K.

    2014-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers (km) north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011 after 14 km of berm had been constructed. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters (m) seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the southern section are reported.

  11. Change in the length of the middle section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, November 17, 2010, through September 6, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115-150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70-90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands' beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the middle section are described in this report.

  12. Loads on Tie-Down Systems for Floating Drilling Rigs during Hurricane Conditions 

    E-print Network

    Bae, Yoon Hyeok

    2010-01-16

    Tie-down systems are used to fasten drilling rigs to the deck of offshore structures during harsh environmental conditions such as hurricanes. During Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005), a number of offshore structures were moved and several...

  13. The Feasibility of Natural Gas as a Fuel Source for Modern Land-Based Drilling Rigs 

    E-print Network

    Nunn, Andrew Howard

    2012-02-14

    The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of replacing diesel with natural gas as a fuel source for modern drilling rigs. More specifically, this thesis (1) establishes a control baseline by examining operational characteristics...

  14. A test rig for the identification of rotordynamic coefficients of fluid film bearings 

    E-print Network

    Robison, Lewis Miller

    1995-01-01

    A test rig and measurement procedure to identify the rotordynamic coefficients of generic fluid film bearing elements are described. The test apparatus allows the exchange of test articles without modifications to the basic design of the machine...

  15. NASA Lewis Research Center lean-, rich-burn materials test burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Robinson, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The lean-, rich-burn materials test burner rig at NASA LeRC is used to evaluate the high temperature environmental durability of aerospace materials. The rig burns jet fuel and pressurized air, and sample materials can be subjected to both lean-burn and rich-burn environments. As part of NASA's Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program, an existing rig was adapted to simulate the rich-burn quick-quench lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept which is being considered for the HSCT (high speed civil transport) aircraft. RQL materials requirements exceed that of current superalloys, thus ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) emerged as the leading candidate materials. The performance of these materials in the quasi reducing environment of the rich-burn section of the RQL is of fundamental importance to materials development. This rig was developed to conduct such studies, and its operation and capabilities are described.

  16. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ...Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the...received requests for LOAs from W&T Offshore, Inc. (W&T Offshore) and...

  17. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the...received requests for LOAs from W&T Offshore, Inc. (W&T Offshore) and...

  18. 78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...issued one-year LOAs to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

  19. Activation of Duck RIG-I by TRIM25 Is Independent of Anchored Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Magor, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a viral RNA sensor crucial in defense against several viruses including measles, influenza A and hepatitis C. RIG-I activates type-I interferon signalling through the adaptor for mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). The E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif containing protein 25 (TRIM25), activates human RIG-I through generation of anchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains attached to lysine 172, or alternatively, through the generation of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that interact non-covalently with RIG-I CARD domains. Previously, we identified RIG-I of ducks, of interest because ducks are the host and natural reservoir of influenza viruses, and showed it initiates innate immune signaling leading to production of interferon-beta (IFN-?). We noted that K172 is not conserved in RIG-I of ducks and other avian species, or mouse. Because K172 is important for both mechanisms of activation of human RIG-I, we investigated whether duck RIG-I was activated by TRIM25, and if other residues were the sites for attachment of ubiquitin. Here we show duck RIG-I CARD domains are ubiquitinated for activation, and ubiquitination depends on interaction with TRIM25, as a splice variant that cannot interact with TRIM25 is not ubiquitinated, and cannot be activated. We expressed GST-fusion proteins of duck CARD domains and characterized TRIM25 modifications of CARD domains by mass spectrometry. We identified two sites that are ubiquitinated in duck CARD domains, K167 and K193, and detected K63 linked polyubiquitin chains. Site directed mutagenesis of each site alone, does not alter the ubiquitination profile of the duck CARD domains. However, mutation of both sites resulted in loss of all attached ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains. Remarkably, the double mutant duck RIG-I CARD still interacts with TRIM25, and can still be activated. Our results demonstrate that anchored ubiquitin chains are not necessary for TRIM25 activation of duck RIG-I. PMID:24466302

  20. Flaxseed oil

    MedlinePLUS

    Flaxseed is the seed from the plant Linum usitatissimum. Oil from the seed is used to make medicine. People try flaxseed oil for ... Oil, Echter Lein, Flachs, Flachssamen, Flax Oil, Flax Seed Oil, Golden Flax Oil, Graine de Lin, Huile ...

  1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression is mediated by EBER-triggered inflammation via the RIG-I pathway.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yumei; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Shiyue; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lu; He, Jiang; Liao, Qiong; Yang, Lifang; Gong, Zhicheng; Sun, Lun-Quan

    2015-05-28

    EBERs (EBER1 and EBER2) are suggested to be involved in cellular transformation and tumor growth. Cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor-RIG-I, which is characterized by the recognition of viral dsRNAs, could efficiently trigger the downstream pathways of innate immunity. Although some previous reports have shown that EBERs and RIG-I associate with hematological malignancies, the role of EBERs-RIG-I signaling in solid tumors remains to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that EBER mediation of the inflammatory response via RIG-I contributes to NPC development in vitro and in vivo. We first verified that the expression level of RIG-I was associated with EBER transcription in a dose-dependent manner in NPC cells and specimens from NPC patients. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription and release were sharply reduced after RIG-I knockdown compared with the control shRNA group in the presence of EBERs, accompanied by an attenuation of the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, the tumor burden was greatly alleviated in the RIG-I knockdown group in a xenograft model. In addition, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), which promote the maturation and attraction of tumor-associated macrophages, were stimulated upon the introduction of EBERs, and this upregulation conceivably led to the tumor-promoting subset transition of the macrophages. Taken together, our results reveal that EBERs could promote NPC progression through RIG-I-mediated cancer-related inflammation. PMID:25721089

  2. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  3. Simplified explosive-weld evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclarty, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    Weld surfaces, coated with commercially available molybdenum disulfide, allow visual inspection of significant indications of bond quality. Process reduces number of trial welds, making explosive bonding more competitive.

  4. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  5. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  6. Towards optoelectronic detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Rutecka, B.; Medrzycki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.

    2013-06-01

    Detection of explosives is an important challenge for contemporary science and technology of security systems. We present an application of NOx sensors equipped with concentrator in searching of explosives. The sensors using CRDS with blue — violet diode lasers (410 nm) as well as with QCL lasers (5.26 ?m and 4.53 ?m) are described. The detection method is based either on reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides emitted by explosives or to NOx produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX the detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved.

  7. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud treatment and high temperature resistant cementing materials, and bionic bits,that is coupling bionic PDC tooth bit and diamond-impregnated bit for hard rock.All parts of CRUST-1 were successfully assembled along with the derrick and base lift and transported about 3456 kilometers from manufacture,GuangHan city in southwest China's Sichuan province,to the well site of SK-2 in end of 2013.SK-2 will be finished during next 4 years.

  8. Improved rig for dynamically calibrating skinfold calipers: comparison between Harpenden and Slim Guide instruments.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, G B; Withers, R T; Brooks, A G; Woods, G F; Day, L A

    2002-01-01

    This article describes an improved rig for the dynamic calibration of skinfold calipers. The new unit is 5% lighter and almost 60% smaller than its predecessor (Carlyon et al., 1996, 1998) with a 9.5 mm solid aluminium base and a quick release caliper mount providing stability to both the rig and caliper. Automation of the gap controller with an electric motor standardizes the jaw opening and closing velocity, thereby enabling hands-free operation. Frictional losses in the moving components of the rig have been reduced by replacing the main bush of the swing arm with a bearing, reducing the mass of the swing arm, adding a support wheel to the end of the swing arm, and replacing fishing swivels with a universal joint to allow for changes in the opening screw angle as the caliper's arm moves through its arc. This rig can also be adapted to different types of calipers by changing the position of the load cell, microswitches, and the caliper mount. A universal mounting bracket that can be secured to almost any table supports the rig in a vertical plane when calibrating the load cell. To demonstrate the versatility of the calibration rig, preliminary data are presented for the upscale and downscale jaw pressures of seven Harpenden and seven Slim Guide calipers. PMID:12400032

  9. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions #12;Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical

  10. BP, Corporate R&D, and the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Russ

    2010-01-01

    April 20, 2010, and the days following, provided the world with graphic images of a burning oil rig, a perception that the oil industry and state and federal governments were helpless, and a pervasive sense of the devastation wrought on coastal residents by the rig explosion and the oil spill. The residents of the Gulf Coast soon realized that…

  11. Telemedicine via satellite to support offshore oil platforms.

    PubMed

    Mair, Fiona; Fraser, Susan; Ferguson, James; Webster, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    On any one day, approximately 15,000-28,000 oil industry personnel are employed in the North Sea oil and gas industry. First aid in this remote environment is provided by non-medical staff on the rigs. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should improve the quality of offshore health care and reduce avoidable medical evacuations. Satellite communications and videoconferencing equipment was installed on the 'Alwyn North' oil platform, with medical advice provided via a call centre in Milan. Over a nine-month period, trial telemedicine links were conducted approximately twice per week. The three onshore physicians were very satisfied on each occasion with communications and diagnostic data image quality, including the ultrasound screening carried out by the rig provider. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should reduce unnecessary and/or untimely patient evacuation to hospital or onshore for medical assessment. PMID:18430278

  12. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

  13. Laser machining of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  14. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure. PMID:19750406

  15. Explosive components facility certification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D.

    1995-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

  16. Oil shale processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, G. L.

    The paper presents the technical details of oil shale retorting technologies and describes the types of instrumentation and control problems. The underground and above ground retorting processes of direct and indirect heated types are discussed along with in-situ methods which involve the fracturing of the oil shale zone with explosives. Direct-heated above ground processes include the Gas Combustion Process, the Soviet Kiviter Process, a Paraho Process, and the Union Oil Retorting Process which have been developed to a potential commercial stage; seven methods including Lurgi-Ruhrgas and Union Oil Co. are designed for indirect-heating retorting. Finally, instrumentation for control of injected air and recycle gas, product gas monitoring and analysis of the product gas stream, and control of balance between recycle gas temperature and flow rate are examined.

  17. Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Fuguo; Ramanathan, Anand; Miller, Matthew T.; Tang, Guo-Qing; Gale, Jr., Michael; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2012-05-29

    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs. RIG-I is activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNA with or without a 5'-triphosphate (ppp), by single-stranded RNA marked by a 5'-ppp and by polyuridine sequences. Upon binding to such PAMP motifs, RIG-I initiates a signalling cascade that induces innate immune defences and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. The RIG-I pathway is highly regulated and aberrant signalling leads to apoptosis, altered cell differentiation, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The helicase and repressor domains (RD) of RIG-I recognize dsRNA and 5'-ppp RNA to activate the two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) for signalling. Here, to understand the synergy between the helicase and the RD for RNA binding, and the contribution of ATP hydrolysis to RIG-I activation, we determined the structure of human RIG-I helicase-RD in complex with dsRNA and an ATP analogue. The helicase-RD organizes into a ring around dsRNA, capping one end, while contacting both strands using previously uncharacterized motifs to recognize dsRNA. Small-angle X-ray scattering, limited proteolysis and differential scanning fluorimetry indicate that RIG-I is in an extended and flexible conformation that compacts upon binding RNA. These results provide a detailed view of the role of helicase in dsRNA recognition, the synergy between the RD and the helicase for RNA binding and the organization of full-length RIG-I bound to dsRNA, and provide evidence of a conformational change upon RNA binding. The RIG-I helicase-RD structure is consistent with dsRNA translocation without unwinding and cooperative binding to RNA. The structure yields unprecedented insight into innate immunity and has a broader impact on other areas of biology, including RNA interference and DNA repair, which utilize homologous helicase domains within DICER and FANCM.

  18. Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

    2003-06-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

  19. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations 

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    test method was found to be flawed. It used pressure as the only criterion for a dust explosion, utilized high energy ignition sources, limited the amount of oxygen, and had no requirement for a dust to have a minimum explosible concentration (MEC...

  20. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  1. Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico - Landsat 7

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to contain the growing oil slick before it reaches the southern coast of the United States. Landsat imagery, acquired by the U.S. Geological ...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309...AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a...lower than that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309...AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a...lower than that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used...

  4. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  5. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  6. Comparisons of Rig and Engine Dynamic Events in the Compressor of an Axi-Centrifugal Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, A. Karl; Mattern, Duane L.; Le, Dzu K.

    1996-01-01

    Steady state and dynamic data were acquired in a T55-L-712 compressor rig. In addition, a T55-L-12 engine was instrumented and similar data were acquired. Rig and engine stall/surge data were analyzed using modal techniques. This paper compares rig and engine preliminary results for the ground idle (approximately 60% of design speed) point. The results of these analyses indicate both rig and engine dynamic event are preceded by indications of traveling wave energy in front of the compressor face. For both rig and engine, the traveling wave energy contains broad band energy with some prominent narrow peaks and, while the events are similar in many ways, some noticeable differences exist between the results of the analyses of rig data and engine data.

  7. Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

    Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

  8. Explosion proof battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A. S.

    1985-07-16

    Apparatus for eliminating the possibility of propagation of gas ignition from the outside to the interior of wet cell batteries such as those used in autos, boats, tractors and the like. The invention in its simplest form is characterized by a set of chambers attached to or incorporated with the structure of a wet cell battery to form a single compact explosion proof battery assembly. The chambers contain non flammable liquid through which gases traveling to and from the interior of the battery pass and thereby create a barrier to the propagation of ignition from the outside of the battery to the interior of the battery. Supporting inventive means are provided to make the apparatus fully functional and practical. Such supporting means include an injection fill means, a liquid level indicator and a pressure release tube for conducting gases safely away from the apparatus.

  9. Explosion risks from nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillard, Jacques; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    Emerging nanomanufactured products are being incorporated in a variety of consumer products ranging from closer body contact products (i.e. cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, clothing) to more remote body-contact products (electronics, plastics, tires, automotive and aeronautical), hence posing potential health and environmental risks. The new field of nanosafety has emerged and needs to be explored now rather than after problems becomes so ubiquitous and difficult to treat that their trend become irreversible. Such endeavour necessitates a transdisciplinary approach. A commonly forgotten and/or misunderstood risk is that of explosion/detonation of nanopowders, due to their high specific active surface areas. Such risk is emphasized and illustrated with the present development of an appropriate risk analysis. For this particular risk, a review of characterization methods and their limitations with regard to nanopowders is presented and illustrated for a few organic and metallic nanopowders.

  10. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  11. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  12. Lumped mass modeling of overburden motion during explosive blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, J. T.

    1981-02-01

    The in situ extraction of oil from most oil shale beds is highly dependent upon explosive fracturing and rubbling of rock in a controlled and predictable manner. Besides the rubbling requirement, it is also important that the surrounding rock remain competent to minimize fluid leakage during processing. For rubbling concepts in which the overburden is explosively lifted to provide the required void in an oil shale zone, an engineering lumped mass model has been devised to describe the motion of the overburden. The model simulates the overburden as an array of interacting lumped masses which are loaded from below with a time-dependent force to approximate the explosive load. Correlation with experimental data obtained from field blasting operations shows that this model will provide an adequate approximation of overburden behavior. The basic features of the model are described in the report along with the correlations with field data. Results from several parametric studies are also presented which were used to aid in blast design. This lumped mass model can be extended to include other parameters and has potential for the study of other related blasting situations.

  13. Oil spill response group aiming for full operation

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1991-12-02

    In 15 months the first national oil spill cleanup organization plans to be in operation at sites around the U.S. coast. This paper reports that the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC), financed by major oil companies, plans to begin full operation Feb. 18, 1993. It is considering starting limited operations in selected regions before then. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, an American Petroleum Institute task force proposed creation of a private offshore oil spill response agency. Individual oil companies then began a nonprofit firm that has evolved into MSRC. MSRC has a clearly defined role: It exists to sponsor oil spill research and to respond to catastrophic spills from offshore pipelines, platforms, rigs and tankers, carrying the oil of its sponsoring companies.

  14. The Interaction of Explosively Generated Plasma with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Douglas; LANL Team

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that the temperature of explosively generated plasma (EGP) is of the order of 1 eV and plasma ejecta can be focused to achieve velocities as high as 25 km/s. These high velocity plasma can readily penetrate a wide range of materials including metals. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to determine if EGP could be used for explosive ordnance demolition and other applications. The test goals were: to benignly disable ordnance containing relatively sensitive high performance explosives (PBX-9501); and to investigate the possibility of interrupting an ongoing detonation in a powerful high explosive (again PBX-9501) with EGP. Experiments were performed to establish the optimum sizes of plasma generators for the benign deactivation of high explosives, i.e., the destruction of the ordnance without initiating a detonation or comparable violent event. These experiments were followed by attempts to interrupt an ongoing detonation by the destruction of the unreacted explosive in its path. The results were encouraging. First, it was demonstrated that high explosives could be destroyed without the initiation of a detonation or high order reaction. Second, ongoing detonations were successfully interrupted with EGP. LA-UR-15-20612.

  15. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  16. Marine riser protector for use on offshore oil drilling rigs in icy waters

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, N.

    1985-03-19

    An apparatus for protecting a marine riser extending downwardly from a platform of an offshore station above a sea level toward a sea bottom. A tubular protector is removably mounted on the underside of the platform in surrounding relation to the marine riser in the vicinity of the sea level. According to another embodiment, a tubular protector has an upper portion in the shape of a truncated cone for contact with ice floes and a lower portion shaped as a grid-like truncated cone flaring downwardly for diverting ice floes away from the tubular protector.

  17. NASA Spinoff Article: Automated Procedures To Improve Safety on Oil Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    On May 11th, 2013, two astronauts emerged from the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) and worked their way toward the far end of spacecraft. Over the next 51/2 hours, the two replaced an ammonia pump that had developed a significant leak a few days before. On the ISS, ammonia serves the vital role of cooling components-in this case, one of the station's eight solar arrays. Throughout the extravehicular activity (EVA), the astronauts stayed in constant contact with mission control: every movement, every action strictly followed a carefully planned set of procedures to maximize crew safety and the chances of success. Though the leak had come as a surprise, NASA was prepared to handle it swiftly thanks in part to the thousands of procedures that have been written to cover every aspect of the ISS's operations. The ISS is not unique in this regard: Every NASA mission requires well-written procedures-or detailed lists of step-by-step instructions-that cover how to operate equipment in any scenario, from normal operations to the challenges created by malfunctioning hardware or software. Astronauts and mission control train and drill extensively in procedures to ensure they know what the proper procedures are and when they should be used. These procedures used to be exclusively written on paper, but over the past decade, NASA has transitioned to digital formats. Electronic-based documentation simplifies storage and use, allowing astronauts and flight controllers to find instructions more quickly and display them through a variety of media. Electronic procedures are also a crucial step toward automation: once instructions are digital, procedure display software can be designed to assist in authoring, reviewing, and even executing them.

  18. Low gas prices and rig count cut business for makers of oil country tubular goods

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    After years of scavenging used drill pipe and trying everything they could think of to make existing pipe last, contractors in the petroleum industry are buying more new pipe. Although supplies of tubular goods are growing tighter, the supply and demand curves haven`t met. However, while the market for drill pipe may be increasing, the market for other tubular goods is decreasing.

  19. Hello oil rig: The role of simulacra images in producing future reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Abdallah

    This project is the first approach to address the problem of the image through a discussion between science, philosophy, art history, art theory, and fine arts based on one body of specific art work designed especially to explain the role of the image in producing future reality models. This study is a continuation of the dialogue between important philosophers and thinkers about the image and its place in the contemporary scene. The technical fossil medium used in painting this project crosses the boundary between scientific research with its data sheets to art theory and fine arts with their aesthetic rhetoric thus bringing many disciplines together. Seven images were created to discuss the problem. The artwork and the academic research are both interacting in this paper in a multidiscipline discussion to uncover the role of the images in creating a new reality and in forging the hyperreal culture.

  20. Shock desensitizing of solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shockwave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in support of these ideas.

  1. Shock desensitizing of solid explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

  2. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  3. An inexpensive heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication

    E-print Network

    Ward, J; Shortt, B; Morrissey, M; Deasy, K; Chormaic, S N

    2006-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive and reproducible method of fabricating adiabatic tapers with 3-4 micron diameter. The method is based on a heat-and-pull rig, whereby a CO2 laser is continuously scanned across a length of fiber that is being pulled synchronously. Our system relies on a CO2 mirror mounted on an inexpensive geared stepper motor in order to scan the laser beam across the taper region and ensure adiabaticity. We show that this system offers a reliable alternative to more traditional rigs incorporating galvanometer scanners. We have routinely obtained transmission losses between 0.1 and 0.3 dB. The operation of the rig is described in detail and an analysis on the produced tapers is provided. The flexibility of the rig is demonstrated by fabricating prolate dielectric microresonators using the microtapering technique. Such a rig is of interest to a range of fields that require tapered fiber fabrication such as microcavity-taper coupling, atom guiding along a tapered fiber, optical fiber sensing and the ...

  4. Natural gas in Lake Erie: a reconnaissance survey of discharges from an offshore drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, J.G.; Dettmann, E.H.; Parker, J.I.

    1980-10-01

    Field studies were conducted May 28-June 1, 1979, to determine the chemical composition and physical behavior of discharges from an offshore gas drilling rig in the central basin of Lake Erie. The drilling operation was observed for four days, from rig jackup to the circulation of mud through the borehole after drilling had been completed. Resuspension studies using nephelometry, supplemented with chemical analyses, indicated little resuspension of lake bottom materials or release of metals to the water column during rig jack-up. Portions of the turbidity plumes generated during drilling were buoyant. Three surface turbidity plumes were mapped with nephelometry to a point at which particulate concentrations reached background levels in the Lake. Detectable plumes were approx. 400 to 1500 m in length and had maximum widths < 230 m. A chemical survey conducted in the plume during early gas shows indicated that discharged inorganic chemical species were rapidly diluted to background concentrations and that methane and ethane concentrations were substantially reduced within 330 m of the rig. There was no evidence of carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons (CTEH) above background concentrations during this chemical plume survey. However, a pair of water samples taken within 100 m of the rig approximately 3 hours after drilling of the target zone was completed had CTEH concentrations that were a factor of 2.4 above background.

  5. Design and Checkout of a High Speed Research Nozzle Evaluation Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Wolter, John D.

    1997-01-01

    The High Flow Jet Exit Rig (HFJER) was designed to provide simulated mixed flow turbojet engine exhaust for one- seventh scale models of advanced High Speed Research test nozzles. The new rig was designed to be used at NASA Lewis Research Center in the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig and the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Capabilities were also designed to collect nozzle thrust measurement, aerodynamic measurements, and acoustic measurements when installed at the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig. Simulated engine exhaust can be supplied from a high pressure air source at 33 pounds of air per second at 530 degrees Rankine and nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. In addition, a combustion unit was designed from a J-58 aircraft engine burner to provide 20 pounds of air per second at 2000 degrees Rankine, also at nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. These airflow capacities were designed to test High Speed Research nozzles with exhaust areas from eighteen square inches to twenty-two square inches. Nozzle inlet flow measurement is available through pressure and temperature sensors installed in the rig. Research instrumentation on High Speed Research nozzles is available with a maximum of 200 individual pressure and 100 individual temperature measurements. Checkout testing was performed in May 1997 with a 22 square inch ASME long radius flow nozzle. Checkout test results will be summarized and compared to the stated design goals.

  6. Diverter/bop system and method for a bottom supported offshore drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, J.R.; Alexander, G.G.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a system adapted for alternative use as a diverter or a blowout preventer for a bottom supported drilling rig and adapted for positioning beneath a rotary table of the drilling rig, the system comprising: a fluid flow controller having a controller housing with a lower opening and an upper opening and a vertical flow path therebetween and an outlet passage provided in its housing wall, and at least two bases. A method is described for installing a system adapted for alternative connection as a diverter or a blowout preventer for a bottom supported drilling rig positioned beneath a rotary table of the drilling rig after structural casing has been set in a borehole. The method comprises: positioning a first telescoping spool having a lower end and an upper end below the rotary table, the first spool having a first base disposed at its upper end, the first base having a port disposed in its wall; aligning a fluid flow controller having a controller housing wall outlet passage and adapted for alternative use as a diverter or a blowout preventer so that the controller is substantially vertically aligned between a bore of the rotary table above and the structural casing below; and securing the fluid flow controller beneath the drilling rig rotary table.

  7. On the relation between rigging inner product and master constraint direct integral decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Han Muxin; Thiemann, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Canonical quantization of constrained systems with first-class constraints via Dirac's operator constraint method proceeds by the theory of Rigged Hilbert spaces, sometimes also called refined algebraic quantization. This method can work when the constraints form a Lie algebra. When the constraints only close with nontrivial structure functions, the Rigging map can no longer be defined. To overcome this obstacle, the master constraint method has been proposed which replaces the individual constraints by a weighted sum of absolute squares of the constraints. Now the direct integral decomposition (DID) methods, which are closely related to Rigged Hilbert spaces, become available and have been successfully tested in various situations. It is relatively straightforward to relate the rigging inner product to the path integral that one obtains via reduced phase space methods. However, for the master constraint, this is not at all obvious. In this paper we find sufficient conditions under which such a relation can be established. Key to our analysis is the possibility to pass to equivalent, Abelian constraints, at least locally in phase space. Then the master constraint DID for those Abelian constraints can be directly related to the rigging map and therefore has a path integral formulation.

  8. Validation of the Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig for Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.

    2005-01-01

    The development and acoustic validation of the Small Hot Jet Aeroacoustic Rig (SHJAR) is documented. Originally conceived to support fundamental research in jet noise, the rig has been designed and developed using the best practices of the industry. While validating the rig for acoustic work, a method of characterizing all extraneous rig noise was developed. With this in hand, the researcher can know when the jet data being measured is being contaminated and design the experiment around this limitation. Also considered is the question of uncertainty, where it is shown that there is a fundamental uncertainty of 0.5dB or so to the best experiments, confirmed by repeatability studies. One area not generally accounted for in the uncertainty analysis is the variation which can result from differences in initial condition of the nozzle shear layer. This initial condition was modified and the differences in both flow and sound were documented. The bottom line is that extreme caution must be applied when working on small jet rigs, but that highly accurate results can be made independent of scale.

  9. ATP-dependent effector-like functions of RIG-I-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Dittmann, Meike; Peisley, Alys; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Gilmore, Rachel H; Schmidt, Tobias; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Hornung, Veit; Rice, Charles M; Hur, Sun

    2015-05-01

    The vertebrate antiviral innate immune system is often considered to consist of two distinct groups of proteins: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect viral infection and induce the interferon (IFN) signaling, and effectors that directly act against viral replication. Accordingly, previous studies on PRRs, such as RIG-I and MDA5, have primarily focused on their functions in viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) detection and consequent antiviral signaling. We report here that both RIG-I and MDA5 efficiently displace viral proteins pre-bound to dsRNA in a manner dependent on their ATP hydrolysis, and that this activity assists a dsRNA-dependent antiviral effector protein, PKR, and allows RIG-I to promote MDA5 signaling. Furthermore, truncated RIG-I/MDA5 lacking the signaling domain, and hence the IFN stimulatory activity, displaces viral proteins and suppresses replication of certain viruses in an ATP-dependent manner. Thus, this study reveals novel "effector-like" functions of RIG-I and MDA5 that challenge the conventional view of PRRs. PMID:25891073

  10. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading. PMID:10794911

  11. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  12. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  13. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  14. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  15. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  16. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  17. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  18. BOOM CONFIGURATION TESTS FOR CALM-WATER, MEDIUM-CURRENT OIL SPILL DIVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this test program was to determine the effects of boom angle, length, and rigging configuration on diversion of oil floating on moving streams. The B.F. Goodrich Seaboom was chosen for the program because of its availability, durability, and stability. It was rigge...

  19. Rapid deployment of oil-drilling tools utilizing distribution network and inventory strategies

    E-print Network

    Rahim, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    DTS is an oil and gas services company that delivers drilling tools to six major customer districts in the continental U.S. After the tools are used at a rig, they are transported to the closest repair and maintenance (MTC) ...

  20. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Joshua David

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  1. The Cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-10-01

    The sudden appearance of fossils that marks the so-called 'Cambrian explosion' has intrigued and exercised biologists since Darwin's time. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin made it clear that he believed that ancestral forms 'lived long before' their first fossil representatives. While he considered such an invisible record necessary to explain the level of complexity already seen in the fossils of early trilobites, Darwin was at a loss to explain why there were no corresponding fossils of these earlier forms. In chapter 9 of the Origin, entitled 'On the imperfection of the geological record', he emphasized the 'poorness of our palaeontological collections' and stated categorically that 'no organism wholly soft can be preserved'. Fortunately much has been discovered in the last 150 years, not least multiple examples of Cambrian and Precambrian soft-bodied fossils. We now know that the sudden appearance of fossils in the Cambrian (541-485 million years ago) is real and not an artefact of an imperfect fossil record: rapid diversification of animals coincided with the evolution of biomineralized shells. And although fossils in earlier rocks are rare, they are not absent: their rarity reflects the low diversity of life at this time, as well as the low preservation potential of Precambrian organisms (see Primer by Butterfield, in this issue). PMID:26439348

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Capability Added to Combustor Flametube Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankenfield, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Facility capabilities have been expanded at Test Cell 23, Research Combustor Lab (RCL23) at the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a new gaseous hydrogen fuel system. The purpose of this facility is to test a variety of fuel nozzle and flameholder hardware configurations for use in aircraft combustors. Previously, this facility only had jet fuel available to perform these various combustor flametube tests. The new hydrogen fuel system will support the testing and development of aircraft combustors with zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Research information generated from this test rig includes combustor emissions and performance data via gas sampling probes and emissions measuring equipment. The new gaseous hydrogen system is being supplied from a 70 000-standard-ft3 tube trailer at flow rates up to 0.05 lb/s (maximum). The hydrogen supply pressure is regulated, and the flow is controlled with a -in. remotely operated globe valve. Both a calibrated subsonic venturi and a coriolis mass flowmeter are used to measure flow. Safety concerns required the placement of all hydrogen connections within purge boxes, each of which contains a small nitrogen flow that is vented past a hydrogen detector. If any hydrogen leaks occur, the hydrogen detectors alert the operators and automatically safe the facility. Facility upgrades and modifications were also performed on other fluids systems, including the nitrogen gas, cooling water, and air systems. RCL23 can provide nonvitiated heated air to the research combustor, up to 350 psig at 1200 F and 3.0 lb/s. Significant modernization of the facility control systems and the data acquisition systems was completed. A flexible control architecture was installed that allows quick changes of research configurations. The labor-intensive hardware interface has been removed and changed to a software-based system. In addition, the operation of this facility has been greatly enhanced with new software programming and graphic operator interface stations. Glenn s RCL23 facility systems were successfully checked out in the spring of 2002, and hydrogen combustor research testing began in the summer of 2002.

  3. The Supernova Explosion Code (SNEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giryanskaya, Viktoriya; Ott, Christian; Piro, Anthony; Renzo, Mathieu; Couch, Sean; Clausen, Drew; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke

    2015-04-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code that solves for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), taking into account recombination effects and the presence of radioactive nickel. Given a model of the progenitor star and an explosion energy, the code generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different observed wavelength bands in the blackbody approximation. Using SNEC, we present lightcurves resulting from explosions of a grid of pre-explosion stars (computed with the MESA code) whose hydrogen envelopes have been systematically stripped to different extents and at different points of their evolution. This work is partially supported by NSF under Award Nos. AST-1205732 and AST-1212170.

  4. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  5. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  6. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  8. The heterogeneous explosive reaction zone

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Kershner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The calculated reaction zone of PBX-9404 using solid HMX Arrhenius kinetics is stable to perturbations. The calculated reaction zone Von Neumann spike pressure agrees with the experimental observations within experimental uncertainty associated with different experimental techniques. The calculated homogengeous explosive reaction zone thickness is larger than observed for the heterogeneous explosive. The effect of two volume percent air holes on the reaction zone was modeled using the three-dimensional Eulerian reactive hydrodynamic code, 3DE. The air holes perturb the reaction zone. A complicated, time-dependent, multidimensional reaction region proceeds through the heterogeneous explosive. The experimentally observed reaction zone characteristic of heterogeneous explosives are mean values of an irregular, three-dimensional reaction region. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  9. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A

    2012-01-01

    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon ? production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1?-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1? production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  10. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Fasteners Exposed in a Combustion Liner Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Brewer, David; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Combustion tests on SiC/SiC CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) components were performed in an aircraft combustion environment using the Rich-burn, Quick-quench, Lean-burn (RQL) sector rig. SiC/SiC fasteners were used to attach several of these components to the metallic rig structure. The effect of combustion exposure on the fastener material was characterized via microstructural examination. Fasteners were also destructively tested, after combustion exposure, and the failure loads of fasteners exposed in the sector rig were compared to those of as-manufactured fasteners. Combustion exposure reduced the fastener failure load by 50% relative to the as-manufactured fasteners for exposure times ranging from 50 to 260 hours. The fasteners exposed in the combustion environment demonstrated failure loads that varied with failure mode. Fasteners that had the highest average failure load, failed in the same manner as the unexposed fasteners.

  11. Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Materials Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Perez, Michael; Cuy, Michael D.; Robinson, R. Craig

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum presents the current capabilities of the state-of-the-art Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility. It is used for materials research including oxidation, corrosion, erosion and impact. Consisting of seven computer controlled jet-fueled combustors in individual test cells, these relatively small rigs burn just 2 to 3 gal of jet fuel per hour. The rigs are used as an efficient means of subjecting potential aircraft engine/airframe advanced materials to the high temperatures, high velocities and thermal cycling closely approximating actual operating environments. Materials of various geometries and compositions can be evaluated at temperatures from 700 to 2400 F. Tests are conducted not only on bare superalloys and ceramics, but also to study the behavior and durability of protective coatings applied to those materials.

  12. Portable hydraulic rig for performing workover, drilling and other operations on a well

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. D.; Newman, J. L.

    1981-05-26

    A new and improved portable hydraulic rig is described for performing workover, drilling or other operations on a well, usually a petroleum well. The rig has a telescoping mast for telescoping to a reduced length for transportation and is cantilevered in use so that the travelling block moves vertically at one side of the on. The cable for the travelling block is reeved over the various sheaves, including a sheaves on a hydraulic power assembly, with the dead end of the line being fastened at or in proximity to the rig floor for balanced loading on the legs of the mast and to enable slack in the cables to be taken up when telescoping the mast.

  13. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-10

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  14. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with explosives... of explosives or detonators and kept free of all extraneous materials. (11) Kept clean and dry in...

  15. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  16. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  19. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  20. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  2. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  4. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  5. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  6. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  8. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  10. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  11. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  12. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  13. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  14. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  15. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  16. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  17. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  18. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  19. U. S. S. Iowa Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the Navy's technical investigation of the April 1989 explosion aboard the U.S.S. Iowa, GAO enlisted the assistance of the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories. This report contains Sandia's final report, which concludes that it is unclear whether the turret explosion that killed 47 sailors was due to sabotage or an accident. In fact, Sandia suggests as a possible cause the excessive speed of ramming powder bags into the chamber of a 16-inch gun.

  20. System for analysis of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-06-29

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  1. Positive Evolutionary Selection On the RIG-I-Like Receptor Genes in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian RIG-I-like receptors, RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2, are a family of DExD/H box RNA helicases responsible for the cytoplasmic detection of viral RNA. These receptors detect a variety of RNA viruses, or DNA viruses that express unusual RNA species, many of which are responsible for a great number of severe and lethal diseases. Host innate sentinel proteins involved in pathogen recognition must rapidly evolve in a dynamic arms race with pathogens, and thus are subjected to long-term positive selection pressures to avoid potential infections. Using six codon-based Maximum Likelihood methods, we were able to identify specific codons under positive selection in each of these three genes. The highest number of positively selected codons was detected in MDA5, but a great percentage of these codons were located outside of the currently defined protein domains for MDA5, which likely reflects the imposition of both functional and structural constraints. Additionally, our results support LGP2 as being the least prone to evolutionary change, since the lowest number of codons under selection was observed for this gene. On the other hand, the preponderance of positively selected codons for RIG-I were detected in known protein functional domains, suggesting that pressure has been imposed by the vast number of viruses that are recognized by this RNA helicase. Furthermore, the RIG-I repressor domain, the region responsible for recognizing and binding to its RNA substrates, exhibited the strongest evidence of selective pressures. Branch-site analyses were performed and several species branches on the three receptor gene trees showed evidence of episodic positive selection. In conclusion, by looking for evidence of positive evolutionary selection on mammalian RIG-I-like receptor genes, we propose that a multitude of viruses have crafted the receptors biological function in host defense, specifically for the RIG-I gene, contributing to the innate species-specific resistance/susceptibility to diverse viral pathogens. PMID:24312370

  2. Quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmel, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanisms of detonation transfer across hermetically sealed interfaces created by necessary interruptions in high explosive trains, such as at detonators to explosive columns, field joints in explosive columns, and components of munitions fuse trains are demostrated. Reliability of detonation transfer is limited by minimizing explosive quantities, the use of intensitive explosives for safety, and requirements to propagate across gaps and angles dictated by installation and production restraints. The major detonation transfer variables studied were: explosive quanity, sensitivity, and thickness, and the separation distances between donor and acceptor explosives.

  3. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  4. Microbial remediation of explosive waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-05-01

    Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed. PMID:22497284

  5. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  6. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Explosive Materials dated November 17, 2010 (Docket No. ATF 42N, 75 FR 70291). Notice of List of Explosive... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials.... DIPAM . Dipicryl sulfone. Dipicrylamine. Display fireworks. DNPA . DNPD . Dynamite. E EDDN ....

  7. Identification and characterization of the retinoic acid response elements in the human RIG1 gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Wu, M.-S.; Chen, L.-M.; Hung, M.-W.; Lin, H.-E.; Chang, G.-G.; Chang, T.-C. . E-mail: tcchang@ndmctsgh.edu.tw

    2005-06-03

    The expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 (RIG1), a class II tumor suppressor gene, is induced in cells treated with retinoids. RIG1 has been shown to express ubiquitously and the increased expression of this gene appears to suppress cell proliferation. Recent studies also demonstrated that this gene may play an important role in cell differentiation and the progression of cancer. In spite of the remarkable regulatory role of this protein, the molecular mechanism of RIG1 expression induced by retinoids remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to study the molecular mechanism underlying the all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-mediated induction of RIG1 gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a total of 10 luciferase constructs that contain various fragments of the RIG1 5'-genomic region. These constructs were then transfected into human gastric cancer SC-M1 and breast cancer T47D cells for transactivation analysis. atRA exhibited a significant induction in luciferase activity only through the -4910/-5509 fragment of the 5'-genomic region of RIG1 gene relative to the translation initiation site. Further analysis of this promoter fragment indicated that the primary atRA response region is located in between -5048 and -5403 of the RIG1 gene. Within this region, a direct repeat sequence with five nucleotide spacing, 5'-TGACCTctattTGCCCT-3' (DR5, -5243/-5259), and an inverted repeat sequence with six nucleotide spacing, 5'-AGGCCAtggtaaTGGCCT-3' (IR6, -5323/-5340), were identified. Deletion and mutation of the DR5, but not the IR6 element, abolished the atRA-mediated activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extract from atRA-treated cells indicated the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers specifically to this response element. In addition to the functional DR5, the region contains many other potential sequence elements that are required to maximize the atRA-mediated induction. Taken together, we have identified and characterized the functional atRA response element that is responsible for the atRA-mediated induction of RIG1 gene.

  8. Test rig and particulate deposit and cleaning evaluation processes using the same

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Schenectady, NY); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greer, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A rig and test program for determining the amount, if any, of contamination that will collect in the passages of a fluid flow system, such as a power plant fluid delivery system to equipment assemblies or sub-assemblies, and for establishing methods and processes for removing contamination therefrom. In the presently proposed embodiment, the rig and test programs are adapted in particular to utilize a high-pressure, high-volume water flush to remove contamination from substantially the entire fluid delivery system, both the quantity of contamination and as disposed or deposited within the system.

  9. Oxidation of a Silica-Containing Material in a Mach 0.3 Burner Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A primarily silica-containing material with traces of organic compounds, as well as aluminum and calcium additions, was exposed to a Mach 0.3 burner rig at atmospheric pressure using jet fuel. The sample was exposed for 5 continuous hours at 1370 C. Post exposure x-ray diffraction analyses indicate formation of cristobalite, quartz, NiO and Spinel (Al(Ni)CR2O4). The rig hardware is composed of a nickel-based superalloy with traces of Fe. These elements are indicated in the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. This material was studied as a candidate for high temperature applications under an engine technology program.

  10. Rig-I regulates NF-?B activity through binding to Nf-?b1 3?-UTR mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Liu, Zi-Xing; Sun, Yue-Ping; Lu, Shun-Yuan; Liu, Xue-Song; Huang, Qiu-Hua; Xie, Yin-Yin; Dang, Su-Ying; Zheng, Guang-Yong; Li, Yi-Xue; Kuang, Ying; Fei, Jian; Chen, Zhu; Wang, Zhu-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) senses viral RNAs and triggers innate antiviral responses through induction of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. However, whether RIG-I interacts with host cellular RNA remains undetermined. Here we report that Rig-I interacts with multiple cellular mRNAs, especially Nf-?b1. Rig-I is required for NF-?B activity via regulating Nf-?b1 expression at posttranscriptional levels. It interacts with the multiple binding sites within 3?-UTR of Nf-?b1 mRNA. Further analyses reveal that three distinct tandem motifs enriched in the 3?-UTR fragments can be recognized by Rig-I. The 3?-UTR binding with Rig-I plays a critical role in normal translation of Nf-?b1 by recruiting the ribosomal proteins [ribosomal protein L13 (Rpl13) and Rpl8] and rRNAs (18S and 28S). Down-regulation of Rig-I or Rpl13 significantly reduces Nf-?b1 and 3?-UTR–mediated luciferase expression levels. These findings indicate that Rig-I functions as a positive regulator for NF-?B signaling and is involved in multiple biological processes in addition to host antivirus immunity. PMID:23553835

  11. Wear Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Acetal Spur, Helical, Bevel and Worm Gears Using a TS Universal Test Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Samy; Osman, T. A.; Abdalla, Abdelrahman H.; Zohdy, Gamal A.

    2014-12-01

    Although the applications of nanotechnologies are increasing, there remains a significant barrier between nanotechnology and machine element applications. This work aims to remove this barrier by blending carbon nanotubes (CNT) with common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel and worm). This was done by using adhesive oil (paraffin) during injection molding to synthesize a flange and short bars containing 0.02% CNT by weight. The flanges and short bars were machined using hobbing and milling machines to produce nanocomposite polymer gears. Some defects that surfaced in previous work, such as the appearance of bubbles and unmelted pellets during the injection process, were avoided to produce an excellent dispersion of CNT in the acetal. The wear resistances of the gears were measured by using a TS universal test rig using constant parameters for all of the gears that were fabricated. The tests were run at a speed of 1420 rpm and a torque of 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear resistances of the CNT/acetal gears were increased due to the addition of CNT, especially the helical, bevel and worm gears.

  12. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  13. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. [[Page...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  14. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  15. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  16. 13.9 Firearms Explosives and Ammunition Page 1 of 1 Firearms, Explosives and Ammunition

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    13.9 Firearms Explosives and Ammunition Page 1 of 1 Firearms, Explosives and Ammunition Original Implementation: Unpublished Last Revision: July 29, 2014 Firearms, ammunition, explosive devices, or illegal

  17. Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Gear Damage Detection Technologies Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spur gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, wear debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Experimental data were collected during experiments performed in this test rig with and without pitting. Results show combining the two measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears.

  18. Breccias related to explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, John A.

    Explosive breccia pipes were formed in the phreatomagmatic eruption of Taal volcano 60 km south of Manila, Philippines in September 1976. They were photographed in eruption which consisted of a series of small explosions occurring during the peak of activity at 10 sec intervals. These four breccia pipes formed on the collapse fault marking the margin of the much more intense eruption of 28 September 1965 when a diatreme 800 m in diameter formed. Renewed eruption in October 1977 on one of the breccia pipes blasted out the sealed plug and breccia fragments in all stages of alteration were included in the tephra. They ranged from barely agglomerated to strongly cemented through argillized and pyritized to totally replaced by silica and pyrite, fragments indistinguishable from those found in many mining districts. The violence of the explosion initiating a phreatomagmatic eruptive sequence results in strong crackling of the walls of the pipe and the crakle zone may become mineralized (cf. Braden, Chile). Usually the crater collapses on ring faults after eruption, forming a marginal tectonic breccia which can be mineralized (cf. Balatoc, Philippines.) The small craters with steep inner walls and tapering outer slopes which form during phreatomagmatic eruptions, sometimes containing lakes, are called maars and they are the surficial expression of an explosive breccia pipe or diatreme. Superficially similar craters are formed over kimberlite pipes. Hydrothermal explosion craters are somewhat similar. Collapse breccia pipes can form in the same sequence with explosive pipes. When one rising plug encounters ground water and explodes, fluostatic pressure on any other cupolas rising from the same magma drops rapidly, resulting in withdrawal of magma and collapse of walls and roof (Perry 1961). "Fluidization" is not thought to be of any significance in formation of breccia pipes (Wolfe 1980) contrary to Reynolds (1954) and many authors who have cited that work. An explosive breccia pipe is like an open window resulting in rapid depression of the isotherms of a pluton. A concentrated brine front can build up in minutes after an explosion. The very rapid cooling may explain why many explosive breccia pipes are altered by silica and pyrite only, the system being cooled before metallic solutions have time to replace breccia matrix or fragments.

  19. Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2004-05-10

    The fundamental picture that shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives is caused by the linking of hot spots formed at inhomogeneities was put forward by several researchers in the 1950's and 1960's, and more recently. Our work uses the computer hardware and software developed in the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the U.S. Department of Energy to explicitly include heterogeneities at the scale of the explosive grains and to calculate the consequences of realistic although approximate models of explosive behavior. Our simulations are performed with ALE-3D, a three-dimensional, elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler finite-difference program, which includes chemical kinetics and heat transfer, and which is under development at this laboratory. We developed the parameter values for a reactive-flow model to describe the non-ideal detonation behavior of an HMX-based explosive from the results of grain-scale simulations. In doing so, we reduced the number of free parameters that are inferred from comparison with experiment to a single one - the characteristic defect dimension. We also performed simulations of the run to detonation in small volumes of explosive. These simulations illustrate the development of the reaction zone and the acceleration of the shock front as the flame fronts start from hot spots, grow, and interact behind the shock front. In this way, our grain-scale simulations can also connect to continuum experiments directly.

  20. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  1. The Quiet Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very weak and 'soft' [1], very different from a gamma-ray burst and more in line with what is expected from a normal supernova." So, after the supernova was discovered, the team rapidly observed it from the Asiago Observatory in Northern Italy and established that it was a Type Ic supernova. "These are supernovae produced by stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium-rich outermost layers before exploding, and are the only type of supernovae which are associated with (long) gamma-ray bursts," explains Mazzali. "The object thus became even more interesting!" Earlier this year, an independent team of astronomers reported in the journal Nature that SN 2008D is a rather normal supernova. The fact that X-rays were detected was, they said, because for the first time, astronomers were lucky enough to catch the star in the act of exploding. Mazzali and his team think otherwise. "Our observations and modeling show this to be a rather unusual event, to be better understood in terms of an object lying at the boundary between normal supernovae and gamma-ray bursts." The team set up an observational campaign to monitor the evolution of the supernova using both ESO and national telescopes, collecting a large quantity of data. The early behaviour of the supernova indicated that it was a highly energetic event, although not quite as powerful as a gamma-ray burst. After a few days, however, the spectra of the supernova began to change. In particular Helium lines appeared, showing that the progenitor star was not stripped as deeply as supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Over the years, Mazzali and his group have developed theoretical models to analyse the properties of supernovae. When applied to SN2008D, their models indicated that the progenitor star was at birth as massive as 30 times the Sun, but had lost so much mass that at the time of the explosion the star had a mass of only 8-10 solar masses. The likely result of the collapse of such a massive star is a black hole. "Since the masses and energies involved ar

  2. Design and Implementation of a Characterization Test Rig for Evaluating High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Flow Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; DeLaat, John C.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    A test rig was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the purpose of characterizing high bandwidth liquid fuel flow modulator candidates to determine their suitability for combustion instability control research. The test rig is capable of testing flow modulators at up to 600 psia supply pressure and flows of up to 2 gpm. The rig is designed to provide a quiescent flow into the test section in order to isolate the dynamic flow modulations produced by the test article. Both the fuel injector orifice downstream of the test article and the combustor are emulated. The effect of fuel delivery line lengths on modulator dynamic performance can be observed and modified to replicate actual fuel delivery systems. For simplicity, water is currently used as the working fluid, although future plans are to use jet fuel. The rig is instrumented for dynamic pressures and flows and a high-speed data system is used for dynamic data acquisition. Preliminary results have been obtained for one candidate flow modulator.

  3. Rigging a horse and rider: simulating the predictable and repetitive movement of the rider 

    E-print Network

    Kuhnel, Jennifer Lynn

    2004-09-30

    (Member) _____________________________ Donald H. House (Member) _____________________________ Phillip J. Tabb (Head of Department) December 2003 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences iii ABSTRACT Rigging a Horse and Rider... in the Seat????????????????.?? 8.4 Rider?s Shift in Seat????????????????....??. 8.5 Squash and Stretch?????????????????.??. 8.6 Rider?s Head?????????????????????.... 8.7 Rider?s...

  4. Gambling in a rigged casino: The adversarial multiarmed bandit problem \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Schapire, Robert

    Gambling in a rigged casino: The adversarial multi­armed bandit problem \\Lambda Peter Auer gambling using that arm. \\Lambda An early extended abstract of this paper appearedin the proceedingsof of statistical assumptions on the process generating the rewards for each arm. In the gambling example

  5. 5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Probabilistic Structure Matching for Visual SLAM with a Multi-Camera Rig

    E-print Network

    Kaess, Michael

    that features can also move between cameras under robot motion. Our approach circumvents the combinatorial data obtained by a mobile robot equipped with a multi-camera rig. Key words: localization, mapping, mobile robot using this map to localize the camera. SLAM [1] is essential for many applications in mobile robotics

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  8. Experimental evaluation of a metal-mesh bearing damper in a high speed test rig 

    E-print Network

    Zarzour, Mark Joseph

    1999-01-01

    &M University (TAMU) as a bearing damper in a rotordynamic test rig. The test facility was originally used to support the design of a turboprop engine at TAMU, developing squirrel cage bearing supports and squeeze film dampers for both the gas generator...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  13. Rigged Configurations Approach For The Spin-1/2 Isotropic Heisenberg Model

    E-print Network

    Reiho Sakamoto

    2015-02-27

    We continue the rigged configurations analysis of the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations for the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model. We analyze the non self-conjugate strings of Deguchi-Giri and the counter example for the string hypothesis discovered by Essler-Korepin-Schoutens. In both cases clear discrete structures appear.

  14. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2003-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus Clinical Isolate RIGS 9880

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; On, Stephen L. W.; Andersen, Leif P.; Bono, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal disease, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the first closed genome for C. ureolyticus. PMID:26543122

  16. Comparisons Between Unsteady Aerodynamic Events in a Gas Turbine Generator and an Identical Compressor Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, A. Karl

    1996-01-01

    Extensive testing done on a T55-L-712 turboshaft engine compressor in a compressor test rig is being followed by engine tests in progress as part of the Army Non-Recoverable Stall Program. Goals include a greater understanding of the gas turbine engine start cycle and compressor/engine operation in the regions 'beyond' the normal compressor stall line (rotating stall/surge). Rig steady state instrumentation consisted of 497 steady state pressure sensors and 153 temperature sensors. Engine instrumentation was placed in similar radial/axial locations and consists of 122 steady state pressure sensors and 65 temperature sensors. High response rig instrumentation consisted of 34 wall static pressure transducers. Rig and engine high response pressure transducers were located in the same axial/radial/circumferential locations in front of the first three stages. Additional engine high response instrumentation was placed in mach probes in front of the engine and on the compressor hub. This instrumentation allows for the generation of detailed stage characteristics, overall compressor mapping, and detailed analysis of dynamic compressor events.

  17. A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bart Patton

    2007-09-30

    This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

  18. MicroRNAs in the regulation of TLR and RIG-I pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingke; Shi, Xueyin

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system recognizes invading pathogens through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which elicit innate antimicrobial and inflammatory responses and initiate adaptive immunity to control or eliminate infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) are the key innate immune PRRs and are tightly regulated by elaborate mechanisms to ensure a beneficial outcome in response to foreign invaders. Although much of the focus in the literature has been on the study of protein regulators of inflammation, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important controllers of certain features of the inflammatory process. Several miRNAs are induced by TLR and RIG-I activation in myeloid cells and act as feedback regulators of TLR and RIG-I signaling. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the recent understanding of how miRNA networks respond to TLR and RIG-I signaling and their role in the initiation and termination of inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence also indicates that both virus-encoded miRNAs and cellular miRNAs have important functions in viral replication and host anti-viral immunity. PMID:23262976

  19. Corn oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Because of its pleasant nutty flavor, its good stability, and its popularity for making margarines, corn oil has long been considered a premium vegetable oil. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of ...

  20. A new laboratory rig for evaluating helmets subject to oblique impacts.

    PubMed

    Aare, Magnus; Halldin, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Current requirements and regulations governing motorcycle helmets around the world are based on test results of purely radial impacts, which are statistically rare in real accidents. This study presents a new impact rig for subjecting test helmets to oblique impacts, which therefore is able to test impacts of increased statistical relevance to real motorcycle accidents. A number of different head-helmet interfaces have been investigated. A test rig was constructed to produce oblique impacts to helmets simulating those occurring in real motorcycle accidents. A Hybrid III dummy head was fitted with accelerometers to measure the accelerations arising during impact testing. The equipment used for data collection was validated in both translational and rotational acceleration. In order to better resemble the human head, an artificial scalp was fitted to the hybrid dummy. The same test rig was used to investigate the performance of a number of different helmets. Impact velocities ranging from 7.3 to 9.9 m/s were tested using a number of different impact angles and impact areas. This study shows that the new test rig can be used to provide useful data at speeds of up to 50 km/h and with impact angles varying from purely tangential to purely radial. The rotational accelerations observed differ greatly depending on both helmet and scalp designs. For example, a helmet with a sliding outer shell placed on an experimental head fitted with an artificial scalp (made to resemble the human scalp) reduces rotational accelerations of the head by up to 56%, compared with those of an experimental head fitted with a fixed scalp and conventional helmet. The degree of slippage between the skull and the scalp, and between the scalp and the helmet, leads to considerable variation in the results. This innovative test rig appears to provide an accurate method for measuring accelerations in an oblique impact to a helmet. In order to obtain a good level of repeatability in oblique impact testing, it is crucial that the helmet be fixed to the head in the exact same way in each individual test. Both the position and the angle of impact must be reproduced identically in each test. The test rig used here has shown that this type of rig can be used to compare different helmet designs, and it therefore is able to contribute to achieving safer helmets. PMID:14522648