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1

Oil Spill Response and Research The 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig explosion and your health  

E-print Network

Oil Spill Response and Research The 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig explosion and your health Safety in responding to the oil spill crisis. The GuLF STUDY will help determine if oil spills, and exposure to crude the largest research enterprise ever conducted on human health and oil spills. PO Box 12233 · Research

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

2

Scheduling workover rigs for onshore oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many oil wells in Brazilian onshore fields rely on artificial lift methods. Mainte- nance services such as cleaning, reinstatement, stimulation and others are essential to these wells. These services are performed by workover rigs, which are available on a limited number with respect to the number of wells demanding service. The decision of which workover rig should be sent to

Dario J. Aloise; Daniel Aloise; Caroline T. M. Rocha; Celso C. Ribeiro; José C. Ribeiro Filho; Luiz S. S. Moura

2006-01-01

3

Cholera on a Gulf Coast oil rig.  

PubMed

A single case of severe diarrhea on a floating Texas oil rig was followed two days later by what proved to be the largest outbreak of cholera in the United States in over a century. After isolation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae El Tor Inaba of the typical United States phage type from the index patient's stool, the ensuing investigation detected 14 additional cases of cholera and one asymptomatic infection serologically. Infection was associated with eating rice on the oil rig on a particular day (P = 0.03) when an open valve permitted the rig's drinking-water system to be contaminated by canal water containing sewage (including that from the index patient) discharged from the rig. The rice had been rinsed in the contaminated water after cooking, and before being served it had been maintained at a temperature that allows V. cholerae 01 to multiply. Toxigenic V. cholerae 01 is persisting in the United States, and large common-source outbreaks of cholera can occur if proper sanitation is not maintained. PMID:6877323

Johnston, J M; Martin, D L; Perdue, J; McFarland, L M; Caraway, C T; Lippy, E C; Blake, P A

1983-09-01

4

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2012-10-01

5

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2013-10-01

6

Oil well drilling rig assembly and apparatus therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil well drilling rig assembly having a main drilling mast which receives and installs sections of drill pipe. A pipe supply mast is pivotally mounted in a spaced relationship from the base of the main mast to provide a safe catwalk area therebetween. The supply mast is movable between a horizontal position for transferring pipe sections between an adjacent

1985-01-01

7

HURRICANE PREDICTION, OIL RIGS, AND INSURANCE: KATRINA, RITA, AND BEYOND  

E-print Network

HURRICANE PREDICTION, OIL RIGS, AND INSURANCE: KATRINA, RITA, AND BEYOND LUNCHEON BRIEFING the recent images of Katrina and Rita marching in relentless slow motion toward the Gulf Coast and know industries. In the days after Katrina, Senator DeMint stated, "After reviewing the actions taken

8

World Oil`s marine drilling rigs `97/`98  

SciTech Connect

The paper lists performance data for each of 588 mobile offshore drilling units in worldwide competitive and state-owned fleets. Listings are separated into four categories, including: jackups (362); semi-submersibles (147); drillships and barges (70); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (9). Owners and rigs are listed alphabetically, with rigs grouped by class under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. Addresses of owners/managers are shown in a separate table.

NONE

1997-12-01

9

Inventory management of steel plates at an oil rig construction company  

E-print Network

Keppel Fels produces make-to-order oil exploration rigs for the global market. Each rig requires close to 6000 metric tons of steel in the course of its production. Optimal management of this steel is very critical in this ...

Tan, Chien Yung

2006-01-01

10

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01

11

A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

Howard, Samuel A.

2007-01-01

12

Procedure-Authoring Tool Improves Safety on Oil Rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dark, cold, and dangerous environments are plentiful in space and on Earth. To ensure safe operations in difficult surroundings, NASA relies heavily on procedures written well ahead of time. Houston-based TRACLabs Inc. worked with Ames Research Center through the SBIR program to create an electronic procedure authoring tool, now used by NASA and companies in the oil and gas industry.

2014-01-01

13

Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

1981-01-01

14

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...portion of the test rig piping. (c) Each test rig must have a centrifugal pump that is designed to operate at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more. (d) The mixture pipe on a test rig must have a uniform inside diameter. FIGURE...

2014-10-01

15

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...162.050-17(e) and must be in a vertical portion of the test rig piping. (c) Each test rig must have a centrifugal pump that is designed to operate at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more. (d) The mixture pipe on a test rig...

2011-10-01

16

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...162.050-17(e) and must be in a vertical portion of the test rig piping. (c) Each test rig must have a centrifugal pump that is designed to operate at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more. (d) The mixture pipe on a test rig...

2010-10-01

17

Red oil explosions at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Two red-oil explosions occurred at the Savannah River Plant. The first of these was in an evaporator at the semiworks prior to plant operation. The second occurred 22 years later in an A-Line facility calciner (called a denitrator).

Durant, W.S.

1984-01-01

18

NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill - Duration: 1:56.  

NASA Video Gallery

Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

19

The BP Oil Spill: Could Software be a Culprit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

No one yet knows what caused the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that killed 11 workers and poured millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. But considering the fact that offshore oil rigs comprise dozens of complex subsystems that use or are controlled by software, it is possible a software failure could have contributed to this disaster.

Don Shafer; Phillip A. Laplante

2010-01-01

20

China on the move: Oil price explosion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid expansion of highway and jet traffic in China has created a surge of demand for oil products, putting pressure on world energy markets and petroleum product prices. This paper examines trends in freight and passenger traffic to assess how growth in China's transport demand relates to growth in China's economy, as well as the energy intensity of transport. Based

Jeffrey Skeer; Yanjia Wang

2007-01-01

21

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01

22

Computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The steps in assembling the computational tools needed to simulate the explosive fracture of oil shale have been described. The resulting code, with its input data, was then used to simulate three explosive field experiments. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with what actually occurred in the field. Further detailed comparisons are in progress for these experiments and the others that have been conducted. As this is done, improvements will be made in the input data and in the code physics. The development of computer codes as tools to predict rock breakage makes a variety of interesting studies possible. The properties of the explosive can be changed to see how the extent of rubbling is affected. Studies of spacing and delays for decked charges are also possible. Finally, the codes can be applied in situations, such as confined-volume blasting, at the frontiers of blasting technology. These areas are vital to the effective utilization of our oil shale resources, especially with in situ techniques. Computer simulation will play a central role in the development of new technology for energy and mineral resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.

1980-01-01

23

44. Annual Reed rig census  

SciTech Connect

Reed Tool Company`s 44th annual rotary rig census found a spirit of increased optimism in the US oil and gas drilling industry. Rig utilization rose to 77% this year, the highest since the boom times of 15 years ago. A combination of a higher number of active rigs and another decline in available units to a historical low, led to this higher-than-average utilization rate. The paper discusses results from the survey.

Stokes, T.A.; Rodriguez, M.R. [Reed Tool Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

24

Design, fabrication and testing of a bearing test rig and preliminary studies on oil mist lubrication  

E-print Network

factories have applied oil mist to web and processing equipment, conveyors, mobile equipment, shaker screens, vibrators, crushers, centrifuges, kilns, pulverizers, dryers and a host of other equipment (2). The results have been excellent. CHAPTER III... the operating characteristics of rolling element bearings in terms of operating temperature, friction and vibration, with variation of load, speed and lubrication system, is described. The design of an experimental procedure to obtain information about oil...

Shamim, Abdus

1990-01-01

25

Explosives  

SciTech Connect

''Explosives'' is a handbook covering the entire field of explosives. The book contains about 500 entries arranged in alphabetical order. These include formulas and descriptions of about 120 explosive chemicals, 60 additives, fuels, oxidizing agents and a 1500-entry subject index. The properties, manufacturing methods and applications of each substance are briefly described. In the case of key explosives and raw materials, the standard purity specifications are also listed.

Meyer, R.

1986-01-01

26

Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.  

PubMed

Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness. PMID:1546944

Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

1992-02-01

27

Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).  

PubMed

On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf. PMID:24720059

Flin, Rhona

2014-03-01

28

Oil in the Water, Fire in the Sky: Responding to Technological/Environmental Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On April 20, 2010, a massive explosion killed 11 workers on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Survivors of this explosion recounted terrifying near-death experiences and mourned the loss of coworkers and friends who had perished. Shock and grief spread through small coastal communities composed mostly of fishers and oil workers. However, this was…

Lazarus, Philip J.; Sulkowski, Michael L.

2010-01-01

29

Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

1980-01-01

30

Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

1980-01-01

31

25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL ENDLESS-WIRE RIG IN VOLCANO. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

32

Fault Tree Analysis of System Anomaly Leading to Red Oil Explosion in Plutonium Evaporator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of scenario identification, preparation of reliability data, fault tree construction and its analysis, are rendered for a system anomaly considered liable to lead to a red oil explosion in a Pu evaporator of a typical model of reprocessing facility.Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has introduced the model plant data, the basic failure frequency data together with the fault tree

Yasushi NOMURA; Rolf LEICHT; Philip ASHTON

1994-01-01

33

Gulf Oil Spill Commission Report calls for major drilling safety reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion and the resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico last year were ``foreseeable and preventable,'' according to the report of a presidentially appointed commission, issued on 11 January, that recommended significant changes in U.S. government and industry practices to avoid future oil spill disasters. Among the recommendations of the National Commission on

Randy Showstack

2011-01-01

34

Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

A major technological limit on the in situ retorting of oil shale is the effective rubbling of the rock. Consequently, efficient and economical recovery of oil from shale is dependent directly on developing a more sophisticated blasting technology. Crucial to this technology is understanding the behavior of the explosive. Calculations of pressures and shock-front positions are developed and compared graphically to the aquarium-test experimental data for two different diameter explosive configurations for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). Once the explosive reaction is understood, analytical and computational methods can be developed to simulate the blasting of the rock. Such computer modeling will allow the phenomenology of blasting to be studied and will eliminate the need for many expensive field tests. The basis for using predictive modeling and its application to predict rock fracturing is explained, and comparisons of calculations to field experimental data are presented. Also discussed is the theory of effective-elastic-moduli reduction in a transversely isotropic material containing penny-shaped cracks. It is applied to the bedded crack model in which all cracks are in the horizontal (bedding) plane of the material, as they are in oil shale. The technique equates the total body strain to the sum of the straining of the material matrix and the additional strain caused by the opening and shearing of cracks. Finally, the permeability of explosively fractured oil shale is related to the statistical distribution of cracks in the rock and their instability as stress levels increase. An expression for the specific permeability of oil shale under high stresses is derived. 22 figures.

Sinoradzki, H.M. (ed.)

1981-07-01

35

Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture and fragmentation studies on 80 ml\\/kg Anvil Points oil shale with plate impact, Hopkinson bar, capacitor discharge, and HE techniques have shown that the dynamic fracture stress, fracture energy, and fragment size depend on the rate of tensile loading. A model coupling fracture, fragmentation, and stress wave propagation and based on the activation and growth of an initial Weibull

D. E. Grady; M. E. Kipp

1980-01-01

36

Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Fracture and fragmentation studies on 80 ml/kg Anvil Points oil shale with plate impact, Hopkinson bar, capacitor discharge, and HE techniques have shown that the dynamic fracture stress, fracture energy, and fragment size depend on the rate of tensile loading. A model coupling fracture, fragmentation, and stress wave propagation and based on the activation and growth of an initial Weibull distribution of fracture-producing flaws has been found effective in describing the observed rate-dependent fracture phenomena from static to high strain-rate impulse loading. The fracture model has been incorporated into one- and two-dimensional stress-wave computer codes and is being used to evaluate blasting geometries and stress-pulse tailoring for in situ rubblization of oil shale.

Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

1980-06-01

37

Fire and explosion assessment on oil and gas floating production storage offloading (FPSO): An effective screening and comparison tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires and explosions have been identified as major potential hazards for Oil and Gas Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) installations and pose risk to personnel, assets, and the environment. Current fire and explosion assessment (FEA) tools require physical effect modeling software and follows standards from API, ISO, and engineering practices. However, the tools are not specific to any particular system

Jaffee A. Suardin; A. Jeff McPhate Jr.; Anthony Sipkema; Matt Childs; M. Sam Mannan

2009-01-01

38

Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

1985-01-01

39

The Gulf Coast oil spill: Extending the theory of image restoration discourse to the realm of social media and beyond petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, an oil-rig licensed to BP, set in motion a chain of unfortunate events that led to BP's ruptured oil well disgorging millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Since the spill, the corporate image of BP has been severely challenged. The company has used many strategies to preserve and restore the

Sidharth Muralidharan; Kristie Dillistone; Jae-Hwa Shin

2011-01-01

40

Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident. PMID:25467693

Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

2015-01-01

41

The Great Advertising Campaign: The Effectiveness of British Petroleum’s Post-Oil Spill Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 20, 2010, one explosion on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig in the Gulf of Mexico caused the greatest oil spill disaster in United States history. The effects of the spill were realized almost immediately. Seafood fishers lost jobs and product, the Gulf was tainted, and people around the nation realized the damage was not going to go away

Brianne Painia

2012-01-01

42

Social impact of the Gulf Oil Disaster: diverging views from communities in Florida and Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carsey researchers surveyed over two thousand residents of the Gulf Coast following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in 2010 to analyze their perception of the spill. Nearly one-half of all Gulf Coast residents perceived damage to the environment and wildlife as the most serious result of the oil spill. Perceptions regarding the impact of the spill reflect the

Jessica D. Ulrich

2011-01-01

43

Use of air-deployed drogued drifting buoys for oil spill tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill resulting from the Macondo oil well blowout, catastrophic explosion, and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible offshore drilling rig is unprecedented. The complex oceanographic and environmental character of the spill location and the application of vast quantities of chemical dispersants combined to create greater challenges for those tasked with

Neha Sharma; Peter Brickley; George Owen; Patrice Coholan

2010-01-01

44

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

SciTech Connect

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21

45

Well servicing rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

A totally contained movable rig is described, including a frame portion thereon, for servicing and drilling and for handling elongated well elements from a horizontal storage position to a vertical position in operating relationship with a well, or the reverse of the positions. The rig consists of: (a) horizontal storing means mounted on the frame of the movable rig for

S. O. Hutchison; P. V. Oldershaw; J. E. Hansen

1986-01-01

46

Auxiliary workover rig  

SciTech Connect

An auxiliary rig is used in combination with a primary drilling or workover rig. The primary drilling rig typically includes an elongated upstanding drill tower, a base and a crown block. The auxiliary rig of the present invention includes a racking tower detachably mounted with the upper end of the drill tower to form an extension to the drill tower for receiving interconnected pairs of tubular members to reduce the tripping time of the tubular members into and out of the well. A movable slip and a controller therefor of the auxiliary rig are operably guided by the racking tower for releasably supporting the pairs of tubular members.

Brewer, J.D.; Gunther, A.W. Jr.; Gunther, A.W. Sr.

1984-09-11

47

Evaluation and comparison of occupational noise exposure among workers on offshore and onshore oil well drilling rigs  

E-print Network

. Faulkner, L. L. 2 Handbook of Industrial Noise Control. pp. 20, 36, 38. Industrial Press Inc. , 200 Madison Avenue, New York 10016 (1976) . 6. ~ t H, L. J. a d A. M. Ri D ds. :1 ~22 t* ~Hi 8io p ~ 8 ~ 8 tyP*tkPt ss ~ International Publ ishers... Approved as to style and content by: a o L Johnston (Chairma of Committee) Har Sugg er) A erto are&a (Member) ew o . Ellis (Head Department) ABSTRACT Evaluation and Comparison of Occupational Noise Exposure Among Workers on Offshore and Onshore Oil...

Suarez Garcia, Humberto

1984-01-01

48

Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity  

SciTech Connect

The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

Rappold, K.

1995-09-25

49

Four rigs refurbished for West Africa drilling  

SciTech Connect

In April and May 1990, Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria Ltd. awarded Noble Drilling West Africa Inc. four separate contracts to drill oil and gas wells in the inland waterways of Nigeria. The contracted rigs included a shallow water jack up, the NN-1, and three posted barges, the Gene Rosser, the Chuck Syring, and the Lewis Dugger. The jack up was built in 1978, and the three posted barges are 1980s vintage. Three of the rigs have been idle for a number of years. The Shell Nigeria contracts required major modifications to the rigs before putting them into international service. Noble replaced or refurbished all major pieces of equipment in the drilling, power, and service systems on the rigs. Rig crews serviced all other equipment. A significant amount of general service piping and electrical wiring was replaced. Each rig also required additional motor control centers to support the new drilling and mud processing equipment. Alfa-Laval waste-heat water desalination plants and new sewage treatment units were installed on all four rigs. Because of the tidal variances and high silt conditions expected in the African waterways, all engine cooling systems were converted from heat exchangers to radiators. Rotary tables were made common on all rigs at 37 1/2 in. Noble had all traveling equipment completely inspected and modified as necessary. Strict attention was paid to certification and documentation of all equipment. Safety upgrades conformed to both Shell and Noble standards. Fire and gas detection systems were installed throughout each rig. Water and foam deluge systems were installed in the wellhead areas, and new foam systems and monitors were installed on the helldecks.

Not Available

1991-06-10

50

Marine drilling rigs '94  

SciTech Connect

Listings in this paper contain performance data for each of 582 mobile offshore drilling units in the worldwide competitive and nationalized fleet. For the four categories shown, the totals are: jackups (372); semi-submersibles (137); drillships and barges (57); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (16). Owners and their rigs are listed alphabetically. Units of the same class are grouped under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. An index of rig names is also provided.

Not Available

1994-12-01

51

TRU VU rig instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.

Boone, S.G.

1993-02-15

52

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

53

28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 2. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL POWERHOUSE AT VOLCANO - NOW DISMANTLED. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

54

26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL WELL HOOK-UP. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

55

27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 5. EARLIER ENDLESS-WIRE TRANSMISSION NOW IN RUINS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

56

Pattern of explosive reaction between uranium hexafluoride and hydrocarbon oils. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Examination of uranium hexafluoride release incidents occurring over the past three decades of ORGDP experience has identified only four which apparently involved an explosion of a container resulting from reaction between uranium hexafluoride and an impurity. These four incidents exhibit a certain degree of commonality. Each has involved: (1) condensed phase uranium hexafluoride, (2) a moderately elevated temperature, (3) a sufficient quantity of uranium hexafluoride for a significant partial pressure to be maintained independently above that which can be consumed by chemical reaction, and (4) an organic liquid (probably hydrocarbon oil) accidentally present in the container as a contaminant. The purpose of this investigative search was to establish some conditional pattern for these four incidents to which their violent consequences could be attributed. Fortunately, the number of such incidents is relatively small, which emphasizes even more pointedly the unfortunate fact that documentation ranges from thorough to very limited. Documented sources of information are given in the bibliography. Copies of those which are not readily available are contained in six appendices. 8 refs.

Rapp, K.E.

1986-03-21

57

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the

N. J. Blake; B. Barletta; S. Meinardi; I. Leifer; F. S. Rowland; D. R. Blake

2010-01-01

58

Newest mobile drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

The weighing half of what a standard jackknife rig with the same drilling capacities weights this rig cuts transportation costs while reducing transportation time. Also, rig-up and rig-down time is shortened half-a-day each way because of the light structure and the ability to hydraulically raise and lower the substructure and mast. It is powered by three Caterpillar 3412 diesel engines - 600 hp each at 1,800 rpm - delivering 1,500 hp to the drawworks through single-stage torque converters. Chain-type drawworks, set on the trailer flatbed next to the diesel engines instead of on the rig floor, consist of a 25-in. diam by 50-in.-long drum barrel, 50-in. diam by 12-in.-wide brakes, and 1/one quarter/-in. line, capable of a 75,000-lb single line pull. The mast - a 127-ft API-rated, vertical freestanding, telescoping type - is extended and telescoped in the horizontal position before being hydraulically raised. Gross nominal capacity of the mast is 1 million lb, with a rotary load of 715,000 lb and a setback load of 400,000 lb.

Not Available

1981-01-01

59

DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data  

DOE Data Explorer

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

60

Know your rig.  

PubMed

Driving an EMS rig in winter conditions requires patience and slowing down, but many times operators get in trouble because they simply exceed the operating capabilities of their rig in the given conditions. This can stem from over confidence, but it can also come from lack of training. We'd like to believe otherwise, but we're susceptible to the same perils as the ordinary driver, and having decals on the side of our truck doesn't change that. So take the time to know your rig before heading out into the wintry muck, and make sure you have enough supplies and equipment should you inadvertently find yourself part of the problem rather than the solution. Above all, know your own driving limitations and give yourself the buffer you need. Getting there slowly is better than not getting there at all. PMID:23718094

Molnar, J P

2012-11-01

61

Rigs to reefs: a petroleum industry perspective  

E-print Network

of converting obsolete, nonproductive offshore oil and gas structures (primarily production platforms, but also drilling rigs) into artificial reefs. To date, five reefs have been constructed in this manner. In 1980, Exxon Company, U. S. A. donated a 2, 200... to reefs concept financially attractive and to resolve all lingering liability concerns, a viable program will not occur. It is important, then, to explore various alternatives to overcome these constraints. Specific 30 recommendations will be made...

Dubose, William Perry

1988-01-01

62

Combination offshore drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

1986-01-01

63

Development of isothermal rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Resonant Infrasonic Gauging System (RIGS) development program are reported. The RIGS is a gauging system that is capable of measuring propellant quantity under zero-G as well as under accelerated (one-G) conditions. With the exception of liquid hydrogen, it can be used to gauge virtually any propellant in liquid form including cryogenics. The gauge consists of a sensor unit which is attached to the propellant tank and electronic control unit which may be positioned separately from the sensor. The control unit receives the signals from the sensor as well as the ullage gas pressure and propellant temperature measurements, and computes the propellant quantity remaining in the tank. During the course of this program two prototype RIGS sensors were designed and constructed. The sensors were tested first in the laboratory using water as the simulated propellant and, later, using LN2 in a 100-gallon tank. The system tests proved that the gauge operates virtually as predicted by theory and yielded an accuracy better than 1%.

Kaminskas, R. A.; Malone, D. J.

1973-01-01

64

Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

2010-01-01

65

Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Young, C. III [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)] [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)

1992-12-31

66

Pressure rig for repetitive casting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

1989-01-01

67

Rig Diagnostic Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

2008-01-01

68

Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)  

SciTech Connect

This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

NONE

1995-06-01

69

Science Nation: Hidden Oil and Gas Plumes in the Gulf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Days after the oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, University of Georgia oceanographer Samantha Joye got the wheels in motion to submit a proposal for a "Grant for Rapid Response Research" from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Her goal was to investigate underwater oil and gas plumes, and determine how this disaster was impacting deepwater organisms. Within a week, NSF approved the grant. Joye and her team from the University of Georgia, along with researchers from several other universities, spent May 24 through June 6, 2010 aboard the University of Miami research vessel, Walton Smith, departing from Gulfport, Miss.

70

Electricity on the rig. Part 3 - New electric rig technology  

SciTech Connect

The use of an SCR-controlled power system on an offshore drilling rig has lead to an increased acceptance of high technology equipment. Such equipment increases drilling productivity, reduces maintenance, and improves reliability. Most new rigs now have AC squirrel cage motors, brushless AC generators, silicon controlled rectifiers, DC motors, and swtichgear and motor starters. Several opportunities for cost reductions in SCR systems, such as improving the power factor, are studied in this paper.

McNair, W.L.

1983-07-01

71

New service rig operates with two-man crew  

SciTech Connect

Two Bakersfield, California, entrepreneurs have developed a partially automated and remote-controlled workover rig that can complete tubing and rod jobs on relatively shallow, singles-rig type wells with a total crew of two people on the ground. The system, called Autorig, was developed by Louis Witte, president of Witte Enterprise, and James Hansen, Paragon Engineering, Bakersfield. Initial field tests in E and B Natural Resources Management Corp.`s Blackwells Corner oil field culminated two years of development work. The new system is described in this paper using photographs from a testwell demonstration.

NONE

1995-07-01

72

High temperature seal test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Temperature Seals Test Rig Program at NASA's Lewis Research Center is a joint effort involving three separate federal government agencies. Testing has been underway at Lewis in this test rig since April, 1993. The rig was designed to run tests at temperatures to 800 F at pressures to 200 psia or at temperatures to 1300 to 1500 F at pressures to 65 psia. It was designed to run at speeds of up to 50,000 rpm which, for a 5.1 inch diameter disk, is a surface speed of about 1100 ft./sec. The rig was designed to allow easy replacement of the disks as well as the seals such that different disk materials and coatings may be tested.

Addy, Harold E., Jr.

1994-01-01

73

Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

Lee, Chi-Ming

1998-01-01

74

Troy rig designed for man-made islands  

SciTech Connect

Troy of Canada Ltd. has designed a rig to drill from man-made islands in the middle of Canada's MacKenzie River. Six man-made islands will be built in the Norman Wells oil field in the river in order to access a part of the field. The rig design is modular. The generator sets, silicon rectifier unit, mud system and pumps and boilers will be set stationary, located in a central utility complex close to the drilling pad. The facility will allow the mast substructure, drawworks, and pipe racks to move independently from hole to hole. Conversion can be made quickly for minimum cost. Other features of the rig are cold weather weatherization, heat efficiency, ventilation system, onsite power systems, and safety design criteria.

Keeley, M.

1982-09-01

75

77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the Gulf of Mexico...Macondo well and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. The Complaint alleges...Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the Gulf of...

2012-02-24

76

Hoisting and rigging manual: Uncontrolled document  

SciTech Connect

This document is a draft copy of a Hoisting and Rigging Manual for the Department of Energy. The manual is divided into ten chapters. The chapter titles follow: terminology and definitions; operator training and qualification; overhead and gantry cranes; mobile cranes; forklift trucks; hoists; hooks; wire rope, slings, and rigging accessories; construction hoisting and rigging equipment requirements; references.

NONE

1991-05-01

77

PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes the safe and cost effective operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair requirements for cranes, hoists, fork trucks, slings, rigging hardware, and hoisting equipment. It is intended to be a user's guide to requirements, codes, laws, regulations, standards, and practices that apply to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its subcontractors.

Haynie, Todd O.; Fullmer, Michael W.

2008-12-29

78

Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

Heinlein, Fritz

1926-01-01

79

Solar stirling engine rig tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of a prototype four-cylinder Stirli ng engine construction with the heat receiver of the concentrated solar\\u000a radiant flux and with a swashplate drive is given. The rig tests have been carried out in an effort to optimize the individual\\u000a engine units. They have been conducted in the cooling system mode and in the mode of an engine working

I. A. Tursunbaev; E. P. Orda; A. I. Lezhebokov; A. P. Korobkov; A. I. Semyannikov

2010-01-01

80

Explosives tester  

DOEpatents

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11

81

Multilateral installation from a floating rig  

SciTech Connect

The Troll Olje gas province is approximately 100 km northwest of Bergen, Norway, in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea at a water depth of approximately 315 to 340 m. Troll Olje is part of the Troll gas field, where Norsk Hydro is responsible for developing two areas with thin oil rims. Before spudding the multilateral well described in this paper, 17 wells had been drilled and completed in the Troll Olje oil province. The multilateral-well concept was introduced in the gas province primarily to increase the drainage area for each well. When producing from two separate laterals, a lower drawdown pressure exists throughout the horizontal section. Therefore, gas coning is less likely to occur, and higher production rates can be sustained for a longer period of time. In addition, cost savings are substantial because of reduced well-construction time for each horizontal reservoir-drainage section and because of the reduced number of completion strings, subsea wellheads, and pipelines required for total field development. The full-length paper details design, development, testing, and installation of the first successful multilateral well installed from a floating rig offshore Norway. The paper gives a synopsis.

NONE

1998-07-01

82

Testing the Generalization Efficiency of Oil Slick Classification Algorithm Using Multiple SAR Data for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

Ozkan, C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.; Kalkan, K.; Bal?k Sanl?, F.

2012-07-01

83

Modular designs highlight several new rigs  

SciTech Connect

A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

Rappold, K.

1995-12-04

84

Accidental explosions  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

Medard, L.A.

1989-01-01

85

Cooperative Control of Autonomous Surface Vehicles for Oil Skimming and Cleanup  

E-print Network

. I. INTRODUCTION On April 20, 2010 the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico by the Deep Water Horizon explosion as seen from space by NASA's Terra satellite on May 24, 2010 and (right

Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

86

Modeling nuclear explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

2012-10-01

87

CORE VARIETIES, EXTENSIVITY, AND RIG GEOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the Frobenius operations in analyzing finite spaces, as well as the extended algebraic geometry over rigs, depend partly on varieties (Birkhoan inclusions of algebraic categories) that have coreflections as well as reflections and whose dual category of ane spaces is extensive. Even within the category of those rigs where 1+1 = 1, not only distributive lattices but

F. WILLIAM LAWVERE

2008-01-01

88

RIG-I Works Double Duty.  

PubMed

The pathogen sensor RIG-I recognizes viral RNA and signals to induce an antiviral response. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Weber et al. (2015), along with recent work by Sato et al. (2015), demonstrate that RIG-I directly inhibits viral replication independent of antiviral signaling. PMID:25766287

Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U

2015-03-11

89

Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

Albaugh, E.K.

1985-07-01

90

TRU VU rig instrumentation. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.

Boone, S.G.

1993-02-15

91

Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part IV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical treatment of the vaporization process of medium and heavy oils. The results of this investigation, which were mostly obtained from the lighter components of the heavy fuels, require a 10- or 16-fold vaporization in comparison with gasoline. We must attain a still finer degree of atomization, in order to include the heavier components.

Heinlein, Fritz

1926-01-01

92

Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling  

SciTech Connect

Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology.

Smith, J. (George E. Failing Co., Enid, OK (US)); Edwards, B. (Sierra Drilling Co., Calgary (CA))

1992-03-30

93

Oil Spill Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive flash model from the Living Ocean Society allows users to the explore hypothetical oil spills in the Hecate Straight off the northwest coast of Canada. The several scenarios include oil rig spills, spills from oil tankers, as well as accidents involving other vessels. Users can see how the seasonal winds and tides affect which areas are affected by a particular spill.

Living Oceans Society

94

Assessment of Eagle Ford Shale Oil and Gas Resources  

E-print Network

The Eagle Ford play in south Texas is currently one of the hottest plays in the United States. In 2012, the average Eagle Ford rig count (269 rigs) was 15% of the total US rig count. Assessment of the oil and gas resources and their associated...

Gong, Xinglai

2013-07-30

95

Stress-life relation of the rolling-contact fatigue spin rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rolling-contact fatigue spin rig was used to test groups of SAE 52100 9.16-inch-diameter balls lubricated with a mineral oil at 600,000-, 675,000-, and 750,000-psi maximum Hertz stress. Cylinders of AISI M-1 vacuum and commercial melts and MV-1 (AISI M-50) were used as race specimens. Stress-life exponents produced agree closely with values accepted in industry. The type of failure obtained in the spin rig was similar to the subsurface fatigue spells found in bearings.

Butler, Robert H; Carter, Thomas L

1957-01-01

96

Cranes, hoists, and rigging. A safety training manual  

SciTech Connect

The handling equipment discussed in this manual is the type that lifts, lowers, and locates (positions) heavy material - cranes and hoists. The crane/hoist family of equipment may be as small as a single pulley/rope system handling several pounds, or as large as a marine crane system that recently (1985) hoisted a 5005-metric ton oil drilling rig from a barge and placed it on the seabed of England's North Atlantic offshore oil field. An equivalent ''pick'' would be a 6-ft-high solid pine board, 360 ft long and 160 ft wide (the dimensions of a football field). The capacity of the cranes and hoists at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNLA) fits somewhere within the first 2% of the marine pick or lift described above. SNLA has several mobile cranes and more than 500 other types of cranes and hoists located in more than 100 buildings. The Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL have safety policies and directives that require the operators of heavy equipment to be trained and authorized. The Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety Training Program, sponsored by the SNLA Safety Department, is an effort to fulfill those safety policy requirements. This manual will be used as a safety training aid and will be issued as a reference document for supervisors, operators, inspectors, and service personnel who use cranes or hoists during their regular duties.

Stinnett, L.

1986-07-01

97

Group Based Rigging of Realistically Feathered Wings  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................. 62 V.1 Realism ............................................................................... 62 V.2 Effectiveness for Riggers ................................................... 63 V.2.1 Bug Fixes... ................................................................... 63 V.2.2 Rig Efficiency and Form ........................................... 64 V.3 Effectiveness for Animators ............................................... 65 V.3.1 Form and Motion...

Howard, Heather Vernette

2012-02-14

98

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and...

2010-10-01

99

The Radar Image Generation (RIG) model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RIG is a modeling system which creates synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse SAR images from 3-D faceted data bases. RIG is based on a physical optics model and includes the effects of multiple reflections. Both conducting and dielectric surfaces can be modeled; each surface is labeled with a material code which is an index into a data base of electromagnetic properties. The inputs to the program include the radar processing parameters, the target orientation, the sensor velocity, and (for inverse SAR) the target angle rates. The current version of RIG can be run on any workstation, however, it is not a real-time model. We are considering several approaches to enable the program to generate realtime radar imagery. In addition to its image generation function, RIG can also generate radar cross-section (RCS) plots as well as range and doppler radar return profiles.

Stenger, Anthony J.

1993-01-01

100

Well servicing rig market report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article profiles the well servicing industry, focusing on the problems facing the industry under currently depressed market conditions. The problems of rising operating costs, oil price uncertainty, and aging equipment are addressed specifically.

Killalea

1989-01-01

101

{open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig  

SciTech Connect

New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

Rintoul, B.

1996-01-01

102

Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig (SHJAR), located in the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, was commissioned in 2001 to test jet noise reduction concepts at low technology readiness levels (TRL 1-3) and develop advanced measurement techniques. The first series of tests on the SHJAR were designed to prove its capabilities and establish the quality of the jet noise data produced. Towards this goal, a methodology was employed dividing all noise sources into three categories: background noise, jet noise, and rig noise. Background noise was directly measured. Jet noise and rig noise were separated by using the distance and velocity scaling properties of jet noise. Effectively, any noise source that did not follow these rules of jet noise was labeled as rig noise. This method led to the identification of a high frequency noise source related to the Reynolds number. Experiments using boundary layer treatment and hot wire probes documented this noise source and its removal, allowing clean testing of low Reynolds number jets. Other tests performed characterized the amplitude and frequency of the valve noise, confirmed the location of the acoustic far field, and documented the background noise levels under several conditions. Finally, a full set of baseline data was acquired. This paper contains the methodology and test results used to verify the quality of the SHJAR rig.

Brown, Cliff; Bridges, James

2006-01-01

103

Rig scarcity prompts innovative drilling solution  

SciTech Connect

Unable to locate a shallow-water offshore rig for its program in Indonesia, British Gas International developed an innovative pad/ballasted barge configuration to utilize a land rig, which was available. Many non-typical problems were encountered and solved to establish the drilling location 600 m (2,000 ft) from the shore in Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, eastern Indonesia. The final hybrid configuration has sparked interesting debate as to whether the operation should be designated as onshore or offshore. The paper discusses the project overview, concept development, construction, and operations.

Lattimore, G.M.; Gott, T.; Feagin, J.

1997-11-01

104

Magnetic Suspension for Dynamic Spin Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Rig, located in Building 5, Test Cell CW-18, is used to test turbomachinery blades and components by rotating them in a vacuum chamber. A team from Lewis' Machine Dynamics Branch successfully integrated a magnetic bearing and control system into the Dynamic Spin Rig. The magnetic bearing worked very well both to support and shake the shaft. It was demonstrated that the magnetic bearing can transmit more vibrational energy into the shaft and excite some blade modes to larger amplitudes than the existing electromagnetic shakers can.

Johnson, Dexter

1998-01-01

105

Hoisting and Rigging: Lift Planning and Control for Ordinary Lifts  

E-print Network

the crane to take the slack out of the rigging without actually lifting the item. Allow the rigging gear system by watching that the load does not sink. If load is not balanced, lower the load and adjust

Wechsler, Risa H.

106

Design and development of a high-speed bearing test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a high-speed test rig, to be used for compiling an experimental data base of bearing signatures for bearings with known faults, is described. This bearing test rig can be adapted to test oil-film bearings as well as rolling element bearings. This is achieved by mounting the test bearing in one of two special test housings, either of which can be mounted onto a common test shaft which can be driven up to 30,000 rpm. The test bearing housing for rolling element bearings can accommodate proximity displacement transducers, accelerometers, thermocouples, and acoustic emission sensors. The test bearing housing for the fluid-film bearings can accommodate the same instrumentation as well as Bourdon tube-type transducers for measuring oil film pressures around the bearing circumference.

Cockburn, J. A.

1995-01-01

107

Oil and gas in coastal lands and waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents include: The Coastal Region; Alternatives; Protecting the Sea: OCS Oil; Protecting the Sea: Tankers; Oil Ashore; Locations Onshore: Rigs to Refineries; Platform Construction: Northampton County, Va; Liquefied Natural Gas; and Protecting Communities and the Land.

Gillman

1977-01-01

108

Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using Remote Sensing Victor Klemas, Ph.D. , College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 Abstract Oil spills can harm marine life in the ocean, estuaries and wetlands. To limit the damage by a spill and facilitate cleanup efforts, emergency managers need information on spill location, size and extent, direction and speed of oil movement, wind, current, and wave information for predicting oil drift and dispersion. The main operational data requirements are fast turn-around time and frequent imaging to monitor the dynamics of the spill. Radar and multispectral remote sensors on satellites and aircraft meet most of these requirements by tracking the spilled oil at various resolutions, over wide areas and at frequent intervals. They also provide key inputs to drift prediction models and facilitate targeting of skimming and booming efforts. Satellite data are frequently supplemented by information provided by aircraft, ships and remotely controlled underwater robots. The Sea Princess tanker grounding off the coast of Wales and the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico provide two representative, yet different, scenarios for evaluating the effectiveness of remote sensors during oil spill emergencies. Session NH17: Remote Sensing of Natural Hazards Session Chair: Ramesh P. Singh Sponsor: Natural Hazards (NH)

Klemas, V. V.

2011-12-01

109

ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

Scott Reome; Dan Davies

2004-04-30

110

World's largest-capacity heli-rig debuts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the world's largest-capacity heli-rig debuts. Industry's leading manufacturer of helicopter-transportable rigs has improved on previous models by building a flyable rig with the deepest drilling capability to date. Designed for jungles and mountain tops, it stresses safety and environmental features.

Abraham, K.S.

1991-05-01

111

Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) Startup Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work accomplished to date to design, procure, assemble, authorize, and startup the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the reasons for establishing this capability, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, initial success, and plans for completing the initial 1,000 hour test.

Charles Park

2011-02-01

112

Driver Distraction Test Rig for HMI Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction test rig is an automotive fascia analog for human machine interface studies, produced in conjunction with Swinburne University of Technology, GM Holden Innovation, and AutoCRC. The prototype will be used in the development and validation of test protocols for evaluating the level of driver distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. By means of modular interfacing technologies, spatial reconfiguration

David Shirley; Alex Greenwood; Christian Bottcher; Zhenwei Cao

2009-01-01

113

Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance

2009-01-01

114

Fires and explosions in substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the age of transformers in substations increases, and as transformers are required to carry heavier overloads, the incidence of fires and explosions with oil-filled equipment has increased. Even 10 years ago most large users anticipated only one major fire every 5 years; current experience suggests that many users may suffer from more than one fire every year. Substations are

D. J. Allan

2002-01-01

115

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of experiments explore the effects of increased population growth on a population of Fast Plants. Through these inquiries, students will better understand the many substantial and pertinent issues surrounding human population explosion on Earth.These experiments can be adjusted toward middle, high school or post-secondary levels.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

116

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

117

Explosive cord  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device, jetcord, is metal-clad linear explosive of sufficient flexibility to allow forming into intricate shapes. Total effect is termed ''cutting'' with jetcord consistently ''cutting'' a target of greater thickness than can be penetrated. Applications include sheet metal working, pipe cutting and fire-fighting.

1972-01-01

118

Soda Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity lets participant explore chemical reactions as they create a soda explosion with lots of bubbles. The bubbles in soda are made of carbon dioxide gas. Using lifesaver mint candy, create a fun, foaming mess. Experimenting in an outside space is suggested.

Science Center of Connecticut

1999-01-01

119

Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

2007-11-01

120

Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

2012-01-01

121

Undersea plumes of oil and dissolved gas and sedimented oil along the seafloor alter the ocean system following the BP oil well blowout. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosion and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig resulted in a deepwater blowout that injected vast quantities of crude oil and low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases into Gulf of Mexico for almost three months. The depth of the blowout (1500m), the rate of oil and gas injection, and the duration of the event underscore the unprecedented nature of this environmental disaster. While most of the released crude oil reached the ocean surface, generating massive surface slicks, some of the oil was trapped in extensive undersea plumes. These oil plumes occupied discrete layers of varying thickness between 1000 and 1300m water depth to the southwest of the wellhead. Unlike the crude oil, the vast majority of methane released from the wellhead appears to have dissolved into the deep cold seawater: concentrations of thermogenic gases (methane, ethane, propane, butane and pentane) were 10,000 to 1,000,000 times higher than previous concentrations measured at similar depths in the Gulf of Mexico. Very little gas appears to have fluxed to the atmosphere; most of the released gas was trapped in the undersea plumes. The injection of hydrocarbons into undersea plumes generated a swift phylogenetic and metabolic response in the microbial community -- hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms flourished and rates of methane oxidation and oxygen consumption were elevated by several orders of magnitude relative to background rates. Oil on the surface ocean was weathered and dispersed, resulting in an “oil aggregate snow storm” on the seafloor. Oil deposition to the seafloor generated substantial changes in microbial community and patterns of microbial activity.

Joye, S. B.; Diercks, A. R.; Teske, A.; Valentine, D. L.

2010-12-01

122

Human rigHts advocacy in action  

E-print Network

18 Brave new world 22 thought that counts 27 In pictures snapshots 5 taken 29 Regulars BristolHuman rigHts advocacy in action Lives weLL Lived: a new age of animaL weLfare aLzHeimer's: no smoke in pieces 2 & 17 alumni in the news 3 Bristol and beyond 10 Summer2012 Contents 29 2 new solutions to old

Bristol, University of

123

A New Foil Air Bearing Test Rig for Use to 700 C and 70,000 rpm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for evaluating foil air bearings at high temperatures and speeds. These bearings are self acting hydrodynamic air bearings which have been successfully applied to a variety of turbomachinery operating up to 650 C. This unique test rig is capable of measuring bearing torque during start-up, shut-down and high speed operation. Load capacity and general performance characteristics, such as durability, can be measured at temperatures to 700 C and speeds to 70,000 rpm. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the preliminary characterization of several bearings. The bearing performance data from this facility can be used to develop advanced turbomachinery incorporating high temperature oil-free air bearing technology.

DellaCorte, Chris

1997-01-01

124

Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions\\/gels.

J. W. Kury; B. L. Anderson

1999-01-01

125

Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems  

DOEpatents

Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

1999-09-28

126

Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

Ege, J.R.

1967-01-01

127

Development of a test rig for a helium twin-screw compressor  

SciTech Connect

A large helium cryogenic system is being developed for use in great science projects, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Large Helical Device (LHD), and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In this cryogenic system, a twin-screw compressor is a key component. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the compressor performance. To obtain the performance characteristics, a test rig for the compressor has been built. All the important performance parameters, including adiabatic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, oil injection characteristic, and noise characteristic can be acquired with the rig when sensors are installed in the test system. With the test performance, the helium twin-screw compressor can be evaluated. Using these results, the design of the compressor can be improved.

Wang, B. M.; Hu, Z. J. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, P. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellant(Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-01-29

128

Development of a test rig for a helium twin-screw compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large helium cryogenic system is being developed for use in great science projects, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Large Helical Device (LHD), and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In this cryogenic system, a twin-screw compressor is a key component. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the compressor performance. To obtain the performance characteristics, a test rig for the compressor has been built. All the important performance parameters, including adiabatic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, oil injection characteristic, and noise characteristic can be acquired with the rig when sensors are installed in the test system. With the test performance, the helium twin-screw compressor can be evaluated. Using these results, the design of the compressor can be improved.

Wang, B. M.; Hu, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Li, Q.

2014-01-01

129

National energy demands keep world rigs active  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article predicts that worldwide exploration for oil will continue because oil will fill a third of energy demand by the year 2000; developing countries cannot afford oil imports; and OPEC will remain a force to be reckoned with. Points out that oil is becoming easier to find with development of advanced seismic techniques, space-age imaging of potentially productive sites

McNally

1982-01-01

130

Drill Rig Safety Topics of the Presentation  

E-print Network

;Automated Loading Arms w/ Radio Remote Controls #12;Automatic Pipe Handling System w/ Tilt Out Top Head #12 · Check oil level daily -engine oil & coolant -compressor air/oil tank -hydraulic tank -pump oil (water drives, including fan balance · Inspect all Feed System Components- chains, sprockets, cables, sheaves

131

Temperature-dependent contamination distribution between oil, paper and pressboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully enclosed oil circulation rig has been made for studying the temperature-dependent equilibrium distribution of contaminants between oil-impregnated cellulose materials and oil. This is relevant for the distribution of contaminants in the solid insulation in power transformers. Used with clean, new material the rig gave humidity equilibrium results reasonably close to results found in literature. With service-aged pressboard the

D. Linhjell; L. E. Lundgaard; C. M. Selsbak

2011-01-01

132

Explosion modelling for complex geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature review suggested that the combined effects of fuel reactivity, obstacle density, ignition strength, and confinement result in flame acceleration and subsequent pressure build-up during a vapour cloud explosion (VCE). Models for the prediction of propagating flames in hazardous areas, such as coal mines, oil platforms, storage and process chemical areas etc. fall into two classes. One class involves use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This approach has been utilised by several researchers. The other approach relies upon a lumped parameter approach as developed by Baker (1983). The former approach is restricted by the appropriateness of sub-models and numerical stability requirements inherent in the computational solution. The latter approach raises significant questions regarding the validity of the simplification involved in representing the complexities of a propagating explosion. This study was conducted to investigate and improve the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code EXPLODE which has been developed by Green et al., (1993) for use on practical gas explosion hazard assessments. The code employs a numerical method for solving partial differential equations by using finite volume techniques. Verification exercises, involving comparison with analytical solutions for the classical shock-tube and with experimental (small-scale, medium and large-scale) results, demonstrate the accuracy of the code and the new combustion models but also identify differences between predictions and the experimental results. The project has resulted in a developed version of the code (EXPLODE2) with new combustion models for simulating gas explosions. Additional features of this program include the physical models necessary to simulate the combustion process using alternative combustion models, improvement to the numerical accuracy and robustness of the code, and special input for simulation of different gas explosions. The present code has the capability of predicting venting failures by different combustion models, something that was not shown clearly in the open literature by the previous numerical studies in gas explosions. The work accomplished in this research was undertaken put of the need for an objective method to predict explosion parameters for vapour cloud explosions in confined and semi-confined areas. The thesis describes basic features of a numerical explosion model that has been developed for predicting explosion pressure and flame propagation in confined and semi confined regions. The validation of the code and combustion models against analytical and several experimental data supports the code and its combustion models as a good tool for prediction of VCEs. This thesis starts with a basic description of explosion, assessment methods, theory, turbulent combustion, different combustion models and concludes with a discussion of the results and areas of uncertainty.

Nehzat, Naser

133

A method for improving test rig performance using passive components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time waveform replication (TWR) algorithm is presently used in industry for calculating the actuation force needed to replicate a certain reference sensor output in a test rig. Power and force rate limitations restrict the feasible range of that actuation force. If the input force distribution of the reference test cannot be replicated in the test rig, the required test rig input force magnitudes may be large or the replication properties poor due to lack of controllability. To circumvent this, a theory of passive components to improve replication and limit the input force demands of dynamic test rigs is developed. The theory fits within the framework of the TWR algorithm.

Johansson, Anders T.; Abrahamsson, Thomas J. S.

2015-02-01

134

Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology  

SciTech Connect

The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of time is divided among the remaining four functions of rig up/rig down, logging, lay down bottomhole assembly, and pick up bottomhole assembly. Observations made during all phases of CT rig operation at each of the project well installations have verified a number of characteristics of the technology that represent advantages that can produce significant savings of 25-35 percent per well. Attributes of the CT rig performance include: (1) Excellent hole quality with hole deviation amounting to 1-2 degrees; (2) Reduced need for auxiliary equipment; (3) Efficient rig mobilization requiring only four trailers; (4) Capability of ''Zero Discharge'' operation; (5) Improved safety; and, (6) Measurement while drilling capability. In addition, commercial cost data indicates that the CT rig reduces drilling costs by 25 to 35% compared to conventional drilling technology. Widespread commercial use of the Microhole Coiled Tubing technology in the United States for onshore Lower-48 drilling has the potential of achieving substantially positive impacts in terms of savings to the industry and resource expansion. Successfully commercialized Microhole CT Rig Technology is projected to achieve cumulative savings in Lower-48 onshore drilling expenditures of approximately 6.8 billion dollars by 2025. The reduced cost of CT microhole drilling is projected to enable the development of gas resources that would not have been economic with conventional methods. Because of the reduced cost of drilling achieved with CT rig technology, it is estimated that an additional 22 Tcf of gas resource will become economic to develop. In the future, the Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig represents an important platform for the continued improvement of drilling that draws on a new generation of various technologies to achieve goals of improved drilling cost and reduced impact to the environment.

Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes

2006-05-09

135

Characteristics of Black Carbon Aerosol from a Surface Oil Burn During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass mixing ratio and microphysical properties were measured from the NOAA P-3 aircraft during active surface oil burning subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in April 2010. Approximately 4% of the combusted material was released into the atmosphere as BC. The total amount of BC introduced to the atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico via surface burning of oil during the 9-week spill is estimated to be (1.35 ± 0.72) x106 kg. The median mass diameter of BC particles observed in the burning plume was much larger than that of the non-plume Gulf background air. The plume BC particles were internally mixed with very little non-refractory material, a feature typical of fresh emissions from fairly efficient fossil-fuel burning sources and atypical of BC in biomass burning plumes. BC dominated the total accumulation-mode aerosol in both mass and number. The BC mass-specific extinction cross-section is determined at 405 and 532 nm.

Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Bahreini, R.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lack, D. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Peischl, J.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.

2011-12-01

136

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

2006-10-01

137

Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update) - Duration: 2:37.  

NASA Video Gallery

On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

138

NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

2010-01-01

139

Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces  

E-print Network

This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

Sun, Wei-Yang

2011-01-01

140

75 FR 71455 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rigging...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment Request; Rigging Equipment for Material Handling...titled, ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling...to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...OSHA), Office of Management and Budget, Room 10235...provisions of the rigging equipment for material...

2010-11-23

141

Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment  

SciTech Connect

Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kiesler, J.E. [Kiesler (James E.), Morgan City, LA (United States); Mackey, V. III [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-05-06

142

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shift in accordance with § 1926.251. (3) The headache ball, hook or load shall not be used to transport personnel except...ii) Rigged from top down; and (iii) Rigged at least 7 feet (2.1 m) apart. (5) The members on the multiple...

2012-07-01

143

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shift in accordance with § 1926.251. (3) The headache ball, hook or load shall not be used to transport personnel except...ii) Rigged from top down; and (iii) Rigged at least 7 feet (2.1 m) apart. (5) The members on the multiple...

2013-07-01

144

The Application of Roller Rigs to Railway Vehicle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Roller rigs have been built world-wide to research into the dynamics of railway vehicles and they have particularly been applied to the development of high-speed trains. This survey takes into consideration both full scale as well as small scale model roller rigs. Besides performance, most important experimental work and the emphasis of application, the scaling strategies of model test

Alfred Jaschinski; Hugues Chollet; Simon Iwnicki; Alan Wickens; JURGEN VON WURZEN

1999-01-01

145

Exploration, Degassing, and Service Hole Drill RIG SBR400  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors validate the demand of a drill rig for deep exploration, degassing and other kind hole drilling in coal and hard\\u000a rocks, and present a new-developed drill rig, its design and operation principles, as well as describe its in situ testing\\u000a results.

V. I. Klishin; D. I. Kokoulin; B. Kubanychbek; A. P. Gurtenko

2010-01-01

146

Rig automation: where it's been and where it's going  

SciTech Connect

For over 30 years dreamers, tinkerers and engineers have attempted to automate various drilling functions. Now this effort is paying off, and a partially automated rig is no longer a curiosity. Fully automated and computerized rigs are on the way. For the contractor this means higher productivity, but more maintenance and training responsibilities.

Rinaldi, R.

1982-06-01

147

Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

Dan Davies

2004-10-30

148

46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a). FIGURE 162.050-17(a)—SEPARATOR TEST RIG ER16JA09.005 (b) Each mixture pump on a test rig must— (1) Be a centrifugal pump capable of operating at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more; (2) Have a delivery...

2010-10-01

149

46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a). FIGURE 162.050-17(a)—SEPARATOR TEST RIG ER16JA09.005 (b) Each mixture pump on a test rig must— (1) Be a centrifugal pump capable of operating at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more; (2) Have a delivery...

2011-10-01

150

TECHNICAL PAPER Design and fabrication of microchannel test rig  

E-print Network

of the analytical study, describes the details of fabrication of micro shock tube test rig and the design generators, heat exchangers, internal combustion engines and rocket engines have been on the focus listTECHNICAL PAPER Design and fabrication of microchannel test rig for ultra-micro wave rotors Florin

Müller, Norbert

151

Chromospheric explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

1986-01-01

152

Supernova Explosions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are reminded that the Universe is made up of elements and that the heavier elements are created inside of a star, as they learned in the "Elements and You" activity. They are introduced to the life cycle of a star and to the way in which a star's mass affects its process of fusion and eventual death. Students discuss the physical concept of equilibrium as a balancing of forces and observe an experiment to demonstrate what happens to a soda can when the interior and exterior forces are not in equilibrium. An analogy is made between this experiment and core collapse in stars, to show the importance of maintaining equilibrium in stars. Finally, students participate in an activity which demonstrates how mass is ejected from a collapsed star in a supernova explosion, thereby dispersing heavier elements throughout the Universe. This activity is part of a series that has been designed specifically for use with Girl Scouts, but the activities can be used in other settings. Most of the materials are inexpensive or easily found. It is recommended that a leader with astronomy knowledge lead the activities, or at least be available to answer questions, whenever possible.

153

Fracture mechanics investigation of oil shale to aid in understanding the explosive fragmentation process. Final technical report, January 1983-July 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes goals and findings achieved in developing technologies to improve the overall efficiency of oil shale recovery processes. The objectives are to (a) develop theoretical fracture mechanics tools that are applicable to transversely isotropic materials such as sedimentary rock, more particularly oil shale; and (b) develop a fracture mechanics test procedure that can be conveniently used for rock specimens. Such a test procedure would: utilize the geometry of a typical rock core for the test; require a minimum amount of specimen machining; and provide meaningful, reproducible data that corresponds well to test data obtained from conventional fracture mechanics tests. Critical review of the state-of-the-art of fracture mechanics on layered rocks has been completed. Recommendations are made for innovative and promising methods for oil shale fracture mechanics. Numerical and analytical studies of mixed mode fracture mechanics are investigated. Transversely isotropic properties of oil shale are input using isoparametric finite elements with singular elements at the crack tip. The model is a plate with an edge crack whose angle with the edge varies to study the effect of mixed mode fracture under various conditions. The three-dimensional plate is in tension, and stress, energy methods are used in the fracture analysis. Precracked disks of oil shale cored perpendicular to bedding planes are analyzed numerically. Stress intensity factors are determined by (i) strain energy method, and (ii) elliptic simulation method. 47 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Chong, K.P.

1984-09-01

154

Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig  

SciTech Connect

Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

Dan Davis

2006-09-30

155

Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

Asdonk, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.asdonk@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Motz, Inga; Werner, Nikos [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

2012-03-30

156

Numerical Simulation of the RTA Combustion Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator (RTA)/Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) project is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space. NASA Glenn Research Center and GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) planned to develop a ground demonstrator engine for validation testing. The demonstrator (RTA-1) is a variable cycle, turbofan ramjet designed to transition from an augmented turbofan to a ramjet that produces the thrust required to accelerate the vehicle from Sea Level Static (SLS) to Mach 4. The RTA-1 is designed to accommodate a large variation in bypass ratios from sea level static to Mach 4 conditions. Key components of this engine are new, such as a nickel alloy fan, advanced trapped vortex combustor, a Variable Area Bypass Injector (VABI), radial flameholders, and multiple fueling zones. A means to mitigate risks to the RTA development program was the use of extensive component rig tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Buehrle, Robert; Liu, Nan-Suey; Winslow, Ralph

2005-01-01

157

Saving diesel fuel in the oil field  

SciTech Connect

Describes how diesel electric SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) drilling rigs are helping drillers save fuel expense in the oil fields, along with other energy conservation methods. Compares SCR to conventional drilling rigs. Points out that on conventional rigs, diesel engines drive rig components directly, while on the SCR electric rigs, diesel engines turn a.c. electric generators which supply energy to d.c. electric motors for rig component power. Components of the SCR rigs include drawworks, mud pumps, rotary table, compressors, shakers, blenders and the camp load. Recommends economic principles such as supplying generators large enough to handle the low p.f. (power factor) as well as peak power requirements; and keeping the work load on diesel engines as high as possible for fuel economy. Presents tables of fuel consumed per 100 kW at various load factors; effect of power factor on engine hp required; electric drilling rig power modules; and engine and generator selection guide. Emphasizes consideration of the competitive difference in diesel engine economy.

Elder, B.

1982-11-01

158

Bioremediation of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

1995-09-01

159

Explosion hazards in crude, distillate storage tanks assessed  

SciTech Connect

Explosion and fire hazards in crude oil and light distillate storage tanks have been assessed by actual field temperature measurements at the Zarka refinery in Jordan. Results of the assessment are presented.

Tamimi, A. (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (JO))

1990-11-19

160

Oil and Water Science, Literature and Disaster  

E-print Network

include the pre-Katrina science fiction/fantasy novel Queen City Jazz, Spike Lee's documentary WhenOil and Water Science, Literature and Disaster AMST 301/ENG 341 Professor Kristina Bross at the Deepwater Hori- zon oil rig. Students will explore the impact of these events on American science, ecology

161

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

162

Using rigging and transfer to animate 3D characters  

E-print Network

Transferring a mesh or skeletal animation onto a new mesh currently requires significant manual effort. For skeletal animations, this involves rigging the character, by specifying how the skeleton is positioned relative ...

Baran, Ilya, 1981-

2010-01-01

163

Offshore operations report. Britoil's Beatrice gets unique workover rig  

SciTech Connect

On the expectation of continuous down-hole production problems in its Beatrice field in the UK sector of the North Sea, Britoil selected a unique workover rig, with some drilling capability, for permanent installation on its B platform. Experience on Beatrice A platform provided inputs for the rig's design, which was accomplished by a multi-disciplined group of engineers and draftsmen, including an experienced toolpusher. The rig features a kelly racking system, in the absence of space for a rathole, and a spooler unit to handle down-hole pump electric cables, small-bore chemical injection lines, and down-hole instrument cables. The rig is fully instrumented to insure safe, pollution-free operation.

Salter, M.J.; Hogan, K.G.

1983-11-15

164

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISEDNOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISED-NOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING TO GUIDE SAILS DOWN TO BOOM AND CLUB (REQUIRES LESS CREW) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

165

Marshall Space Flight Center High Speed Turbopump Bearing Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center has a unique test rig that is used to test and develop rolling element bearings used in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. The tester is unique in that it uses liquid hydrogen as the coolant for the bearings. This test rig can simulate speeds and loads experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. With internal modifications, the tester can be used for evaluating fluid film, hydrostatic, and foil bearing designs. At the present time, the test rig is configured to run two ball bearings or a ball and roller bearing, both with a hydrostatic bearing. The rig is being used to evaluate the lifetimes of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride rolling elements and steel races.

Gibson, Howard; Moore, Chip; Thom, Robert

2000-01-01

166

Regenerative Fuel Cell Test Rig at Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regenerative fuel cell development effort at Glenn Research Center (GRC) involves the integration of a dedicated fuel cell and electrolyzer into an energy storage system test rig. The test rig consists of a fuel cell stack, an electrolysis stack, cooling pumps, a water transfer pump, gas recirculation pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), heat exchangers, isolation valves, pressure regulators, interconnecting tubing, nitrogen purge provisions, and instrumentation for control and monitoring purposes. The regenerative fuel cell (RFC) thus formed is a completely closed system which is capable of autonomous cyclic operation. The test rig provides direct current (DC) load and DC power supply to simulate power consumption and solar power input. In addition, chillers are used as the heat sink to dissipate the waste heat from the electrochemical stack operation. Various vents and nitrogen (N2) sources are included in case inert purging is necessary to safe the RFC test rig.

Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Bents, David J.

2003-01-01

167

Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig is an apparatus for vibration testing of turbomachine blades in a vacuum at rotational speeds from 0 to 40,000 rpm. This rig includes (1) a vertically oriented shaft on which is mounted an assembly comprising a rotor holding the blades to be tested, (2) two actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearings at opposite ends of the shaft, and (3) an actively controlled magnetic thrust bearing at the upper end of the shaft. This rig is a more capable successor to a prior apparatus, denoted the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR), that included a vertically oriented shaft with a mechanical thrust bearing at the upper end and a single actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearing at the lower end.

Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew; Kurkov, Anatole; Mehmed, Oral; Johnson, Dexter; Montague, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Jansen, Ralph

2005-01-01

168

Multi-Axis Gimble Rig in AWT with Pilot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-Axis Space Test Inertia Facility (MASTIF) also known as the Gimbal Rig in Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) with pilot during Project Mercury. The Gimbal Rig was used to train astronauts how to pull the space capsule out of a potentially dangerous spin and regain control of the spacecraft. And boy, doesn't it look like fun?! The training and tests were run at the Altitude Wind Tunnel at Lewis Research Center, now John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

1959-01-01

169

Rig Rover System views wellhead from every angle  

SciTech Connect

The Rig Rover System (RRS), a new type of submersible remotely operated vehicle (ROV), has been introduced by Deep Ocean Technology, Oakland, California. It is described as a sophisticated wellhead TV with remote controlled arms, or a remotely controlled vehicle that is deployed like a wellhead TV. The RRS is available in 2 models. Rig Rover was designed specifically to support offshore exploration drilling to 2000 ft. of water.

Not Available

1983-09-01

170

ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program initiated this quarter, provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principle activity during this first reporting period were preparing for and conducting a project kick-off meeting, working through plans for the project implementation, and beginning the conceptual design of the test section.

Scott Reome; Dan Davies

2004-01-01

171

Totally confined explosive welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

Bement, L. J. (inventor)

1978-01-01

172

Description of an oscillating flow pressure drop test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test rig designed to generate heat exchanger pressure drop information under oscillating flow conditions is described. This oscillating flow rig is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. A frequency capability of 120 hertz and a mean test pressure up to 15 mPA (2200 psi) allows for testing at flow conditions found in modern high specific power Stirling engines. An important design feature of this rig is that it utilizes a single close coupled dynamic pressure transducer to measure the pressure drop across the test sample. This eliminates instrumentation difficulties associated with the pressure sensing lines common to differential pressure transducers. Another feature of the rig is that it utilizes a single displacement piston. This allows for testing of different sample lengths and configurations without hardware modifications. All data acquisition and reduction for the rig is performed with a dedicated personal computer. Thus the overall system design efficiently integrates the testing and data reduction procedures. The design methodology and details of the test rig is described.

Wood, J. Gary; Miller, Eric L.; Gedeon, David R.; Koester, Gary E.

1988-01-01

173

Description of an oscillating flow pressure drop test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test rig designed to generate heat exchanger pressure drop information under oscillating flow conditions is described. This oscillating flow rig is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. A frequency capability of 120 hertz and a mean test pressure up to 15 mPA (2200 psi) allows for testing at flow conditions found in modern high specific power Stirling engines. An important design feature of this rig is that it utilizes a single close coupled dynamic pressure transducer to measure the pressure drop across the test sample. This eliminates instrumentation difficulties associated with the pressure sensing lines common to differential pressure transducers. Another feature of the rig is that it utilizes a single displacement piston. This allows for testing of different sample lengths and configurations without hardware modifications. All data acquisition and reduction for the rig is performed with a dedicated personal computer. Thus the overall system design efficiently integrates the testing and data reduction procedures. The design methodology and details of the test rig are described.

Wood, J. Gary; Miller, Eric L.; Gedeon, David R.; Koester, Gary E.

1988-01-01

174

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

175

Inspection tester for explosives  

SciTech Connect

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

176

Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins  

E-print Network

Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

Ravenel, Douglas

177

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24

178

Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner  

SciTech Connect

Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

1995-07-01

179

Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand  

PubMed Central

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

180

Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.  

PubMed

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

181

Interfacial tension dynamics, interfacial mechanics, and response to rapid dilution of bulk surfactant of a model oil-water-dispersant system.  

PubMed

In the 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig explosion and subsequent oil spill, five million barrels of oil were released into the Gulf over the course of several months. Part of the resulting emergency response was the unprecedented use of nearly two million gallons of surfactant dispersant at both the sea surface and well head, giving rise to previously untested conditions of high temperature gradients, high pressures, and flow conditions. To better understand the complex interfacial transport mechanisms that this dispersant poses, we develop a model surfactant-oil-aqueous system of Tween 80 (a primary component in the Corexit dispersant used in the Gulf), squalane, and both simulated seawater as well as deionized water. We measure surfactant adsorption dynamics to the oil-aqueous interface for a range of surfactant concentrations. Using techniques developed in our laboratory, we investigate the impact of convection, step changes in bulk concentration, and interfacial mechanics. We observe dynamic interfacial behavior that is consistent with a reorganization of surfactant at the interface. We demonstrate irreversible adsorption behavior of Tween 80 near a critical interfacial tension value, as well as measure the dilatational elasticity of equilibrium and irreversibly adsorbed layers of surfactant on the oil-aqueous interface. We report high values of the surface dilatational elasticity and surface dilatational viscosity, and discuss these results in terms of their impact regarding oil spill response measures. PMID:23311916

Reichert, Matthew D; Walker, Lynn M

2013-02-12

182

Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

2009-01-01

183

RIG-I suppresses the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by regulating MMP9.  

PubMed

The retinoic acid-induced protein I (Rig-I/Ddx58), (RIG-I) initiates a signaling cascade that induces innate immune defences which is associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. Aberrant RIG-I signaling leads to inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. However, the role of RIG-I in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. Here, we observed that RIG-I expression was downregulated in HCC tissues and loss of RIG-I expression was correlated with poor clinicopathological features. Additionally, we demonstrated that patients with positive RIG-I expression had a better 3-year survival and RIG-I was an independent factor for predicting the prognosis of HCC patients. Elevated RIG-I expression inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC. Inhibiting RIG-I with its specific siRNA was able to attenuate the malignant behavior of HCC cells. Moreover, RIG-I inhibited the invasive behavior through downregulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Mechanistically, RIG-I enhances IFN-? response by amplifying IFN-? effecter signaling via strengthening STAT1 activation. Addressing this pathway, we identified that RIG-I may serve as a prognostic marker and that MMP9 may be a potential target of RIG-I in HCC. PMID:25626059

Liu, Zhikui; Dou, Changwei; Jia, Yuli; Li, Qing; Zheng, Xin; Yao, Yingmin; Liu, Qingguang; Song, Tao

2015-04-01

184

Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought  

SciTech Connect

A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

Kelly, P. [Rowan Companies Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-10

185

Conoco installs eight-pile rig on four-pile platform  

SciTech Connect

Rig 122 recently became the largest standard self-contained drilling rig ever to be mounted on a four-pile, tender-style platform. The conversion sacrificed none of the rig's deep drilling capability, and enabled Conoco to utilize a self-contained platform drilling rig on a satellite platform in the same field. Two cantilever beams, extending some 42 ft beyond platform columns on two sides, support rig weight. Modifications to the rig include separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe-rack extension and a novel skidding system.

Albaugh, E.K.

1983-11-01

186

Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

Kushida, R. O.

1982-01-01

187

The rigged hilbert spaces approach in singular perturbation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a new approach in singular perturbation theory which is based on the method of rigged Hilbert spaces. Let A be a self-adjoint unbounded operator in a state space ? and ? be the rigged Hilbert space associated with A in the sense that domA=? in the graph-norm. We propose to define the perturbed operator Atilde as the self-adjoint operator uniquely associated with a new rigged Hilbert space ? constructed using a given perturbation of A. We show that the well-known form-sum and self-adjoint extensions methods are included in the above construction. Moreover, we show that the super singular perturbations may also be described in our framework.

Albeverio, S.; Bozhok, R.; Koshmanenko, V.

2006-10-01

188

SGD-1 rig for testing monitor drill bits  

SciTech Connect

Operating experience with monitor drill bits shows that one of the factors leading to premature failure is erosion at the points where there are defects in the welded joints and in the seals of the monitor heads. This erosion reduces the monitor effect and accelerates wear of the facing on the roller bits. In order to improve the quality of drill bits, the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering (VNIIneftemash) has developed the SGD-1 rig. This is used for testing the leakproofness of the welded joints and seals in the monitor heads, as well as reliability of fixing the heads when there is a liquid pressure differential up to 12 MPa. The SGD-1 rig has been made at the prototype machine plant of VNIIneftemash and is intended for use at the Kuibyshevburmash plant. The savings expected through introduction of the rig amount to 200,000 rubles.

Muratov, V.M.

1988-01-01

189

Free radical explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

Walker, Franklin E. (15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1979-01-01

190

Explosives tester with heater  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10

191

78 FR 70326 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OSHA-2010-0038] Rigging Equipment for Material Handling; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...the Standard on Rigging Equipment for Material Handling...or markings on rigging equipment, developing and...

2013-11-25

192

Los Alamos explosives performance data  

SciTech Connect

This book provides explosives performances, as measured by plate acceleration data, aquarium data, and detonation velocity data. It includes some 800 pages of data and is for explosives scientists more than engineers. (This is a companion volume to the 1980 ''LASL Explosive Property Data'' which covered only pure explosives and well-characterized explosive formulations).

Mader, C.L.; Crane, S.L.; Johnson, J.N.

1983-01-01

193

Explosively pumped laser light  

DOEpatents

A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

194

The Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Bristol page discusses in detail the Cambrian Explosion event that occurred about 545 million years ago. This site covers what the 'explosion' was and when it happened, the Cambrian environment, what caused this event to occur, fossil groups and their significance, and controversies surrounding this theory as well as recent discoveries.

195

Inside an Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From afar, an explosion may seem like one of the most incredible examples of chaotic interaction. But once you look closer, as in this video from QUEST, you will find that large-scale explosions require very precise interactions to occur in just the right sequence.

KQED

2009-10-30

196

An explosion in Tunguska  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on

Ioan Nistor

2008-01-01

197

Query Nuclear Explosions Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NUCEXP, National Geoscience Database, provided by the Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO), contains entries on nuclear explosions around the world since 1945, with the location, time and size of explosions. To view the records, users must select site and country conducting the test and beginning/end dates.

2002-01-01

198

Whirl Motion of a Seal Test Rig with Squeeze-Film Dampers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the experimental behavior and dynamic analysis of a high speed test rig with rolling element bearings mounted in squeeze film oil damper bearings. The test rotor is a double overhung configuration with rolling element ball bearings mounted in uncentered squeeze-film oil dampers. The damper design is similar to that employed with various high-speed aircraft HP gas turbines. The dynamic performance of the test rig with the originally installed dampers with an effective damper length of length 0.23-inch was unacceptable. The design speed of 40,000 RPM could not be safely achieved as nonsynchronous whirling at the overhung seal test disk and high amplitude critical speed response at the drive spline section occurred at 32,000 RPM. In addition to the self excited stability and critical speed problems, it was later seen from FFT data analysis, that a region of supersynchronous dead band whirling occurs between 10,000 to 15,000 RPM which can lead to bearing distress and wear. The system was analyzed using both linear and nonlinear techniques. The extended length damper design resulting from the analysis eliminated the rotor subsynchronous whirling, high amplitude critical speed, and the dead band whirling region allowing the system to achieve a speed of 45,000 RPM. However, nonlinear analysis shows that damper lockup could occur with high rotor unbalance at 33,000 RPM, even with the extended squeeze-film dampers. The control of damper lockup will be addressed in a future paper.

Proctor, Margaret P.; Gunter, Edgar J.

2007-01-01

199

78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...metals. Aluminum containing polymeric propellant. Aluminum ophorite explosive. Amatex...excluding ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP)). Ammonium picrate [picrate...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...

2013-10-28

200

The Threats from Oil Spills: Now, Then, and in the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing oil spill from the blown-out well by the name of Macondo, drilled by the ill-fated rig Deepwater Horizon, has\\u000a many features in common with another blowout in the Mexican Gulf that happened three decades ago. Then the oil gushed out\\u000a from the Ixtoc I well drilled by the Sedco 135-F semi-submersible rig. In the years between these catastrophes,

Arne Jernelöv

2010-01-01

201

Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations  

E-print Network

Following the recent Imperial sugar dust explosion in 2008, a comprehensive survey of past dust explosions was conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to determine potential explosible dusts. After the survey, OSHA...

Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

2014-01-06

202

Open Rigging Through XML: Character Setup Utilizing Metadata and Node Based Editing  

E-print Network

rigs. For example, the centaurs in “The Chronicles of Narnia” were a combination of the upper torso of a human rig and a horse rig excluding its head. In order to share joint positions and deformations across characters with similar body forms, a...

Kelly, Logan Scott

2014-02-19

203

Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses

J. Smith; B. Edwards

1992-01-01

204

HIL simulation of WSP systems on MI6 test rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a multi-purpose platform for Hardware In the Loop (HIL) testing of safety relevant railway subsystems, such as odometry boards or wheel slide protection systems, is shown. The rig, called MI-6, is a product of the cooperation of Trenitalia with researchers of Dip. Energetica Sergio Stecco (University of Florence). In this work, special attention has been paid to

L. Pugi; M. Malvezzi; A. Tarasconi; A. Palazzolo; G. Cocci; M. Violani

2006-01-01

205

A TEST RIG FOR AIR BEARINGS ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS MEASUREMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and manufacturing of an experimental facility for measurement of equivalent stiffness and damping of air bearings. For these preliminary tests, the shaft moves only in two perpendicular directions, laying in the rotation plane, thus producing 2x2 characteristic matrices. However, the rig can be easily modified to measure rotordynamic characteristics related to angular motion of the

Bellabarba Ernesto; Sergio Díaz; Victor Rastelli

206

Mixed Stream Test Rig Winter FY-2011 Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the data and analysis of the initial testing campaign of the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the test specimen selection, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, and data and analysis of specimens exposed in two environments designed to represent those expected for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE).

Chalres Park; Tedd Lister; Kevin DeWall

2011-04-01

207

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

208

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

209

Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

Maienschein, J. L.

2014-05-01

210

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOEpatents

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01

211

Toxiological Considerations in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill  

EPA Science Inventory

The Deep Water Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20, 2010, resulting in an ongoing release of light sweet petroleum crude oil and methane into Gulf of Mexico waters. The release from the deepwater wellhead 41 miles from Louisiana is at approximately 1 mile depth, and flow rates e...

212

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES  

E-print Network

Horizon drilling rig 100s of millions of gallons Exxon Valdez tanker 10.9 million gallons Argo MerchantAssess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES Early Restoration, Phase III A guide DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT TRUSTEES OCTOBER 2014 2 On April 20, 2011

213

Optically measured explosive impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

2014-06-01

214

GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

2013-12-01

215

Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole  

DOEpatents

There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01

216

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

217

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

218

Simulation of high explosive explosion using adaptive material point method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of high explosive explosion problems is a big challenge to traditional numerical methods because explosion usually involves ex- tremely large deformation and multi-material interaction of different phases. Re- centlydevelopedmeshfreemethodsshowmuchadvantagesovermesh-basedmethod for problems associated with very large deformation. Some of them have been successfully applied to impact and explosion problems, such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Similar to SPH, material

Shang Ma; Xiong Zhang; Yanping Lian; Xu Zhou

2009-01-01

219

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

220

Petro Jet Three™ System for Heavy Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Petro Jet Three System, an integrated heavy oil production system incorporating vertical drilling, horizontal drilling and multiple lateral placement. The drilling is accomplished by fluid jet drilling. The total package of drilling is accomplished with the same rig crew and downhole equipment. The drilling process is continuous, without stopping, from the start of vertical drilling through

Wade Dickinson; Wayne Dickinson

1998-01-01

221

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

SciTech Connect

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2011-01-01

222

75 FR 5545 - Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...governing occupational exposure to respirable silica. Inhalation of this substance, which is extremely widespread, causes lung disease, silicosis and lung cancer. Terminating the explosives rulemaking will free resources for these and other...

2010-02-03

223

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

ScienceCinema

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2013-05-28

224

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

225

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

2004-10-01

226

Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R

2012-01-19

227

Explosive Welding and Cladding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive welding or cladding is usually performed on relative thick plates by means of a large scale parallel plate set-up. At TNO-PML several of the explosive welding configurations that were developed mainly in the nineteen sixties and seventies are being investigated for their potential use in modern industrial applications. Configurations for explosive cladding of curved surfaces such as tubes and rods are also being examined. This can be used to make special bimetallic heat exchanger tubes, or for the protection of electrodes that are used in electrolysis. Explosive line and seam welding are important bonding techniques that allow the welding of both similar and dissimilar metal plates and sheets. Here, bonding occurs over a small overlapping fraction of the two surfaces. This requires only a small amount of explosive (e.g. 5 g/m for line welds in thin ductile sheets). Explosive foil cladding can be used as an alternative coating technique. Plates that are clad with a foil on one or both sides were fabricated in one process step. They can be further machined or deformed using conventional techniques, due to the ductility of the bond and clad material.

Meuken, D.; Carton, E. P.

2004-07-01

228

Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. Methods: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Results: Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. Conclusions: For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Citation: Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:24678440

Michaels, David; Howard, John

2012-01-01

229

Drive Rig Mufflers for Model Scale Engine Acoustic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of air breathing propulsion systems in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center depends on compressed air turbines for power. The drive rig turbines exhaust directly to the wind tunnel test section, and have been found to produce significant unwanted noise that reduces the quality of the acoustic measurements of the model being tested. In order to mitigate this acoustic contamination, a muffler can be attached downstream of the drive rig turbine. The modern engine designs currently being tested produce much less noise than traditional engines, and consequently a lower noise floor is required of the facility. An acoustic test of a muffler designed to mitigate this extraneous noise is presented, and a noise reduction of 8 dB between 700 Hz and 20 kHz was documented, significantly improving the quality of acoustic measurements in the facility.

Stephens, David

2010-01-01

230

High-Flow Jet Exit Rig Designed and Fabricated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to test single flow jet nozzles and to measure the appropriate thrust and noise levels. The rig has been designed for the maximum hot condition of 16 lbm/sec of combustion air at 1960 R (maximum) and to produce a maximum thrust of 2000 lb. It was designed for cold flow of 29.1 lbm/sec of air at 530 R. In addition, it can test dual-flow nozzles (nozzles with bypass flow in addition to core flow) with independent control of each flow. The High- Flow Jet Exit Rig was successfully fabricated in late 2001 and is being readied for checkout tests. The rig will be installed in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig consists of the following major components: a single component force balance, the natural-gas-fueled J-79 combustor assembly, the plenum and manifold assembly, an acoustic/instrumentation/seeding (A/I/S) section, a table, and the research nozzles. The rig will be unique in that it is designed to operate uncooled. The structure survives the 1960 R test condition because it uses carefully selected high temperature alloy materials such as Hastelloy-X. The lower plenum assembly was designed to operate at pressures to 450 psig at 1960 R, in accordance with the ASME B31.3 piping code. The natural gas-fueled combustor fires directly into the lower manifold. The hot air is directed through eight 1-1/2-in. supply pipes that supply the upper plenum. The flow is conditioned in the upper plenum prior to flowing to the research nozzle. The 1-1/2-in. supply lines are arranged in a U-shaped design to provide for a flexible piping system. The combustor assembly checkout was successfully conducted in Glenn's Engine Component Research Laboratory in the spring of 2001. The combustor is a low-smoke version of the J79 combustor used to power the F4 Phantom military aircraft. The natural gas-fueled combustor demonstrated high-efficiency combustion over a wide range of operating conditions. This wide operating envelope is required to support the testing of both single- and dual-flow nozzles. Key research goals include providing simultaneous, highly accurate acoustic, flow, and thrust measurements on jet nozzle models in realistic flight conditions, as well as providing scaleable acoustic results. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig is a second-generation high-flow test rig. Improvements include cleaner flow with reduced levels of particulate, soot, and odor. Choked-flow metering is required with plus or minus 0.25-percent accuracy. Thrust measurements from 0 to 2000 lbf are required with plus or minus 0.25-percent accuracy. Improved acoustics will be achieved by minimizing noise through large pipe bend radii, lower internal flow velocities, and microdrilled choke plates with thousands of 0.040-in.- diameter holes.

Buehrle, Robert J.; Trimarchi, Paul A.

2003-01-01

231

New High-Temperature Turbine Seal Rig Fabricated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current NASA program goals for aircraft engines and vehicle performance include reducing direct operating costs for commercial aircraft by 3 percent in large engines and 5 percent in regional engines, reducing engine fuel burn up to 10 percent, and reducing engine oxides of nitrogen emissions by more than 50 percent. Significant advancements in current gas turbine engines and engine components, such as seals, are required to meet these goals. Specifically, advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight ratio, emissions, durability, and operating costs. In a direct effort to address and make progress toward these goals, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field have developed a unique high-temperature, high-speed engine seal test rig to evaluate seals under the temperature, speed, and pressure conditions anticipated for next generation turbine engines. This new seal test rig has capabilities beyond those of any existing seal rigs. It can test air seals (i.e., labyrinth, brush, and new seal concepts) at temperatures of up to 1500 F and pressures up to 100 psid (even higher pressures are possible at lower temperatures), and at all surface speeds anticipated in future NASA (Ultra Efficient Engine Technology, UEET, and Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology, IHPTET) engine programs. In addition, seals can be tested offset from the rotor centerline, in the rotor runout condition, and with simulated mission profiles. Support for this new rig was provided by NASA Glenn, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Army.

Delgado, Irebert R.

2000-01-01

232

New High-Temperature Turbine Seal Rig Installed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current NASA program goals for aircraft engines and vehicle performance include reducing direct operating costs for commercial aircraft by 3 percent in large engines and 5 percent in regional engines, reducing engine fuel burn up to 10 percent, and reducing engine oxides of nitrogen emissions by more than 50 percent. Significant advancements in current gas turbine engines and engine components, such as seals, are required to meet these goals. Specifically, advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight ratio, emissions, durability, and operating costs. In a direct effort to address and make progress toward these goals, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have developed a unique high-temperature, high-speed engine seal test rig to evaluate seals under the temperature, speed, and pressure conditions anticipated for next-generation turbine engines. Newly installed, this seal test rig has capabilities beyond those of any existing seal rigs. It can test air seals (i.e., labyrinth, brush, and new seal concepts) at temperatures of up to 1500 F and pressures up to 100 psid (even higher pressures are possible at lower temperatures), and at all surface speeds anticipated in future NASA (Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology, UEET) and Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) engine programs. In addition, seals can be tested offset from the rotor centerline, in the rotor runout condition, and with simulated mission profiles. Support for this new rig was provided by Glenn, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Army.

Delgado, Irebert R.

2001-01-01

233

New wave drilling rigs offer automation, ergonomics and economy  

SciTech Connect

The drilling industry is being pressured to do its job not just faster and cheaper, but also safer and cleaner. The latest land and offshore platform drilling rig designs incorporate modularization, mechanization, computers and environmental protection in an attempt to meet those demands. This paper reviews the technology of these new designs and how they can operate to ensure safety and environmental protection for lower costs.

Von Flatern, R.

1996-05-01

234

Negative Feedback Regulation of RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling by Interferon-Induced ISG15 Conjugation  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIG-I senses intracellular virus-specific nucleic acid structures and initiates an antiviral response that induces interferon (IFN) production, which, in turn, activates the transcription of RIG-I to increase RIG-I protein levels. Upon intracellular poly(I:C) stimulation, however, the levels of RIG-I protein did not correlate with the expression patterns of RIG-I transcripts. When the ISG15 conjugation system was overexpressed, ISG15 was conjugated

Min-Jung Kim; Sun-Young Hwang; Tadaatsu Imaizumi; Joo-Yeon Yoo

2008-01-01

235

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

236

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

237

75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission...Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire and oil spill and develop options to guard...

2010-06-30

238

Molecular models for explosives  

SciTech Connect

Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of formation, etc. for explosives. As a result of this extensive experimental work, a large and ever increasing number of observed properties of explosives are available. Given sufficient data, models for the prediction of molecular properties can be developed and calibrated. Nevertheless, many desirable molecular properties can be obtained with considerable effort and, in many cases, experimental measurements are not possible for practical reasons; e.g., bond dissociation energies are very difficult to obtain for explosives. Consequently, theoretical methods for obtaining these properties are quite desirable. In addition, it is oftentimes desired to estimate the properties of unknown molecules. Consequently, methods for the estimation of molecular properties, which might seem quite crude by other standards, can be of considerable practical value. We present in this paper some of our recent efforts at extending and developing molecular models for explosives. These efforts fall into three main areas: Estimation of crystal densities of organic nitrates and perchlorates by an entirely empirical group additivity method; calculation of molecular heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (BDE's) by a semi-empirical molecular orbital method (AM1); and the electronic structure of nitrobenzene as obtained from non-empirical (sometimes called ab initio molecular orbital calculations. 10 refs.

Ritchie, J.P.; Bachrach, S.M.

1987-01-01

239

RIG-I from waterfowl and mammals differ in their abilities to induce antiviral responses against influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

The retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) plays a crucial role in sensing viral RNA and IFN-? production. RIG-I varies in length and sequence between different species. We assessed the functional differences between RIG-I proteins derived from mammals and birds. The transfection of duck caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) and duck RIG-I (dCARDs and dRIG-I) and goose CARDs and goose RIG-I (gCARDs and gRIG-I) into chicken DF-1 cells increased the production of IFN-? mRNA and IFN-stimulated genes and decreased influenza A virus (IAV) replication; whereas human CARDs and RIG-I (hCARDs and hRIG-I) and mouse CARDs and RIG-I (mCARDs and mRIG-I) had no effect. In human 293T and A549 cells, hCARDs had the strongest IFN-inducing activity, followed by mCARDs, dCARDs and gCARDs. The IFN-inducing activity of hRIG-I was stronger than that of mRIG-I, dRIG-I and gRIG-I, in that order. The results showed that, although the ability of dCARDs to activate IFN was stronger than that of gCARDs in DF-1, 293T and A549 cells, dRIG-I had a weaker ability to activate IFN than gRIG-I in DF-1 cells with or without IAV infection. These data suggest that RIG-I proteins from different species have different amino acid sequences and functions. This genetic and functional diversity renders RIG-I flexible, adaptable and capable of recognizing many viruses in different species. PMID:25371516

Shao, Qiang; Xu, Wenping; Guo, Qiang; Yan, Li; Rui, Lei; Liu, Jinhua; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Zandong

2015-02-01

240

Bioremediation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon dioxide. The focus of this paper will be on our present understanding of the microbial metabolism of the explosives, TNT and RDX, which have been used most extensively in the United States. To assure that an efficient process is developed for TNT biodegradation, we are conducting appropriate lab scale tests with TNT contaminated soil. First, we are testing their efficiency in soil/water slurries; we are also testing their efficiency in a column system designed to simulate composting conditions. A pilot scale test of this bacterial degradation will be conducted as soon as weather permits. 36 refs., 5 figs.

Unkefer, P.J.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Unkefer, C.J.; Stenger, M.; Margiotta, E.A.

1990-01-01

241

An explosion in Tunguska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on 30 June 1908 is given, including that of a meteor impact, asteroid impact, atomic explosion (F. Zigel and other), comet impact (V.G. Fesenkov and other). The theory sustained by author is that of a methan gas explosion initialazed by a meteor in a volume of about 0.25-2.5 billions m3 of methan. The shape of the place could be explained by few gaseous pouches, which could explode in a chain reaction. A review of similar explosions on the level of ground is given in the USSR as well as elsewhere. The soil fluidization is reviewed during earthquakes and similar phenomena. The original hypothesis by author was published in the "Lumea" N 41 magazin (Romania) on October 12 1989. The author disagree with atomic hypotesis enounced by F. Zigel, while the main factor of the explosion is the formation of one or few methan pouches above the soil. The programe of one of the most important international workshops (Tunguska 96 in Bologna on July 14-17) is attached. The site by Ioan Nistor gives a collection of informations about the event from elsewhere as well as the "gaseous pouches" hypothesis by the author.

Nistor, Ioan

242

30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309...MINES Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of...

2010-07-01

243

30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309...MINES Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of...

2013-07-01

244

30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309...MINES Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of...

2012-07-01

245

30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309...MINES Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of...

2011-07-01

246

30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309...MINES Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon fuels with flash points lower than that of...

2014-07-01

247

Burngrange Nos.1 and 2 (oil Shale) Mine, Midlothian   

E-print Network

BURNGRANGE Nos. I AND 2 (Oil Shale) MINE, MIDLOTHIAN REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending, the Explosion and Fire which occurred on the 10th January, 1947, at the Burngrange Nos. I and 2 (Oil Shale) ...

Bryan, A. M.

1947-01-01

248

Effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of rocks at large deformations is characterized, including the effects of crack growth when unstable, the effects of anisotropy, the distinction between open and closed cracks, the influence of crack intersections, the role of pore pressure, and a calculation of permeability. The theory is quite general, and is intended for use in a computer program rather than as a vehicle for obtaining analytic results. When a spherical explosive charge is embedded in oil shale it produces an aspirin-shaped cavity at late times as a result of the bedded structure of the rock. In this paper a calculation of the cavity produced by a spherical explosive is compared with a radiograph, showing remarkable agreement between the two. The shape of the cavity is explained by the behavior of cracks lying in the bedding planes.

Dienes, J.K.

1981-01-01

249

High-nitrogen explosives  

SciTech Connect

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

2002-01-01

250

VALIDATION OF SERVICE CONCEPTS FOR OIL DRILLING BY SIMULATION Dagny Butler, Allison Culleny, Aditi Ghosh, Mobolaji Ogunsolu, Madeline Schrier, Yun  

E-print Network

and maintenance costs for oil drilling. The requirement for service concepts is to guarantee high availability and productivity at low service costs during the service period. Failures of the oil rigs, the number of service and determine service concepts for oil drilling that are optimal with respect to high availability and low costs

251

EVENT,EVENT84. Explosive Transients in Flow Networks  

SciTech Connect

EVENT was developed to investigate the effects of explosive transients through fluid-flow networks. Since in EVENT the effect of the explosion, not the characteristics of the explosion itself, is of interest, the transient is simulated in the simplest possible way. A rapid addition of mass and energy to the system at certain locations is used. This representation is adequate for all of the network except the region where the explosion actually occurs. The complexity of the problem requires a numerical solution. The governing equations are ordinary differential equations in time with pressure, density (nodes), and mass flow rate (branches) as the basic unknowns. The mass flow is expressed as the sum of an estimated value and two correction terms that are proportional to the variations of nodal pressure and density. The pressure and density variations are calculated from the mass and energy balances at each node, and the new nodal quantities are updated by summing the variations and the previous values. Convergence is reached when the variation is less than a given convergence factor. EVENT84 is a modification of EVENT which includes a new explosion chamber model subroutine based on the NOL BLAST program developed at the Naval Ordinance Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland. This subroutine calculates the confined explosion near-field parameters and supplies the time functions of energy and mass injection. Solid-phase or TNT-equivalent explosions (which simulate point source explosions in nuclear facilities) as well as explosions in gas-air mixtures can be simulated. The four types of explosions EVENT84 simulates are TNT, hydrogen in air, acetylene in air, and tributyl phosphate (TBP or red oil). Graphical output from EVENT and EVENT84 is provided by the EXPLOT and EVPLOT postprocessor programs, respectively. Both programs require the ISSCO proprietary DISSPLA graphics software system.

Andrae, R.W.; Moore, J.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1981-11-01

252

Managing the data explosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

1993-01-01

253

Convection in Supernova Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of 2D numerical simulations of the early phase (t <= 1s) of a supernova explosion. The explosion is powered by neutrino absorption on free nucleons and neutrino scattering by electrons. We also include energy losses through neutrino emission following electron or positron capture by protons and neutrons as well as plasma neutrino emission processes. We show that neutrino heating results in a strongly convective region close to the neutron star. Hot material quickly rises whereas cold material is sinking towards the proto-neutron star. By removing the hot material from the vicinity of the neutron star, this large scale convection prevents overheating and hence limits energy losses through neutrino emission. In addition, the rising bubbles drive a strong shock outwards which eventually will lead to a successful explosion. The convective pattern is found to choose the largest mode possible in the computational domain. It follows that convective motions do not average out resulting in a net asymmetry of the explosion. If this asymmetry is confirmed by three-dimensional simulations, it could easily explain the observed high velocity dispersion of pulsars.

Benz, W.; Herant, M.; Colgate, S. A.

1992-12-01

254

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

255

The combustion of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

2001-01-01

256

Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

1998-01-01

257

Geologic characteristics in the vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling rig experienced a catastrophic explosion and fire. At the time, it was drilling about 70km southeast of the mouth of the Mississippi River. A couple of days later it lay on the sea floor in more than 1500m of water. The drilling riser that extended from the sea floor to the

T. McGee

2010-01-01

258

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill - Landsat 5  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to cap the leaking well system and contain the growing oil slick before it reaches wildlife refuges, fisheries, and beaches along the southern...

259

Disc brake squeal characterization through simplified test rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of recent investigations on brake squeal noise carried out on simplified experimental rigs. The common theme of these works is that of approaching the study of squeal noise on experimental set-ups that are much simpler than commercial disc brakes, providing the possibility of repeatable measurements of squeal occurrence. As a consequence, it is possible to build consistent and robust models of the experimental apparatus to simulate the squeal events and to understand the physics behind squeal instabilities.

Akay, A.; Giannini, O.; Massi, F.; Sestieri, A.

2009-11-01

260

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated\\u000a combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3\\/Ni-16.2Cr5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in weight percent unless stated otherwise) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was\\u000a developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such

Philip E. Hodge; Stephan Stecura; Michael A. Gedwill; Isidor Zaplatynsky; Stanley R. Levine

1980-01-01

261

Sensing viral invasion by RIG-I like receptors.  

PubMed

Cellular responses to pathogen invasion are crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis and survival. The interferon (IFN) system is one of the most effective cellular responses to viral intrusion in mammals. Viral recognition by innate immune sensors activates the antiviral IFN system. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs) are DExD/H box RNA helicases that sense viral invasion. RLRs recognize cytoplasmic viral RNAs and trigger antiviral responses, resulting in production of type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines. Unique and common sensing mechanisms among RLRs have been reported. In this review, recent progress in the understanding of antiviral responses by RLRs is summarized and discussed. PMID:24968321

Yoo, Ji-Seung; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi

2014-08-01

262

Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

Huttrer, G.W. [Geothermal Management Company, Inc., Frisco, CO (United States)

1997-11-01

263

Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF  

ScienceCinema

The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

None

2015-01-07

264

Overview of dust explosibility characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an overview of and introduction to the subject of dust explosions. The purpose is to provide information on the explosibility and ignitability properties of dust clouds that can be used to improve safety in industries that generate, process, use, or transport combustible dusts. The requirements for a dust explosion are: a combustible dust, dispersed in air, a

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

2000-01-01

265

Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF  

SciTech Connect

The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

None

2014-10-31

266

Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

2012-01-01

267

RIG-I ATPase Activity and Discrimination of Self-RNA versus Non-Self-RNA  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Many RNA viruses are detected by retinoic acid-inducible gene i (RIG-I), a cytoplasmic sensor that triggers an antiviral response upon binding non-self-RNA that contains a stretch of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bearing a base-paired 5? ppp nucleotide. To gain insight into how RIG-I discriminates between self-RNA and non-self-RNA, we used duplexes whose complementary bottom strand contained both ribo- and deoxynucleotides. These duplexes were examined for their binding to RIG-I and their relative abilities to stimulate ATPase activity, to induce RIG-I dimerization on the duplex, and to induce beta interferon (IFN-?) expression. We show that the chemical nature of the bottom strand is not critical for RIG-I binding. However, two key ribonucleotides, at positions 2 and 5 on the bottom strand, are minimally required for the RIG-I ATPase activity, which is necessary but not sufficient for IFN-? stimulation. We find that duplexes with shorter stretches of dsRNA, as model self-RNAs, bind less stably to RIG-I but nevertheless have an enhanced ability to stimulate the ATPase. Moreover, ATPase activity promotes RIG-I recycling on RIG-I/dsRNA complexes. Since pseudo-self-RNAs bind to RIG-I less stably, they are preferentially recycled by ATP hydrolysis that weakens the helicase domain binding of dsRNA. Our results suggest that one function of the ATPase is to restrict RIG-I signaling to its interaction with non-self-RNA. A model of how this discrimination occurs as a function of dsRNA length is presented. PMID:25736886

Anchisi, Stéphanie; Guerra, Jessica

2015-01-01

268

Explosive performance measurements on large, multiple-hole arrays and large masses of conventional explosive  

SciTech Connect

The COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time EXperiment (CORRTEX) system was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for determining the energy released in a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system, fielding techniques, and the methods and software for data reduction and analysis were developed over a 15 year period with hundreds of measurements made on nuclear tests and high explosive experiments. CORRTEX is a compact, portable, fast-sampling, microprocessor-controlled system, based on time domain reflectometry, requiring only a 24 volt power source and a sensing element. Only the sensing element (a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable) is expended during the detonation. In 1979, the CORRTEX system was shown to be ideally suited for chemical explosive performance measurements. Its utility for diagnosing chemical explosives was further demonstrated with successful measurements on large multiple-hole chemical shots in rock quarries and strip mines. Accurate timing of the detonation of sequenced or ripple fired arrays, as well as data characterizing the initiation, explosive performance and detonation anomalies are obtained. This information can serve as the basis for empirical or modeled improvements to blasting operations. A summary of the special CORRTEX features and well developed analysis techniques together with the experiment designs, data, and conclusions regarding the measurements and explosive performance from several array detonations and the Chemical Kiloton Experiment, 2.9 million pounds of an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) and emulsion blend conducted on the Nevada Test Site in 1993, are presented.

McKown, T.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Eilers, D.D. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Williams, P.E. [New Mexico Tech., Socorro, New Mexico (United States). Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center

1994-11-01

269

Rowan Gorilla I rigged up, heads for eastern Canada  

SciTech Connect

Designed to operate in very hostile offshore environments, the first of the Rowan Gorilla class of self-elevating drilling rigs has been towed to its drilling assignment offshore Nova Scotia. About 40% larger than other jackups, these rigs can operate in 300 ft of water, drilling holes as deep as 30,000 ft. They also feature unique high-pressure and solids control systems that are expected to improve drilling procedures and efficiencies. A quantitative formation pressure evaluation program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 handheld calculator computes formation pressures by three independent methods - the corrected d exponent, Bourgoyne and Young, and normalized penetration rate techniques for abnormal pressure detection and computation. Based on empirically derived drilling rate equations, each of the methods can be calculated separately, without being dependent on or influenced by the results or stored data from the other two subprograms. The quantitative interpretation procedure involves establishing a normal drilling rate trend and calculating the pore pressure from the magnitude of the drilling rate trend or plotting parameter increases above the trend line. Mobil's quick, accurate program could aid drilling operators in selecting the casing point, minimizing differential sticking, maintaining the proper mud weights to avoid kicks and lost circulation, and maximizing penetration rates.

Not Available

1984-03-01

270

Shale/mud inhibition defined with rig-site methods  

SciTech Connect

The successful drilling of troublesome shale requires evaluation of the shales and muds during the drilling process so that the proper methods and muds can be selected. With rig-site testing in mind, six tests were studied for their usefulness in defining the severity of the shale/mud chemical reaction. All tests showed some value in the analysis of wellbore problems and solutions; however, the swelling, rolling, and cation-exchange-capacity (CEC) tests proved most useful. The swelling test uses a newly developed device to describe the early-time sealing properties of native or recompacted shale and provides an analytical method for classifying shales according to their reaction rates. In general, soft shales have a short reaction time, which increases with its hardness. This test also shows the inhibition state of a mud and can therefore be used in mud monitoring and mud-treatment design. The rolling test provides useful information on the dispersion tendencies of a shale-cutting/mud mixture, and the CEC test provides basic information on the effective clay content of a shale. This paper discusses techniques used to evaluate shales and muds at the rig site and presents the procedures, results, and parameters that affect each technique. Information concerning a new device for measuring shale swelling and the procedure for reconstituting shale cuttings is given.

Chenevert, M.E.; Osisanya, S.O. (Univ. of Texas, TX (US))

1989-09-01

271

Molecular hydrodynamics of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

High explosives release mechanical energy through chemical reactions. Applications of high explosives are vast in the mining and military industries and are beginning to see more civilian applications such as the deployment of airbags in modern automobiles. One of the central issues surrounding explosive materials is decreasing their sensitivity, necessary for their safe handling, while maintaining a high yield. Many practical tests have been devised to determine the sensitivity of explosive materials to shock, to impact, to spark, and to friction. These tests have great value in determining yield and setting precautions for safe handling but tell little of the mechanisms of initiation. How is the mechanical energy of impact or friction transformed into the chemical excitation that initiates explosion? The answer is intimately related to the structure of the explosive material, the size and distribution of grains, the size and presence of open areas such as voids and gas bubbles, and inevitably the bonding between explosive molecules.

Belak, J.

1994-11-01

272

Explosive welding of pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A.

2006-08-01

273

Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: innks@khu.ac.kr

2013-07-19

274

Development of a test rig for the active control of a segmented mirror support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the preliminary developments related to the Gran Telescopio Canarias, a test rig is being designed for the active control of the support system of the segmented primary mirror. The construction of this test rig will be divided in two phases: the first one will basically consist in the implementation and testing of a displacement sensor prototype as well as

F. Javier Castro; Juan C. González; Haresh M. Chulani; Josep M. Fuertes; Sergi de Miguel

275

Development of a test rig for the active control of a segmented mirror support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the preliminary developments related to the Gran Telescopio Canarias, a test rig is being designed for the active control of the support system of the segmented primary mirror. The construction of this test rig will be divided in two phases: the first one will basically consist in the implementation and testing of a displacement sensor prototype as well as

F. J. Castro; Juan C. Gonzalez; Haresh M. Chulani; Josep M. Fuertes; Sergi de Miguel

1997-01-01

276

SIMULAZIONE DELLA FRENATURA DI ROTABILI FERROVIARI MEDIANTE ROLLER-RIG IN SCALA RIDOTTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 1:5 scale Roller Rig has been recently realized at Politecnico di Torino for the simulation of railway dynamics. In this work is shown as it is possible to reproduce the braking dynamics on of a railway vehicle on roller rig. For this purpose it has been designed a disk-brakes braking system, to be installed on the existing bogie;

N. Bosso; A. Gugliotta; A. Somà

277

Numerical and experimental determination of neutron characteristics in irradiation rigs operated in LVR-15 research reactor.  

PubMed

The LVR-15 reactor is a 10-MW research reactor mostly dedicated to material research and isotope production. Material testing can be performed in various irradiation loops and rigs. For specimen irradiation, several rig constructions can be used, including standard single-cell CHOUCA rigs or special dedicated multi-cell rigs. The temperature in the rigs is controlled by a temperature control system, which can be operated in a stable or pulsed mode, with regard to the rig design. Irradiation conditions in the rig are monitored by a set of various fluence detectors. From these detectors, neutron fluence and its energy distribution can be determined for the whole volume of irradiation samples. Besides measurement, irradiation conditions are calculated by the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, which provides a complete review of irradiation conditions including neutron fluence and its energy distribution in samples and detectors, radiation damage and radiation heating conditions for the rig. A set of experimental and theoretical characteristics for dedicated irradiation positions in the core reflector and in fuel will be provided. PMID:24972899

Koleska, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodova, Zdena; Ernest, Jaroslav; Zmitkova, Jelena; Marek, Milan

2014-10-01

278

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes Overview (LSD) vanes are used to smoothly align the flow and minimize the losses. These vanes are fixed a diffuser with movable LSD vanes that can be incorporated into test rigs for centrifugal gas compressors

Demirel, Melik C.

279

Department of Mechanical Engineering Dresser-Rand 1: LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Dresser-Rand 1: LNG Test Rig Movable LSD (LSD) vanes which can easily be incorporated into current test rigs for centrifugal gas compressors of the system Approach Our team started the project by doing an extensive study on LSD vanes and current

Demirel, Melik C.

280

Methods of Repairing Operational Defects in Metal Structures of Drilling Rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

When drilling rigs operate over a long period of time, defects of various kinds may appear in their metal structures, affecting the reliability and efficiency of the rigs. In most cases, these defects are cracks in the base and weld metals, local mechanical damages, corrosion, etc. The defects are detected by special inspection [1, 2], based on the findings of

I. V. Kolesnikov; M. Ya. Itkis; M. M. Matlin; É. F. Kreichi; I. M. Shandybina

2000-01-01

281

RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling Is Inhibited in HIV-1 Infection by a Protease-Mediated Sequestration of RIG-I?  

PubMed Central

The rapid induction of type I interferon (IFN) is essential for establishing innate antiviral responses. During infection, cytoplasmic viral RNA is sensed by two DExD/H box RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, ultimately driving IFN production. Here, we demonstrate that purified genomic RNA from HIV-1 induces a RIG-I-dependent type I IFN response. Both the dimeric and monomeric forms of HIV-1 were sensed by RIG-I, but not MDA5, with monomeric RNA, usually found in defective HIV-1 particles, acting as a better inducer of IFN than dimeric RNA. However, despite the presence of HIV-1 RNA in the de novo infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, HIV-1 replication did not lead to a substantial induction of IFN signaling. We demonstrate the existence of an evasion mechanism based on the inhibition of the RIG-I sensor through the action of the HIV-1 protease (PR). Indeed, the ectopic expression of PR resulted in the inhibition of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) phosphorylation and decreased expression of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes. A downregulation of cytoplasmic RIG-I levels occurred in cells undergoing a single-cycle infection with wild-type provirus BH10 but not in cells transfected with a protease-deficient provirus, BH10-PR?. Cellular fractionation and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RIG-I translocated from the cytosol to an insoluble fraction during the de novo HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, in the presence of PR. The loss of cytoplasmic RIG-I was prevented by the lysosomal inhibitor E64, suggesting that PR targets RIG-I to the lysosomes. This study reveals a novel PR-dependent mechanism employed by HIV-1 to counteract the early IFN response to viral RNA in infected cells. PMID:21084468

Solis, Mayra; Nakhaei, Peyman; Jalalirad, Mohammad; Lacoste, Judith; Douville, Renée; Arguello, Meztli; Zhao, Tiejun; Laughrea, Michael; Wainberg, Mark A.; Hiscott, John

2011-01-01

282

Deposition and material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of SRC 2 fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collectors at 1173K (900 C) were exposed to the combustion products of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with various industrial turbine liquid fuels from solvent refined coals. Four fuels were employed: a naphtha, a light oil, a wash solvent and a mid-heavy distillate blend. The response of four superalloys (IN-100, U 700, IN 792 and M-509) to exposure to the combustion gases from the SRC-2 naphtha and resultant deposits was also determined. The SRC-2 fuel analysis and insights obtained during the combustion experience are discussed. Particular problems encountered were fuel instability and reactions of the fuel with hardware components. The major metallic elements which contributed to the deposits were copper, iron, chromium, calcium, aluminum, nickel, silicon, titanium, zinc, and sodium. The deposits were found to be mainly metal oxides. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis was employed to predict the chemical composition of the deposits. The agreement between the predicted and observed compounds was excellent. No hot corrosion was observed. This was expected because the deposits contained very little sodium or potassium and consisted mainly of the unreactive oxides. However, the amounts of deposits formed indicated that fouling is a potential problem with the use of these fuels.

Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.; Johnson, J. R.

1980-01-01

283

Methane Flux to the Atmosphere from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfortunate blowout at the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig on April 20, which killed 11 people, was releasing oil and methane at an average rate of 58,000 barrels per day into the deep ocean, until it was recently capped resulting in a total of 4.9 million barrels released (National Incident Command Report, 2010). The methane component of the

S. A. Yvon-Lewis; L. Hu; J. D. Kessler; F. Garcia Tigreros; E. W. Chan; M. Du

2010-01-01

284

Superenantioselective chiral surface explosions.  

PubMed

Chiral inorganic materials predated life on Earth, and their enantiospecific surface chemistry may have played a role in the origins of biomolecular homochirality. However, enantiospecific differences in the interaction energies of chiral molecules with chiral surfaces are small and typically lead to modest enantioselectivities in adsorption, catalysis, and chemistry on chiral surfaces. To yield high enantioselectivities, small energy differences must be amplified by reaction mechanisms such as autocatalytic surface explosions which have nonlinear kinetics. Herein, we report the first observations of superenantiospecificity resulting from an autocatalytic surface explosion reaction of a chiral molecule on a naturally chiral surface. R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid decompose via a vacancy-mediated surface explosion mechanism on Cu single crystal surfaces. When coupled with surface chirality, this leads to decomposition rates that exhibit extraordinarily high enantiospecificity. On the enantiomorphs of naturally chiral Cu(643)(R&S), Cu(17,5,1)(R&S), Cu(531)(R&S) and Cu(651)(R&S) single crystal surfaces, R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid exhibit enantiospecific decomposition rates that differ by as much as 2 orders of magnitude, despite the fact that the effective rates constants for decomposition differ by less than a factor of 2. PMID:24261645

Gellman, Andrew J; Huang, Ye; Feng, Xu; Pushkarev, Vladimir V; Holsclaw, Brian; Mhatre, Bharat S

2013-12-26

285

Dust cluster explosion  

SciTech Connect

A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2012-09-15

286

Explosive Welding of Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was ˜2%.

Burtseva, Olga

2007-06-01

287

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to...

2011-07-01

288

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250...are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to...

2010-07-01

289

Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

2010-12-01

290

SUMOylation of RIG-I positively regulates the type I interferon signaling.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) functions as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognizes the 5'-triphosphate moiety of single-stranded RNA viruses to initiate the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that Lys63-linked ubiquitylation is required for RIG-I activation and the downstream anti-viral type I interferon (IFN-I) induction. Herein we reported that, RIG-I was also modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1). Functional analysis showed that RIG-I SUMOylation enhanced IFN-I production through increased ubiquitylation and the interaction with its downstream adaptor molecule Cardif. Our results therefore suggested that SUMOylation might serve as an additional regulatory tier for RIG-I activation and IFN-I signaling. PMID:21203974

Mi, Zhiqiang; Fu, Jihuan; Xiong, Yanbao; Tang, Hong

2010-03-01

291

New ultra-deepwater rig with dual rotaries will reduce costs  

SciTech Connect

The Discoverer Enterprise, a next generation, ultra-deepwater drill ship with a dual rotary system, will decrease drilling and completion costs by reducing bottom hole assembly (BHA) and tubular preparation time. Transocean Offshore received a contract from Amoco Corp. to build the ultra-deep floating rig and is scheduled to spud its first well in July 1998. It will generally work in water deeper than 6,000 ft. The rig design involves a new approach that addresses the overall well-construction process and equipment required to decrease significantly deepwater drilling time. The Discoverer is the first ultra-deepwater rig designed specifically for handling subsea completions and extended well tests. The paper discusses increased deepwater rig demand, rig construction costs, drillship design, well construction, development drilling, and cost justification.

Cole, J.C.; Herrmann, R.P.; Scott, R.J. [Transocean Offshore Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shaughnessy, J.M. [Amoco Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-05-26

292

Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig  

E-print Network

-IR sensor measured a CO concentration of 67 ppm ± 12 ppm at a steady rig temperature and rig pressure of approximately 2300?F and 1500 psig, respectively. This measured CO concentration was comparable to equilibrium calculations with respect to the rig...

Camou, Alejandro

2014-05-03

293

PS300 Tribomaterials Evaluated at 6500C by Bushing Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new facility has been developed to test the tribological behavior (friction and wear) of PS300 solid lubricant bushings at high temperatures. PS300 is a commercially available solid lubricant invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It can be prepared as a plasma spray coating or as a free-standing powder metallurgy component, designated PM300. PS300 and PM300 composites are designed to lubricate sliding components at temperatures above the capability of today's best oils, greases, and solid lubricants. One of the primary applications being pursued for PM300 is the development of bushings for use in high-temperature machinery. Examples include inlet guide vane bushings for gas turbines and conveyors, and bearings for industrial furnaces and ovens. Encouraging preliminary field trials indicate that PS300 and PM300 lubricant materials have been commercialized successfully in several industrial applications. However, the lack of laboratory performance data has hindered further commercialization especially for new applications that differ significantly from the established experience base. The purpose of the newly developed bushing test rig will be to determine the performance characteristics of PM300, and other materials, under conditions closely matching intended applications. The data will be used to determine engineering friction and wear rates and to estimate the life expectancy of bushings for new applications. In the new rig, the bushing is loaded against a rotating shaft inside a furnace enclosure (see the preceding photograph). Loads can vary from 5 to 200 N, speeds from 1 to 400 rpm, and temperatures from 25 to 800 C. Furnace temperature, bushing temperature, shaft speed, and torque are monitored during the test, and wear of both the bushing and the shaft is measured after testing is completed. Initially, PM300 bushings will be evaluated and compared with lower temperature, traditional bushing materials like graphite and porous bronze. The baseline PM304 composition is 60 wt% NiCr (a binder), 20 wt% Cr2O3 (a hardener), 10 wt% BaF2/CaF2 (a high-temperature lubricant), and 10 wt% Ag (a low-temperature lubricant). Future research efforts will include determining the effects of load, sliding speed, and temperature on tribological performance and, possibly, tailoring composition for specific applications. We expect that the availability of measured performance data will enhance the market penetration of PM300 technology.

Striebing, Donald R.; DellaCorte, Christopher

2004-01-01

294

Conflict of Interest that Led to the Gulf Oil Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 20, 2010, British Petroleum’s Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico exploded, killing eleven people and spilling billions of gallons of oil into the gulf. In the days and weeks that followed, the media pointed to the Minerals Management Services (MMS), the regulatory agency responsible for managing offshore drilling, as being complicit with BP. The MMS

Peter J Honigsberg

2011-01-01

295

Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75

Robert T. Kroutil; Sylvia S. Shen; Paul E. Lewis; David P. Miller; John Cardarelli; Mark Thomas; Timothy Curry; Paul Kudaraskus

2010-01-01

296

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

297

Advances in measuring techniques for turbine cooling test rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface temperature distribution measurements for turbine vanes and blades were obtained by measuring the infrared energy emitted by the airfoil. The IR distribution can be related to temperature distribution by suitable calibration methods and the data presented in the form of isotherm maps. Both IR photographic and real time electro-optical methods are being investigated. The methods can be adapted to rotating as well as stationary targets, and both methods can utilize computer processing. Pressure measurements on rotating components are made with a rotating system incorporating 10 miniature transducers. A mercury wetted slip ring assembly was used to supply excitation power and as a signal transfer device. The system was successfully tested up to speeds of 9000 rpm and is now being adapted to measure rotating blade airflow quantities in a spin rig and a research engine.

Pollack, F. G.

1972-01-01

298

Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

299

Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

300

V/STOL model fan stage rig design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model single-stage fan with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) was designed to demonstrate efficient point operation while providing flow and pressure ratio modulation capability required for a V/STOL propulsion system. The fan stage incorporates a split-flap VIGV with an independently actuated ID flap to permit independent modulation of fan and core engine airstreams, a flow splitter integrally designed into the blade and vanes to completely segregate fan and core airstreams in order to maximize core stream supercharging for V/STOL operation, and an EGV with a variable leading edge fan flap for rig performance optimization. The stage was designed for a maximum flow size of 37.4 kg/s (82.3 lb/s) for compatibility with LeRC test facility requirements. Design values at maximum flow for blade tip velocity and stage pressure ratio are 472 m/s (1550 ft/s) and 1.68, respectively.

Cheatham, J. G.; Creason, T. L.

1983-01-01

301

Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

1984-01-01

302

Tracking responses to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill using trace elements in molluscan shells and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documenting the effects of modern stressors on coastal benthic marine communities requires a combination of baseline historical data and modern dynamic data. E.g., landfall of hydrocarbons from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig and well explosion in the Gulf of Mexico is impacting coastal areas long affected by natural seepage, as well as petroleum exploration and development. In Louisiana, exploration in

P. D. Roopnarine; L. Anderson; D. Roopnarine; D. P. Gillikin; D. Goodwin

2010-01-01

303

Explosions on the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System - these are the eruptions and flaring that occur on the Sun. They can release as much energy as 10 million volcanoes, and throw out material into the solar system with similar mass to Mount Everest! The theories of what can produce such an explosion are based around the magnetic field that confines the gas. These events can produce emission right across the electromagnetic spectrum. The status of our ability to predict these events is discussed.

Harra, Louise K.

2005-10-01

304

Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01

305

Spectral analysis on explosive percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectral properties of the process of explosive percolation. In particular, we explore how the maximum eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network which governs the spreading efficiency evolves as the density of connection increases. Interestingly, for networks with connectivity that grow in an explosive way, information spreading and mass transport are found to be carried out inefficiently. In the conventional explosive percolation models that we studied, the sudden emergences of large-scale connectivity are found to come with relatively lowered efficiency of spreading. Nevertheless, the spreading efficiency of the explosive model can be increased by introducing heterogeneous structures into the networks.

Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.; Lai, C. H.

2013-03-01

306

Towards optoelectronic detection of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of explosives is an important challenge for contemporary science and technology of security systems. We present an application of NOx sensors equipped with concentrator in searching of explosives. The sensors using CRDS with blue — violet diode lasers (410 nm) as well as with QCL lasers (5.26 ?m and 4.53 ?m) are described. The detection method is based either on reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides emitted by explosives or to NOx produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX the detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved.

Wojtas, J.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Rutecka, B.; Medrzycki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.

2013-06-01

307

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

DOEpatents

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

308

The Immunoglobulin super family protein RIG-3 prevents synaptic potentiation and regulates Wnt signaling  

PubMed Central

Cell surface Ig superfamily proteins (IgSF) have been implicated in several aspects of neuron development and function. Here, we describe a novel function for a C. elegans IgSF protein, RIG-3. Mutants lacking RIG-3 have an exaggerated paralytic response to a cholinesterase inhibitor, aldicarb. Although RIG-3 is expressed in motor neurons, heightened drug responsiveness was caused by an aldicarb-induced increase in muscle ACR-16 acetylcholine receptor (AChR) abundance, and a corresponding potentiation of post-synaptic responses at neuromuscular junctions. Mutants lacking RIG-3 also had defects in the anteroposterior polarity of the ALM mechanosensory neurons. RIG -3’s effects on synaptic transmission and ALM polarity were both mediated by changes in Wnt signaling, and in particular by inhibiting CAM-1, a Ror-type receptor tyrosine kinase that binds Wnt ligands. These results identify RIG-3 as a novel regulator of Wnt signaling, and suggest that RIG-3 has an anti-plasticity function that prevents activity-induced changes in post-synaptic receptor fields. PMID:21745641

Babu, Kavita; Hu, Zhitao; Chien, Shih-Chieh; Garriga, Gian; Kaplan, Joshua M.

2011-01-01

309

Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

1983-01-01

310

Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material in the Gulf of Mexico surface waters and along coastal beaches shortly after the explosion of Deepwater Horizon sparked debate about its origin and the oil covering it. We show that the unknown pieces of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material collected in the Gulf of Mexico were pieces of the riser pipe

Catherine A Carmichael; J Samuel Arey; William M Graham; Laura J Linn; Karin L Lemkau; Robert K Nelson; Christopher M Reddy

2012-01-01

311

Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5?-diphosphates  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mammalian cells possess mechanisms to detect and defend themselves from invading viruses. In the cytosol, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I; encoded by DDX58) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; encoded by IFIH1) sense atypical RNAs associated with virus infection1,2. Detection triggers a signalling cascade via the adaptor MAVS that culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFN-?/?; hereafter IFN), key antiviral cytokines. RIG-I and MDA5 are activated by distinct viral RNA structures and much evidence indicates that RIG-I responds to RNAs bearing a triphosphate (ppp) moiety in conjunction with a blunt-ended, base-paired region at the 5?-end (reviewed in 1-3). Here we show that RIG-I also mediates antiviral responses to RNAs bearing 5?-diphosphates (5?pp). Genomes from mammalian reoviruses with 5?pp termini, 5?pp-RNA isolated from yeast L-A virus, and base-paired 5?pp-RNAs made by in vitro transcription or chemical synthesis, all bind to RIG-I and serve as RIG-I agonists. Furthermore, a RIG-I-dependent response to 5?pp-RNA is essential for controlling reovirus infection in cultured cells and in mice. Thus, the minimal determinant for RIG-I recognition is a base-paired RNA with 5?pp. Such RNAs are found in some viruses but not uninfected cells, indicating that recognition of 5?pp-RNA, like that of 5?ppp-RNA, acts as a powerful means of self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system. PMID:25119032

Deddouche, Safia; Pruijssers, Andrea J.; Zillinger, Thomas; Goldeck, Marion; Schuberth, Christine; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Rehwinkel, Jan; Iskarpatyoti, Jason A.; Barchet, Winfried; Ludwig, Janos; Dermody, Terence S.; Hartmann, Gunther; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

2014-01-01

312

Fan Rig Noise Spectral Correction for NASA 9'x 15' Low-Speed Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. Fan noise testing, however, requires a significant support system including a drive mechanism to turn the fan, a device to smooth the flow into the fan, and a stand to raise the fan off the ground each of which has the potential to create its own noise. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise was then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9x15 LSWT setup in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery that characterizes fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and speed. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise. A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

Schifer, Nick; Brown, Cliff

2007-01-01

313

Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5'-diphosphates.  

PubMed

Mammalian cells possess mechanisms to detect and defend themselves from invading viruses. In the cytosol, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I; encoded by DDX58) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; encoded by IFIH1) sense atypical RNAs associated with virus infection. Detection triggers a signalling cascade via the adaptor MAVS that culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFN-? and ?; hereafter IFN), which are key antiviral cytokines. RIG-I and MDA5 are activated by distinct viral RNA structures and much evidence indicates that RIG-I responds to RNAs bearing a triphosphate (ppp) moiety in conjunction with a blunt-ended, base-paired region at the 5'-end (reviewed in refs 1, 2, 3). Here we show that RIG-I also mediates antiviral responses to RNAs bearing 5'-diphosphates (5'pp). Genomes from mammalian reoviruses with 5'pp termini, 5'pp-RNA isolated from yeast L-A virus, and base-paired 5'pp-RNAs made by in vitro transcription or chemical synthesis, all bind to RIG-I and serve as RIG-I agonists. Furthermore, a RIG-I-dependent response to 5'pp-RNA is essential for controlling reovirus infection in cultured cells and in mice. Thus, the minimal determinant for RIG-I recognition is a base-paired RNA with 5'pp. Such RNAs are found in some viruses but not in uninfected cells, indicating that recognition of 5'pp-RNA, like that of 5'ppp-RNA, acts as a powerful means of self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system. PMID:25119032

Goubau, Delphine; Schlee, Martin; Deddouche, Safia; Pruijssers, Andrea J; Zillinger, Thomas; Goldeck, Marion; Schuberth, Christine; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Rehwinkel, Jan; Iskarpatyoti, Jason A; Barchet, Winfried; Ludwig, Janos; Dermody, Terence S; Hartmann, Gunther; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

2014-10-16

314

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01

315

Controlled by Distant Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

2007-03-01

316

Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

Yang, L. C.

1985-10-08

317

Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

Yang, Lien C. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

318

Crystal and solution structure of the human RIG-I SF2 domain.  

PubMed

RIG-I is a pathogen-recognition receptor that recognizes viral 5'-triphosphates carrying double-stranded RNA. Upon binding to these microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), RIG-I forms oligomers and promotes downstream processes that result in type I interferon production and induction of an antiviral state. Here, the crystal structure of the human RIG-I superfamily 2 ATPase domain crystallized in an unusually elongated and open conformation is reported. The elongated structure is probably induced in part by crystal packing, but nevertheless indicates that the domain is intrinsically very flexible. This flexibility might allow substantial structural changes upon substrate binding and oligomerization. PMID:25084375

Deimling, Tobias; Cui, Sheng; Lammens, Katja; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Witte, Gregor

2014-08-01

319

SUMOylation of RIG-I positively regulates the type I interferon signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) functions as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognizes the\\u000a 5’-triphosphate moiety of single-stranded RNA viruses to initiate the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown\\u000a that Lys63-linked ubiquitylation is required for RIG-I activation and the downstream anti-viral type I interferon (IFN-I)\\u000a induction. Herein we reported that, RIG-I was also modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier-1

Zhiqiang Mi; Jihuan Fu; Yanbao Xiong; Hong Tang

2010-01-01

320

5?-Triphosphate-RNA-independent activation of RIG-I via RNA aptamer with enhanced antiviral activity  

PubMed Central

RIG-I is a cytosolic receptor for non-self RNA that mediates immune responses against viral infections through IFN?/? production. In an attempt to identify novel tools that modulate IFN?/? production, we used SELEX technology to screen RNA aptamers that specifically target RIG-I protein. Most of the selected RIG-I aptamers contained polyU motifs in the second half regions that played critical roles in the activation of RIG-I-mediated IFN? production. Unlike other known ligands, RIG-I aptamer bound and activated RIG-I in a 5?-triphosphate-independent manner. The helicase and RD domain of RIG-I were used for aptamer binding, but intact RIG-I protein was required to exert aptamer-mediated signaling activation. Furthermore, replication of NDV, VSV and influenza virus in infected host cells was efficiently blocked by pre- or post-treatment with RIG-I aptamer. Based on these data, we propose that RIG-I aptamer has strong potential to be an antiviral agent that specifically boosts the RIG-I-dependent signaling cascade. PMID:22127865

Hwang, Sun-Young; Sun, Hwa-Young; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha; Cha, Yu Jin; Kim, Byeang Hyean; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

2012-01-01

321

Negative Role of RIG-I Serine 8 Phosphorylation in the Regulatin of Interferon-beta Production  

SciTech Connect

RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25) have emerged as key regulatory factors to induce interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses to limit viral replication. Upon recognition of viral RNA, TRIM25 E3 ligase binds the first caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I and subsequently induces lysine 172 ubiquitination of the second CARD of RIG-I, which is essential for the interaction with downstream MAVS/IPS-1/CARDIF/VISA and, thereby, IFN-beta mRNA production. Although ubiquitination has emerged as a major factor involved in RIG-I activation, the potential contribution of other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, to the regulation of RIG-I activity has not been addressed. Here, we report the identification of serine 8 phosphorylation at the first CARD of RIG-I as a negative regulatory mechanism of RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. Immunoblot analysis with a phosphospecific antibody showed that RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation steady-state levels were decreased upon stimulation of cells with IFN-beta or virus infection. Substitution of serine 8 in the CARD RIG-I functional domain with phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate results in decreased TRIM25 binding, RIG-I ubiquitination, MAVS binding, and downstream signaling. Finally, sequence comparison reveals that only primate species carry serine 8, whereas other animal species carry an asparagine, indicating that serine 8 phosphorylation may represent a primate-specific regulation of RIG-I activation. Collectively, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of RIG-I serine 8 operates as a negative switch of RIG-I activation by suppressing TRIM25 interaction, further underscoring the importance of RIG-I and TRIM25 connection in type I IFN signal transduction.

E Nistal-Villan; M Gack; G Martinez-Delgado; N Maharaj; K Inn; H Yang; R Wang; A Aggarwal; J Jung; A Garcia-Sastre

2011-12-31

322

Applying NASA's explosive seam welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length, narrow area of sheet stock into a high-velocity, angular impact against a second sheet. At impact, the oxide films of both

Laurence J. Bement

1991-01-01

323

Monitoring of Oil Spills in the North Caspian Sea using SAR Imagery and MultiSensor Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since may 2007 the regular operational satellite monitoring of the north Caspian sea was set up and carried out. The purpose of the project is to monitor the ecological situation (namely, oil spills) particularly around the oil-rig offshore exploration platforms operating in Russian and Kazakhstan sectors, as well in the overall area of the North Caspian sea. The used data

Konstantin Litovchenko; Andrei Ivanov

2008-01-01

324

77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...facilities at a launch site where solid propellants, energetic liquids, or other explosives...basis of the type and quantity of solid propellants, energetic liquids, and other explosives...division 1.1 explosives and liquid propellants with trinitrotoluene (TNT)...

2012-09-07

325

Watersheds and Explosive percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

326

Classical nova explosions  

E-print Network

A review of the present status of nova modeling is made, with a special emphasis on some specific aspects. What are the main nucleosynthetic products of the explosion and how do they depend on the white dwarf properties (e.g. mass, chemical composition: CO or ONe)? What's the imprint of nova nucleosynthesis on meteoritic presolar grains? How can gamma rays, if observed with present or future instruments onboard satellites, constrain nova models through their nucleosynthesis? What have we learned about the turnoff of classical novae from observation with past and present X-ray observatories? And last but not least, what are the most critical issues concerning nova modeling (e.g. ejected masses, mixing mechanism between core and envelope)?

Margarita Hernanz

2004-12-14

327

Mixing in explosions  

SciTech Connect

Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

Kuhl, A.L.

1993-12-01

328

Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions  

SciTech Connect

The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

1983-01-01

329

Aspirating Seal Development: Analytical Modeling and Seal Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort is to develop large diameter (22 - 36 inch) Aspirating Seals for application in aircraft engines. Stein Seal Co. will be fabricating the 36-inch seal(s) for testing. GE's task is to establish a thorough understanding of the operation of Aspirating Seals through analytical modeling and full-scale testing. The two primary objectives of this project are to develop the analytical models of the aspirating seal system, to upgrade using GE's funds, GE's 50-inch seal test rig for testing the Aspirating Seal (back-to-back with a corresponding brush seal), test the aspirating seal(s) for seal closure, tracking and maneuver transients (tilt) at operating pressures and temperatures, and validate the analytical model. The objective of the analytical model development is to evaluate the transient and steady-state dynamic performance characteristics of the seal designed by Stein. The transient dynamic model uses a multi-body system approach: the Stator, Seal face and the rotor are treated as individual bodies with relative degrees of freedom. Initially, the thirty-six springs are represented as a single one trying to keep open the aspirating face. Stops (Contact elements) are provided between the stator and the seal (to compensate the preload in the fully-open position) and between the rotor face and Seal face (to detect rub). The secondary seal is considered as part of the stator. The film's load, damping and stiffness characteristics as functions of pressure and clearance are evaluated using a separate (NASA) code GFACE. Initially, a laminar flow theory is used. Special two-dimensional interpolation routines are written to establish exact film load and damping values at each integration time step. Additionally, other user-routines are written to read-in actual pressure, rpm, stator-growth and rotor growth data and, later, to transfer these as appropriate loads/motions in the system-dynamic model. The transient dynamic model evaluates the various motions, clearances and forces as the seals are subjected to different aircraft maneuvers: Windmilling restart; start-ground idle; ground idle-takeoff; takeoff-burst chop, etc. Results of this model show that the seal closes appropriately and does not ram into the rotor for all of the conditions analyzed. The rig upgrade design for testing Aspirating Seals has been completed. Long lead-time items (forgings, etc.) have been ordered.

Bagepalli, Bharat

1996-01-01

330

Change in the length of the northern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, September 5, 2010, through September 3, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the northern section are described in this report.

Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

2013-01-01

331

Change in the length of the middle section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, November 17, 2010, through September 6, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115-150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70-90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands' beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the middle section are described in this report.

Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

2013-01-01

332

Change in the length of the southern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, January 13, 2011, through September 3, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers (km) north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011 after 14 km of berm had been constructed. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters (m) seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the southern section are reported.

Plant, Nathaniel G.; Guy, Kristy K.

2014-01-01

333

Nucleotide sequences and modifications that determine RIG-I/RNA binding and signaling activities  

E-print Network

Cytoplasmic viral RNAs with 5? triphosphates (5?ppp) are detected by the RNA helicase RIG-I, initiating downstream signaling and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-?/?) expression that establish an antiviral state. We demonstrate ...

Urzi, Dina

334

The Thermodynamic Basis for Viral RNA Detection by the RIG-I Innate Immune Sensor  

PubMed Central

RIG-I is a cytoplasmic surveillance protein that contributes to the earliest stages of the vertebrate innate immune response. The protein specifically recognizes 5?-triphosphorylated RNA structures that are released into the cell by viruses, such as influenza and hepatitis C. To understand the energetic basis for viral RNA recognition by RIG-I, we studied the binding of RIG-I domain variants to a family of dsRNA ligands. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the isolated RIG-I domains each make important contributions to affinity and that they interact using different strategies. Covalent linkage between the domains enhances RNA ligand specificity while reducing overall binding affinity, thereby providing a mechanism for discriminating virus from host RNA. PMID:23055530

Vela, Adriana; Fedorova, Olga; Ding, Steve C.; Pyle, Anna Marie

2012-01-01

335

Technical considerations in converting jack-up drilling rigs to mobile offshore production units  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need for converting jack-up drilling rigs to Mobile Offshore Production Units for early production, long-term testing and as a low cost reusable alternative to platforms for short life marginal fields. Installing process equipment on drilling rigs offers a unique set of challenges. These include new loads imposed upon the rig, storage of hydrocarbon liquids, gas venting and flaring, location of and installation of equipment, safety considerations and installation of pipeline risers. The specific technical challenge of converting jack-up rigs for Mobile Offshore Production Units (MOPU) is discussed with example solutions from two projects, one installed in Venezuela and one off the West Coast of Africa.

Duhon, R.D.; Kreider, G.J.; Barnes, J.E.

1995-12-31

336

Loads on Tie-Down Systems for Floating Drilling Rigs during Hurricane Conditions  

E-print Network

Tie-down systems are used to fasten drilling rigs to the deck of offshore structures during harsh environmental conditions such as hurricanes. During Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005), a number of offshore structures were moved and several...

Bae, Yoon Hyeok

2010-01-16

337

A test rig for the identification of rotordynamic coefficients of fluid film bearings  

E-print Network

A test rig and measurement procedure to identify the rotordynamic coefficients of generic fluid film bearing elements are described. The test apparatus allows the exchange of test articles without modifications to the basic design of the machine...

Robison, Lewis Miller

1995-01-01

338

Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control  

E-print Network

A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

Castro Galnares, Sebastián (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

2008-01-01

339

The Feasibility of Natural Gas as a Fuel Source for Modern Land-Based Drilling Rigs  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of replacing diesel with natural gas as a fuel source for modern drilling rigs. More specifically, this thesis (1) establishes a control baseline by examining operational characteristics...

Nunn, Andrew Howard

2012-02-14

340

Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

341

Non-Solid Explosives for Shaped Charges I: Explosive Parameters Measurements for Sensitized Liquid Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of time-expired and unexploded ordnance is a major problem for the NATO countries. Simple functioning of the device, either in its design mode or by attachment of additional explosive and firing, requires extended safety zones. Inducing deflagration could reduce co-lateral damage within the safety zone. One solution to the problem, with current explosive fillings, of producing predictable performance

M. Cartwright; D. Lloyd-Roach; P. J. Simpson

2007-01-01

342

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression is mediated by EBER-triggered inflammation via the RIG-I pathway.  

PubMed

EBERs (EBER1 and EBER2) are suggested to be involved in cellular transformation and tumor growth. Cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor-RIG-I, which is characterized by the recognition of viral dsRNAs, could efficiently trigger the downstream pathways of innate immunity. Although some previous reports have shown that EBERs and RIG-I associate with hematological malignancies, the role of EBERs-RIG-I signaling in solid tumors remains to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that EBER mediation of the inflammatory response via RIG-I contributes to NPC development in vitro and in vivo. We first verified that the expression level of RIG-I was associated with EBER transcription in a dose-dependent manner in NPC cells and specimens from NPC patients. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription and release were sharply reduced after RIG-I knockdown compared with the control shRNA group in the presence of EBERs, accompanied by an attenuation of the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, the tumor burden was greatly alleviated in the RIG-I knockdown group in a xenograft model. In addition, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), which promote the maturation and attraction of tumor-associated macrophages, were stimulated upon the introduction of EBERs, and this upregulation conceivably led to the tumor-promoting subset transition of the macrophages. Taken together, our results reveal that EBERs could promote NPC progression through RIG-I-mediated cancer-related inflammation. PMID:25721089

Duan, Yumei; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Shiyue; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lu; He, Jiang; Liao, Qiong; Yang, Lifang; Gong, Zhicheng; Sun, Lun-Quan

2015-05-28

343

Large scale test rig for flow visualization and leakage measurement of labyrinth seals  

E-print Network

LARGE SCALE TEST RIG FOR FLOW VISUALIZATION AND LEAKAGE MEASUREMENT OF LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by DANIEL HAROLD BROUSSARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of requirements for degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering LARGE SCALE TEST RIG FOR FLOW VISUALIZATION AND LEAKAGE MEASUREMENT OF LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by DANIEL HAROLD BROUSSARD Approved as to style and content by: David L. Rhode...

Broussard, Daniel Harold

1991-01-01

344

RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Responses to Single-Stranded RNA Bearing 5'-Phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral replication is believed to be the critical trigger for activation of antiviral immunity mediated by the RNA helicase enzymes retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). We showed that influenza A virus infection does not generate dsRNA and that RIG-I is activated by viral genomic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) bearing 5'-phosphates.

Andreas Pichlmair; Oliver Schulz; Choon Ping Tan; Tanja I. Näslund; Peter Liljeström; Friedemann Weber; Caetano Reis e Sousa

2006-01-01

345

Lumped mass modeling of overburden motion during explosive blasting  

SciTech Connect

The in situ extraction of oil from most oil shale beds is highly dependent upon explosive fracturing and rubbling of rock in a controlled and predictable manner. Besides the rubbling requirement, it is also important that the surrounding rock remain competent to minimize fluid leakage during processing. For rubbling concepts in which the overburden is explosively lifted to provide the required void in an oil shale zone, an engineering lumped mass model has been devised to describe the motion of the overburden. The model simulates the overburden as an array of interacting lumped masses which are loaded from below with a time-dependent force to approximate the explosive load. Correlation with experimental data obtained from field blasting operations shows that this model will provide an adequate approximation of overburden behavior. The basic features of the model are described in the report along with the correlations with field data. Results from several parametric studies are also presented which were used to aid in blast design. This lumped mass model can be extended to include other parameters and has potential for the study of other related blasting situations.

Schamaun, J. T.

1981-02-01

346

Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud treatment and high temperature resistant cementing materials, and bionic bits,that is coupling bionic PDC tooth bit and diamond-impregnated bit for hard rock.All parts of CRUST-1 were successfully assembled along with the derrick and base lift and transported about 3456 kilometers from manufacture,GuangHan city in southwest China's Sichuan province,to the well site of SK-2 in end of 2013.SK-2 will be finished during next 4 years.

Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

2014-05-01

347

Optical Instrumentation for Temperature and Velocity Measurements in Rig Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-intrusive optical measurement techniques have been examined in the context of developing robust instruments which can routinely yield data of engineering utility in high speed turbomachinery test rigs. The engineering requirements of such a measurement are presented. Of particular interest were approaches that provide both velocity and state-variable information in order to be able to completely characterize transonic flowfields. Consideration of all of the requirements lead to the selection of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the approach to velocity measurement while laser induced fluorescence of oxygen (O2 LIF) appeared to offer the most promise for gas temperature measurement. A PIV system was developed and demonstrated on a transonic turbine stage in the MIT blowdown turbine facility. A comprehensive data set has been taken at one flow condition. Extensive calibration established the absolute accuracy of the velocity measurements to be 3-5 %. The O2 LIF proved less successful. Although accurate for low speed flows, vibrational freezing of O2 prevented useful measurements in the transonic, 300-600 K operating range of interest here.

Ceyhan, I.; dHoop, E. M.; Guenette, G. R.; Epstein, A. H.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

1998-01-01

348

Thermal barrier coatings - Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

SciTech Connect

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na- and V-contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in wt %) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 vol % MgO-50 vol % Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

Hodge, P.E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M.A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S.R.

1980-01-01

349

Frozen rigging model of the energy dominated universe  

E-print Network

Composite rigging systems, involving membranes that meet on strings that meet on monopoles, arise naturally by the Kibble mechanism as topological defects in field theories involving spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems will tend to freeze out into static lattice type configurations with energy contribution ultimately be provided by the membranes. It has been suggested by Bucher and Spergel that on scales large compared with the relevant (interstellar separation) distance characterising the relevant mesh length, such a system may behave as a rigidity - stabilised solid, having an approximately isotropic stress energy tensor with negative pressure, as given by a polytropic index $\\gamma=w+1=1/3$. It has recently been shown that such a system can be rigid enough to be stable if the number of membranes meeting at a junction is even (though not if it is odd). Using as examples an approximately O(3) symmetric scalar field model that can provide an ``8 color'' (body centered) cubic lattice, and an approximate U(1)$\\times$ U(1) model offering a disordered ``5 color'' lattice, it is argued that such a mechanism can account naturally for the observed dark energy dominance of the universe, without ad hoc assumptions, other than that the relevant symmetry breaking phase transition should have occurred somewhere about the Kev energy range.

Brandon Carter

2005-02-23

350

Influenza Virus Adaptation PB2-627K Modulates Nucleocapsid Inhibition by the Pathogen Sensor RIG-I.  

PubMed

The cytoplasmic RNA helicase RIG-I mediates innate sensing of RNA viruses. The genomes of influenza A virus (FLUAV) are encapsidated by the nucleoprotein and associated with RNA polymerase, posing potential barriers to RIG-I sensing. We show that RIG-I recognizes the 5'-triphosphorylated dsRNA on FLUAV nucleocapsids but that polymorphisms at position 627 of the viral polymerase subunit PB2 modulate RIG-I sensing. Compared to mammalian-adapted PB2-627K, avian FLUAV nucleocapsids possessing PB2-627E are prone to increased RIG-I recognition, and RIG-I-deficiency partially restores PB2-627E virus infection of mammalian cells. Heightened RIG-I sensing of PB2-627E nucleocapsids correlates with previously established lower affinity of 627E-containing PB2 for nucleoprotein and is increased by further nucleocapsid instability. The effect of RIG-I on PB2-627E nucleocapsids is independent of antiviral signaling, suggesting that RIG-I-nucleocapsid binding alone can inhibit infection. These results indicate that RIG-I is a direct avian FLUAV restriction factor and highlight nucleocapsid disruption as an antiviral strategy. PMID:25704008

Weber, Michaela; Sediri, Hanna; Felgenhauer, Ulrike; Binzen, Ina; Bänfer, Sebastian; Jacob, Ralf; Brunotte, Linda; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Schmidt, Tobias; Hornung, Veit; Kochs, Georg; Schwemmle, Martin; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Weber, Friedemann

2015-03-11

351

Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

Cho, Kwang-Hyun

2014-12-01

352

Shock desensitizing of solid explosive  

SciTech Connect

Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

Davis, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

353

Detection of explosives in soils  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

354

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are utilizing control of molecular processes at the quantum level via the best capabilities of recent laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives (ODD-Ex) is a methodology whereby laser pulses are optimally shaped to simultaneously enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of any of a wide variety of spectroscopic methods for explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and environmental perturbations. We discuss here recent results using complementary ODD-Ex methods.

Moore, D. S.; Rabitz, Herschel; McGrane, S. D.; Greenfield, M. T.; Scharff, R. J.; Chalmers, R. E.; Roslund, J.

2011-05-01

355

Light metal explosives and propellants  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

2005-04-05

356

BP, Corporate R&D, and the University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

April 20, 2010, and the days following, provided the world with graphic images of a burning oil rig, a perception that the oil industry and state and federal governments were helpless, and a pervasive sense of the devastation wrought on coastal residents by the rig explosion and the oil spill. The residents of the Gulf Coast soon realized that…

Lea, Russ

2010-01-01

357

Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure. PMID:19750406

Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

2009-11-01

358

Telemedicine via satellite to support offshore oil platforms.  

PubMed

On any one day, approximately 15,000-28,000 oil industry personnel are employed in the North Sea oil and gas industry. First aid in this remote environment is provided by non-medical staff on the rigs. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should improve the quality of offshore health care and reduce avoidable medical evacuations. Satellite communications and videoconferencing equipment was installed on the 'Alwyn North' oil platform, with medical advice provided via a call centre in Milan. Over a nine-month period, trial telemedicine links were conducted approximately twice per week. The three onshore physicians were very satisfied on each occasion with communications and diagnostic data image quality, including the ultrasound screening carried out by the rig provider. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should reduce unnecessary and/or untimely patient evacuation to hospital or onshore for medical assessment. PMID:18430278

Mair, Fiona; Fraser, Susan; Ferguson, James; Webster, Karyn

2008-01-01

359

Fisheries vol 36 no 7 july 2011 www.fisheries.org332 Potential Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Commercial  

E-print Network

desembarcado antes del derrame en relación a la localización de las vedas espaciales durante julio de 2010. Las promedio en la parte del golfo correspondiente a los EEUU, ha sido afectada por vedas establecidas después The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore drill- ing rig on April 20, 2010, initiated the world's largest

Pauly, Daniel

360

Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico - Landsat 7  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to contain the growing oil slick before it reaches the southern coast of the United States. Landsat imagery, acquired by the U.S. Geological ...

361

Explosive actuated valve  

DOEpatents

1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

Byrne, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

362

Oil Impacts on Coastal Wetlands: Implications for the Mississippi River Delta Ecosystem after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 20 April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon explosion, which released a US government–estimated 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico, was responsible for the death of 11 oil workers and, possibly, for an environmental disaster unparalleled in US history. For 87 consecutive days, the Macondo well continuously released crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Many

Irving A. Mendelssohn; Gary L. Andersen; Donald M. Baltz; Rex H. Caffey; Kevin R. Carman; John W. Fleeger; Samantha B. Joye; Qianxin Lin; Edward Maltby; Edward B. Overton; Lawrence P. Rozas

2012-01-01

363

Sidewall penetrator for oil wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Penetrator bores horizontal holes in well casing to increase trapped oil drainage. Several penetrators operated by common drive are inserted into well at once. Shaft, made from spiraling cable, rotates and thrusts simultaneously through rigid curvilinear guide tube forcing bit through casing into strata. Device pierces more deeply than armor-piercing bullets and shaped explosive charges.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1981-01-01

364

Physically based simulation of explosions  

E-print Network

in the movie Final Fantasy [Columbia Pictures 2001], by Square, and the asteroid detonation in Star Wars: Episode II [Twentieth Century Fox 2002]. The primary goal of my thesis is to implement a physically based explosion simulator into an existing...

Roach, Matthew Douglas

2005-08-29

365

Detonation probabilities of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The probability of a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) following various events is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons dismantlement. In this paper, we describe the development of response curves for insults to PBX 9404, a conventional high-performance explosive used in US weapons. The insults during dismantlement include drops of high explosive (HE), strikes of tools and components on HE, and abrasion of the explosive. In the case of drops, we combine available test data on HEVRs and the results of flooring certification tests to estimate the HEVR probability. For other insults, it was necessary to use expert opinion. We describe the expert solicitation process and the methods used to consolidate the responses. The HEVR probabilities obtained from both approaches are compared.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Bement, T.R.

1995-07-01

366

Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation  

E-print Network

mixtures of methane, oxygen and nitrogen, contained within spherical balloons with controlled initial; EXPLOSIONS; HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES; METHANE; NITROGEN; OXYGEN; PRESSURE MEASUREMENT; REFLECTION; SIMULATION for this is that larger and larger quantities of dangerous materials are produced, transported and consumed

367

Explosivity Conditions of Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the conditions for explosive boiling and gas exsolution of aqueous solutions from a thermodynamic point\\u000a of view. Indeed, the kinetic nature of these processes, hence their explosivity, can be assessed by considering their relation\\u000a with the spinodal curve of these liquids. First, the concepts of mechanical and diffusion spinodals are briefly described,\\u000a which allows us to

R. Thiéry; L. Mercury

2009-01-01

368

Chemical Explosives and Rocket Propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The average citizen in today’s world gives little thought to the important role that commercial explosives play in our lives\\u000a and how their use is linked to our standard of living and our way of life. Explosives provide the energy required to give\\u000a us access to the vast resources of the earth for the advancement of civilization.

Walter B. Sudweeks; Felix F. Chen; Michael D. McPherson

369

NASA Spinoff Article: Automated Procedures To Improve Safety on Oil Rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On May 11th, 2013, two astronauts emerged from the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) and worked their way toward the far end of spacecraft. Over the next 51/2 hours, the two replaced an ammonia pump that had developed a significant leak a few days before. On the ISS, ammonia serves the vital role of cooling components-in this case, one of the station's eight solar arrays. Throughout the extravehicular activity (EVA), the astronauts stayed in constant contact with mission control: every movement, every action strictly followed a carefully planned set of procedures to maximize crew safety and the chances of success. Though the leak had come as a surprise, NASA was prepared to handle it swiftly thanks in part to the thousands of procedures that have been written to cover every aspect of the ISS's operations. The ISS is not unique in this regard: Every NASA mission requires well-written procedures-or detailed lists of step-by-step instructions-that cover how to operate equipment in any scenario, from normal operations to the challenges created by malfunctioning hardware or software. Astronauts and mission control train and drill extensively in procedures to ensure they know what the proper procedures are and when they should be used. These procedures used to be exclusively written on paper, but over the past decade, NASA has transitioned to digital formats. Electronic-based documentation simplifies storage and use, allowing astronauts and flight controllers to find instructions more quickly and display them through a variety of media. Electronic procedures are also a crucial step toward automation: once instructions are digital, procedure display software can be designed to assist in authoring, reviewing, and even executing them.

Garud, Sumedha

2013-01-01

370

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

371

Oil spill response group aiming for full operation  

SciTech Connect

In 15 months the first national oil spill cleanup organization plans to be in operation at sites around the U.S. coast. This paper reports that the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC), financed by major oil companies, plans to begin full operation Feb. 18, 1993. It is considering starting limited operations in selected regions before then. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, an American Petroleum Institute task force proposed creation of a private offshore oil spill response agency. Individual oil companies then began a nonprofit firm that has evolved into MSRC. MSRC has a clearly defined role: It exists to sponsor oil spill research and to respond to catastrophic spills from offshore pipelines, platforms, rigs and tankers, carrying the oil of its sponsoring companies.

Crow, P.

1991-12-02

372

On the relation between rigging inner product and master constraint direct integral decomposition  

SciTech Connect

Canonical quantization of constrained systems with first-class constraints via Dirac's operator constraint method proceeds by the theory of Rigged Hilbert spaces, sometimes also called refined algebraic quantization. This method can work when the constraints form a Lie algebra. When the constraints only close with nontrivial structure functions, the Rigging map can no longer be defined. To overcome this obstacle, the master constraint method has been proposed which replaces the individual constraints by a weighted sum of absolute squares of the constraints. Now the direct integral decomposition (DID) methods, which are closely related to Rigged Hilbert spaces, become available and have been successfully tested in various situations. It is relatively straightforward to relate the rigging inner product to the path integral that one obtains via reduced phase space methods. However, for the master constraint, this is not at all obvious. In this paper we find sufficient conditions under which such a relation can be established. Key to our analysis is the possibility to pass to equivalent, Abelian constraints, at least locally in phase space. Then the master constraint DID for those Abelian constraints can be directly related to the rigging map and therefore has a path integral formulation.

Han Muxin [MPI f. Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institut f. Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Thiemann, Thomas [MPI f. Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Institut f. Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2010-09-15

373

Natural gas in Lake Erie: a reconnaissance survey of discharges from an offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted May 28-June 1, 1979, to determine the chemical composition and physical behavior of discharges from an offshore gas drilling rig in the central basin of Lake Erie. The drilling operation was observed for four days, from rig jackup to the circulation of mud through the borehole after drilling had been completed. Resuspension studies using nephelometry, supplemented with chemical analyses, indicated little resuspension of lake bottom materials or release of metals to the water column during rig jack-up. Portions of the turbidity plumes generated during drilling were buoyant. Three surface turbidity plumes were mapped with nephelometry to a point at which particulate concentrations reached background levels in the Lake. Detectable plumes were approx. 400 to 1500 m in length and had maximum widths < 230 m. A chemical survey conducted in the plume during early gas shows indicated that discharged inorganic chemical species were rapidly diluted to background concentrations and that methane and ethane concentrations were substantially reduced within 330 m of the rig. There was no evidence of carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons (CTEH) above background concentrations during this chemical plume survey. However, a pair of water samples taken within 100 m of the rig approximately 3 hours after drilling of the target zone was completed had CTEH concentrations that were a factor of 2.4 above background.

Ferrante, J.G.; Dettmann, E.H.; Parker, J.I.

1980-10-01

374

Design and Checkout of a High Speed Research Nozzle Evaluation Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Flow Jet Exit Rig (HFJER) was designed to provide simulated mixed flow turbojet engine exhaust for one- seventh scale models of advanced High Speed Research test nozzles. The new rig was designed to be used at NASA Lewis Research Center in the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig and the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Capabilities were also designed to collect nozzle thrust measurement, aerodynamic measurements, and acoustic measurements when installed at the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig. Simulated engine exhaust can be supplied from a high pressure air source at 33 pounds of air per second at 530 degrees Rankine and nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. In addition, a combustion unit was designed from a J-58 aircraft engine burner to provide 20 pounds of air per second at 2000 degrees Rankine, also at nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. These airflow capacities were designed to test High Speed Research nozzles with exhaust areas from eighteen square inches to twenty-two square inches. Nozzle inlet flow measurement is available through pressure and temperature sensors installed in the rig. Research instrumentation on High Speed Research nozzles is available with a maximum of 200 individual pressure and 100 individual temperature measurements. Checkout testing was performed in May 1997 with a 22 square inch ASME long radius flow nozzle. Checkout test results will be summarized and compared to the stated design goals.

Castner, Raymond S.; Wolter, John D.

1997-01-01

375

Saving money on rig refurbishments through foreign trade zones or duty-drawback  

SciTech Connect

The recent boom in day rates for rigs capable of drilling in deep water and harsh environments has created a frenzy of rig refurbishment activity in shipyards located in US Gulf states. In most instances, the destination for the rigs upon completion is the US Outer Continental Shelf (USOCS) in the Gulf of Mexico. The problem faced by contractors/operators planning to use US shipyards is that this circumstance has caused difficulty in shielding rigs and their foreign-sourced components from US Customs duties. Under US Customs law, a bona fide exportation requires severance from US commerce and joining to the commerce of some foreign country or, in the case of a vessel supply, a qualifying international voyage. The USOCS does not qualify as an exportation, nor do movements to drilling sites located on it qualify as an international voyage. Described here are two possible solutions to this economic dilemma and an example of how the foreign trade zone solution was applied by Global marine in its plans for upgrading some of its semisubmersible drilling rigs for deepwater USOCS work.

Ward, R.J. Jr.

1997-02-01

376

Kuwait pressing toward preinvasion oil production capacity  

SciTech Connect

Oil field reconstruction is shifting focus in Kuwait as the country races toward prewar production capacity of 2 million b/d. Oil flow last month reached 1.7 million b/d, thanks largely to a massive workover program that has accomplished about as much as it can. By midyear, most of the 19 rigs in Kuwait will be drilling rather than working over wells vandalized by retreating Iraqi troops in February 1991. Seventeen gathering centers are at work, with capacities totaling 2.4 million b/d, according to state-owned Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC). This article describes current work, the production infrastructure, facilities strategy, oil recovery, well repairs, a horizontal pilot project, the drilling program, the constant reminders of war, and heightened tensions.

Tippee, B.

1993-03-15

377

Hydrogen Fuel Capability Added to Combustor Flametube Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Facility capabilities have been expanded at Test Cell 23, Research Combustor Lab (RCL23) at the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a new gaseous hydrogen fuel system. The purpose of this facility is to test a variety of fuel nozzle and flameholder hardware configurations for use in aircraft combustors. Previously, this facility only had jet fuel available to perform these various combustor flametube tests. The new hydrogen fuel system will support the testing and development of aircraft combustors with zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Research information generated from this test rig includes combustor emissions and performance data via gas sampling probes and emissions measuring equipment. The new gaseous hydrogen system is being supplied from a 70 000-standard-ft3 tube trailer at flow rates up to 0.05 lb/s (maximum). The hydrogen supply pressure is regulated, and the flow is controlled with a -in. remotely operated globe valve. Both a calibrated subsonic venturi and a coriolis mass flowmeter are used to measure flow. Safety concerns required the placement of all hydrogen connections within purge boxes, each of which contains a small nitrogen flow that is vented past a hydrogen detector. If any hydrogen leaks occur, the hydrogen detectors alert the operators and automatically safe the facility. Facility upgrades and modifications were also performed on other fluids systems, including the nitrogen gas, cooling water, and air systems. RCL23 can provide nonvitiated heated air to the research combustor, up to 350 psig at 1200 F and 3.0 lb/s. Significant modernization of the facility control systems and the data acquisition systems was completed. A flexible control architecture was installed that allows quick changes of research configurations. The labor-intensive hardware interface has been removed and changed to a software-based system. In addition, the operation of this facility has been greatly enhanced with new software programming and graphic operator interface stations. Glenn s RCL23 facility systems were successfully checked out in the spring of 2002, and hydrogen combustor research testing began in the summer of 2002.

Frankenfield, Bruce J.

2003-01-01

378

Breccias related to explosive volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive breccia pipes were formed in the phreatomagmatic eruption of Taal volcano 60 km south of Manila, Philippines in September 1976. They were photographed in eruption which consisted of a series of small explosions occurring during the peak of activity at 10 sec intervals. These four breccia pipes formed on the collapse fault marking the margin of the much more intense eruption of 28 September 1965 when a diatreme 800 m in diameter formed. Renewed eruption in October 1977 on one of the breccia pipes blasted out the sealed plug and breccia fragments in all stages of alteration were included in the tephra. They ranged from barely agglomerated to strongly cemented through argillized and pyritized to totally replaced by silica and pyrite, fragments indistinguishable from those found in many mining districts. The violence of the explosion initiating a phreatomagmatic eruptive sequence results in strong crackling of the walls of the pipe and the crakle zone may become mineralized (cf. Braden, Chile). Usually the crater collapses on ring faults after eruption, forming a marginal tectonic breccia which can be mineralized (cf. Balatoc, Philippines.) The small craters with steep inner walls and tapering outer slopes which form during phreatomagmatic eruptions, sometimes containing lakes, are called maars and they are the surficial expression of an explosive breccia pipe or diatreme. Superficially similar craters are formed over kimberlite pipes. Hydrothermal explosion craters are somewhat similar. Collapse breccia pipes can form in the same sequence with explosive pipes. When one rising plug encounters ground water and explodes, fluostatic pressure on any other cupolas rising from the same magma drops rapidly, resulting in withdrawal of magma and collapse of walls and roof (Perry 1961). "Fluidization" is not thought to be of any significance in formation of breccia pipes (Wolfe 1980) contrary to Reynolds (1954) and many authors who have cited that work. An explosive breccia pipe is like an open window resulting in rapid depression of the isotherms of a pluton. A concentrated brine front can build up in minutes after an explosion. The very rapid cooling may explain why many explosive breccia pipes are altered by silica and pyrite only, the system being cooled before metallic solutions have time to replace breccia matrix or fragments.

Wolfe, John A.

379

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

Kuhl, A L

2009-10-16

380

Molecular characterization, expression patterns, and subcellular localization of RIG-I in the Jinding duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) have recently been identified as cytoplasmic sensors for RNA virus. Recent research has shown that RIG-I, a member of this family, play an important role in innate immunity. In this study, we cloned the RIG-I gene from Jinding duck by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). We determined that the cDNA of duRIG-I contains a 14-bp 5' UTR, a 2802-bp open reading frame, and alternative 3' UTRs (295-bp and 927-bp) and encodes a polypeptide of 933 amino acids. Based on this sequence, the duRIG-I protein is predicted to have conserved domains typical of RLRs. In addition, duRIG-I was found to be distributed throughout DF1 cells by indirect immunofluorescence, as predicted. duRIG-I mRNA was scarcely detected in healthy tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR). To study the role of RIG-I in innate immunity, we used synthetic double-stranded RNA to mimic viral infection in vivo and detected duRIG-I transcripts in spleen and liver by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of duRIG-I mRNA was significantly elevated at 8h post-injection (P < 0.05) and was indistinguishable from control levels at other time points (P > 0.05). These results suggest that duRIG-I plays an important role in innate immune responses to double-stranded RNA viruses and warrant further studies to reveal the possible mechanism. PMID:23916689

Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Zhengyang; Xu, Qi; Zhu, Zhen; Tong, Yiyu; Yu, Qinmin; Ding, Jiatong; Chen, Guohong

2013-12-01

381

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

2012-07-18

382

Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Materials Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Technical Memorandum presents the current capabilities of the state-of-the-art Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility. It is used for materials research including oxidation, corrosion, erosion and impact. Consisting of seven computer controlled jet-fueled combustors in individual test cells, these relatively small rigs burn just 2 to 3 gal of jet fuel per hour. The rigs are used as an efficient means of subjecting potential aircraft engine/airframe advanced materials to the high temperatures, high velocities and thermal cycling closely approximating actual operating environments. Materials of various geometries and compositions can be evaluated at temperatures from 700 to 2400 F. Tests are conducted not only on bare superalloys and ceramics, but also to study the behavior and durability of protective coatings applied to those materials.

Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Perez, Michael; Cuy, Michael D.; Robinson, R. Craig

2011-01-01

383

Segmented negative-strand RNA viruses and RIG-I: divide (your genome) and rule.  

PubMed

The group of negative-stranded RNA viruses (NSVs) with a segmented genome comprises pathogens like influenza virus (eight segments), Rift Valley fever virus and Hantavirus (three segments), or Lassa virus (two segments). Partitioning the genome allows rapid evolution of new strains by reassortment. Each segment carries a short double-stranded (ds) 'panhandle' structure which serves as promoter. Similar dsRNA structures, however, represent the optimal ligand for RIG-I, a cytoplasmic pathogen sensor of the antiviral interferon response. Thus, segmenting a virus genome can entail an increased RIG-I sensitivity. Here, we outline the astonishingly diverse and efficient strategies by which segmented NSVs are compensating for the elevated number of RIG-I ligands in their genome. PMID:24930021

Weber, Michaela; Weber, Friedemann

2014-08-01

384

Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Fasteners Exposed in a Combustion Liner Rig Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion tests on SiC/SiC CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) components were performed in an aircraft combustion environment using the Rich-burn, Quick-quench, Lean-burn (RQL) sector rig. SiC/SiC fasteners were used to attach several of these components to the metallic rig structure. The effect of combustion exposure on the fastener material was characterized via microstructural examination. Fasteners were also destructively tested, after combustion exposure, and the failure loads of fasteners exposed in the sector rig were compared to those of as-manufactured fasteners. Combustion exposure reduced the fastener failure load by 50% relative to the as-manufactured fasteners for exposure times ranging from 50 to 260 hours. The fasteners exposed in the combustion environment demonstrated failure loads that varied with failure mode. Fasteners that had the highest average failure load, failed in the same manner as the unexposed fasteners.

Verrilli, Michael J.; Brewer, David; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

385

Analysis of polymorphisms in RIG-I-like receptor genes in German multiple sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Variation in genes encoding retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. We investigated if polymorphisms in the IFIH1, RIG-I, LGP2 and VISA genes influence the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) in a German case-control cohort comprising 716 patients and 706 controls. Evaluation of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes did not reveal significant single-SNP associations with MS risk, but two VISA polymorphisms were modestly associated with age of onset. Further, we provide initial evidence for combinatorial effects of polymorphic variants in the RIG-I, LGP2 and IFIH1 genes on MS risk. PMID:25288302

Varzari, Alexander; Bruch, Kathrin; Deyneko, Igor V; Chan, Andrew; Epplen, Joerg T; Hoffjan, Sabine

2014-12-15

386

76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...metals. Aluminum containing polymeric propellant. Aluminum ophorite explosive. Amatex...excluding ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP)). Ammonium picrate [picrate...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...

2011-10-19

387

75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...metals. Aluminum containing polymeric propellant. Aluminum ophorite explosive. Amatex...excluding ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP)). Ammonium picrate [picrate...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...

2010-11-17

388

77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...metals. Aluminum containing polymeric propellant. Aluminum ophorite explosive. Amatex...excluding ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP)). Ammonium picrate [picrate...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...

2012-09-20

389

Positive Evolutionary Selection On the RIG-I-Like Receptor Genes in Mammals  

PubMed Central

The mammalian RIG-I-like receptors, RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2, are a family of DExD/H box RNA helicases responsible for the cytoplasmic detection of viral RNA. These receptors detect a variety of RNA viruses, or DNA viruses that express unusual RNA species, many of which are responsible for a great number of severe and lethal diseases. Host innate sentinel proteins involved in pathogen recognition must rapidly evolve in a dynamic arms race with pathogens, and thus are subjected to long-term positive selection pressures to avoid potential infections. Using six codon-based Maximum Likelihood methods, we were able to identify specific codons under positive selection in each of these three genes. The highest number of positively selected codons was detected in MDA5, but a great percentage of these codons were located outside of the currently defined protein domains for MDA5, which likely reflects the imposition of both functional and structural constraints. Additionally, our results support LGP2 as being the least prone to evolutionary change, since the lowest number of codons under selection was observed for this gene. On the other hand, the preponderance of positively selected codons for RIG-I were detected in known protein functional domains, suggesting that pressure has been imposed by the vast number of viruses that are recognized by this RNA helicase. Furthermore, the RIG-I repressor domain, the region responsible for recognizing and binding to its RNA substrates, exhibited the strongest evidence of selective pressures. Branch-site analyses were performed and several species branches on the three receptor gene trees showed evidence of episodic positive selection. In conclusion, by looking for evidence of positive evolutionary selection on mammalian RIG-I-like receptor genes, we propose that a multitude of viruses have crafted the receptors biological function in host defense, specifically for the RIG-I gene, contributing to the innate species-specific resistance/susceptibility to diverse viral pathogens. PMID:24312370

Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J.

2013-01-01

390

BOOM CONFIGURATION TESTS FOR CALM-WATER, MEDIUM-CURRENT OIL SPILL DIVERSION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this test program was to determine the effects of boom angle, length, and rigging configuration on diversion of oil floating on moving streams. The B.F. Goodrich Seaboom was chosen for the program because of its availability, durability, and stability. It was rigge...

391

Rapid deployment of oil-drilling tools utilizing distribution network and inventory strategies  

E-print Network

DTS is an oil and gas services company that delivers drilling tools to six major customer districts in the continental U.S. After the tools are used at a rig, they are transported to the closest repair and maintenance (MTC) ...

Rahim, Ryan

2010-01-01

392

46 CFR 162.050-27 - Oil content meter: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...provided in a specific test, the centrifugal pump shown in Figure 162.050-19...No. 7 Oil Particle Size—Centrifugal Pump Test. (1) The meter is...has first passed through the centrifugal pump of the test rig. The...

2011-10-01

393

46 CFR 162.050-27 - Oil content meter: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provided in a specific test, the centrifugal pump shown in Figure 162.050-19...No. 7 Oil Particle Size—Centrifugal Pump Test. (1) The meter is...has first passed through the centrifugal pump of the test rig. The...

2010-10-01

394

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

395

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, D. S.; Rabitz, Herschel; McGrane, S. D.; Greenfield, M.; Scharff, R. J.; Beltrani, V.; Roslund, J.

2009-05-01

396

Preventing melt-water explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive interactions between molten aluminum and water are being studied at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the causes of explosion triggers and the extent of protection provided from various coatings in order to develop a fundamental, cost-effective methodology for prevention. The study includes experimentation and mathematical modeling of the interactions between molten metals and water on various coated and uncoated surfaces. Phenomenological issues related to surface wettability, gas generation from coatings, charring of coatings, inertial constraint, melt temperature, water temperature, and external shocks are being investigated systematically to gage their relative impact on the triggerability of surface-assisted steam explosions. A physics-based novel prevention methodology based on enhancing system stability via air (gas) injection at vulnerable locations has been developed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Taleyarkhan, R. P.

1998-02-01

397

Saccharification of explosively dried corn  

SciTech Connect

Very rapid or explosive drying of grains such as corn leads to obvious physical changes in the macrostructure of the grain kernel, probable alteration in starch molecular structure, and reduction in starch average molecular weight. These changes lead to greater susceptibility to attack by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes. Rates of formation of nonreducing and reducing sugars by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes applied to explosively dried and milled yellow dent corn and small-kernel flint corn were 3.3-10.6 times greater then rates for the normally milled grains. The enzymatic conversion of explosively dried flint corn containing absorbed ethyl alcohol, as would be the case if it had been used as an adsorbent to dewater aqueous ethyl alcohol, was not significantly different from that of ethyl-alcohol-free flint corn. 15 references.

Robertson, G.H.; Zaragosa, E.M.; Pavlath, A.E.

1986-08-01

398

Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques  

SciTech Connect

In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

1980-01-01

399

Test rig and particulate deposit and cleaning evaluation processes using the same  

DOEpatents

A rig and test program for determining the amount, if any, of contamination that will collect in the passages of a fluid flow system, such as a power plant fluid delivery system to equipment assemblies or sub-assemblies, and for establishing methods and processes for removing contamination therefrom. In the presently proposed embodiment, the rig and test programs are adapted in particular to utilize a high-pressure, high-volume water flush to remove contamination from substantially the entire fluid delivery system, both the quantity of contamination and as disposed or deposited within the system.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Schenectady, NY); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01

400

Oxidation of a Silica-Containing Material in a Mach 0.3 Burner Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primarily silica-containing material with traces of organic compounds, as well as aluminum and calcium additions, was exposed to a Mach 0.3 burner rig at atmospheric pressure using jet fuel. The sample was exposed for 5 continuous hours at 1370 C. Post exposure x-ray diffraction analyses indicate formation of cristobalite, quartz, NiO and Spinel (Al(Ni)CR2O4). The rig hardware is composed of a nickel-based superalloy with traces of Fe. These elements are indicated in the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. This material was studied as a candidate for high temperature applications under an engine technology program.

Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

401

Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

Ong, M

2001-12-01

402

Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation results from both the EM collisionless particle code and the MHD particle code reveal an explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, and ensuing amplitude oscillations in the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures are modeled by an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential. This phenomenon may explain the rapid energy release of a certain class of solar flares during their impulsive phase.

Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.-I.

1986-01-01

403

Nonequilibrium detonation of composite explosives  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nonequilibrium diffusional flow on detonation velocities in composite explosives is examined. Detonation conditions are derived for complete equilibrium, temperature and pressure equilibrium, and two forms of pressure equilibrium. Partial equilibria are associated with systems which have not had sufficient time for transport to smooth out the gradients between spatially separate regions. The nonequilibrium detonation conditions are implemented in the CHEQ equation of state code. We show that the detonation velocity decreases as the non-chemical degrees of freedom of the explosive are allowed to equilibrate. It is only when the chemical degrees of freedom are allowed to equilibrate that the detonation velocity increases.

Nichols III, A.L.

1997-07-01

404

Coulomb Explosion and Thermal Spikes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast ion can electronically excite a solid producing a track of damage, a process initially used to detect energetic particles but now used to alter materials. From the seminal paper by Fleischer et al. [Phys. Rev. 156, 353 (1967)] to the present, ``Coulomb explosion'' and thermal spike models have been often treated as competing models for describing ion track effects. Here molecular dynamics simulations of electronic sputtering, a surface manifestation of track formation, show that in the absence of significant quenching Coulomb explosion in fact produces a spike at high excitation density, but the standard spike models are incorrect.

Bringa, E. M.; Johnson, R. E.

2002-04-01

405

Department of Mechanical Engineering/Material Science and Engineering Spring 2013 Project Name Development of Test Rig to  

E-print Network

into an actual project, general machining (boring, reaming, broaching), advanced machining (CNC), and data optical profilometry and devise a test rig for testing samples. General machining (milling, lathing, reaming, boring, keyway broaching) CNC the shaft/test rig Construct the thermal system . Complete test

Demirel, Melik C.

406

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2010 Kenya Water Well Drill Rig Redesign of Engine Drive Train System & Support Tower  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2010 Kenya Water Well Drill Rig ­ Redesign the engine drive train system and support structure for a water drill rig to be used in Kenya. The original of Engine Drive Train System & Support Tower Overview The team was presented with the task of redesigning

Demirel, Melik C.

407

Energy from true in situ processing of antrim shale: Extraction trials in an explosively fractured site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at an oil shale site in Michigan. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of

M. L. Vanderploeg; C. A. Peil; C. G. Kinkel; R. K. Pihlaja; D. A. Murdick; J. R. Frost; M. M. Lund

1980-01-01

408

Proceedings of the sixth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen papers were presented at this symposium. They dealt with properties and performance of chemical explosives, including two papers on underwater applications and another for use in flammable atmospheres (oil shale mines); control and mapping of ground vibrations; research on fragmentation of rock; and measurement of the velocity of detonation. Papers have been indexed separately.

Not Available

1990-01-01

409

Lead-free primary explosives  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat)Y[MII(T)X(H2O)6-X]Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang

2010-06-22

410

Type IA Supernova Explosion Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because calibrated light curves of type Ia supernovae have become a major tool to determine the local expansion rate of the universe and also its geometrical structure, considerable attention has been given to models of these events over the past couple of years. There are good reasons to believe that perhaps most type Ia supernovae are the explosions of white

Wolfgang Hillebrandt; Jens C. Niemeyer

2000-01-01

411

Scientific and Technical Information Explosion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concise review of statistics concerning the expanding volume and user needs of scientific and technical information is presented. It is intended to describe the magnitude of the so-called "information explosion" problem and illustrate how the various forms of communication play a role in meeting the needs of the technical community. Statistics…

Emrich, Barry R.

412

Soft container for explosive nuts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

1981-01-01

413

Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-11-12

414

Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

2007-05-04

415

Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics,

Valk

1993-01-01

416

Detonation wave profiles in HMX based explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detonation wave profiles have been measured in several HMX based plastic bonded explosives including PBX9404, PBX9501, and EDC-37, as well as two HMX powders (coarse and fine) pressed to 65% of crystal density. The powders had 120 and 10 ?m average grain sizes, respectively. Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with projectiles launched in a 72-mm bore gas gun. Impactors, impact velocity, and explosive thickness were chosen so that the run distance to detonation was always less than half the explosive thickness. For the high density plastic bonded explosives, particle velocity wave profiles were measured at an explosive/window interface using two VISAR interferometers. PMMA windows with vapor deposited aluminum mirrors were used for all experiments. Wave profiles for the powdered explosives were measured using magnetic particle velocity gauges. Estimates of the reaction zone parameters were obtained from the profiles using Hugoniots of the explosive and window.

Gustavsen, R. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Alcon, R. R.

1998-07-01

417

76 FR 8923 - Explosive Siting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...division 1.1 explosives and liquid propellants with trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalents...reconcile its launch vehicle liquid propellant requirements with the presence of other...division 1.1 explosives and liquid propellants with TNT equivalency. The FAA...

2011-02-16

418

Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

Clements, D.A.

1994-08-01

419

Astrophysics: A lithium-rich stellar explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of explosions known as novae to the lithium content of the Milky Way is uncertain. Radioactive beryllium, which transforms into lithium, has been detected for the first time in one such explosion. See Letter p.381

Hernanz, Margarita

2015-02-01

420

Experimental study of fuel-air explosive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on an explosion of a fuel-air explosive (FAE) are carried out in open field, and comparative analyses between\\u000a solid fuels, liquid-solid fuels of different recipes, and TNT of the same mass are applied. The results show that the effect\\u000a of the FAE explosion at 3–6 m from the explosion center is definitely more pronounced than that of a TNT

G. Liu; F. Hou; B. Cao; L. Xie; Zh. Shen; T. Zhou

2008-01-01

421

Characterization of secondary grain dust explosions  

E-print Network

(Nember) Richard. B on en (Meshy) Edward A. Hiler (Head. of Department) AuSust 1983 Characterization of Secondary Grain Dust Explosions (August 15S3) Chsryl Wendler Schulman B. S. Texas AAN University Chairman of Advisory Committiee Dr. Calvin B.... Parnell, Jr. Presently, grain dust explosion research has been directed mainly into the mechanisms of the primary explosions with interest in the secondary explosion phenomena being virtually unrecord. ed. . Research 1n the area of' secondary grain...

Schulman, Cheryl Wendler

1983-01-01

422

Transuranic drum hydrogen explosion tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste can produce flammable ({gt}4%) mixtures of hydrogen gas in 55 gallon vented waste storage drums. Explosion testing was conducted at the E. I. duPont Explosion Hazards Laboratory to determine the minimum concentration at which a drum lid removal occurs. A secondary objective was to investigate the maximum pressure and rate of pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. Prior to beginning any drum explosion tests, small-scale pressure vessel tests and drum mixing tests were completed. The pressure vessel tests established a relationship between hydrogen concentration and the maximum pressure and pressure rise. These small-scale tests were used to establish the concentration range over which a drum lid removal might occur. Mixing tests were also conducted to determine the equilibration times for two different hydrogen-air mixtures in a TRU drum. Nine successful drum explosion tests were conducted over a hydrogen concentration range of 13--36% (v/v), test results suggest total integrity failure via drum lid removal will not occur below 15% (v/v). Controlled small-scale pressure vessel tests were conducted over a range of 5--50% (v/v) to determine the pressure and pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. No similar relationship could be established for the drum explosion tests due to the variability in drum lid sealing and retaining ring closure. Mixing tests conducted at 5% and 25% (v/v) indicate adding pure hydrogen to the middle of a drum causes some initial stratification along the drum length, but the air and hydrogen become well-mixed after 50 minutes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

1991-06-01

423

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

424

Robust motion from space curves and 3D reconstruction from multiviews using perpendicular double stereo rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a robust curve based method to reconstruct 3D model of an object from image sequences captured by two perpendicular stereo rigs. First, corresponding points and the geometry of points are computed in stereo images by extracting unique space curves. A new algorithm is proposed to extract unique space curves from plane curves in stereo images based on

Hossein Ebrahimnezhad; Hassan Ghassemian

2008-01-01

425

Asynchronous electric motors for variable-frequency electric drives of drilling rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation peculiarities of the main drilling rig mechanisms are considered. The key specification requirements to asynchronous\\u000a variable-frequency electric motors of the main drives are presented. The possibility of designing and developing the batch\\u000a production of competitive, domestically produced drilling electric motors at enterprises of RUSELPROM concern is grounded.

B. I. Abramov; L. N. Makarov; B. M. Breslav; V. M. Ponomarev; B. M. Parfenov

2009-01-01

426

Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

2003-01-01

427

Design and Implementation of a Characterization Test Rig for Evaluating High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Flow Modulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test rig was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the purpose of characterizing high bandwidth liquid fuel flow modulator candidates to determine their suitability for combustion instability control research. The test rig is capable of testing flow modulators at up to 600 psia supply pressure and flows of up to 2 gpm. The rig is designed to provide a quiescent flow into the test section in order to isolate the dynamic flow modulations produced by the test article. Both the fuel injector orifice downstream of the test article and the combustor are emulated. The effect of fuel delivery line lengths on modulator dynamic performance can be observed and modified to replicate actual fuel delivery systems. For simplicity, water is currently used as the working fluid, although future plans are to use jet fuel. The rig is instrumented for dynamic pressures and flows and a high-speed data system is used for dynamic data acquisition. Preliminary results have been obtained for one candidate flow modulator.

Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; DeLaat, John C.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

2010-01-01

428

Experimental evaluation of a metal-mesh bearing damper in a high speed test rig  

E-print Network

&M University (TAMU) as a bearing damper in a rotordynamic test rig. The test facility was originally used to support the design of a turboprop engine at TAMU, developing squirrel cage bearing supports and squeeze film dampers for both the gas generator...

Zarzour, Mark Joseph

1999-01-01

429

Rigging a horse and rider: simulating the predictable and repetitive movement of the rider  

E-print Network

setup. If an animation piece is only going to have a few shots with a horse and rider, then the trouble of setting up an automated character rig is not practical, but if there are a significant amount of shots with a horse and rider galloping across...

Kuhnel, Jennifer Lynn

2004-09-30

430

Effects of Combustor Rig Exposure on a Porous-Matrix Oxide Composite  

E-print Network

Effects of Combustor Rig Exposure on a Porous-Matrix Oxide Composite Michael A. Mattoni, James Y composite. The material consists of a porous mullite­alumina matrix and Nextel 720 fibers in an eight for aircraft engines have spurred the development of continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs). Ma- terials

Zok, Frank

431

Turbine Air-Flow Test Rig CFD Results for Test Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the Turbine Air-Flow Test (TAFT) rig computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for test matrix. The topics include: 1) TAFT Background; 2) Design Point CFD; 3) TAFT Test Plan and Test Matrix; and 4) CFD of Test Points. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Wilson, Josh

2003-01-01

432

A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)  

SciTech Connect

This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

Bart Patton

2007-09-30

433

A Three-Stage Counter Current Leaching Rig for the Senior Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a reliable and predictable laboratory experiment which represents the result of an integrated approach to design with an emphasis on teaching. Notes the flat-celled rig has logged over 100 hours service in 2 years without any problems. (MVL)

Davies, Wayne A.

1989-01-01

434

An alternate lining scheme for solar ponds - Results of a liner test rig  

SciTech Connect

Solar pond lining schemes consisting of combinations of clays and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) films have been experimentally evaluated by means of a Solar Pond Liner Test Rig. Results indicate that LDPE film sandwiched between two layers of clay can be effectively used for lining solar ponds.

Raman, P.; Kishore, V.V.N. (Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India))

1990-01-01

435

Explosives: A microsensor for trinitrotoluene vapour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing devices designed to detect explosive vapours are bulky, expensive and in need of technological improvement - dogs remain the most effective detectors in the fight against terrorism and in the removal of land-mines. Here we demonstrate the deflagration of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a small localized explosion on an uncoated piezoresistive microcantilever. This explosive-vapour sensor, which has a detection capability

L. A. Pinnaduwage; A. Gehl; D. L. Hedden; G. Muralidharan; T. Thundat; R. T. Lareau; T. Sulchek; L. Manning; B. Rogers; M. Jones; J. D. Adams

2003-01-01

436

Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

2008-05-23

437

Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

Golliher, K. G.

1971-01-01

438

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

Lisa Cartwright

2010-01-01

439

Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Gear Damage Detection Technologies Using Fuzzy Logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spur gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, wear debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Experimental data were collected during experiments performed in this test rig with and without pitting. Results show combining the two measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

2002-01-01

440

Theory versus experiment of the rotordynamic and leakage characteristics of smooth annular bushing oil seals  

E-print Network

bushing oil seals to theoretical predictions from XLLubeGT and XLAnSeal. The experimental results come from a new test rig developed at the Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M University. The two software programs were developed to predict...-mass terms of the seals since XLLubeGT assumes those terms to be zero or negligible. The data used for input into the two seals code was the actual measured conditions from the test rig. As part of the input parameters, inlet inertia effects and thermal...

Culotta, Vittorio G.

2005-02-17

441

In vivo ligands of MDA5 and RIG-I in measles virus-infected cells.  

PubMed

RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs: RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) play a major role in the innate immune response against viral infections and detect patterns on viral RNA molecules that are typically absent from host RNA. Upon RNA binding, RLRs trigger a complex downstream signaling cascade resulting in the expression of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. In the past decade extensive efforts were made to elucidate the nature of putative RLR ligands. In vitro and transfection studies identified 5'-triphosphate containing blunt-ended double-strand RNAs as potent RIG-I inducers and these findings were confirmed by next-generation sequencing of RIG-I associated RNAs from virus-infected cells. The nature of RNA ligands of MDA5 is less clear. Several studies suggest that double-stranded RNAs are the preferred agonists for the protein. However, the exact nature of physiological MDA5 ligands from virus-infected cells needs to be elucidated. In this work, we combine a crosslinking technique with next-generation sequencing in order to shed light on MDA5-associated RNAs from human cells infected with measles virus. Our findings suggest that RIG-I and MDA5 associate with AU-rich RNA species originating from the mRNA of the measles virus L gene. Corresponding sequences are poorer activators of ATP-hydrolysis by MDA5 in vitro, suggesting that they result in more stable MDA5 filaments. These data provide a possible model of how AU-rich sequences could activate type I interferon signaling. PMID:24743923

Runge, Simon; Sparrer, Konstantin M J; Lässig, Charlotte; Hembach, Katharina; Baum, Alina; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Söding, Johannes; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

2014-04-01

442

Dedicated to Sharing Information About Water Management and the Florida LAKEWATCH Program Volume 50 (2010) The Gulf Coast Oil Spill  

E-print Network

50 (2010) The Gulf Coast Oil Spill It has been five months since the explosion and fire. This leaves an estimated 26% (1.27 million barrels or 53,508,000 gallons) of the total oil spilled in the Gulf) is the lead agency for responding to the oil spill and has implemented plans for cleanup and disposal of oil

Jawitz, James W.

443

On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty large scale experiments were conducted to determine the levels of violence of thermal explosions produced by various confinement and heat flow conditions. Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2°C\\/min to 3.3°C\\/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform

Steven K. Chidester; Craig M. Tarver; Leroy G. Green; Paul A. Urtiew

1997-01-01

444

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

445

Operational approach for oil spill monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the methodological approach of the oil spill monitoring system that is being put into operation by the National Petroleum Agency (NPA) in Brazil. The methodology is based on integrated analysis of multi-sensor data which includes satellites products, such as, GOES and AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SeaWiFs chlorophyll concentration, QuikScat near sea surface wind field, GOES and AVHRR convective rain areas, and Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) data from RADARSAT-1 satellite. The methodology is implemented by means of a system composed by four subsystems called, data reception (SAR, GOES, NOAA and QuikScat), Integrator, hydrodynamic model and database. The methodology was applied to the accidental oil spill caused by PETROBRAS oil rig P-36. A RADARSAT-1 image was acquired during accident period at 21:07 (GMT) on 22nd of March 2001 and used. The results are presented and discussed.

Franca, Gutemberg B.; Landau, Luiz; Tores, Audalio R., Jr.; Drumond, Jose A. L.; Fragoso, Mauricio R.; De Almeida, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Gerson G.; Pedroso, Enrico C.; Beisl, Carlos H.

2003-05-01

446

Spot test kit for explosives detection  

DOEpatents

An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

2014-03-11

447

Problems in the theory of point explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

Korobeinikov, V. P.

448

Liquids and homemade explosive detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excerpt from the US Transportation Security Agency website: "The ban on liquids, aerosols and gels was implemented on August 10 after a terrorist plot was foiled. Since then, experts from around the government, including the FBI and our national labs have analyzed the information we now have and have conducted extensive explosives testing to get a better understanding of this specific threat." In order to lift the ban and ease the burden on the flying public, Reveal began an extensive effort in close collaboration with the US and several other governments to help identify these threats. This effort resulted in the successful development and testing of an automated explosive detection system capable of resolving these threats with a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate. We will present here some of the methodology and approach we took to address this problem.

Ellenbogen, Michael; Bijjani, Richard

2009-05-01

449

Photographic laboratory studies of explosions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a series of cinematographic studies of explosions made with a high-speed rotating-mirror streak camera which uses a high-frequency stroboscopic ruby laser as the light source. The results obtained mainly concern explosions initiated by focused laser irradiation from a pulsed neodymium laser in a detonating gas consisting essentially of an equimolar mixture of acetylene and oxygen at an initial pressure of 100 torr at room temperature. Among the most significant observations were observations of a spherical blast wave preceded by a Chapman-Jouguet detonation which is stabilized immediately after initiation, the merging of a spherical flame with a shock front of the blast wave in which the flame is propagating, the division of a spherical detonation front into a shock wave and flame, and the generation of shock waves by a network of spherical flames.

Kamel, M. M.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1973-01-01

450

Explosives detection system and method  

DOEpatents

A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-11

451

Applying NASA's explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length, narrow area of sheet stock into a high-velocity, angular impact against a second sheet. At impact, the oxide films of both surface are broken up and ejected by the closing angle to allow atoms to bond through the sharing of valence electrons. This cold-working process produces joints having parent metal properties, allowing a variety of joints to be fabricated that achieve full strength of the metals employed. Successful joining was accomplished in all aluminum alloys, a wide variety of iron and steel alloys, copper, brass, titanium, tantalum, zirconium, niobium, telerium, and columbium. Safety issues were addressed and are as manageable as many currently accepted joining processes.

Bement, Laurence J.

1991-01-01

452

Preventing large-battery explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This information circular presents a brief history of the lead-acid battery and describes ways to prevent serious injury from battery explosions when servicing and charging lead-acid batteries, particularly in the surface mining industry. The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, battery maufacturers, and the mining industry have all contributed information as well as recommendations for injury-free handling for this report.

Cummins, D.; Pangeri, S. F.

1980-08-01

453

How explosive are volcanic eruptions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population growth in the proximal areas of active and highly dangerous volcanoes is substantial. Despite improvements resulting in increasingly reliable monitoring methods, prediction of volcanic eruptions, both in terms of timing and eruptive style remains subject to major uncertainties. In order to obtain further insights into the eruptive behaviour of explosive volcanoes, we have been involved in investigating pyroclasts generated in laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. Seven sample sets from Unzen (Japan) and Popocatepetl (Mexico) volcanoes have been investigated in order to evaluate the influence of open porosity in combination with applied gas overpressure on the fragmentation behaviour and on the pyroclast generation (fragmentation efficiency). The Unzen samples are derived from block-and-ash flow deposits derived from dome collapse events; two Popocatepetl samples are ballistics from vulcanian eruptions, one sample was taken from a lava flow and the porous sample derives from a sub-plinian pyroclastic flow deposit. All experiments have been performed at well-controlled conditions of pressure, temperature and sample porosity. Using these shock tube based techniques we aim to simulate explosive volcanic eruptions driven by gas overpressure and investigated the grain-size distribution of experimentally generated pyroclasts. Fractal fragmentation theory was applied to each set of grain-size distribution by measuring the fractal dimension of fragmentation (Df). For each sample suite, a general linear increase of Df, i.e. the efficiency of fragmentation, with the potential energy for fragmentation was observed. Interestingly, the Df shows a positive correlation with open porosity for all investigated samples irrespective their origin. However and not surprisingly, some scattering was observed. This may be due to textural variability in the studied samples. It emerges from this study that fractal dimension may be utilised as a proxy for estimating the explosivity of volcanic eruptions by analysing their natural pyroclastic deposits. This may yield the opportunity to draw iso- Df or iso-explosivity contour maps based on fractal statistics. This possibility should be tested in the near future.

Capuccini, F.; Perugini, D.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

2009-12-01

454

THRESHOLD STUDIES ON TNT, COMPOSITION B, C-4, AND ANFO EXPLOSIVES USING THE STEVEN IMPACT TEST  

SciTech Connect

Steven Impact Tests were performed at low velocity on the explosives TNT (trinitrotolulene), Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, and 1% wax by weight), C-4 (91% RDX, 5.3% Di (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate, 2.1% Polyisobutylene, and 1.6% motor oil by weight) and ANFO (94% ammonium Nitrate with 6% Fuel Oil) in attempts to obtain a threshold for reaction. A 76 mm helium driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles up to approximately 200 m/s in attempts to react (ignite) the explosive samples. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, standard video and high-speed photography were used to characterize the level of any high explosive reaction violence. No bulk reactions were observed in the TNT, Composition B, C-4 or ANFO explosive samples impacted up to velocities in the range of 190-200 m/s. This work will outline the experimental details and discuss the lack of reaction when compared to the reaction thresholds of other common explosives. These results will also be compared to that of the Susan Test and reaction thresholds observed in the common small-scale safety tests such as the drop hammer and friction tests in hopes of drawing a correlation.

Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Garcia, F

2006-06-20

455

The Arson & Explosives National Repository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arson & Explosives National Repository, hosted by the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms(ATF), currently includes three database systems, providing statistics gathered by the ATF, the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the US Fire Administration (USFA). The first database, the Explosives Incident System (EXIS), contains several data tables that detail the arson and explosives incidents reported to the ATF from 1975 to 1995. The second database, the USFA's National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS), provides the "world's largest national annual database of fire incident information." NFIRS offers annual data tables for a range of fire incidents from 1981 to 1995. The third database in the repository, Church Arson Task Force Data, presents data on church arsons and bombings from 1995 to 1997; data are displayed in tables, charts, and graphs. Besides providing a list of available data, each system allows users to conduct customizable queries. Within each system, users may search for incident data within a specified date range, or produce a five-year incident summary for any state in the US.

456

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

Kuhl, A L

2010-03-12

457

Explosives detection with energetic photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TITAN has developed a new technique for detecting explosives using an rf linac. The patented EXDEP technique uses an intense 13.5-MeV electron-generated X-ray beam to photoactivate the nitrogen comprising > 18.5% of most explosives. Activated nitrogen (t1/2 = 10 min) decays emitting a positron, which annihilates producing two 511 keV photons that are detected. The rf linac's electron energy is selected to optimize the nitrogen activation and minimize background. In a DARPA/Sandia National Laboratory sponsored countermine program, TITAN developed a model, benchmarked it with experiments, and used it to determine the parameters for a prototype system. Experiments at the Naval Research Laboratory verified that EXDEP could detect plastic and metal buried mines in sand and soil. An EXDEP system has been designed to screen luggage for concealed explosives. An rf linac illuminates the luggage, a detector array provides a 3D image of the activity concentration within the luggage, and a 3D computer tomography X-ray scanner maps the physical density of those areas. Calculations have shown that the probability of detection will be > 99% with a false-alarm probability of < 1%.

Habiger, K. W.; Clifford, J. R.; Miller, R. B.; McCullough, W. F.

1991-05-01

458

Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.  

PubMed

The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

2001-12-01

459

Allocating Information Costs in a Negotiated Information Order: Interorganizational Constraints on Decision Making in Norwegian Oil Insurance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes two types of decisions for insuring mobile oil rigs and fixed installations in the Norwegian North Sea: (1) decisions about information for ratemaking and underwriting, and (2) decisions about the conditions of insurance. Appended are 46 references. (MLF)

Heimer, Carol A.

1985-01-01

460

A distinct role of Riplet-mediated K63-Linked polyubiquitination of the RIG-I repressor domain in human antiviral innate immune responses.  

PubMed

The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infections, but several viruses have evolved strategies to escape innate immunity. RIG-I is a cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor that triggers the signal to induce type I interferon production in response to viral infection. RIG-I activation is regulated by the K63-linked polyubiquitin chain mediated by Riplet and TRIM25 ubiquitin ligases. TRIM25 is required for RIG-I oligomerization and interaction with the IPS-1 adaptor molecule. A knockout study revealed that Riplet was essential for RIG-I activation. However the molecular mechanism underlying RIG-I activation by Riplet remains unclear, and the functional differences between Riplet and TRIM25 are also unknown. A genetic study and a pull-down assay indicated that Riplet was dispensable for RIG-I RNA binding activity but required for TRIM25 to activate RIG-I. Mutational analysis demonstrated that Lys-788 within the RIG-I repressor domain was critical for Riplet-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination and that Riplet was required for the release of RIG-I autorepression of its N-terminal CARDs, which leads to the association of RIG-I with TRIM25 ubiquitin ligase and TBK1 protein kinase. Our data indicate that Riplet is a prerequisite for TRIM25 to activate RIG-I signaling. We investigated the biological importance of this mechanism in human cells and found that hepatitis C virus (HCV) abrogated this mechanism. Interestingly, HCV NS3-4A proteases targeted the Riplet protein and abrogated endogenous RIG-I polyubiquitination and association with TRIM25 and TBK1, emphasizing the biological importance of this mechanism in human antiviral innate immunity. In conclusion, our results establish that Riplet-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination released RIG-I RD autorepression, which allowed the access of positive factors to the RIG-I protein. PMID:23950712

Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Miyashita, Moeko; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

2013-01-01

461

Involvement of the prostaglandin D2 signal pathway in retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-mediated suppression of cell invasion in testis cancer cells.  

PubMed

Retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1), also called tazarotene-induced gene 3, belongs to the HREV107 gene family, which contains five members in humans. RIG1 is expressed in high levels in well-differentiated tissues, but its expression is decreased in cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. We found RIG1 to be highly expressed in testicular cells. When RIG1 was expressed in NT2/D1 testicular cancer cells, neither cell death nor cell viability was affected. However, RIG1 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in NT2/D1 cells. We found that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) interacted with RIG1 using yeast two-hybrid screens. Further, we found PTGDS to be co-localized with RIG1 in NT2/D1 testis cells. In RIG1-expressing cells, elevated levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), cAMP, and SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX9) were observed. This indicated that RIG1 can enhance PTGDS activity. Silencing of PTGDS expression significantly decreased RIG1-mediated cAMP and PGD2 production. Furthermore, silencing of PTGDS or SOX9 alleviated RIG1-mediated suppression of migration and invasion. These results suggest that RIG1 will suppress cell migration/invasion through the PGD2 signaling pathway. In conclusion, RIG1 can interact with PTGDS to enhance its function and to further suppress NT2/D1 cell migration and invasion. Our study suggests that RIG1-PGD2 signaling might play an important role in cancer cell suppression in the testis. PMID:22960220

Wu, Chang-Chieh; Shyu, Rong-Yaun; Wang, Chun-Hua; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Wang, Lu-Kai; Chen, Mao-Liang; Jiang, Shun-Yuan; Tsai, Fu-Ming

2012-12-01

462

The first oil price explosion 1971-1974  

E-print Network

The 1970 price of Saudi Light crude was $1.21, of which 89 cents was excise tax. By end-1974, the price was about $11, of which 30-50 cents was a fee paid to the former owners, now operators. The detailed history of the ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1990-01-01

463

Shale oil recovery process  

DOEpatents

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01

464

Intravesical explosions during transurethral endoscopic procedures.  

PubMed

Every Urologist, during the course of fulguration treatment of bladder tumours, has at some time or another experienced small intravesical explosions usually manifesting as a "pop". Major intravesical explosions are rare but potentially devastating complications of transurethral endoscopic resections. The damage to the bladder can range from small mucosal tears to bladder rupture, which can either be intraperitoneal (requiring laparotomy and open bladder repair) or extraperitoneal. We review the literature on intravesical explosions to determine the aetiology of these explosions and suggest strategies to prevent these. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain information using search terms: intravesical explosions, transurethral procedures, endoscopic procedures, diathermyIntravesical explosions occur due to the production of explosive gases during use of diathermy on human tissues. The most dangerous combination is hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen alone is not explosive and it only becomes explosive when admixed with oxygen. Oxygen is not produced in sufficient quantity during diathermy to cause explosions but can enter into the bladder from the atmosphere during endoscopic procedures. Careful operative technique (correct use of the Ellick evacuator bulb and reducing the frequency of manual irrigations of the bladder) with minimisation of the operative time and using the coagulation current at moderate power as well as judicious coagulation of tissues can reduce the risk of this dangerous complication arising. PMID:17171415

Khan, A; Masood, J; Ghei, M; Kasmani, Z; Ball, A J; Miller, R

2007-01-01

465

75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission...Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire, and oil spill and to develop options to guard...

2010-10-22

466

75 FR 56526 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission...Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire, and oil spill and to develop options to guard...

2010-09-16

467

An Earth-System Approach to Understanding the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Deepwater Horizon explosion on April 20, 2010, and the subsequent release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico created an ecological disaster of immense proportions. The estimates of the amounts of oil, whether for the amount released per day or the total amount of oil disgorged from the well, call on numbers so large they defy the capacity of most…

Robeck, Edward

2011-01-01

468

75 FR 47584 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission...Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire and oil spill and to develop options to guard...

2010-08-06

469

75 FR 60097 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission...Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire, and oil spill and to develop options to guard...

2010-09-29

470

75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission...Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire, and oil spill and to develop options to guard...

2010-11-15

471

Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico - Landsat 7 (caption embedded)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to contain the growing oil slick before it reaches the southern coast of the United States. Landsat imagery, acquired by the U.S. Geological ...

472

Measurements in support of the Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil spill response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) drilling platform on 20 April 2010 began a long response by the United Area Command. Previous responses to oil spills were limited in time due to the amount of oil spilled and were generally confined to the surface. Some of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in 1500 meters of water broke

Richard L. Crout

2011-01-01

473

Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

Bement, L. J. (inventor)

1974-01-01

474

Strict Liability, Capped Strict Liability Care Effort Under Asymmetric Information  

E-print Network

58) 1. Introduction In April 2010, the BP's offshore drilling rig explosion spilled crude oil. It studies the agency relationship between a principal (a government through for instance a regulatory agency

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

475

Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by RIG-I  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY TRIM25 mediates Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of the N-terminal CARDs of the viral RNA sensor RIG-I, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. Here, we report that the influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) specifically inhibits TRIM25-mediated RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, thereby suppressing RIG-I signal transduction. A novel domain in NS1 comprising E96/E97 residues mediates its interaction with the coiled-coil domain of TRIM25, thus blocking TRIM25 multimerization and RIG-I CARD ubiquitination. Furthermore, a recombinant influenza A virus expressing an E96A/E97A NS1 mutant is defective in blocking TRIM25-mediated anti-viral IFN response and loses virulence in mice. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of influenza virus to inhibit host IFN response and also emphasize the vital role of TRIM25 in modulating viral infections. PMID:19454348

Gack, Michaela Ulrike; Albrecht, Randy Allen; Urano, Tomohiko; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Huang, I-Chueh; Carnero, Elena; Farzan, Michael; Inoue, Satoshi; Jung, Jae Ung; García-Sastre, Adolfo

2009-01-01

476

Threshold Assessment of Gear Diagnostic Tools on Flight and Test Rig Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for defining thresholds for vibration-based algorithms that provides the minimum number of false alarms while maintaining sensitivity to gear damage was developed. This analysis focused on two vibration based gear damage detection algorithms, FM4 and MSA. This method was developed using vibration data collected during surface fatigue tests performed in a spur gearbox rig. The thresholds were defined based on damage progression during tests with damage. The thresholds false alarm rates were then evaluated on spur gear tests without damage. Next, the same thresholds were applied to flight data from an OH-58 helicopter transmission. Results showed that thresholds defined in test rigs can be used to define thresholds in flight to correctly classify the transmission operation as normal.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Edward M.

2003-01-01

477

Energy efficient engine pin fin and ceramic composite segmented liner combustor sector rig test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt and Whitney has successfully completed a comprehensive test program using a 90-degree sector combustor rig that featured an advanced two-stage combustor with a succession of advanced segmented liners. Building on the successful characteristics of the first generation counter-parallel Finwall cooled segmented liner, design features of an improved performance metallic segmented liner were substantiated through representative high pressure and temperature testing in a combustor atmosphere. This second generation liner was substantially lighter and lower in cost than the predecessor configuration. The final test in this series provided an evaluation of ceramic composite liner segments in a representative combustor environment. It was demonstrated that the unique properties of ceramic composites, low density, high fracture toughness, and thermal fatigue resistance can be advantageously exploited in high temperature components. Overall, this Combustor Section Rig Test program has provided a firm basis for the design of advanced combustor liners.

Dubiel, D. J.; Lohmann, R. P.; Tanrikut, S.; Morris, P. M.

1986-01-01

478

Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

Zaplatynsky, I.

1982-01-01

479

A Comparison Study of Magnetic Bearing Controllers for a Fully Suspended Dynamic Spin Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a fully suspended magnetic bearing system for the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR) that is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. Two heteropolar radial magnetic bearings and a thrust bearing and the associated control system were integrated into the DSR to provide noncontact magnetic suspension and mechanical excitation of the 35 lb vertical rotor with blades to induce turbomachinery blade vibration. A simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with a special feature for multidirectional radial excitation worked very well to both support and shake the shaft with blades. However, more advanced controllers were developed and successfully tested to determine the optimal controller in terms of sensor and processing noise reduction, smaller rotor orbits, and energy savings for the system. The test results of a variety of controllers we demonstrated up to the rig's maximum allowable speed of 10,000 rpm are shown.

Choi, Benjamin; Johnson, Dexter; Morrison, Carlos; Mehmed, Oral; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

480

Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

2004-01-01

481

Energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine component rig performance test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rig test of the cooled high-pressure turbine component for the Energy Efficient Engine was successfully completed. The principal objective of this test was to substantiate the turbine design point performance as well as determine off-design performance with the interaction of the secondary flow system. The measured efficiency of the cooled turbine component was 88.5 percent, which surpassed the rig design goal of 86.5 percent. The secondary flow system in the turbine performed according to the design intent. Characterization studies showed that secondary flow system performance is insensitive to flow and pressure variations. Overall, this test has demonstrated that a highly-loaded, transonic, single-stage turbine can achieve a high level of operating efficiency.

Leach, K. P.

1983-01-01

482

Performance of Diesel-Electric Rig for Deep-Well Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful operation of a big diesel-electric powered drilling rig has permitted the taking of accurate electrical data during normal deep-well drilling on each of the main motor drives and on the engine-generator sets. This paper presents: A description of the power plant and the main power equipment; an elementary power diagram showing the main d-c circuits; a discussion of

E. C. Clark; B. L. Moore

1949-01-01

483

Coxsackievirus Cloverleaf RNA Containing a 5? Triphosphate Triggers an Antiviral Response via RIG-I Activation  

PubMed Central

Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5? triphosphate (5?ppp)-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5?ppp. We show here that a 5?ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL) RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand. PMID:24759703

Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A.; Olagnier, David; Chiang, Cindy; van de Winkel, Roel; van Essen, Peter; Zoll, Jan; Hiscott, John; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

2014-01-01

484

Rig Side Online Drilling Support System for Prediction and Prevention of Upcoming Crises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety requirements play a central role in drilling operations worldwide. Especially, protecting the crew from injury, preventing damage to equipment and avoiding environmental pollution are of utmost importance. Prevailing drilling procedures already provide a high degree of safety; but uncertainties hinder efficient and accurate risk assessment. Uncertainties are primarily introduced due to the unknown structure of the rock formation and other unknowns in the drilling process. Insufficient insight into ongoing processes may therefore lead to unexpected and unwanted critical drilling situations. To support drilling engineers in the early detection and subsequently in the prevention of upcoming crises, we present a modular drilling support system for in-situ usage on rigs which improves insight into processes and current drilling operations. In our case, the system consists of a complete data processing chain including several modules for data acquisition from sensors on the drilling platform, feature generation, online learning and problem-specific visualization. While data acquisition modules collect data from sensors at the rig and produce a live data stream in an appropriate format, the data processing algorithms analyze the data streams in real time and classify the drilling operations, detect emerging potentially critical situations and give appropriate advice to the drilling crew, if possible. A (geo-)physically motivated extended feature generator produces additional features to improve the quality-performance (recognition rate) of the algorithms. Finally, all sensor data streams as well as the output of the extended feature generator, the results of several adaptive online learning algorithms and a set of sensor data quality indicators of the rig are visualized in a novel user interface to support drilling employees at the rig. As a result, the current drilling situation is presented in a comprehensive manner and in real time.

Jandl, B.; Winter, M.; Fruhwirth, R.; Riedel, F.; Zeiner, H.

2012-04-01

485

Haze growth on reticles: What's the RigHT thing to do?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors are reporting on the comparison of various industry methods of managing, controlling and limiting haze growth on 193nm reticles. This comparison includes reporting on the results from the Reticle Haze Treatment (RigHT) process developed at Micron / Photronics Mask Technology Center and transferred to Photronics, Inc. This process provides 193nm PSM reticles that have shown no haze growth after excessive wafer exposures and are usable for the life of the reticle.

McDonald, Steven M.; Chalom, Daniel V.; Green, Michael J.; McMurran, Jeffrey A.; Garrett, Michael B.; Dlouhy, David W.

2009-04-01

486

Entropy Generation/Availability Energy Loss Analysis Inside MIT Gas Spring and "Two Space" Test Rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the entropy generation and availability energy loss analysis under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating helium gas flow in two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test rigs piston-cylinder and piston-cylinder-heat exchanger are presented. Two solution domains, the gas spring (single-space) in the piston-cylinder test rig and the gas spring + heat exchanger (two-space) in the piston-cylinder-heat exchanger test rig are of interest. Sage and CFD-ACE+ commercial numerical codes are used to obtain 1-D and 2-D computer models, respectively, of each of the two solution domains and to simulate the oscillating gas flow and heat transfer effects in these domains. Second law analysis is used to characterize the entropy generation and availability energy losses inside the two solution domains. Internal and external entropy generation and availability energy loss results predicted by Sage and CFD-ACE+ are compared. Thermodynamic loss analysis of simple systems such as the MIT test rigs are often useful to understand some important features of complex pattern forming processes in more complex systems like the Stirling engine. This study is aimed at improving numerical codes for the prediction of thermodynamic losses via the development of a loss post-processor. The incorporation of loss post-processors in Stirling engine numerical codes will facilitate Stirling engine performance optimization. Loss analysis using entropy-generation rates due to heat and fluid flow is a relatively new technique for assessing component performance. It offers a deep insight into the flow phenomena, allows a more exact calculation of losses than is possible with traditional means involving the application of loss correlations and provides an effective tool for improving component and overall system performance.

Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Savadekar, Rupesh T.; Patel, Kaushal V.

2006-01-01

487

Fully Suspended, Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig With Forced Excitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig, a significant advancement in the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR), is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under rotating and nonrotating conditions in a vacuum. The rig has as its critical components three magnetic bearings: two heteropolar radial active magnetic bearings and a magnetic thrust bearing. The bearing configuration allows full vertical rotor magnetic suspension along with a feed-forward control feature, which will enable the excitation of various natural blade modes in bladed disk test articles. The theoretical, mechanical, electrical, and electronic aspects of the rig are discussed. Also presented are the forced-excitation results of a fully levitated, rotating and nonrotating, unbladed rotor and a fully levitated, rotating and nonrotating, bladed rotor in which a pair of blades was arranged 180 degrees apart from each other. These tests include the bounce mode excitation of the rotor in which the rotor was excited at the blade natural frequency of 144 Hz. The rotor natural mode frequency of 355 Hz was discerned from the plot of acceleration versus frequency. For nonrotating blades, a blade-tip excitation amplitude of approximately 100 g/A was achieved at the first-bending critical (approximately 144 Hz) and at the first-torsional and second-bending blade modes. A blade-tip displacement of 70 mils was achieved at the first-bending critical by exciting the blades at a forced-excitation phase angle of 908 relative to the vertical plane containing the blades while simultaneously rotating the shaft at 3000 rpm.

Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew; Kurkov, Anatole; Montague, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Mehmed, Oral; Johnson, Dexter; Jansen, Ralph

2004-01-01

488

DOUBLE-RIG TWIN SHRIMP-TRAWLING GEAR USED IN GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

DOUBLE-RIG TWIN SHRIMP-TRAWLING GEAR USED IN GULF OF MEXICO llar I IL Hulhs .Ir. I Ilt nil d Doublt ndhn prOblems of the doubl -rigoed r. been scattered attempts t apph hon o~ a twin trawlll1g t chmqu;27 NEUTRAL DOOR OR "SLED" FOR TWIN TRAWL 32" LAZYLINE TAG 1F=== ==91 FOOTROPE CONNECTIONS TOP VIEW II f li

489