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1

Oil Spill Response and Research The 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig explosion and your health  

E-print Network

Oil Spill Response and Research The 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig explosion and your health Safety at NIEHS, obtained samples of the Deepwater Horizon crude oil and dispersants, and is conducting tests Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion, by providing safety training for cleanup workers, and initiating

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

2

An energy-saving oil drilling rig for recovering potential energy and decreasing motor power  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy-saving oil drilling rig is researched. A large accumulator is adopted in this rig to store the energy of the motor during the auxiliary time of lifting the drill stem and the potential energy of the drill stem when lowered. The equipped power of this rig decreases remarkably compared with the conventional drilling rig, and this rig can also

Lujun Zhang

2011-01-01

3

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2013-10-01

4

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2011-10-01

5

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2012-10-01

6

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2010-10-01

7

HURRICANE PREDICTION, OIL RIGS, AND INSURANCE: KATRINA, RITA, AND BEYOND  

E-print Network

HURRICANE PREDICTION, OIL RIGS, AND INSURANCE: KATRINA, RITA, AND BEYOND LUNCHEON BRIEFING the recent images of Katrina and Rita marching in relentless slow motion toward the Gulf Coast and know industries. In the days after Katrina, Senator DeMint stated, "After reviewing the actions taken

8

World Oil`s marine drilling rigs `97/`98  

SciTech Connect

The paper lists performance data for each of 588 mobile offshore drilling units in worldwide competitive and state-owned fleets. Listings are separated into four categories, including: jackups (362); semi-submersibles (147); drillships and barges (70); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (9). Owners and rigs are listed alphabetically, with rigs grouped by class under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. Addresses of owners/managers are shown in a separate table.

NONE

1997-12-01

9

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01

10

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shales  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01

11

A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

Howard, Samuel A.

2007-01-01

12

155The Great Gulf Oil Catastrophe of 2010 NASA's Terra satellite flew over the Deepwater Horizon rig's oil spill in the Gulf  

E-print Network

155The Great Gulf Oil Catastrophe of 2010 NASA's Terra satellite flew over the Deepwater Horizon of the slick from space. The oil slick resulted from an accident at the Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf rig's oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on Saturday, May 1 and captured the above natural-color image

13

A Measurement of Oil Film Pressure Distribution in Connecting Rod Bearing With Test Rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

In designing an optimum connecting rod, it is necessary to determine the oil film pressure (OFP) distribution at the big end under the actual engine operating conditions because it is used as the boundary conditions in a structural analysis. Since it is very difficult to measure the OFP distribution, a bearing test rig has been developed to simulate the load

Tsuyoshi Masuda; Kenshi Ushijima; Kyugo Hamai

1992-01-01

14

Evaluation and comparison of occupational noise exposure among workers on offshore and onshore oil well drilling rigs  

E-print Network

EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE AMONG WORKERS ON OFFSHORE AND ONSHORE OIL WELL DRILLING RIGS A Thesis by HUMBERTO SUAREZ GARCIA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Safety Engineering EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE AMONG WORKERS ON OFFSHORE AND ONSHORE OIL WELL DRILLING RIGS A Thesis by HUMBERTO SUAREZ GARCIA...

Suarez Garcia, Humberto

1984-01-01

15

Permanently Attached Single PZT Guided Wave Encoded Sensor for Flood Detection of Oil Rig Crossbeams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents preliminary results of a new guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow crossbeam members of offshore steel oil-rigs. A sensor, permanently attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 10m×0.5m ×16mm, completely immersed in seawater showed that although attenuation was significant, the system successfully identified the signals.

Mijarez, R.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, M.

2005-04-01

16

Identification of oil film coefficients of large journal bearings on a full scale journal bearing test rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt of adding a facility of investigating dynamic characteristics of oil film to a large full scale journal bearing test rig which was designed with only the function of static measurement is implemented. The considerations of impulse excitation, vibration measurement, data log and process, and dynamic characteristics identification are presented. The measured results are compared with theoretical data and

G. D. Jiang; H. Hu; W. Xu; Z. W. Jin; Y. B. Xie

1997-01-01

17

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...portion of the test rig piping. (c) Each test rig must have a centrifugal pump that is designed to operate at 1,000 revolutions per minute or more. (d) The mixture pipe on a test rig must have a uniform inside diameter. FIGURE...

2014-10-01

18

NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill - Duration: 1:56.  

NASA Video Gallery

Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

19

An axisymmetric guided wave encoded system for flood detection of oil rig cross-beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and completely autonomous guided wave system for flood detection in the hollow cross-beam members of offshore steel oil rigs is presented. Underwater non-destructive testing methods such as ultrasound have been used to inspect for the presence of seawater in these applications, often in conjunction with remote operating vehicles. Alternatively, a monolithic PZT guided wave transducer which can be permanently attached to a sub-sea installation and that can be powered by the action of the seawater is now being developed. Upon activation, the transducer transmits an ultrasound-encoded signal to a receiver, in the form of a real-time digital signal processing system at the surface level. Experiments have been carried out using a jointed steel pipe structure, 10 m in length, 0.5 m in diameter and 16 mm in thickness, completely immersed in seawater. The transmitter was attached to the inner wall of a spur pipe and configured to generate narrow bandwidth, low frequency ultrasonic chirp signals, coupled to the pipe as an axisymmetric mode. Results confirmed that although some attenuation occurs, the system signal processing system successfully identified the signals above the background noise.

Mijarez, Rito; Gaydecki, Patrick; Burdekin, Michael

2005-11-01

20

China on the move: Oil price explosion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid expansion of highway and jet traffic in China has created a surge of demand for oil products, putting pressure on world energy markets and petroleum product prices. This paper examines trends in freight and passenger traffic to assess how growth in China's transport demand relates to growth in China's economy, as well as the energy intensity of transport. Based

Jeffrey Skeer; Yanjia Wang

2007-01-01

21

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01

22

Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

2011-01-01

23

Continuous Structural Monitoring of Oil Rig Sub-Sea Structures for Flood Member Detection Using Axisymmetric Guided Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An axisymmetric guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of offshore steel oil-rigs is presented. A sensor, attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m × 0.5 m × 16 mm, completely immersed in seawater showed optimal performance at 38 kHz contrasted to 21 kHz, corroborating values predicted by disperse theoretical model.

Mijarez, R.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, M.

2006-03-01

24

Computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The steps in assembling the computational tools needed to simulate the explosive fracture of oil shale have been described. The resulting code, with its input data, was then used to simulate three explosive field experiments. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with what actually occurred in the field. Further detailed comparisons are in progress for these experiments and the others that have been conducted. As this is done, improvements will be made in the input data and in the code physics. The development of computer codes as tools to predict rock breakage makes a variety of interesting studies possible. The properties of the explosive can be changed to see how the extent of rubbling is affected. Studies of spacing and delays for decked charges are also possible. Finally, the codes can be applied in situations, such as confined-volume blasting, at the frontiers of blasting technology. These areas are vital to the effective utilization of our oil shale resources, especially with in situ techniques. Computer simulation will play a central role in the development of new technology for energy and mineral resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.

1980-01-01

25

Airborne Ocean Surveys of the Loop Current Complex From NOAA WP-3D in Support of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill  

E-print Network

Horizon Oil Spill Lynn K. Shay1 , Benjamin Jaimes1 , Jodi K. Brewster1 , Patrick Meyers1 , E. Claire Mc-1098. email : nshay@rsmas.miami.edu #12;2 Abstract At the time of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion periphery. #12;3 1. Introduction On 20 April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil rig, located at a water

26

Ambient Pressure Test Rig Developed for Testing Oil-Free Bearings in Alternate Gases and Variable Pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team at the NASA Glenn Research Center is conducting research to develop turbomachinery systems that utilize high-speed, high temperature foil (air) bearings that do not require an oil lubrication system. Such systems combine the most advanced foil bearings from industry with NASA-developed hightemperature solid-lubricant technology. New applications are being pursued, such as Oil- Free turbochargers, auxiliary power units, and turbine propulsion systems for aircraft. An Oil-Free business jet engine, for example, would be simpler, lighter, more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain than current engines. Another application is NASA's Prometheus mission, where gas bearings will be required for the closed-cycle turbine based power-conversion system of a nuclear power generator for deep space. To support these applications, Glenn's Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team developed the Ambient Pressure Test Rig. Using this facility, researchers can load and heat a bearing and evaluate its performance with reduced air pressure to simulate high altitude conditions. For the nuclear application, the test chamber can be purged with gases such as helium to study foil gas bearing operation in working fluids other than air.

Bauman, Steven W.

1990-01-01

27

77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the...take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures...regulations. Reporting ExxonMobil has not used explosives for any rig structure removal...

2012-07-03

28

Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off

George E. Staller; Gary Whitlow

1999-01-01

29

Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.  

PubMed

Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness. PMID:1546944

Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

1992-02-01

30

Cryogenic Feedthrough Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic feedthrough test rig (CFTR) allows testing of instrumentation feedthroughs at liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen temperature and pressure extremes (dangerous process fluid) without actually exposing the feedthrough to a combustible or explosive process fluid. In addition, the helium used (inert gas), with cryogenic heat exchangers, exposes the feedthrough to that environment that allows definitive leak rates of feedthrough by typical industry-standard helium mass spectrometers.

Skaff, Antony

2009-01-01

31

Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).  

PubMed

On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf. PMID:24720059

Flin, Rhona

2014-03-01

32

Oil in the Water, Fire in the Sky: Responding to Technological/Environmental Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On April 20, 2010, a massive explosion killed 11 workers on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Survivors of this explosion recounted terrifying near-death experiences and mourned the loss of coworkers and friends who had perished. Shock and grief spread through small coastal communities composed mostly of fishers and oil workers. However, this was…

Lazarus, Philip J.; Sulkowski, Michael L.

2010-01-01

33

Observations of the plume generated by the December 2005 oil depot explosions and prolonged fire at Buncefield (Hertfordshire, UK) and  

E-print Network

1 Observations of the plume generated by the December 2005 oil depot explosions and prolonged fire at the Buncefield oil depot in December 2005 afforded a rare opportunity to study the atmospheric consequences; potential gradient 1. Introduction Following a large explosion at the Buncefield oil depot, (southern UK

34

Tracking the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A modeling perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was caused by a drilling rig explosion on 20 April 2010 that killed 11 people. It was the largest oil spill in U.S. history and presented an unprecedented threat to Gulf of Mexico marine resources. Although oil gushing to the surface diminished after the well was capped, on 15 July 2010, much remains to be

Yonggang Liu

2011-01-01

35

Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation  

SciTech Connect

On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in about 30 days. Several other Sandia instruments being developed for geothermal drilling are also being evaluated during this operation, Successful performance of these instruments on this important drilling job will reinforce our efforts to commercialize this technology for the geothermal and oil and gas drilling industries. Sandia's Rolling Float Meter was developed through the Lost Circulation Technology Program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. It monitors drilling fluid returns to rapidly detect loss of circulation during geothermal drilling. Lost circulation is particularly prevalent in geothermal wells, and can add as much as 10% to the total cost of drilling the well. Consequently, rapid detection and treatment of lost circulation is necessary for cost- effective geothermal drilling. Sandia has been evaluating and demonstrating the capabilities of the RFM to the geothermal industry for several years. In addition to lost circulation, the RFM is also useful for accurately detecting well kicks. Contacts have been made with mud logging companies that are involved with both geothermal and oil and gas drilling operations.

Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

1999-04-27

36

Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

1980-01-01

37

25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL ENDLESS-WIRE RIG IN VOLCANO. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

38

Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

2005-01-01

39

Placement of explosive for forming in situ oil shale retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by initially excavating a number of vertically spaced apart voids within a retort site, leaving an intervening zone of unfragmented formation between an adjacent pair of such voids. The intervening zone has substantially parallel upper and lower horizontal free faces adjoining the voids. At least one pancake-shaped load

H. E. Mccarthy; G. B. French; M. A. Cook

1982-01-01

40

Placement of explosive for forming in situ oil shale retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by initially excavating a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids within a retort site, leaving an intervening zone of unfragmented formation between an adjacent pair of such voids. The intervening zone has substantially parallel upper and lower horizontal free faces adjoining the voids. At least one pancake-shaped load

M. A. Cook; G. B. French; H. E. McCarthy

1982-01-01

41

Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture and fragmentation studies on 80 ml\\/kg Anvil Points oil shale with plate impact, Hopkinson bar, capacitor discharge, and HE techniques have shown that the dynamic fracture stress, fracture energy, and fragment size depend on the rate of tensile loading. A model coupling fracture, fragmentation, and stress wave propagation and based on the activation and growth of an initial Weibull

D. E. Grady; M. E. Kipp

1980-01-01

42

Male torque strength in simulated oil rig tasks: the effects of grease-smeared gloves and handle length, diameter and orientation.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effects of two glove conditions and selected handle and task characteristics on tightening (clockwise) torques on cylindrical handles in simulated oil rig tasks. Ten males exerted MVC torques with the right hand on nine handles with different length-diameter combinations (3.8, 7.6, and 12.7 cm in length with 3.8, 6.7, and 8.4 cm in diameter) with dry and grease-smeared gloves in two orientations. The results showed a 50% reduction of torque when using grease-smeared glove compared to dry glove; a 15% increase with the long handle compared to the short one; a 25% increase with the medium diameter handle compared to the small one; and a 12% increase with the horizontally oriented handle compared with the vertical one. There were important interaction effects also. PMID:10484281

Imrhan, S N; Farahmand, K

1999-10-01

43

Fractionation of oil palm frond hemicelluloses by water or alkaline impregnation and steam explosion.  

PubMed

Steam explosion of oil palm frond has been carried out under different temperatures between 180 and 210°C for 4 min (severity of 2.96-3.84) after impregnation of the frond chips with water or KOH solution. The effects of impregnation and steam explosion conditions of oil palm fronds on the water soluble fraction and insoluble fraction were investigated. The maximum yield of hemicelluloses in water soluble fractions recovered was 23.49% and 25.33% for water and KOH impregnation, treated with steam explosion at temperature of 210°C (severity of 3.84) with a fractionation efficiency of 77.30% and 83.32%, respectively. Under this condition, the water insoluble fractions contained celluloses at 60.83% and 64.80% for water and KOH impregnation, respectively. The steam explosion temperature of 210°C for 4 min (logR(o) 3.84) was found to be the best condition in the extraction of hemicelluloses from OPF for both types of impregnation. PMID:25439929

Sabiha-Hanim, Saleh; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azemi; Rosma, Ahmad

2015-01-22

44

Airborne Ocean Surveys of the Loop Current Complex From NOAA WP-3D in Support of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

E-print Network

the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Record-Breaking Enterprise Geophysical Monograph Series 195 Copyright 2011 Horizon Oil Spill Lynn K. Shay,1 Benjamin Jaimes,1 Jodi K. Brewster,1 Patrick Meyers,1 E. Claire Mc At the time of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion, the Loop Current (LC), a warm ocean current

Miami, University of

45

Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

1985-01-01

46

Use of air-deployed drogued drifting buoys for oil spill tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill resulting from the Macondo oil well blowout, catastrophic explosion, and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible offshore drilling rig is unprecedented. The complex oceanographic and environmental character of the spill location and the application of vast quantities of chemical dispersants combined to create greater challenges for those tasked with

Neha Sharma; Peter Brickley; George Owen; Patrice Coholan

2010-01-01

47

Subsea Application of Dispersant in Deep Oil Spills: Lessons Learned from the 2010 Deepwater  

E-print Network

Subsea Application of Dispersant in Deep Oil Spills: Lessons Learned from the 2010 Deepwater of Hawaii Abstract On 20 April 2010, an explosion occurred on the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig. The DWH spill was the largest oil spill on water and the third largest in history. An estimated 760

Frandsen, Jannette B.

48

Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM2.5-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM2.5, gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM2.5 are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM2.5-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM2.5 are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident. PMID:25467693

Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming; Hong, Bo

2014-11-21

49

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

SciTech Connect

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21

50

Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity  

SciTech Connect

The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

Rappold, K.

1995-09-25

51

40th annual Reed rig census  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that declines characterize the 1992 rig census-in the number of available drilling rigs, in the number of active rigs, in rig utilization rate, in the number of rig owners and in industry optimism. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling fell by 255 units (11.3%) during the past 12 months, an attrition rate almost four times greater than in 1991. But despite the high attrition, only 59.7% of remaining rigs were working during the time the census was taken. Results of the 1992 census bring emphasis to an industry trend that became apparent in early 1991. The major oil companies, and many independents, continued their exodus form the U.S., and the remaining independents, which were hurt by low natural gas prices and unfavorable tax treatment of intangible drilling costs, were not able to pick u the drilling slack. Consequently, the past year has been disastrous for many U.S. drilling contractors, and the outlook for this industry segment remains bleak.

Fitts, R.L.; Stokes, T.A. (Reed Tool Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-10-01

52

Marine drilling rigs '94  

SciTech Connect

Listings in this paper contain performance data for each of 582 mobile offshore drilling units in the worldwide competitive and nationalized fleet. For the four categories shown, the totals are: jackups (372); semi-submersibles (137); drillships and barges (57); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (16). Owners and their rigs are listed alphabetically. Units of the same class are grouped under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. An index of rig names is also provided.

Not Available

1994-12-01

53

Effect of acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on bio-oil production from sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover.  

PubMed

Bio-oil produced from biomass by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. In a recent work on pinewood, we found that pretreatment alters the structure and chemical composition of biomass, which influence fast pyrolysis. In this study, we evaluated dilute acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover feedstocks. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 °C. The bio-oil's physical properties of pH, water content, acid value, density, and viscosity were measured. The chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by the pretreatment method and feedstock type. Bio-oil yields of 52, 33, and 35 wt% were obtained from medium-sized (0.68-1.532 mm) untreated sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from other sizes. Bio-oil yields of 56, 46, and 51 wt% were obtained from 1% H(2)SO(4)-treated medium-sized sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from untreated and steam explosion treatments. PMID:22544688

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian; Samala, Aditya

2012-05-01

54

DR. DONALD BOESCH NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE BP DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL AND  

E-print Network

AND OFFSHORE DRILLING AND TERRY D. GARCIA NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE BP DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL AND OFFSHORE DRILLING BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE SUBCOMMITTEE ON COAST GUARD and Offshore Drilling. The explosion that tore through the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig last April 20

55

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

56

28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 2. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL POWERHOUSE AT VOLCANO - NOW DISMANTLED. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

57

27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 5. EARLIER ENDLESS-WIRE TRANSMISSION NOW IN RUINS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

58

26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL WELL HOOK-UP. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

59

Saving diesel fuel in the oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes how diesel electric SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) drilling rigs are helping drillers save fuel expense in the oil fields, along with other energy conservation methods. Compares SCR to conventional drilling rigs. Points out that on conventional rigs, diesel engines drive rig components directly, while on the SCR electric rigs, diesel engines turn a.c. electric generators which supply energy to

Elder

1982-01-01

60

DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data  

DOE Data Explorer

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

61

New drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect

Petronas recently commissioned its first offshore jack-up drilling rig at Promet, Singapore. The $49 million jack-up Parameswara will undertake both exploration and development activities in Petronas Carigali's exploration block off the eastern coast of Malaysia. The block measures 19,800 sq. km. Initially, the rig will be located at the Duyong gas field. Based on Baker Marine Corporation's BMC 300 design, the 65 X 64 X 8 m rig is capable of working in water depths of up to 91.4 m and is able to drill to a depth of 7,600 m. It has three triangular open-lattice truss-type legs, each 131 m long. Prominent features include four-tier living quarters which can house 90 men, three cranes of boom length 30.48 m each, a helideck, mess hall, galley, and recreation room. The rig is built to American Bureau of Shipping standards. This paper describes the transport, installation and ballast operations involved in situating the Petronas rig in the Duyong field.

Tubb, M.

1983-03-01

62

Observations of the smoke plume from the December 2005 explosions and prolonged oil fire at Buncefield oil depot, southern UK and associated atmospheric changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosions and subsequent fire at the Buncefield oil depot in December 2005 afforded a rare opportunity to study the atmospheric consequences of a major oil fire at close range, using ground-based remote sensing instruments. The fire burned 5.6 × 107kg of refined fuel (unleaded petrol, aviation fuel and diesel) over 3 days and produced a plume of smoke that extended over much of southern England. Near-source measurements suggest that plume particles were ~50% black carbon (BC) with refractive index 1.73-0.42i, effective radius (Reff) 0.45-0.85?m and mass loading ~2000?g.m-3. About 50km downwind, particles were ~60-75% BC with refractive index between 1.80-0.52i and 1.89-0.69i, Reff ~1.0?m and mass loadings 320-780?g.m-3. Number distributions were almost all monomodal with peak at r<0.1?m. Near-source UV spectroscopy revealed elevated trace gas concentrations of SO2 (70ppb), NO2 (140ppb), HONO (20ppb), HCHO (160ppb) and CS2 (40ppb). We estimate that the Buncefield event emitted totals of ~6.3, 7.2 and 5.5Mg of SO2, HCHO and CS2 respectively; along with ~5500Mg of BC. Our measurements are consistent with others of the Buncefield plume, and with studies of the 1991 Kuwaiti oil-fire plumes; differences from the latter reflecting in part a contrast in source composition (refined fuels vs. crude oils) leading to important potential differences in atmospheric impacts. Measurements made as the plume passed overhead ~50km downwind showed a reduced solar flux reaching the surface but little effect on the atmospheric potential gradient. The wind speed data from the day of the explosion hints at a possible explosion signature.

Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.; Tsanev, V. I.; Pyle, D. M.; Karumudi, M. L.; Bennett, A. J.; Sawyer, G. M.; Highwood, E. J.

2006-12-01

63

New drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect

Friede and Goldman Ltd. of New Orleans, Louisiana has a successful drilling rig, the L-780 jack-up series. The triangular-shaped drilling vessel measures 180 x 176 ft. and is equipped with three 352 ft legs including spud cans. It is designed to work in up to 250 ft waters and drill to 20,000 ft depths. The unit is scheduled to begin initial drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico for Arco. Design features are included for the unit. Davie Shipbuilding Ltd. has entered the Mexican offshore market with the signing of a $40,000,000 Canadian contract for a jack-up to work in 300 ft water depths. Baker Marine Corporation has contracted with the People's Republic of China for construction of two self-elevating jack-ups. The units will be built for Magnum Marine, headquartered in Houston. Details for the two rigs are given. Santa Fe International Corporation has ordered a new jack-up rig to work initially in the Gulf of Suez. The newly ordered unit, Rig 136, will be the company's fourth offshore drilling rig now being built in the Far East. Temple Drilling Company has signed a construction contract with Bethlehem Steel for a jack-up to work in 200 ft water depths. Penrod Drilling Company has ordered two additional cantilever type jack-ups for Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd. of Japan. Two semi-submersibles, capable of working in up to 2000 ft water depths, have been ordered by two Liberian companies. Details for these rigs are included. (DP)

Tubb, M.

1981-02-01

64

Rigs to reefs: a petroleum industry perspective  

E-print Network

are in the Gulf of Nexico. These structures are, in effect, de facto artificial reefs, providing marine habitat while producing oil and gas. However, these structures are removed once hydrocarbon production ceases. With removal goes the loss of important... cost provides an economic disincentive to companies to participate in a rigs-to-reefs effort. The costs can be reduced by creating additional artificial reef sites, particularly sites close to areas where offshore platforms are located...

Dubose, William Perry

1988-01-01

65

Combination offshore drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

1986-01-01

66

Product Module Rig Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence time. Minimal sensitivity was observed for all of these parameters.

Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

2004-01-01

67

Seismo-acoustic analysis of the Buncefield oil depot explosion in the UK, 2005 December 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive vapour cloud explosion occurred at the Buncefield fuel depot near Hemel Hempstead, UK, in the morning of 2005 December 11. The explosion was the result of an overflow from one of the storage tanks with the release of over 300 tons of petrol and generating a vapour cloud that spread over an area of 80000 m2, before being ignited. Considerable damage was caused in the vicinity of the explosion and a total of 43 people were injured. The explosion was detected by seismograph stations in the UK and the Netherlands and by infrasound arrays in the Netherlands. We analysed the seismic recordings to determine the origin time of 06:01:31.45 +/-0.5 s (UTC) from P-wave arrival times. Uncertainties in determination of origin time from acoustic arrival times alone were less than 10 s. Amplitudes of P-, Lg and primary acoustic waves were measured to derive decay relationships as function of distance. From the seismic amplitudes we estimated a yield of 2-10 tons equivalent to a buried explosion. Most seismic stations recorded primary and secondary acoustic waves. We used atmospheric ray tracing to identify the various travel paths, which depend on temperature and wind speed as function of altitude, leading to directional variation. Refracted waves were observed from the troposphere, stratosphere and thermosphere with a good match between observed and calculated traveltimes. The various wave types were also identified through array processing, which provides backazimuth and slowness, of recordings from an infrasound array in the Netherlands. The amplitude of stratospheric refracted acoustic waves recorded by the array microbarometers was used to estimate a yield of 21.6 (+/-5) tons TNT equivalent. We have demonstrated through joint seismo-acoustic analysis of the explosion that both the seismic velocity model and the atmospheric model are sufficient to explain the observed traveltimes.

Ottemöller, L.; Evers, L. G.

2008-03-01

68

Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

2010-01-01

69

Method and apparatus for disarming and arming explosive oil well perforators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved safe-arm method and apparatus is provided for preventing unwanted detonation of shaped charge perforating guns while in storage and in transport, yet providing quick and easy arming at the well site. An interrupter member is inserted within an air gap between an ignitor section and an explosive charge section. To ready the perforating gun for use, a lanyard

T. G. Golian; W. A. Mcphee

1982-01-01

70

Cooling of oil injected screw compressors by oil atomisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the effect of oil atomisation in an oil-injected screw compressor. A test rig was built to assess the performance of different types of atomisers. Atomisers varying from fine atomisation to coarse atomisation were tested. Experiments on the test rig show that lowering the oil droplet diameter results in a considerably higher heat transfer. Growing oil flow rate,

M. De Paepe; W. Bogaert; D. Mertens

2005-01-01

71

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip...

2014-07-01

72

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip...

2012-07-01

73

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip...

2011-07-01

74

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip...

2013-07-01

75

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements...for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip...

2010-07-01

76

Evaluation of the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale mining and processing. Volume 1. Analytical studies and accident scenarios. Open file report, 16 June 1977-15 July 1983  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research were to identify and evaluate potential fire and explosion hazards in oil-shale mining and processing by laboratory testing to provide recommendations for mitigation safety monitoring and to establish a basis for regulation. A series of scenarios were developed describing hypothetical fire and explosion incidents that might occur in oil-shale mining. The objectives were achieved through the following accomplishments: (1) It was found that fire and explosion properties of oil shale increase with oil shale richness and decreasing particle size. (2) Data from dust loading study in several mines showed that the total potential yield of combustibles was about one-tenth the amount required to fuel a propagating explosion. (3) Aging of oil shale dusts over a period of several years reduces the content of volatile combustibles and the corresponding fire and explosion properties. (4) Data and information from the completed program indicate that the hazard of dust explosions is less severe than the hazard of fire in mine muck piles. Laboratory data were used to relate fire and explosivity properties of oil shales to those of coals and other carbonaceous materials and to assist in the identification and evaluation of potential hazardous situations that may be encountered in oil shale mining and processing.

Crookston, R.B.; Atwood, M.T.; Williams, R.E.; McGuire, M.E.

1983-07-15

77

Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Young, C. III [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)] [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)

1992-12-31

78

Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.  

PubMed

Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation. PMID:25010458

Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

2014-08-15

79

Rig Diagnostic Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

2008-01-01

80

Science Nation: Hidden Oil and Gas Plumes in the Gulf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Days after the oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, University of Georgia oceanographer Samantha Joye got the wheels in motion to submit a proposal for a "Grant for Rapid Response Research" from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Her goal was to investigate underwater oil and gas plumes, and determine how this disaster was impacting deepwater organisms. Within a week, NSF approved the grant. Joye and her team from the University of Georgia, along with researchers from several other universities, spent May 24 through June 6, 2010 aboard the University of Miami research vessel, Walton Smith, departing from Gulfport, Miss.

81

Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)  

SciTech Connect

This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

NONE

1995-06-01

82

New service rig operates with two-man crew  

SciTech Connect

Two Bakersfield, California, entrepreneurs have developed a partially automated and remote-controlled workover rig that can complete tubing and rod jobs on relatively shallow, singles-rig type wells with a total crew of two people on the ground. The system, called Autorig, was developed by Louis Witte, president of Witte Enterprise, and James Hansen, Paragon Engineering, Bakersfield. Initial field tests in E and B Natural Resources Management Corp.`s Blackwells Corner oil field culminated two years of development work. The new system is described in this paper using photographs from a testwell demonstration.

NONE

1995-07-01

83

Basic Rigging Workbook Training and Qualifications Program Office  

E-print Network

........................................................... 15 Wire Rope Slings ............................................................................................................. 28 Using Rope in Rigging Applications

Ohta, Shigemi

84

Group Based Rigging of Realistically Feathered Wings  

E-print Network

and Lehman 2002]. Effective rigging is essential to the look and movement of the character. For winged creatures in visual effects projects, where realism is key, rigging and control must have a strong connection to biological structure and action... for the animator to be able to define a good, believable performance. The primary contribution of this thesis is a tool that can be effectively used for rigging a range of avian wing structures and produces rigs that contribute to the animation of realistic...

Howard, Heather Vernette

2012-02-14

85

PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes the safe and cost effective operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair requirements for cranes, hoists, fork trucks, slings, rigging hardware, and hoisting equipment. It is intended to be a user's guide to requirements, codes, laws, regulations, standards, and practices that apply to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its subcontractors.

Haynie, Todd O.; Fullmer, Michael W.

2008-12-29

86

Hoisting and rigging manual: Uncontrolled document  

SciTech Connect

This document is a draft copy of a Hoisting and Rigging Manual for the Department of Energy. The manual is divided into ten chapters. The chapter titles follow: terminology and definitions; operator training and qualification; overhead and gantry cranes; mobile cranes; forklift trucks; hoists; hooks; wire rope, slings, and rigging accessories; construction hoisting and rigging equipment requirements; references.

NONE

1991-05-01

87

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2012-07-01

88

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2014-07-01

89

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2011-07-01

90

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2013-07-01

91

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2010-07-01

92

Solar stirling engine rig tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of a prototype four-cylinder Stirli ng engine construction with the heat receiver of the concentrated solar\\u000a radiant flux and with a swashplate drive is given. The rig tests have been carried out in an effort to optimize the individual\\u000a engine units. They have been conducted in the cooling system mode and in the mode of an engine working

I. A. Tursunbaev; E. P. Orda; A. I. Lezhebokov; A. P. Korobkov; A. I. Semyannikov

2010-01-01

93

Gulf Oil Spill Commission Report Calls for Major Drilling Safety Reforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion and the resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico last year were “foreseeable and preventable,” according to the report of a presidentially appointed commission, issued on 11 January, that recommended significant changes in U.S. government and industry practices to avoid future oil spill disasters. Among the recommendations of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling are that Congress and the Obama administration create an independent safety agency within the Department of the Interior (DOI) to oversee all aspects of offshore drilling safety and that the oil and gas industry establish a “safety institute” to develop and enforce safety standards.

Showstack, Randy

2011-01-01

94

Testing the Generalization Efficiency of Oil Slick Classification Algorithm Using Multiple SAR Data for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

Ozkan, C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.; Kalkan, K.; Bal?k Sanl?, F.

2012-07-01

95

Modular designs highlight several new rigs  

SciTech Connect

A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

Rappold, K.

1995-12-04

96

Explosives tester  

DOEpatents

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11

97

RQL Integrated Module Rig Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the activities conducted under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Components (CPC) Program to evaluate the low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor capable of achieving the program goal of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOxEI) less than 5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic light condition while maintaining combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.9 percent. The chosen combustor module would then be tested in the subscale annular rig test prior to testing in the subscale core engine demonstrator, if the RQL concept were to be chosen at the Combustor Downselect.

Koopman, Frederick S.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Siskind, Kenneth S.; Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor)

2004-01-01

98

User's guide and history of ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) as a nuclear weapons effect simulation explosive. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The history of the development and use of ANFO as a nuclear-weapons blast, cratering, and ground-shock simulation source, is traced from 1966 to 1976 when the first full-scale target-testing operation was conducted on DICE THROW with a 600-ton ANFO charge. The results of the development tests, of DICE THROW, and of subsequent tests with ANFO through PRE-DIRECT COURSE in 1982, are given and analyzed in terms of explosive-charge performance. The results indicate that ANFO is a safe, economical, and reliable explosive source for effects simulation purposes. The details presented serve as a guide for utilization of ANFO for future similar and more-demanding simulation purposes.

Petes, J.; Miller, R.; McMullan, F.

1983-03-31

99

Environmental disaster or just a drop in the bucket?: Texas scientists on the real effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

E-print Network

Winter 2011 tx H2O 3 or just a drop in thebucket?Texas scientists on the real e#31;ects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 4 tx H2O Winter 2011 Environmental Disaster Continued What if gasoline pumped into cars, seafood eaten at restaurants... but forgo#27;en as the wreckage of the Deepwater Horizon MC#31;#30;#31; drilling platform sank into its waters. A crude awakening Like any large oil spill, this one took its toll in many ways. Eleven BP employees on the rig died in the explosion...

Lee, Leslie

2011-01-01

100

CORE VARIETIES, EXTENSIVITY, AND RIG GEOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the Frobenius operations in analyzing finite spaces, as well as the extended algebraic geometry over rigs, depend partly on varieties (Birkhoan inclusions of algebraic categories) that have coreflections as well as reflections and whose dual category of ane spaces is extensive. Even within the category of those rigs where 1+1 = 1, not only distributive lattices but

F. WILLIAM LAWVERE

2008-01-01

101

Oil Spill Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive flash model from the Living Ocean Society allows users to the explore hypothetical oil spills in the Hecate Straight off the northwest coast of Canada. The several scenarios include oil rig spills, spills from oil tankers, as well as accidents involving other vessels. Users can see how the seasonal winds and tides affect which areas are affected by a particular spill.

Society, Living O.

102

Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions

A. Pulsipher; W. IV Daniel; J. E. Kiesler; V. Mackey

1996-01-01

103

Cranes, hoists, and rigging. A safety training manual  

SciTech Connect

The handling equipment discussed in this manual is the type that lifts, lowers, and locates (positions) heavy material - cranes and hoists. The crane/hoist family of equipment may be as small as a single pulley/rope system handling several pounds, or as large as a marine crane system that recently (1985) hoisted a 5005-metric ton oil drilling rig from a barge and placed it on the seabed of England's North Atlantic offshore oil field. An equivalent ''pick'' would be a 6-ft-high solid pine board, 360 ft long and 160 ft wide (the dimensions of a football field). The capacity of the cranes and hoists at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNLA) fits somewhere within the first 2% of the marine pick or lift described above. SNLA has several mobile cranes and more than 500 other types of cranes and hoists located in more than 100 buildings. The Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL have safety policies and directives that require the operators of heavy equipment to be trained and authorized. The Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety Training Program, sponsored by the SNLA Safety Department, is an effort to fulfill those safety policy requirements. This manual will be used as a safety training aid and will be issued as a reference document for supervisors, operators, inspectors, and service personnel who use cranes or hoists during their regular duties.

Stinnett, L.

1986-07-01

104

Gulf of Mexico rig activity up, international lags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for jack up and semisubmersible rigs has improved in the Gulf of Mexico following a decline in activity earlier this year. International drilling activity, however, has shown slight declines in several regions. Relatively firm natural gas prices have helped buoy rig activity in North America. Rig day rates have not followed suit, mainly because of the influx of rigs

Rappold

1994-01-01

105

Influence of Mississippi River induced circulation on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion caused ˜7 × 105 m3 of oil gushing from the Northern Gulf of Mexico bottom. The close proximity of the rig to the Mississippi Delta raised early questions from disaster managers about possible influence of river induced circulation on oil patch evolution. In particular, it was hypothesized that the high Mississippi River (MR) discharge in May 2010 might have helped to initially keep oil from reaching coastal marshes. We have explored this intriguing hypothesis, quantifying similar and connecting patterns in the evolution of riverine and oil covered waters. We used numerical simulations, satellite and in situ data to show the unique influence of a large river plume on a surface oil patch resulting from a deep oil release. The MR induced circulation, modified by shelf and slope flows, was found to substantially influence the near surface transport of oil. The MR plume buoyancy-driven effects on oil transport had different aspects east and west of the Mississippi Delta. Anticyclonic circulation within the upstream plume region (east of the Delta, extending over the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida shelf) created a front that restrained onshore transport. Conversely, the shoreward tendency within the downstream plume region (west of the Delta, dominated by the westward, buoyancy-driven narrow coastal current) guided oil transport along the Louisiana-Texas shelf. Periods of low discharge reduced the dominance of buoyancy-driven effects, but an interval of sustained downwelling-favorable winds, combined with river induced stratification, resulted in a strong westward current and surface oil patch extension along the Louisiana coast.

Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Androulidakis, Yannis S.

2013-08-01

106

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2010-10-01

107

Jack-up rig for marine drilling  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

Mueller, S. R.

1981-05-26

108

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2013-10-01

109

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2012-10-01

110

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2011-10-01

111

Innovative workover\\/drilling rigs to utilize hydraulics  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Western Gear Corp., Everett, Wash., is currently building 2 models of a hydraulic workover\\/drilling rig (one offshore and the other a trailer-mounted land rig), Bender Co., Bakersfield, Calif., already has an all-hydraulic servicing\\/drilling rig undergoing tests. The rigs are similar in that they eliminate the traveling block, crown block, draw works, chains, and sprockets found on the conventional rig.

Noran

1975-01-01

112

Chemical dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico oil crisis are cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.  

PubMed

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico drew attention to the need for toxicological studies of chemical dispersants. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. Little is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527). Corexit 9500 and 9527 were both cytotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts. Corexit 9527 was less cytotoxic than 9500. S9 mediated metabolism did not alter cytotoxicity of either dispersant. Both dispersants were genotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts; S9 mediated metabolism increased Corexit 9527 genotoxicity. PMID:24813266

Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

2014-07-01

113

Explosive nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

Many radioactive nuclei relevant for gamma-ray astrophysics are synthesized during explosive events, such as classical novae and supernovae. A review of recent results of explosive nucleosynthesis in these scenarios is presented, with a special emphasis on the ensuing gamma-ray emission from individual nova and supernova explosions. The influence of the dynamic properties of the ejecta on the gamma-ray emission features, as well as the still remaining uncertainties in nova and supernova models is also reviewed.

M. Hernanz

2001-03-26

114

Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig (SHJAR), located in the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, was commissioned in 2001 to test jet noise reduction concepts at low technology readiness levels (TRL 1-3) and develop advanced measurement techniques. The first series of tests on the SHJAR were designed to prove its capabilities and establish the quality of the jet noise data produced. Towards this goal, a methodology was employed dividing all noise sources into three categories: background noise, jet noise, and rig noise. Background noise was directly measured. Jet noise and rig noise were separated by using the distance and velocity scaling properties of jet noise. Effectively, any noise source that did not follow these rules of jet noise was labeled as rig noise. This method led to the identification of a high frequency noise source related to the Reynolds number. Experiments using boundary layer treatment and hot wire probes documented this noise source and its removal, allowing clean testing of low Reynolds number jets. Other tests performed characterized the amplitude and frequency of the valve noise, confirmed the location of the acoustic far field, and documented the background noise levels under several conditions. Finally, a full set of baseline data was acquired. This paper contains the methodology and test results used to verify the quality of the SHJAR rig.

Brown, Cliff; Bridges, James

2006-01-01

115

Rig scarcity prompts innovative drilling solution  

SciTech Connect

Unable to locate a shallow-water offshore rig for its program in Indonesia, British Gas International developed an innovative pad/ballasted barge configuration to utilize a land rig, which was available. Many non-typical problems were encountered and solved to establish the drilling location 600 m (2,000 ft) from the shore in Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, eastern Indonesia. The final hybrid configuration has sparked interesting debate as to whether the operation should be designated as onshore or offshore. The paper discusses the project overview, concept development, construction, and operations.

Lattimore, G.M.; Gott, T.; Feagin, J.

1997-11-01

116

Magnetic Suspension for Dynamic Spin Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Rig, located in Building 5, Test Cell CW-18, is used to test turbomachinery blades and components by rotating them in a vacuum chamber. A team from Lewis' Machine Dynamics Branch successfully integrated a magnetic bearing and control system into the Dynamic Spin Rig. The magnetic bearing worked very well both to support and shake the shaft. It was demonstrated that the magnetic bearing can transmit more vibrational energy into the shaft and excite some blade modes to larger amplitudes than the existing electromagnetic shakers can.

Johnson, Dexter

1998-01-01

117

NASA GRC Cryogenic Seal Test Rig Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been about six years since any cryogenic seal tests were run at NASA GRC (Glenn Research Center). The Cryogenic Components Lab, where the cryogenic seal test rigs are located, has been shutdown due to the impending expansion of the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The current plan is to move the Cryogenic Components Lab (CCL), Cells I and 2 to NASA Plumbrook in Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this presentation is to inform the seal community of the cryogenic seal test rig capabilities available at NASA GRC for planning of future programs.

Proctor, Margaret

2001-01-01

118

An Orientation to Explosive Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

Harris, Betty W.

1987-01-01

119

w (Left to Rig Kelly Stanch  

E-print Network

ogram #12; Top Row Harvill, K Bottom R Browder **Pi Me w (Left to Rig Kelly Stanch Row (Left olber Prospe r Reynolds, Alissa Mansfi m CSP orienta d Ye er, Ryan Prov Tripp Purks field, Katie M ation................................................................................ 19 16. Ryan Provost

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

120

Classification of entanglement via rigged string configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the structure of bipartite entanglement in one-dimensional spin systems. The standard approach is based on a reduced two-qubit density matrix and uses concurrence as the measure of entanglement. We show that for a spin system consisting of four qubits the structure of bipartite entanglement can be classified by rigged string configurations in a strictly combinatorial manner.

Kravets, Yevgen; Jakubczyk, Pawel; Jakubczyk, Dorota

2013-08-01

121

Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance

2009-01-01

122

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

123

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.

1996-04-09

124

Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes work performed in setting up and performing tests on a regenerator test rig. An earlier status report presented test results, together with heat transfer correlations, for four regenerator samples (two woven screen samples and two felt metal samples). Lessons learned from this testing led to improvements to the experimental setup, mainly instrumentation as well as to the test procedure. Given funding and time constraints for this project it was decided to complete as much testing as possible while the rig was set up and operational, and to forego final data reduction and analysis until later. Additional testing was performed on several of the previously tested samples as well an on five newly fabricated samples. The following report is a summary of the work performed at OU, with many of the final test results included in raw data form.

Wood, J. G.; Gedeon, D. R.

1994-01-01

125

Guyline anchor design keys rig stability  

SciTech Connect

Inadequate design and field installation of ground anchors at lease well sites have frequently led to the collapse of well service rigs operating in high surface wind conditions (>50 mph). Such catastrophes incur significant equipment damage and injury to operating personnel. Although collapse of a well service rig can be attributed to inadequate strength in the guyline connection to the mast or anchor or to deformed or inadequate wire rope strength in the guyline itself, most failures result from improperly placed anchors not meeting API specifications to withstand 14,000 lb of force in tension. This article defines the length, diameter, and depth necessary (based on soil conditions) for a buried guyline anchor to meet API specifications. Deficiencies in guyline connection and strength can be alleviated by following the manufacturer's guidance on size of wire rope, its inspection, and size connection criteria in mounting guyline connectors to the mast and anchor.

Murphy, R.J.; Laguros, J.G.

1983-09-01

126

Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

2012-01-01

127

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

Hazen, T. C.

2012-12-01

128

Human rigHts advocacy in action  

E-print Network

18 Brave new world 22 thought that counts 27 In pictures snapshots 5 taken 29 Regulars BristolHuman rigHts advocacy in action Lives weLL Lived: a new age of animaL weLfare aLzHeimer's: no smoke in pieces 2 & 17 alumni in the news 3 Bristol and beyond 10 Summer2012 Contents 29 2 new solutions to old

Bristol, University of

129

Drill Rig Safety Topics of the Presentation  

E-print Network

(ASME B30.5) 6 broken wire strands in one rope lay 3 breaks in one strand in one rope lay #12;Inspect Sl ­ Filter Condition ­ General Inspection of Wires, Hoses, Cables etc. · Rig Set-up · Safety Check ­ Fire stroke remaining after max adjustment · 3/32 loss of diameter (1 ½ cable) · Wire Break Determination

130

Soda Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity lets participant explore chemical reactions as they create a soda explosion with lots of bubbles. The bubbles in soda are made of carbon dioxide gas. Using lifesaver mint candy, create a fun, foaming mess. Experimenting in an outside space is suggested.

Connecticut, Science C.

1999-01-01

131

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

132

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of experiments explore the effects of increased population growth on a population of Fast Plants. Through these inquiries, students will better understand the many substantial and pertinent issues surrounding human population explosion on Earth.These experiments can be adjusted toward middle, high school or post-secondary levels.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

133

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22

134

A New Foil Air Bearing Test Rig for Use to 700 C and 70,000 rpm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for evaluating foil air bearings at high temperatures and speeds. These bearings are self acting hydrodynamic air bearings which have been successfully applied to a variety of turbomachinery operating up to 650 C. This unique test rig is capable of measuring bearing torque during start-up, shut-down and high speed operation. Load capacity and general performance characteristics, such as durability, can be measured at temperatures to 700 C and speeds to 70,000 rpm. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the preliminary characterization of several bearings. The bearing performance data from this facility can be used to develop advanced turbomachinery incorporating high temperature oil-free air bearing technology.

DellaCorte, Chris

1997-01-01

135

Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

2007-11-01

136

Development of a test rig for a helium twin-screw compressor  

SciTech Connect

A large helium cryogenic system is being developed for use in great science projects, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Large Helical Device (LHD), and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In this cryogenic system, a twin-screw compressor is a key component. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the compressor performance. To obtain the performance characteristics, a test rig for the compressor has been built. All the important performance parameters, including adiabatic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, oil injection characteristic, and noise characteristic can be acquired with the rig when sensors are installed in the test system. With the test performance, the helium twin-screw compressor can be evaluated. Using these results, the design of the compressor can be improved.

Wang, B. M.; Hu, Z. J. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, P. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellant(Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-01-29

137

Development of a test rig for a helium twin-screw compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large helium cryogenic system is being developed for use in great science projects, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Large Helical Device (LHD), and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In this cryogenic system, a twin-screw compressor is a key component. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the compressor performance. To obtain the performance characteristics, a test rig for the compressor has been built. All the important performance parameters, including adiabatic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, oil injection characteristic, and noise characteristic can be acquired with the rig when sensors are installed in the test system. With the test performance, the helium twin-screw compressor can be evaluated. Using these results, the design of the compressor can be improved.

Wang, B. M.; Hu, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Li, Q.

2014-01-01

138

Demonstration Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

Lee, Charles "Skip"

1998-05-01

139

Explosive Joining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

1989-01-01

140

Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

Ege, J.R.

1967-01-01

141

Characteristics of black carbon aerosol from a surface oil burn during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass mixing ratio and microphysical properties were measured from the NOAA P-3 aircraft during active surface oil burning subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in April 2010. Approximately 4% of the combusted material was released into the atmosphere as BC. The total amount of BC introduced to the atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico via surface burning of oil during the 9-week spill is estimated to be (1.35 ± 0.72) × 106 kg. The median mass diameter of BC particles observed in the burning plume was much larger than that of the non-plume Gulf background air and previously sampled from a variety of sources. The plume BC particles were internally mixed with very little non-refractory material, a feature typical of fresh emissions from fairly efficient fossil-fuel burning sources and atypical of BC in biomass burning plumes. BC dominated the total accumulation-mode aerosol in both mass and number. The BC mass-specific extinction cross-section was 10.2 ± 4.1 and 7.1 ± 2.8 m2/g at 405 and 532 nm respectively. These results help constrain the properties of BC emissions associated with DWH and other large spills.

Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Gao, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; Lack, D. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Peischl, J.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.

2011-09-01

142

Characteristics of Black Carbon Aerosol from a Surface Oil Burn During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass mixing ratio and microphysical properties were measured from the NOAA P-3 aircraft during active surface oil burning subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in April 2010. Approximately 4% of the combusted material was released into the atmosphere as BC. The total amount of BC introduced to the atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico via surface burning of oil during the 9-week spill is estimated to be (1.35 ± 0.72) x106 kg. The median mass diameter of BC particles observed in the burning plume was much larger than that of the non-plume Gulf background air. The plume BC particles were internally mixed with very little non-refractory material, a feature typical of fresh emissions from fairly efficient fossil-fuel burning sources and atypical of BC in biomass burning plumes. BC dominated the total accumulation-mode aerosol in both mass and number. The BC mass-specific extinction cross-section is determined at 405 and 532 nm.

Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Bahreini, R.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lack, D. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Peischl, J.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.

2011-12-01

143

A method for improving test rig performance using passive components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time waveform replication (TWR) algorithm is presently used in industry for calculating the actuation force needed to replicate a certain reference sensor output in a test rig. Power and force rate limitations restrict the feasible range of that actuation force. If the input force distribution of the reference test cannot be replicated in the test rig, the required test rig input force magnitudes may be large or the replication properties poor due to lack of controllability. To circumvent this, a theory of passive components to improve replication and limit the input force demands of dynamic test rigs is developed. The theory fits within the framework of the TWR algorithm.

Johansson, Anders T.; Abrahamsson, Thomas J. S.

2015-02-01

144

Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology  

SciTech Connect

The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of time is divided among the remaining four functions of rig up/rig down, logging, lay down bottomhole assembly, and pick up bottomhole assembly. Observations made during all phases of CT rig operation at each of the project well installations have verified a number of characteristics of the technology that represent advantages that can produce significant savings of 25-35 percent per well. Attributes of the CT rig performance include: (1) Excellent hole quality with hole deviation amounting to 1-2 degrees; (2) Reduced need for auxiliary equipment; (3) Efficient rig mobilization requiring only four trailers; (4) Capability of ''Zero Discharge'' operation; (5) Improved safety; and, (6) Measurement while drilling capability. In addition, commercial cost data indicates that the CT rig reduces drilling costs by 25 to 35% compared to conventional drilling technology. Widespread commercial use of the Microhole Coiled Tubing technology in the United States for onshore Lower-48 drilling has the potential of achieving substantially positive impacts in terms of savings to the industry and resource expansion. Successfully commercialized Microhole CT Rig Technology is projected to achieve cumulative savings in Lower-48 onshore drilling expenditures of approximately 6.8 billion dollars by 2025. The reduced cost of CT microhole drilling is projected to enable the development of gas resources that would not have been economic with conventional methods. Because of the reduced cost of drilling achieved with CT rig technology, it is estimated that an additional 22 Tcf of gas resource will become economic to develop. In the future, the Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig represents an important platform for the continued improvement of drilling that draws on a new generation of various technologies to achieve goals of improved drilling cost and reduced impact to the environment.

Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes

2006-05-09

145

Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems  

DOEpatents

Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

1999-09-28

146

RigMesh: Automatic Rigging for Part-Based Shape Modeling and Deformation Peter Borosan1  

E-print Network

-free graph whose nodes are called joints and whose edges are called bones, and skin weights identifying animation pipeline; they consist of a low-dimensional skeleton along with skin weights identifying the surface with bones of the skeleton. Keywords: rigging, skeletonization, skinning, animation, sketch- based

Columbia University

147

Analysis of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of explosives is of major importance in several analytical fields:1. Forensic identification of explosives is a major problem in the criminalistic investigation of a bombing which involves connecting the type of explosive used with the suspect. The detection and identification of explosive residues in debris material constitutes a highly difficult task. The thermal instability of most explosives, along

Jehuda Yinon; John C. Hoffsommer

1977-01-01

148

Corrosion evaluation of fuel canister crusher rigging  

SciTech Connect

A fuel canister crusher with attached rigging is located in the 105 K-East Basin discharge chute. This equipment is slated to be moved as part of seismic mitigation to prevent a major basin leak through a construction joint located in the base of the chute. This corrosion analysis assessed the load-bearing ability of the rigging, which consists of shackles and thimble-spliced wire rope. The K-East Basin demineralized water results in corrosion rates of <2 mil/year (<0.05 mm/year) for carbon, low-alloy carbon, and stainless steels. The galvanized carbon steel shackles (with low-alloy steel anchor pins) have experienced negligible corrosion and are judged to be mechanically unaffected by their water exposure. The carbon steel wire rope and stainless steel thimbles have undergone minimal corrosion. Due to the small amount of corrosion products (as seen from video inspection), the absence of wire breakage, and a Factor of Safety calculation, it is judged that the wire rope and thimbles would withstand the proposed relocation activities.

Graves, C.E.

1994-11-02

149

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

2006-10-01

150

Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces  

E-print Network

This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

Sun, Wei-Yang

2011-01-01

151

Universe Explosions  

E-print Network

A scenario for a quantum big crunch to big bang transition is proposed. We first clarify the similarities between this transition and the final stages of black hole evaporation. The black hole and the universe are thought of as quantum states. The importance of an external observer for understanding the big crunch to big bang transition is emphasized. Then, relying on the similarities between the black hole and the universe, we propose that the transition should be described as an explosion that connects the contracting phase to the expanding one. The explosion occurs when entropy bounds are saturated, or equivalently when the states cease to be semiclassically (meta)stable. We discuss our scenario in three examples: collapsing dust, a brane universe falling into a bulk black hole in anti-de Sitter space, and a contracting universe filled with a negative cosmological constant and a small amount of matter. We briefly discuss the late time observables that may carry some information about the state of the universe before the transition.

Ram Brustein; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

2012-09-24

152

Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.  

PubMed

In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24582034

Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

2014-08-01

153

Description of resonances within the rigged Hilbert space  

E-print Network

Description of resonances within the rigged Hilbert space Rafael de la Madrid Department of Physics. The spectrum of a quantum system has in general bound, scattering and resonant parts. The Hilbert space the Hilbert space to a rigged Hilbert space, within which the physical bound, scattering and resonance spectra

154

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...displacement; (ii) Hooks with self-closing safety latches or...i) A multiple lift rigging assembly is used; (ii) A maximum...of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed...maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual...

2014-07-01

155

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...displacement; (ii) Hooks with self-closing safety latches or...i) A multiple lift rigging assembly is used; (ii) A maximum...of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed...maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual...

2012-07-01

156

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...displacement; (ii) Hooks with self-closing safety latches or...i) A multiple lift rigging assembly is used; (ii) A maximum...of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed...maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual...

2013-07-01

157

A structure-based model of RIG-I activation  

PubMed Central

A series of high-resolution crystal structures of RIG-I and RIG-I:dsRNA cocrystals has recently been reported. Comparison of these structures provides considerable insight into how this innate immune pattern recognition receptor is activated upon detecting and binding a certain class of viral RNAs. PMID:23118418

Kolakofsky, Daniel; Kowalinski, Eva; Cusack, Stephen

2012-01-01

158

Parameter identification of the fatigue-testing rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the dynamic parameter identification of the novel fatigue-testing rig is presented. The applied identification method assumes a priori a simple dynamical model for which parameters are identified through free and forced vibration tests. The rig is comprised of two base excited oscillators providing the dynamic excitation for a fatigue sample and two pneumatic actuators preventing a loss

Nikola Jakši?; Chee-Hoe Foong; Marian Wiercigroch; Miha Boltežar

2008-01-01

159

Explosive stimulation of a geothermal well: GEOFRAC  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the first known explosive stimulation successfully conducted in a geothermal well. Two tests were performed in a 2690-meter-(8826-ft.) deep Union Oil well at the Geysers field in Northern California in December 1981. The heat-resistant process, called GEOFRAC, uses a new unique, explosive HITEX 2, which is a nondetonable solid at room temperature. Upon melting at a temperature of 177[degrees]C (350[degrees]F), the HITEX 2 liquid becomes an explosive that can be safely heated to temperatures greater than 260[degrees]C (500[degrees]F). These unique properties of the explosive were exploited in the GEOFRAC process through the cooperative efforts of Physics International Company (PI), Rocket Research Company (RRC), Union oil Company (UO), and the university of California Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL).

Mumma, D.M. (Physics International Co., San Leandro, CA (United States))

1982-07-01

160

Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

Asdonk, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.asdonk@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Motz, Inga; Werner, Nikos [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

2012-03-30

161

Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment  

SciTech Connect

Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kiesler, J.E. [Kiesler (James E.), Morgan City, LA (United States); Mackey, V. III [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-05-06

162

Chaotic Explosions  

E-print Network

We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

Altmann, Eduardo G; Tél, Tamás

2015-01-01

163

Chaotic Explosions  

E-print Network

We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

Eduardo G. Altmann; Jefferson S. E. Portela; Tamás Tél

2015-01-22

164

Supernova Explosions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are reminded that the Universe is made up of elements and that the heavier elements are created inside of a star, as they learned in the "Elements and You" activity. They are introduced to the life cycle of a star and to the way in which a star's mass affects its process of fusion and eventual death. Students discuss the physical concept of equilibrium as a balancing of forces and observe an experiment to demonstrate what happens to a soda can when the interior and exterior forces are not in equilibrium. An analogy is made between this experiment and core collapse in stars, to show the importance of maintaining equilibrium in stars. Finally, students participate in an activity which demonstrates how mass is ejected from a collapsed star in a supernova explosion, thereby dispersing heavier elements throughout the Universe. This activity is part of a series that has been designed specifically for use with Girl Scouts, but the activities can be used in other settings. Most of the materials are inexpensive or easily found. It is recommended that a leader with astronomy knowledge lead the activities, or at least be available to answer questions, whenever possible.

165

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

166

Oil and Water Science, Literature and Disaster  

E-print Network

of engineering, biology, political science, creative writing, jour- nalism. For more information, contactOil and Water Science, Literature and Disaster AMST 301/ENG 341 Professor Kristina Bross at the Deepwater Hori- zon oil rig. Students will explore the impact of these events on American science, ecology

167

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the locomotive is at rest. (c) A shock absorber may not be broken or leaking clearly formed droplets of oil or other...

2010-10-01

168

40. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF STAGE SHOWING RIGGING FOR FLYING SETS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF STAGE SHOWING RIGGING FOR FLYING SETS, LOCATION OF ORIGINAL DOORS IN PROSCENIUM WALL, AND COUNTERWEIGHTS FOR STAGE CURTAIN. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

169

Using rigging and transfer to animate 3D characters  

E-print Network

Transferring a mesh or skeletal animation onto a new mesh currently requires significant manual effort. For skeletal animations, this involves rigging the character, by specifying how the skeleton is positioned relative ...

Baran, Ilya, 1981-

2010-01-01

170

Land rigs benefit from portable top drive system  

SciTech Connect

A small, portable topdrive system, which can be installed in as little as 4 hr with little or no derrick modification, can help land rigs drill difficult or extended reach wells, according to Tesco Drilling Technology in Calgary. The units are designed for rigs that must be dismantled and moved after each well. To reduce the amount of derrick modifications, the systems are designed to fit on any rig that can make a conventional kelly connection with a 42-ft kelly and a 31-ft single. The compact unit can operate in tapered area above the monkey board. The first portable skid package went into the field in 1992. In its first 6 months of operation, this unit was installed on six rigs, drilled seven horizontal wells, and operated for about 2,000 hr with only 12.5 hr total downtime.

Not Available

1994-03-14

171

Explosion hazards in crude, distillate storage tanks assessed  

SciTech Connect

Explosion and fire hazards in crude oil and light distillate storage tanks have been assessed by actual field temperature measurements at the Zarka refinery in Jordan. Results of the assessment are presented.

Tamimi, A. (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (JO))

1990-11-19

172

Multi-Axis Gimble Rig in AWT with Pilot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-Axis Space Test Inertia Facility (MASTIF) also known as the Gimbal Rig in Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) with pilot during Project Mercury. The Gimbal Rig was used to train astronauts how to pull the space capsule out of a potentially dangerous spin and regain control of the spacecraft. And boy, doesn't it look like fun?! The training and tests were run at the Altitude Wind Tunnel at Lewis Research Center, now John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

1959-01-01

173

Cantilevered mobile marine rig with hydraulic load equalizer  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a cantilever mobile marine rig with hydraulic load equalizer. The rig includes a deck structure and a cantilever assembly slidingly mounted on the deck structure. The hydraulic load equalizer includes a plurality of hydraulic cylinder and piston assemblies positioned between the deck structure and the cantilever assemblies. The hydraulic cylinder and piston assemblies each have substantially the same effective area and are interconnected so as to allow substantially free and unimpeded flow of hydraulic fluid among the cylinder and piston assemblies.

Johnson, T. P.

1984-11-20

174

A Brief Introduction to Ocean Oil Spills Professor Tommy Dickey, Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations  

E-print Network

A Brief Introduction to Ocean Oil Spills Professor Tommy Dickey, Secretary of the Navy by BP Photo provided by BP NASA Terra image #12;What are Causes of Ocean Oil Spills? * Oil drilling rig to date at 10-11 million bbls Interestingly, major oil spills contribute only 5% to total oil input

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

175

RIG-I activation inhibits HIV replication in macrophages  

PubMed Central

The RIG-I signaling pathway is critical in the activation of the type I IFN-dependent antiviral innate-immune response. We thus examined whether RIG-I activation can inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. We showed that the stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages with 5?ppp-dsRNA, a synthetic ligand for RIG-I, induced the expression of RIG-I, IFN-?/?, and several IRFs, key regulators of the IFN signaling pathway. In addition, RIG-I activation induced the expression of multiple intracellular HIV-restriction factors, including ISGs, several members of the APOBEC3 family, tetherin and CC chemokines, the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor (CCR5). The inductions of these factors were associated with the inhibition of HIV replication in macrophages stimulated by 5?ppp-dsRNA. These observations highlight the importance of RIG-I signaling in macrophage innate immunity against HIV, which can be beneficial for the treatment of HIV disease, where intracellular immune defense is compromised by the virus. PMID:23744645

Wang, Yizhong; Wang, Xu; Li, Jieliang; Zhou, Yu; Ho, Wenzhe

2013-01-01

176

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24

177

77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2012-02-22

178

75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-05-21

179

75 FR 8921 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOAs) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-02-26

180

75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-06-03

181

75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-07-01

182

75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2010-09-09

183

76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2011-06-20

184

Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand  

PubMed Central

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

185

Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.  

PubMed

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

186

Use of the Timken test as a cam and follower screener for oils  

SciTech Connect

The most appropriate screener for cam and follower combinations is a line contact rig. The Timken rig has been used by others (Sun) and we have also developed a test to screen additive combinations in oils for castastrophic wear and have used surface elemental analysis to detect additive surface competition. Frictional effects are also discussed.

Watkins, R.C.

1984-01-01

187

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-01-29

188

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

189

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

190

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-11-26

191

Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins  

E-print Network

Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

Ravenel, Douglas

192

Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

Kushida, R. O.

1982-01-01

193

Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought  

SciTech Connect

A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

Kelly, P. [Rowan Companies Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-10

194

Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by RIG-I  

SciTech Connect

Intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including RIG-I, MDA-5, and LGP2) recognize viral RNAs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an antiviral immune response. To understand the molecular basis of this process, we determined the crystal structure of RIG-I in complex with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The dsRNA is sheathed within a network of protein domains that include a conserved 'helicase' domain (regions HEL1 and HEL2), a specialized insertion domain (HEL2i), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD). A V-shaped pincer connects HEL2 and the CTD by gripping an {alpha}-helical shaft that extends from HEL1. In this way, the pincer coordinates functions of all the domains and couples RNA binding with ATP hydrolysis. RIG-I falls within the Dicer-RIG-I clade of the superfamily 2 helicases, and this structure reveals complex interplay between motor domains, accessory mechanical domains, and RNA that has implications for understanding the nanomechanical function of this protein family and other ATPases more broadly.

Luo, Dahai; Ding, Steve C.; Vela, Adriana; Kohlway, Andrew; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Pyle, Anna Marie (Yale)

2011-10-27

195

Structural insights into RNA recognition by RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including RIG-I, MDA-5, and LGP-2) recognize viral RNAs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an antiviral immune response. To understand the molecular basis of this process, we determined the crystal structure of RIG-I in complex with double-stranded RNA. The dsRNA is sheathed within a network of protein domains that include a conserved “helicase” domain (regions HEL1 and HEL2), a specialized insertion domain (HEL2i), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD). A V-shaped pincer connects HEL2 and the CTD by gripping an ?-helical shaft that extends from HEL1. In this way, the pincer coordinates functions of all the domains and couples RNA binding with ATP hydrolysis. RIG-I falls within the Dicer-RIG-I clade of super family 2 of helicases and this structure reveals complex interplay between motor domains, accessory mechanical domains and RNA that has implications for understanding the nanomechanical function this protein family and other ATPases more broadly. PMID:22000018

Luo, Dahai; Ding, Steve C.; Vela, Adriana; Kohlway, Andrew; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Pyle, Anna Marie

2011-01-01

196

RIG-I and dsRNA-Induced IFN? Activation  

PubMed Central

Except for viruses that initiate RNA synthesis with a protein primer (e.g., picornaviruses), most RNA viruses initiate RNA synthesis with an NTP, and at least some of their viral pppRNAs remain unblocked during the infection. Consistent with this, most viruses require RIG-I to mount an innate immune response, whereas picornaviruses require mda-5. We have examined a SeV infection whose ability to induce interferon depends on the generation of capped dsRNA (without free 5? tri-phosphate ends), and found that this infection as well requires RIG-I and not mda-5. We also provide evidence that RIG-I interacts with poly-I/C in vivo, and that heteropolymeric dsRNA and poly-I/C interact directly with RIG-I in vitro, but in different ways; i.e., poly-I/C has the unique ability to stimulate the helicase ATPase of RIG-I variants which lack the C-terminal regulatory domain. PMID:19115016

Hausmann, Stéphane; Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Tapparel, Caroline; Kolakofsky, Daniel; Garcin, Dominique

2008-01-01

197

Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

2009-01-01

198

Contributed Review: Optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig.  

PubMed

We review the method of producing adiabatic optical micro- and nanofibers using a hydrogen/oxygen flame brushing technique. The flame is scanned along the fiber, which is being simultaneously stretched by two translation stages. The tapered fiber fabrication is reproducible and yields highly adiabatic tapers with either exponential or linear profiles. Details regarding the setup of the flame brushing rig and the various parameters used are presented. Information available from the literature is compiled and further details that are necessary to have a functioning pulling rig are included. This should enable the reader to fabricate various taper profiles, while achieving adiabatic transmission of ?99% for fundamental mode propagation. Using this rig, transmissions ranging from 85% to 95% for higher order modes in an optical nanofiber have been obtained. PMID:25430090

Ward, J M; Maimaiti, A; Le, Vu H; Chormaic, S Nic

2014-11-01

199

Contributed Review: Optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the method of producing adiabatic optical micro- and nanofibers using a hydrogen/oxygen flame brushing technique. The flame is scanned along the fiber, which is being simultaneously stretched by two translation stages. The tapered fiber fabrication is reproducible and yields highly adiabatic tapers with either exponential or linear profiles. Details regarding the setup of the flame brushing rig and the various parameters used are presented. Information available from the literature is compiled and further details that are necessary to have a functioning pulling rig are included. This should enable the reader to fabricate various taper profiles, while achieving adiabatic transmission of ˜99% for fundamental mode propagation. Using this rig, transmissions ranging from 85% to 95% for higher order modes in an optical nanofiber have been obtained.

Ward, J. M.; Maimaiti, A.; Le, Vu H.; Chormaic, S. Nic

2014-11-01

200

Higher antiviral response of RIG-I through enhancing RIG-I/MAVS-mediated signaling by its long insertion variant in zebrafish.  

PubMed

As an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is responsible for the recognition of cytosolic viral nucleic acids and the production of type I interferons (IFNs). In the present study, an insertion variant of RIG-I with 38 amino acids inserted in the N-terminal CARD2 domain, as well as the typical type, named as RIG-Ia and RIG-Ib respectively were identified in zebrafish. RIG-Ia and RIG-Ib were all up-regulated following the infection of a negative ssRNA virus, the Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV), and an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda, indicating the RLR may have a role in the recognition of both viruses and bacteria. The over-expression of RIG-Ib in cultured fish cells resulted in significant increase in type I IFN promoter activity, and in protection against SVCV infection, whereas the over-expression of RIG-Ia had no direct effect on IFN activation nor antiviral response. Furthermore, it was revealed that both RIG-Ia and RIG-Ib were associated with the downstream molecular mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, MAVS, and interestingly RIG-Ia when co-transfected with RIG-Ib or MAVS, induced a significantly higher level of type I IFN promoter activity and the expression level of Mx and IRF7, implying that the RIG-Ia may function as an enhancer in the RIG-Ib/MAVS-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:25524497

Zou, Peng Fei; Chang, Ming Xian; Li, Ying; Huan Zhang, Shu; Fu, Jian Ping; Chen, Shan Nan; Nie, Pin

2015-03-01

201

2534 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 50, NO. 7, JULY 2012 Mapping Surface Oil Extent From the Deepwater  

E-print Network

Oil Extent From the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using ASCAT Backscatter Richard D. Lindsley, Student Member, IEEE, and David G. Long, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf THE OIL spill from the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the largest environmental

Long, David G.

202

Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for

Ricketts

1981-01-01

203

New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suggested and tested were some mix explosives---powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)---for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30--70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

Andreevskikh, Leonid

2011-06-01

204

The Threats from Oil Spills: Now, Then, and in the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing oil spill from the blown-out well by the name of Macondo, drilled by the ill-fated rig Deepwater Horizon, has\\u000a many features in common with another blowout in the Mexican Gulf that happened three decades ago. Then the oil gushed out\\u000a from the Ixtoc I well drilled by the Sedco 135-F semi-submersible rig. In the years between these catastrophes,

Arne Jernelöv

2010-01-01

205

Whirl Motion of a Seal Test Rig with Squeeze-Film Dampers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the experimental behavior and dynamic analysis of a high speed test rig with rolling element bearings mounted in squeeze film oil damper bearings. The test rotor is a double overhung configuration with rolling element ball bearings mounted in uncentered squeeze-film oil dampers. The damper design is similar to that employed with various high-speed aircraft HP gas turbines. The dynamic performance of the test rig with the originally installed dampers with an effective damper length of length 0.23-inch was unacceptable. The design speed of 40,000 RPM could not be safely achieved as nonsynchronous whirling at the overhung seal test disk and high amplitude critical speed response at the drive spline section occurred at 32,000 RPM. In addition to the self excited stability and critical speed problems, it was later seen from FFT data analysis, that a region of supersynchronous dead band whirling occurs between 10,000 to 15,000 RPM which can lead to bearing distress and wear. The system was analyzed using both linear and nonlinear techniques. The extended length damper design resulting from the analysis eliminated the rotor subsynchronous whirling, high amplitude critical speed, and the dead band whirling region allowing the system to achieve a speed of 45,000 RPM. However, nonlinear analysis shows that damper lockup could occur with high rotor unbalance at 33,000 RPM, even with the extended squeeze-film dampers. The control of damper lockup will be addressed in a future paper.

Proctor, Margaret P.; Gunter, Edgar J.

2007-01-01

206

Mixed Stream Test Rig Winter FY-2011 Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the data and analysis of the initial testing campaign of the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the test specimen selection, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, and data and analysis of specimens exposed in two environments designed to represent those expected for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE).

Chalres Park; Tedd Lister; Kevin DeWall

2011-04-01

207

Skid-off rig speeds up platform work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes a new class of cantilever jackup built by Chiles Offshore. The jackup helps solve the problem and expense of drilling additional wells or working over wells that are out of the 35-45 foot reach of standard cantilever jackup rigs. The unit is unique because the entire drilling floor and the substructure can be skidded off from the

Cochram

1986-01-01

208

46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which the separator is designed to operate; and (4) Have either bypass piping to its suction side or a throttle valve or orifice on its discharge side. (c) The inlet piping of the test rig must be sized so that— (1) Influent water flows at...

2011-10-01

209

Hoisting and Rigging: Visual Structural Weld Inspection Criteria and Form  

E-print Network

Hoisting and Rigging: Visual Structural Weld Inspection Criteria and Form Department: Field Safety ­ specify Carbon steel: specifications, if known All others: alloy, if known Weld filler alloy, if known Yes No Is the weld painted? Is surface corrosion within acceptable limits? Does the weld size match the engineering

Wechsler, Risa H.

210

Bid Rigging and the Threat of Government Prosecution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I develop a simple bidding model in which collusion is endogenous. Buyers at a first-price sealed-bid auction decide whether to rig their bids given that they face the threat of government prosecution. A legal authority chooses whether to investigate the buyers on the basis of the bids tendered. In the unique sequential equilibrium of the game, buyers

Chantale LaCasse

1995-01-01

211

The underwater jet noise rig: A working report 1978 to 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underwater jet rig was developed and experiments run showing that it can be used successfully to study a wide range of problems. Extraneous low and middle frequency noise which was found to have been transmitted by vibrations of the inlet pipework to the nozzle and has been virtually eliminated by modifications to the rig. The rig can provide accurate

R. E. Franklin; J. McMillan

1980-01-01

212

Effect of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifiers on engine fuel economy and gear oil efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A selection of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifier additives was tested comparatively in engine dynamometer tests on gasoline and diesel engines; the tests measured variations in brake specific fuel consumption with speed. A similar selection of molybdenum-containing additives was evaluated in terms of transmission efficiency in a hypoid-gear, rear-axle test rig; the baseline oil was a formulated SAE-75W gear oil. Bench-scale friction tests utilizing the Press-Fit, Timken and Four-Ball test devices were employed to establish a correlation between small-scale rigs and full-scale engine tests. 13 refs.

Greene, A.B.; Risdon, T.J.

1981-01-01

213

Explosives tester with heater  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10

214

Toxiological Considerations in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill  

EPA Science Inventory

The Deep Water Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20, 2010, resulting in an ongoing release of light sweet petroleum crude oil and methane into Gulf of Mexico waters. The release from the deepwater wellhead 41 miles from Louisiana is at approximately 1 mile depth, and flow rates e...

215

Oil and gas developments in Israel in 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 70% of the sedimentary area of Israel is under license or other petroleum rights. Four drilling rigs and 4 seismic crews were working at the end of 1981. During the period 1979 to 1981, 24 exploratory wells and 3 development wells were drilled, resulting in 1 oil discovery and 1 gas discovery. Oil production from the Helez-Brur, Kokhav, and

R. G. S. Hanreck; P. R. May

1982-01-01

216

Modeling of buried explosions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

1987-01-01

217

GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

2013-12-01

218

Using IASI to detect the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 22nd October 2013  

E-print Network

Using IASI to detect the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Jack Kemp 22nd October 2013 1 Introduction emissivity. Figure 1: An image of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill taken from NASA's Terra satellite on the 24 On 20th April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig at 2844 17.30 N and 8821 57.40 W in the Gulf of Mexico

Oxford, University of

219

Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations  

E-print Network

Following the recent Imperial sugar dust explosion in 2008, a comprehensive survey of past dust explosions was conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to determine potential explosible dusts. After the survey, OSHA...

Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

2014-01-06

220

Coal dust explosibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01

221

Inside an Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From afar, an explosion may seem like one of the most incredible examples of chaotic interaction. But once you look closer, as in this video from QUEST, you will find that large-scale explosions require very precise interactions to occur in just the right sequence.

2009-08-20

222

Query Nuclear Explosions Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NUCEXP, National Geoscience Database, provided by the Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO), contains entries on nuclear explosions around the world since 1945, with the location, time and size of explosions. To view the records, users must select site and country conducting the test and beginning/end dates.

2002-01-01

223

The Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Bristol page discusses in detail the Cambrian Explosion event that occurred about 545 million years ago. This site covers what the 'explosion' was and when it happened, the Cambrian environment, what caused this event to occur, fossil groups and their significance, and controversies surrounding this theory as well as recent discoveries.

224

RIG-I Detects mRNA of Intracellular Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium during Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The cytoplasmic helicase RIG-I is an established sensor for viral 5?-triphosphorylated RNA species. Recently, RIG-I was also implicated in the detection of intracellular bacteria. However, little is known about the host cell specificity of this process and the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates RIG-I. Here we show that RNA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium activates production of beta interferon in a RIG-I-dependent fashion only in nonphagocytic cells. In phagocytic cells, RIG-I is obsolete for detection of Salmonella infection. We further demonstrate that Salmonella mRNA reaches the cytoplasm during infection and is thus accessible for RIG-I. The results from next-generation sequencing analysis of RIG-I-associated RNA suggest that coding bacterial mRNAs represent the activating PAMP. PMID:24692634

Schmolke, Mirco; Patel, Jenish R.; de Castro, Elisa; Sánchez-Aparicio, Maria T.; Uccellini, Melissa B.; Miller, Jennifer C.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Satoh, Takashi; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo; Merad, Miriam; García-Sastre, Adolfo

2014-01-01

225

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOEpatents

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01

226

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

227

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

228

GEOFRAC: an explosives stimulation technique for a geothermal well  

SciTech Connect

The first known use of explosives for stimulating a geothermal well was successfully conducted in December 1981 with a process called GEOFRAC. The 260/sup 0/C well was located at the Union Oil Company's Geysers Field in northern California. For the initial test, 364 kg of a new explosive called HITEX II was placed at a depth of 2256 meters and detonated to verify techniques. The explosive was contained in an aluminum canister to separate it from the well fluids. In the second test, 5000 kg of explosive was used representing a column length of approximately 191 meters. The explosive was detonated at a depth of 1697 meters in the same well. The results of these tests show that HITEX II can be safely emplaced and successfully detonated in a hot geothermal well without causing damage to the well bore or casing.

Mumma, D.M.; McCullough, F. Jr.; Schmidt, E.W.; Pye, D.S.; Allen, W.C.; Pyle, D.; Hanold, R.J.

1982-01-01

229

Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. Methods: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Results: Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. Conclusions: For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Citation: Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:24678440

Michaels, David; Howard, John

2012-01-01

230

Burner rig corrosion of SiC at 1000 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sintered alpha-SiC was examined in both oxidation and hot corrosion with a burner rig at 400 kPa (4 atm) and 1000 C with a flow velocity of 94 m/s. Oxidation tests for times to 46 h produced virtually no attack, whereas tests with 4 ppm Na produced extensive corrosion in 13.5 h. Thick glassy layers composed primarily of sodium silicate formed in the salt corrosion tests. This corrosion attack caused severe pitting on the silicon carbide substrate and led to a 32 percent decrease in strength, compared to the as-received material. Parallel furnace tests of Na2SO4/air-induced attack yielded basically similar results, with slight product composition differences. The differences are explained in terms of the continuous sulfate deposition which occurs in a burner rig.

Jacobson, N. S.; Stearns, C. A.; Smialek, J. L.

1986-01-01

231

High-Flow Jet Exit Rig Designed and Fabricated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to test single flow jet nozzles and to measure the appropriate thrust and noise levels. The rig has been designed for the maximum hot condition of 16 lbm/sec of combustion air at 1960 R (maximum) and to produce a maximum thrust of 2000 lb. It was designed for cold flow of 29.1 lbm/sec of air at 530 R. In addition, it can test dual-flow nozzles (nozzles with bypass flow in addition to core flow) with independent control of each flow. The High- Flow Jet Exit Rig was successfully fabricated in late 2001 and is being readied for checkout tests. The rig will be installed in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig consists of the following major components: a single component force balance, the natural-gas-fueled J-79 combustor assembly, the plenum and manifold assembly, an acoustic/instrumentation/seeding (A/I/S) section, a table, and the research nozzles. The rig will be unique in that it is designed to operate uncooled. The structure survives the 1960 R test condition because it uses carefully selected high temperature alloy materials such as Hastelloy-X. The lower plenum assembly was designed to operate at pressures to 450 psig at 1960 R, in accordance with the ASME B31.3 piping code. The natural gas-fueled combustor fires directly into the lower manifold. The hot air is directed through eight 1-1/2-in. supply pipes that supply the upper plenum. The flow is conditioned in the upper plenum prior to flowing to the research nozzle. The 1-1/2-in. supply lines are arranged in a U-shaped design to provide for a flexible piping system. The combustor assembly checkout was successfully conducted in Glenn's Engine Component Research Laboratory in the spring of 2001. The combustor is a low-smoke version of the J79 combustor used to power the F4 Phantom military aircraft. The natural gas-fueled combustor demonstrated high-efficiency combustion over a wide range of operating conditions. This wide operating envelope is required to support the testing of both single- and dual-flow nozzles. Key research goals include providing simultaneous, highly accurate acoustic, flow, and thrust measurements on jet nozzle models in realistic flight conditions, as well as providing scaleable acoustic results. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig is a second-generation high-flow test rig. Improvements include cleaner flow with reduced levels of particulate, soot, and odor. Choked-flow metering is required with plus or minus 0.25-percent accuracy. Thrust measurements from 0 to 2000 lbf are required with plus or minus 0.25-percent accuracy. Improved acoustics will be achieved by minimizing noise through large pipe bend radii, lower internal flow velocities, and microdrilled choke plates with thousands of 0.040-in.- diameter holes.

Buehrle, Robert J.; Trimarchi, Paul A.

2003-01-01

232

Calculations cut drilling-rig chain-drive failure  

SciTech Connect

Although so-called ''fatigue resistant'' chain has been in use on drilling rigs for a long time, a rational method for the design calculation of drilling rig chain drive is still unavailable. Two general formulas are presented in this article, but more involvement of industry is needed. Horsepower rating. The horsepower rating tables currently in use, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B29.1, were adopted in 1975 to provide a standardized basis for the selection of chain size that would give satisfactory service life. But drilling equipment manufacturers require chains capable of transmitting power at levels far exceeding the standard ratings. Many chain manufacturers have improved their fabrication and processing techniques to provide chains with much higher endurance limits to meet this requirement.

Wang, H. (Gansu Machine Building Industry Corp., Lanzhou (CN))

1988-10-31

233

Drive Rig Mufflers for Model Scale Engine Acoustic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of air breathing propulsion systems in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center depends on compressed air turbines for power. The drive rig turbines exhaust directly to the wind tunnel test section, and have been found to produce significant unwanted noise that reduces the quality of the acoustic measurements of the model being tested. In order to mitigate this acoustic contamination, a muffler can be attached downstream of the drive rig turbine. The modern engine designs currently being tested produce much less noise than traditional engines, and consequently a lower noise floor is required of the facility. An acoustic test of a muffler designed to mitigate this extraneous noise is presented, and a noise reduction of 8 dB between 700 Hz and 20 kHz was documented, significantly improving the quality of acoustic measurements in the facility.

Stephens, David

2010-01-01

234

Optically measured explosive impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

2014-06-01

235

New wave drilling rigs offer automation, ergonomics and economy  

SciTech Connect

The drilling industry is being pressured to do its job not just faster and cheaper, but also safer and cleaner. The latest land and offshore platform drilling rig designs incorporate modularization, mechanization, computers and environmental protection in an attempt to meet those demands. This paper reviews the technology of these new designs and how they can operate to ensure safety and environmental protection for lower costs.

Von Flatern, R.

1996-05-01

236

New High-Temperature Turbine Seal Rig Fabricated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current NASA program goals for aircraft engines and vehicle performance include reducing direct operating costs for commercial aircraft by 3 percent in large engines and 5 percent in regional engines, reducing engine fuel burn up to 10 percent, and reducing engine oxides of nitrogen emissions by more than 50 percent. Significant advancements in current gas turbine engines and engine components, such as seals, are required to meet these goals. Specifically, advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight ratio, emissions, durability, and operating costs. In a direct effort to address and make progress toward these goals, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field have developed a unique high-temperature, high-speed engine seal test rig to evaluate seals under the temperature, speed, and pressure conditions anticipated for next generation turbine engines. This new seal test rig has capabilities beyond those of any existing seal rigs. It can test air seals (i.e., labyrinth, brush, and new seal concepts) at temperatures of up to 1500 F and pressures up to 100 psid (even higher pressures are possible at lower temperatures), and at all surface speeds anticipated in future NASA (Ultra Efficient Engine Technology, UEET, and Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology, IHPTET) engine programs. In addition, seals can be tested offset from the rotor centerline, in the rotor runout condition, and with simulated mission profiles. Support for this new rig was provided by NASA Glenn, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Army.

Delgado, Irebert R.

2000-01-01

237

New High-Temperature Turbine Seal Rig Installed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current NASA program goals for aircraft engines and vehicle performance include reducing direct operating costs for commercial aircraft by 3 percent in large engines and 5 percent in regional engines, reducing engine fuel burn up to 10 percent, and reducing engine oxides of nitrogen emissions by more than 50 percent. Significant advancements in current gas turbine engines and engine components, such as seals, are required to meet these goals. Specifically, advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight ratio, emissions, durability, and operating costs. In a direct effort to address and make progress toward these goals, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have developed a unique high-temperature, high-speed engine seal test rig to evaluate seals under the temperature, speed, and pressure conditions anticipated for next-generation turbine engines. Newly installed, this seal test rig has capabilities beyond those of any existing seal rigs. It can test air seals (i.e., labyrinth, brush, and new seal concepts) at temperatures of up to 1500 F and pressures up to 100 psid (even higher pressures are possible at lower temperatures), and at all surface speeds anticipated in future NASA (Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology, UEET) and Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) engine programs. In addition, seals can be tested offset from the rotor centerline, in the rotor runout condition, and with simulated mission profiles. Support for this new rig was provided by Glenn, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Army.

Delgado, Irebert R.

2001-01-01

238

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

239

Activation of RIG-I-like Receptor Signal Transduction  

PubMed Central

Mammalian cells have the ability to recognize virus infection and mount a powerful antiviral response. Pattern recognition receptor proteins detect molecular signatures of virus infection and activate antiviral signaling cascades. The RIG-I-like receptors are cytoplasmic DExD/H box proteins that can specifically recognize virus-derived RNA species as a molecular feature discriminating the pathogen from the host. The RIG-I-like receptor family is composed of three homologous proteins, RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2. All of these proteins can bind double-stranded RNA species with varying affinities via their conserved DExD/H box RNA helicase domains and C-terminal regulatory domains. The recognition of foreign RNA by the RLRs activates enzymatic functions and initiates signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of antiviral cytokines and the establishment of a broadly effective cellular antiviral state that protects neighboring cells from infection and triggers innate and adaptive immune systems. The propagation of this signal via the interferon antiviral system has been studied extensively, while the precise roles for enzymatic activities of the RNA helicase domain in antiviral responses are only beginning to be elucidated. Here, current models for RLR ligand recognition and signaling are reviewed. PMID:22066529

Bruns, Annie; Horvath, Curt M.

2011-01-01

240

Simulation of high explosive explosion using adaptive material point method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of high explosive explosion problems is a big challenge to traditional numerical methods because explosion usually involves ex- tremely large deformation and multi-material interaction of different phases. Re- centlydevelopedmeshfreemethodsshowmuchadvantagesovermesh-basedmethod for problems associated with very large deformation. Some of them have been successfully applied to impact and explosion problems, such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Similar to SPH, material

Shang Ma; Xiong Zhang; Yanping Lian; Xu Zhou

2009-01-01

241

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

242

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

243

Burngrange Nos.1 and 2 (oil Shale) Mine, Midlothian   

E-print Network

BURNGRANGE Nos. I AND 2 (Oil Shale) MINE, MIDLOTHIAN REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending, the Explosion and Fire which occurred on the 10th January, 1947, at the Burngrange Nos. I and 2 (Oil Shale) ...

Bryan, A. M.

1947-01-01

244

The Pinch Explosion  

E-print Network

THE PINCH EXPLOSION DAVID BOLAND Technology Manager A.P. ROSSITER President ICI-TENSA Services Houston, Texas ABSTRACT* A dramatic growth in the range of applications of pinch technology has been seen in recent years. These include...

Rossiter, A. P.; Boland, D.

245

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

ScienceCinema

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2013-05-28

246

Explosive Collisions at RHIC?  

E-print Network

Motivated by experimental results from RHIC, we suggest how a condensate for the Polyakov loop might produce explosive behavior at the QCD phase transition. This is due to a rapid rollover of the condensate field below the transition temperature.

Adrian Dumitru; Robert D. Pisarski

2001-02-02

247

Disorder induces explosive synchronization  

E-print Network

We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on either the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

Per Sebastian Skardal; Alex Arenas

2014-04-03

248

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

2004-10-01

249

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

SciTech Connect

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2011-01-01

250

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

251

Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R

2012-01-19

252

Explosive Nucleosynthesis: Prospects  

E-print Network

Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions---the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of SN1987A, SN1998bw (GRB980425?), and eta Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

David Arnett

1999-08-16

253

The Combustion of Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to all possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for more ideal explosives and propellants that perform well yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contract to classical assumptions. This work presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented.

Son, Steven F.

2001-06-01

254

( 'tams Dlvllan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE  

E-print Network

~ ( ·'tams Dlvl·lan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE THERMAL CONSTRAINTS LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE presents the study of LSPE High Explosive Package and transport frame stowage thermal constraints subsequent to LM touchdown and prior to lunar deployment. Approved by: #12;LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE

Rathbun, Julie A.

255

RIG-I from waterfowl and mammals differ in their abilities to induce antiviral responses against influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

The retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) plays a crucial role in sensing viral RNA and IFN-? production. RIG-I varies in length and sequence between different species. We assessed the functional differences between RIG-I proteins derived from mammals and birds. The transfection of duck caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) and duck RIG-I (dCARDs and dRIG-I) and goose CARDs and goose RIG-I (gCARDs and gRIG-I) into chicken DF-1 cells increased the production of IFN-? mRNA and IFN-stimulated genes and decreased influenza A virus (IAV) replication; whereas human CARDs and RIG-I (hCARDs and hRIG-I) and mouse CARDs and RIG-I (mCARDs and mRIG-I) had no effect. In human 293T and A549 cells, hCARDs had the strongest IFN-inducing activity, followed by mCARDs, dCARDs and gCARDs. The IFN-inducing activity of hRIG-I was stronger than that of mRIG-I, dRIG-I and gRIG-I, in that order. The results showed that, although the ability of dCARDs to activate IFN was stronger than that of gCARDs in DF-1, 293T and A549 cells, dRIG-I had a weaker ability to activate IFN than gRIG-I in DF-1 cells with or without IAV infection. These data suggest that RIG-I proteins from different species have different amino acid sequences and functions. This genetic and functional diversity renders RIG-I flexible, adaptable and capable of recognizing many viruses in different species. PMID:25371516

Shao, Qiang; Xu, Wenping; Guo, Qiang; Yan, Li; Rui, Lei; Liu, Jinhua; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Zandong

2015-02-01

256

Coal mine explosions: seasonal trends.  

PubMed

An analysis of disaster reports on coal mine explosions indicates that gas explosions are randomly distributed throughout the year, whereas dust explosions (which may or may not be triggered by a gas explosion) occur with greater frequency during the dry fall and winter months. The lack of adequate moisture during cold weather tends to increase the rate and severity of the dust explosions. PMID:17832768

Kissell, F N; Nagel, A E; Zabetakis, M G

1973-03-01

257

Micro-explosion of a water-in-hexadecane compound drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micro-explosion of a water-in-oil compound drop, without emulsification, was investigated experimentally. The compound drop, composed of a water core encased by an n-hexadecane shell, was suspended and heated to micro-explosion. The heating process and the micro-explosion behavior were recorded by a high-speed video system, and the temperature history of the compound drop was measured under three ambient temperatures, namely

Wei-Dong Hsieh; Rong-Horng Chen; Cheng-Wen Chen; Sheng-Lin Chiu; Ta-Hui Lin

2012-01-01

258

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions  

E-print Network

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J. Fern´andez Bonder, UBA J.D. Rossi, UBA ERPEM, November 29th, 2006 Pablo Groisman UBA Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

Groisman, Pablo

259

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

260

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

261

Design and Development of High-Velocity Slurry Erosion Test Rig Using CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry erosion (SE) is commonly observed in almost all kinds of components and machineries involved in fluid (liquid) transfer and delivery. During design and development phase of these components, test rigs are usually required to evaluate their performance; however, only few detailed designs of test rigs are available for SE investigations. Among the existing designs of SE test rigs, most of them belong to rotary type. In the present study, design of a new type of SE test rig has been proposed, which is simpler in construction and working. This newly designed test rig could possibly eliminate some of the limitations (velocity-concentration interdependence and lack of acceleration distance) found in the existing set-ups. Calibration of the test rig was done for jet velocity and erodent concentration. Commissioning of the rig was undertaken by evaluating the effect of operating parameters (concentration and impingement angle) on the erosion rates of aluminum and cast iron. Results show that the rig was able to capture the traditional responses of ductile and brittle erosion behaviors being observed for these materials. Repeatability of the test rig was ensured, and the results were found to be within the acceptable error limits.

Grewal, H. S.; Agrawal, Anupam; Singh, H.

2013-01-01

262

Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

1998-01-01

263

Geologic characteristics in the vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling rig experienced a catastrophic explosion and fire. At the time, it was drilling about 70km southeast of the mouth of the Mississippi River. A couple of days later it lay on the sea floor in more than 1500m of water. The drilling riser that extended from the sea floor to the

T. McGee

2010-01-01

264

Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

2012-01-01

265

Disc brake squeal characterization through simplified test rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of recent investigations on brake squeal noise carried out on simplified experimental rigs. The common theme of these works is that of approaching the study of squeal noise on experimental set-ups that are much simpler than commercial disc brakes, providing the possibility of repeatable measurements of squeal occurrence. As a consequence, it is possible to build consistent and robust models of the experimental apparatus to simulate the squeal events and to understand the physics behind squeal instabilities.

Akay, A.; Giannini, O.; Massi, F.; Sestieri, A.

2009-11-01

266

Effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of rocks at large deformations is characterized, including the effects of crack growth when unstable, the effects of anisotropy, the distinction between open and closed cracks, the influence of crack intersections, the role of pore pressure, and a calculation of permeability. The theory is quite general, and is intended for use in a computer program rather than as a vehicle for obtaining analytic results. When a spherical explosive charge is embedded in oil shale it produces an aspirin-shaped cavity at late times as a result of the bedded structure of the rock. In this paper a calculation of the cavity produced by a spherical explosive is compared with a radiograph, showing remarkable agreement between the two. The shape of the cavity is explained by the behavior of cracks lying in the bedding planes.

Dienes, J.K.

1981-01-01

267

A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.  

PubMed

The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. PMID:22858504

Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

2012-10-01

268

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

269

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

Thundat, T.G.

1999-06-29

270

Rowan Gorilla I rigged up, heads for eastern Canada  

SciTech Connect

Designed to operate in very hostile offshore environments, the first of the Rowan Gorilla class of self-elevating drilling rigs has been towed to its drilling assignment offshore Nova Scotia. About 40% larger than other jackups, these rigs can operate in 300 ft of water, drilling holes as deep as 30,000 ft. They also feature unique high-pressure and solids control systems that are expected to improve drilling procedures and efficiencies. A quantitative formation pressure evaluation program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 handheld calculator computes formation pressures by three independent methods - the corrected d exponent, Bourgoyne and Young, and normalized penetration rate techniques for abnormal pressure detection and computation. Based on empirically derived drilling rate equations, each of the methods can be calculated separately, without being dependent on or influenced by the results or stored data from the other two subprograms. The quantitative interpretation procedure involves establishing a normal drilling rate trend and calculating the pore pressure from the magnitude of the drilling rate trend or plotting parameter increases above the trend line. Mobil's quick, accurate program could aid drilling operators in selecting the casing point, minimizing differential sticking, maintaining the proper mud weights to avoid kicks and lost circulation, and maximizing penetration rates.

Not Available

1984-03-01

271

Experimental investigation on system performance using palm oil as hydraulic fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate hydraulic system performance using vegetable-based palm oil as hydraulic fluid. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The hydraulic system performance test at different operating conditions, such as pressure, speed and oil ageing, was performed using a Yuken vane pump test rig. The endurance system performance test was also conducted for 200 and 400 h.

W. B. Wan Nik; M. A. Maleque; F. N. Ani; H. H. Masjuki

2007-01-01

272

RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling Is Inhibited in HIV-1 Infection by a Protease-Mediated Sequestration of RIG-I?  

PubMed Central

The rapid induction of type I interferon (IFN) is essential for establishing innate antiviral responses. During infection, cytoplasmic viral RNA is sensed by two DExD/H box RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, ultimately driving IFN production. Here, we demonstrate that purified genomic RNA from HIV-1 induces a RIG-I-dependent type I IFN response. Both the dimeric and monomeric forms of HIV-1 were sensed by RIG-I, but not MDA5, with monomeric RNA, usually found in defective HIV-1 particles, acting as a better inducer of IFN than dimeric RNA. However, despite the presence of HIV-1 RNA in the de novo infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, HIV-1 replication did not lead to a substantial induction of IFN signaling. We demonstrate the existence of an evasion mechanism based on the inhibition of the RIG-I sensor through the action of the HIV-1 protease (PR). Indeed, the ectopic expression of PR resulted in the inhibition of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) phosphorylation and decreased expression of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes. A downregulation of cytoplasmic RIG-I levels occurred in cells undergoing a single-cycle infection with wild-type provirus BH10 but not in cells transfected with a protease-deficient provirus, BH10-PR?. Cellular fractionation and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RIG-I translocated from the cytosol to an insoluble fraction during the de novo HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, in the presence of PR. The loss of cytoplasmic RIG-I was prevented by the lysosomal inhibitor E64, suggesting that PR targets RIG-I to the lysosomes. This study reveals a novel PR-dependent mechanism employed by HIV-1 to counteract the early IFN response to viral RNA in infected cells. PMID:21084468

Solis, Mayra; Nakhaei, Peyman; Jalalirad, Mohammad; Lacoste, Judith; Douville, Renée; Arguello, Meztli; Zhao, Tiejun; Laughrea, Michael; Wainberg, Mark A.; Hiscott, John

2011-01-01

273

Evolutionary conservation of the insulinoma gene rig and its possible function  

SciTech Connect

The authors have identified a gene, rig (rat insulinoma gene), that is activated in chemically induced rat insulinomas but not in normal pancreatic islets or in regenerating islets. In the present study, they have found that the insulinoma gene was activated in a BK virus-induced hamster insulinoma cell line and in a spontaneously occurring human insulinoma. From the hamster and human insulinoma cDNA libraries, rig homologues were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. In the same manner as the rat gene, both hamster and human homologues contained one open reading frame of 435 nucleotides, differing by 32- and 41-base substitutions, respectively. All the base substitutions were same-sense mutations. Accordingly, the deduced 145-amino acid sequence remained invariant in hamster, human, and rat insulinomas, suggesting that rig has evolved under extraordinarily strong selective constraints. Computerized structure analysis indicated that rig-encoded protein is a possible DNA-binding protein. The antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary to hamster rig mRNA was synthesized and injected into the hamster insulinoma cells. The antisense rig oligodeoxyribouncleotide inhibited DNA synthesis in the insulinoma cells, whereas the sense rig oligodeoxyribonucleotide or antisense insulin oligodeoxyribonucleotide had no inhibitory effect. These results strongly suggest that the activation of rig is both common and potentially significant in the oncogenic growth of pancreatic B cells of islets of Langerhans.

Inoue, C.; Shiga, K.; Takasawa, S.; Kitagawa, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Okamoto, H.

1987-10-01

274

Numerical and experimental determination of neutron characteristics in irradiation rigs operated in LVR-15 research reactor.  

PubMed

The LVR-15 reactor is a 10-MW research reactor mostly dedicated to material research and isotope production. Material testing can be performed in various irradiation loops and rigs. For specimen irradiation, several rig constructions can be used, including standard single-cell CHOUCA rigs or special dedicated multi-cell rigs. The temperature in the rigs is controlled by a temperature control system, which can be operated in a stable or pulsed mode, with regard to the rig design. Irradiation conditions in the rig are monitored by a set of various fluence detectors. From these detectors, neutron fluence and its energy distribution can be determined for the whole volume of irradiation samples. Besides measurement, irradiation conditions are calculated by the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, which provides a complete review of irradiation conditions including neutron fluence and its energy distribution in samples and detectors, radiation damage and radiation heating conditions for the rig. A set of experimental and theoretical characteristics for dedicated irradiation positions in the core reflector and in fuel will be provided. PMID:24972899

Koleska, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodova, Zdena; Ernest, Jaroslav; Zmitkova, Jelena; Marek, Milan

2014-10-01

275

Defining the functional determinants for RNA surveillance by RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is an intracellular RNA sensor that activates the innate immune machinery in response to infection by RNA viruses. Here, we report the crystal structure of distinct conformations of a RIG-I:dsRNA complex, which shows that HEL2i-mediated scanning allows RIG-I to sense the length of RNA targets. To understand the implications of HEL2i scanning for catalytic activity and signalling by RIG-I, we examined its ATPase activity when stimulated by duplex RNAs of varying lengths and 5? composition. We identified a minimal RNA duplex that binds one RIG-I molecule, stimulates robust ATPase activity, and elicits a RIG-I-mediated interferon response in cells. Our results reveal that the minimal functional unit of the RIG-I:RNA complex is a monomer that binds at the terminus of a duplex RNA substrate. This behaviour is markedly different from the RIG-I paralog melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), which forms cooperative filaments. PMID:23897087

Kohlway, Andrew; Luo, Dahai; Rawling, David C; Ding, Steve C; Pyle, Anna Marie

2013-01-01

276

Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: innks@khu.ac.kr

2013-07-19

277

Portable hydraulic rig for performing workover, drilling and other operations on a well  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and improved portable hydraulic rig is described for performing workover, drilling or other operations on a well, usually a petroleum well. The rig has a telescoping mast for telescoping to a reduced length for transportation and is cantilevered in use so that the travelling block moves vertically at one side of the on. The cable for the travelling

H. D. Lee; J. L. Newman

1981-01-01

278

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes Overview (LSD) vanes are used to smoothly align the flow and minimize the losses. These vanes are fixed a diffuser with movable LSD vanes that can be incorporated into test rigs for centrifugal gas compressors

Demirel, Melik C.

279

Department of Mechanical Engineering Dresser-Rand 1: LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Dresser-Rand 1: LNG Test Rig Movable LSD (LSD) vanes which can easily be incorporated into current test rigs for centrifugal gas compressors of the system Approach Our team started the project by doing an extensive study on LSD vanes and current

Demirel, Melik C.

280

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL TEST RIG  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design, construction, and installation of a fluidized-bed coal combustion sampling and analytical test rig in the High Bay Area (Wing G) of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The rig, to be u...

281

Managing the data explosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

1993-01-01

282

Environmental fate of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal practices associated with military production of weapons, especially before and during World War II, have resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground water with high explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX. Development of remediation and risk management strategies for these contaminated sites as well as development of approaches for sustainable use of active training and weapons

Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon

2002-01-01

283

Explosive Z Pinch  

E-print Network

We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

2006-04-20

284

CBC: Halifax Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the evening of December 6, 1917, a massive explosion rocked the harbor of the rapidly growing city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, located in eastern Canada. Caused by the collision of two ships (one of which was carrying a tremendous amount of explosive material), the explosion killed over 1500 people outright, and devastated the settlements around the area. Working with various historical groups, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has created this engrossing multimedia look into the events leading up to that dreadful incident, along with offering a broader historical perspective on the development of the city of Halifax and the aftermath of these tragic events. Starting from the main page, visitors will learn about Halifax's history, along with having the opportunity to view significant interactive features, such as maps of the area and recently-discovered archival footage of the city and its environs. The interactive features here are quite amazing, as visitors can view video clips of survivors' recollections, and watch footage of various commemoration activities associated with the explosion.

285

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

286

Explosions During Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an idealized model of the effects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of filaments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N-body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale-free test-bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH/P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas located inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy-release for galaxies of different mass in the CDM model can relate these results to scale-dependent questions of blow-out and blow-away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxies.

Martel, H.; Shapiro, P. R.

2001-03-01

287

The Combustion of Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for improved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Currently, the most significant uncertainties are in the processes immediately following ignition. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions. This paper presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed. Novel materials may yield insight into the mechanisms involved with rapid deflagration processes.

Son, S. F.

2002-07-01

288

Phytoremediation of Selected Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroglycerine (NG) and pentaerytritoltetranitrate (PETN) using in vitrocultures of Rheum palmatum, Saponaria officinalisand Populus simonii were studied. All above mentioned explosives were degradated to less toxic products and finally probably bound to the cell wall or further involved in the metabolism. The formation of trinitrobenzene (TNB) during degradation of TNT which is a product of

T. Van?k; A. Nepovím; R. Podlipná; S. Zeman; M. Vágner

2003-01-01

289

Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks  

E-print Network

Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks Diego Alcala and Katherine Sytwu With Shane Squires ­ Directed and undirected networks ­ Percolation ­ Explosive percolation · Methodology · Results · Conclusion, infrastructure, etc. · Grow by the addition of links · New class of transitions: "explosive percolation" Taken

Anlage, Steven

290

EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS  

E-print Network

EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS Abstract The Feller and Khas'minskii tests provide conditions, under which a given dif- fusion process X(·) in a domain D can have explosions. If such explosions happen with positive probability, what is the distribution F(t, x) = Px(S t) , 0

Columbia University

291

LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY  

E-print Network

ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

Rathbun, Julie A.

292

Hand held explosives detection system  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

293

New explosive seam welding concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

Bement, L. J.

1973-01-01

294

Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF  

ScienceCinema

The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

None

2015-01-07

295

Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF  

SciTech Connect

The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

None

2014-10-31

296

Conformational rearrangements of RIG-I receptor on formation of a multiprotein:dsRNA assembly  

PubMed Central

The retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like family of receptors is positioned at the front line of our innate cellular defence system. RIG-I detects and binds to foreign duplex RNA in the cytoplasm of both immune and non-immune cells, and initiates the induction of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanism of RIG-I activation by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) involves a molecular rearrangement proposed to expose the N-terminal pair of caspase activation recruitment domains, enabling an interaction with interferon-beta promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) and thereby initiating downstream signalling. dsRNA is particularly stimulatory when longer than 20 bp, potentially through allowing binding of more than one RIG-I molecule. Here, we characterize full-length RIG-I and RIG-I subdomains combined with a stimulatory 29mer dsRNA using multi-angle light scattering and size-exclusion chromatography–coupled small-angle X-ray scattering, to build up a molecular model of RIG-I before and after the formation of a 2:1 protein:dsRNA assembly. We report the small-angle X-ray scattering–derived solution structure of the human apo-RIG-I and observe that on binding of RIG-I to dsRNA in a 2:1 ratio, the complex becomes highly extended and flexible. Hence, here we present the first model of the fully activated oligomeric RIG-I. PMID:23325848

Beckham, Simone A.; Brouwer, Jason; Roth, Anna; Wang, Die; Sadler, Anthony J.; John, Matthias; Jahn-Hofmann, Kerstin; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.

2013-01-01

297

Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75

Robert T. Kroutil; Sylvia S. Shen; Paul E. Lewis; David P. Miller; John Cardarelli; Mark Thomas; Timothy Curry; Paul Kudaraskus

2010-01-01

298

An experimental study on oil-film dynamic coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil-film force of hydrodynamic bearing is often characterized by a set of linear stiffness and damping coefficients. This paper presents an experimental method to recognize these coefficients and establishes their characteristics under varieties of operating conditions. The fundamental test model is obtained from a Taylor series expansion of bearing reaction force. A delicate test rig is constructed and experimental

Hua Zhou; Sanxing Zhao; Hua Xu; Jun Zhu

2004-01-01

299

PS300 Tribomaterials Evaluated at 6500C by Bushing Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new facility has been developed to test the tribological behavior (friction and wear) of PS300 solid lubricant bushings at high temperatures. PS300 is a commercially available solid lubricant invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It can be prepared as a plasma spray coating or as a free-standing powder metallurgy component, designated PM300. PS300 and PM300 composites are designed to lubricate sliding components at temperatures above the capability of today's best oils, greases, and solid lubricants. One of the primary applications being pursued for PM300 is the development of bushings for use in high-temperature machinery. Examples include inlet guide vane bushings for gas turbines and conveyors, and bearings for industrial furnaces and ovens. Encouraging preliminary field trials indicate that PS300 and PM300 lubricant materials have been commercialized successfully in several industrial applications. However, the lack of laboratory performance data has hindered further commercialization especially for new applications that differ significantly from the established experience base. The purpose of the newly developed bushing test rig will be to determine the performance characteristics of PM300, and other materials, under conditions closely matching intended applications. The data will be used to determine engineering friction and wear rates and to estimate the life expectancy of bushings for new applications. In the new rig, the bushing is loaded against a rotating shaft inside a furnace enclosure (see the preceding photograph). Loads can vary from 5 to 200 N, speeds from 1 to 400 rpm, and temperatures from 25 to 800 C. Furnace temperature, bushing temperature, shaft speed, and torque are monitored during the test, and wear of both the bushing and the shaft is measured after testing is completed. Initially, PM300 bushings will be evaluated and compared with lower temperature, traditional bushing materials like graphite and porous bronze. The baseline PM304 composition is 60 wt% NiCr (a binder), 20 wt% Cr2O3 (a hardener), 10 wt% BaF2/CaF2 (a high-temperature lubricant), and 10 wt% Ag (a low-temperature lubricant). Future research efforts will include determining the effects of load, sliding speed, and temperature on tribological performance and, possibly, tailoring composition for specific applications. We expect that the availability of measured performance data will enhance the market penetration of PM300 technology.

Striebing, Donald R.; DellaCorte, Christopher

2004-01-01

300

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

301

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-base alloys (IN-792, IN-738, and IN-100), a cobalt-base alloy (MM-509), and an iron-base alloy (304 stainless steel) were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and with both the concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D.; Lowell, C.

1977-01-01

302

V/STOL model fan stage rig design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model single-stage fan with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) was designed to demonstrate efficient point operation while providing flow and pressure ratio modulation capability required for a V/STOL propulsion system. The fan stage incorporates a split-flap VIGV with an independently actuated ID flap to permit independent modulation of fan and core engine airstreams, a flow splitter integrally designed into the blade and vanes to completely segregate fan and core airstreams in order to maximize core stream supercharging for V/STOL operation, and an EGV with a variable leading edge fan flap for rig performance optimization. The stage was designed for a maximum flow size of 37.4 kg/s (82.3 lb/s) for compatibility with LeRC test facility requirements. Design values at maximum flow for blade tip velocity and stage pressure ratio are 472 m/s (1550 ft/s) and 1.68, respectively.

Cheatham, J. G.; Creason, T. L.

1983-01-01

303

Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

304

Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

305

Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

1984-01-01

306

Advances in measuring techniques for turbine cooling test rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface temperature distribution measurements for turbine vanes and blades were obtained by measuring the infrared energy emitted by the airfoil. The IR distribution can be related to temperature distribution by suitable calibration methods and the data presented in the form of isotherm maps. Both IR photographic and real time electro-optical methods are being investigated. The methods can be adapted to rotating as well as stationary targets, and both methods can utilize computer processing. Pressure measurements on rotating components are made with a rotating system incorporating 10 miniature transducers. A mercury wetted slip ring assembly was used to supply excitation power and as a signal transfer device. The system was successfully tested up to speeds of 9000 rpm and is now being adapted to measure rotating blade airflow quantities in a spin rig and a research engine.

Pollack, F. G.

1972-01-01

307

Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

Hurley, Christoph

308

Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material in the Gulf of Mexico surface waters and along coastal beaches shortly after the explosion of Deepwater Horizon sparked debate about its origin and the oil covering it. We show that the unknown pieces of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material collected in the Gulf of Mexico were pieces of the riser pipe

Catherine A Carmichael; J Samuel Arey; William M Graham; Laura J Linn; Karin L Lemkau; Robert K Nelson; Christopher M Reddy

2012-01-01

309

Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

1983-01-01

310

Tracking responses to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill using trace elements in molluscan shells and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documenting the effects of modern stressors on coastal benthic marine communities requires a combination of baseline historical data and modern dynamic data. E.g., landfall of hydrocarbons from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig and well explosion in the Gulf of Mexico is impacting coastal areas long affected by natural seepage, as well as petroleum exploration and development. In Louisiana, exploration in

P. D. Roopnarine; L. Anderson; D. Roopnarine; D. P. Gillikin; D. Goodwin

2010-01-01

311

Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

Yang, Lien C. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

312

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives: Collisions and boundary interactions  

SciTech Connect

Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) can be used to model the effects that shock curvature, {kappa}, has oil detonation speed, D{sub n}({kappa}). At the edges of the explosive, D{sub n}({kappa}) is supplemented with boundary conditions. By direct numerical simulation (DNS). The authors study how the reaction zone interacts with the edge. DSD theory has been integrated with the level-set method of Osher and Sethian and the Los Alamos DNS code Mesa to create a powerful tool for simulating complex explosive containing systems.

Bdzil, J.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Aslam, T.D.; Stewart, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). TAM Dept.

1995-09-01

313

Detection of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the development of modern analysis supported by electronic means several different methods are available for detection\\u000a of explosives, which have been improved within the last decades with regard to precision, reliability, quickness and minimum\\u000a test sample volume. These developments enable us to analyse substances very quickly - in some cases also on-line. The question\\u000a is, which methods are suitable

Hiltmar Schubert

314

QGP fireball explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange\\u000ahadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of\\u000athe ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in\\u000arelativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical\\u000aproperties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an\\u000aanalysis of

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-01-01

315

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

316

Roles of RIG-I N-terminal tandem CARD and splice variant in TRIM25-mediated antiviral signal transduction  

PubMed Central

The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of intracellular adaptors and sensors plays a critical role in the assembly of signaling complexes involved in innate host defense against pathogens and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The cytosolic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) recognizes viral RNA in a 5?-triphosphate-dependent manner and initiates an antiviral signaling cascade. Upon viral infection, the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I undergo the K63-linked ubiquitination induced by tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25), critical for the interaction of RIG-I with its downstream signaling partner MAVS/VISA/IPS-1/Cardif. Here, we demonstrate the distinct roles of RIG-I first and second CARD in TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination: TRIM25 binds the RIG-I first CARD and subsequently ubiquitinates its second CARD. The T55I mutation in RIG-I first CARD abolishes TRIM25 interaction, whereas the K172R mutation in the second CARD eliminates polyubiquitin attachment. The necessity of the intact tandem CARD for RIG-I function is further evidenced by a RIG-I splice variant (SV) whose expression is robustly up-regulated upon viral infection. The RIG-I SV carries a short deletion (amino acids 36–80) within the first CARD and thereby loses TRIM25 binding, CARD ubiquitination, and downstream signaling ability. Furthermore, because of its robust inhibition of virus-induced RIG-I multimerization and RIG-I-MAVS signaling complex formation, this SV effectively suppresses the RIG-I-mediated IFN-? production. This study not only elucidates the vital role of the intact tandem CARD for TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation but also identifies the RIG-I SV as an off-switch regulator of its own signaling pathway. PMID:18948594

Gack, Michaela U.; Kirchhofer, Axel; Shin, Young C.; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Cui, Sheng; Myong, Sua; Ha, Taekjip; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Jung, Jae U.

2008-01-01

317

Dust cluster explosion  

SciTech Connect

A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2012-09-15

318

Identification of avian RIG-I responsive genes during influenza infection  

PubMed Central

Ducks can survive infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that are lethal to chickens. We showed that the influenza detector, RIG-I, can initiate antiviral responses in ducks, but this gene is absent in chickens. We can reconstitute this pathway by transfecting chicken DF-1 embryonic fibroblast cells with duck RIG-I, which augments their antiviral response to influenza and decreases viral titre. However, the genes downstream of duck RIG-I that mediate this antiviral response to influenza are not known. Using microarrays, we compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts transfected with duck RIG-I or empty vector, and infected with low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Transfected duck RIG-I expressed in chicken cells was associated with the marked induction of many antiviral innate immune genes upon infection with both viruses. We used real-time PCR to confirm upregulation of a subset of these antiviral genes including MX1, PKR, IFIT5, OASL, IFNB, and downregulation of the influenza matrix gene. These results provide some insight into the genes induced by duck RIG-I upon influenza infection, and provide evidence that duck RIG-I can function to elicit an interferon-driven, antiviral response against influenza in chicken embryonic fibroblasts. PMID:23220072

Barber, Megan RW; Aldridge, Jerry R; Fleming-Canepa, Ximena; Wang, Yong-Dong; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

2013-01-01

319

Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5'-diphosphates.  

PubMed

Mammalian cells possess mechanisms to detect and defend themselves from invading viruses. In the cytosol, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I; encoded by DDX58) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; encoded by IFIH1) sense atypical RNAs associated with virus infection. Detection triggers a signalling cascade via the adaptor MAVS that culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFN-? and ?; hereafter IFN), which are key antiviral cytokines. RIG-I and MDA5 are activated by distinct viral RNA structures and much evidence indicates that RIG-I responds to RNAs bearing a triphosphate (ppp) moiety in conjunction with a blunt-ended, base-paired region at the 5'-end (reviewed in refs 1, 2, 3). Here we show that RIG-I also mediates antiviral responses to RNAs bearing 5'-diphosphates (5'pp). Genomes from mammalian reoviruses with 5'pp termini, 5'pp-RNA isolated from yeast L-A virus, and base-paired 5'pp-RNAs made by in vitro transcription or chemical synthesis, all bind to RIG-I and serve as RIG-I agonists. Furthermore, a RIG-I-dependent response to 5'pp-RNA is essential for controlling reovirus infection in cultured cells and in mice. Thus, the minimal determinant for RIG-I recognition is a base-paired RNA with 5'pp. Such RNAs are found in some viruses but not in uninfected cells, indicating that recognition of 5'pp-RNA, like that of 5'ppp-RNA, acts as a powerful means of self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system. PMID:25119032

Goubau, Delphine; Schlee, Martin; Deddouche, Safia; Pruijssers, Andrea J; Zillinger, Thomas; Goldeck, Marion; Schuberth, Christine; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Rehwinkel, Jan; Iskarpatyoti, Jason A; Barchet, Winfried; Ludwig, Janos; Dermody, Terence S; Hartmann, Gunther; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

2014-10-16

320

Open Rigging Through XML: Character Setup Utilizing Metadata and Node Based Editing  

E-print Network

for JavaScript Object Notation and is a text-based open standard. The specification for JSON was written by Douglas Crockford, a computer programmer with extensive experience in JavaScript. It originated as a format to exchange data between JavaScript... is complex, time-consuming and labor-intensive. In order to minimize both time and effort, procedural methods are used to automate portions of the rig construction and revision. Special types of rig scripts, called modular rigging systems, make the process...

Kelly, Logan Scott

2014-02-19

321

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes "re-freezing" the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the "re-freezing" temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude "re-freezing" of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

Makhov, M. N.

2004-07-01

322

78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...NMFS has issued LOAs to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2013-04-16

323

77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...issued one-year LOAs to take marine mammals incidental to the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in...

2012-03-21

324

76 FR 23570 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES...Company's (Merit) removal of offshore structures during 2010. While Merit did not...

2011-04-27

325

77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES...for EOG Resources removal of offshore structures during 2011. NMFS PROP observers...

2012-07-31

326

78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES...reports for ERT's removal of offshore structures during 2012. Demex does not have...

2013-03-01

327

76 FR 12070 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES...Noble Energy's removal of offshore structures during 2010. Demex has not used...

2011-03-04

328

76 FR 33704 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES...and EOG Resources removal of offshore structures in 2010. NMFS PROP observers...

2011-06-09

329

Change in the length of the northern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, September 5, 2010, through September 3, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the northern section are described in this report.

Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

2013-01-01

330

Change in the length of the middle section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, November 17, 2010, through September 6, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115-150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70-90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands' beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the middle section are described in this report.

Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

2013-01-01

331

Aspirating Seal Development: Analytical Modeling and Seal Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort is to develop large diameter (22 - 36 inch) Aspirating Seals for application in aircraft engines. Stein Seal Co. will be fabricating the 36-inch seal(s) for testing. GE's task is to establish a thorough understanding of the operation of Aspirating Seals through analytical modeling and full-scale testing. The two primary objectives of this project are to develop the analytical models of the aspirating seal system, to upgrade using GE's funds, GE's 50-inch seal test rig for testing the Aspirating Seal (back-to-back with a corresponding brush seal), test the aspirating seal(s) for seal closure, tracking and maneuver transients (tilt) at operating pressures and temperatures, and validate the analytical model. The objective of the analytical model development is to evaluate the transient and steady-state dynamic performance characteristics of the seal designed by Stein. The transient dynamic model uses a multi-body system approach: the Stator, Seal face and the rotor are treated as individual bodies with relative degrees of freedom. Initially, the thirty-six springs are represented as a single one trying to keep open the aspirating face. Stops (Contact elements) are provided between the stator and the seal (to compensate the preload in the fully-open position) and between the rotor face and Seal face (to detect rub). The secondary seal is considered as part of the stator. The film's load, damping and stiffness characteristics as functions of pressure and clearance are evaluated using a separate (NASA) code GFACE. Initially, a laminar flow theory is used. Special two-dimensional interpolation routines are written to establish exact film load and damping values at each integration time step. Additionally, other user-routines are written to read-in actual pressure, rpm, stator-growth and rotor growth data and, later, to transfer these as appropriate loads/motions in the system-dynamic model. The transient dynamic model evaluates the various motions, clearances and forces as the seals are subjected to different aircraft maneuvers: Windmilling restart; start-ground idle; ground idle-takeoff; takeoff-burst chop, etc. Results of this model show that the seal closes appropriately and does not ram into the rotor for all of the conditions analyzed. The rig upgrade design for testing Aspirating Seals has been completed. Long lead-time items (forgings, etc.) have been ordered.

Bagepalli, Bharat

1996-01-01

332

QGP fireball explosion  

E-print Network

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange hadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of the ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical properties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an analysis of hadron abundances. We than also demonstrate that the m_t shape of hadron spectra is in qualitative agreement with the sudden breakup of a supercooled QGP fireball.

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-11-13

333

Explosions on the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System - these are the eruptions and flaring that occur on the Sun. They can release as much energy as 10 million volcanoes, and throw out material into the solar system with similar mass to Mount Everest! The theories of what can produce such an explosion are based around the magnetic field that confines the gas. These events can produce emission right across the electromagnetic spectrum. The status of our ability to predict these events is discussed.

Harra, Louise K.

2005-10-01

334

Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01

335

Neutrino Leakage and Supernova Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of supernova explosion, the neutrino leakage is very important. With different neutrino leakage schemes, the type II supernova explosions are simulated respectively for the stars with the mass of 12 M_{?}, 14 M_{?}, and 15 M_{?} by using a one-dimensional spherically symmetric model. The results show that the different neutrino leakage schemes have influence on the supernova collapse, shock wave propagation, and explosion. And the best values of corrective parameters which are propitious to the type II supernova explosions are given. In addition, the impacts of the equation of state and the compression modulus on the simulating results are discussed.

Liao, D. B.; Zhang, M. J.; Li, Y.; Pan, J. H.; Chen, X.

2014-09-01

336

Explosive scabbling of structural materials  

DOEpatents

A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

337

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

DOEpatents

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

338

Technical considerations in converting jack-up drilling rigs to mobile offshore production units  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need for converting jack-up drilling rigs to Mobile Offshore Production Units for early production, long-term testing and as a low cost reusable alternative to platforms for short life marginal fields. Installing process equipment on drilling rigs offers a unique set of challenges. These include new loads imposed upon the rig, storage of hydrocarbon liquids, gas venting and flaring, location of and installation of equipment, safety considerations and installation of pipeline risers. The specific technical challenge of converting jack-up rigs for Mobile Offshore Production Units (MOPU) is discussed with example solutions from two projects, one installed in Venezuela and one off the West Coast of Africa.

Duhon, R.D.; Kreider, G.J.; Barnes, J.E.

1995-12-31

339

Nucleotide sequences and modifications that determine RIG-I/RNA binding and signaling activities  

E-print Network

Cytoplasmic viral RNAs with 5? triphosphates (5?ppp) are detected by the RNA helicase RIG-I, initiating downstream signaling and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-?/?) expression that establish an antiviral state. We demonstrate ...

Urzi, Dina

340

Analytical and experimental investigations of a labyrinth seal test rig and damper seals for turbomachinery  

E-print Network

applications is discussed. The direct damping coefficients of the shaft seals are determined experimentally by processing measured displacement vibration impact response data with an equivalent single degree of freedom model of the cantilever beam test rig...

Shultz, Richard Raymond

2012-06-07

341

A test rig for the identification of rotordynamic coefficients of fluid film bearings  

E-print Network

A test rig and measurement procedure to identify the rotordynamic coefficients of generic fluid film bearing elements are described. The test apparatus allows the exchange of test articles without modifications to the basic design of the machine...

Robison, Lewis Miller

2012-06-07

342

Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control  

E-print Network

A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

Castro Galnares, Sebastián (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

2008-01-01

343

Loads on Tie-Down Systems for Floating Drilling Rigs during Hurricane Conditions  

E-print Network

Tie-down systems are used to fasten drilling rigs to the deck of offshore structures during harsh environmental conditions such as hurricanes. During Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005), a number of offshore structures were moved and several...

Bae, Yoon Hyeok

2010-01-16

344

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions  

E-print Network

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions #12;Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical

Groisman, Pablo

345

Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate immune system senses viral infection by recognizing a variety of viral components (including double-stranded (ds)RNA) and triggers antiviral responses. The cytoplasmic helicase proteins RIG-I (retinoic-acid-inducible protein I, also known as Ddx58) and MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard) have been implicated in viral dsRNA recognition. In vitro studies suggest that both RIG-I and MDA5

Hiroki Kato; Osamu Takeuchi; Shintaro Sato; Mitsutoshi Yoneyama; Masahiro Yamamoto; Kosuke Matsui; Satoshi Uematsu; Andreas Jung; Taro Kawai; Ken J. Ishii; Osamu Yamaguchi; Kinya Otsu; Tohru Tsujimura; Chang-Sung Koh; Caetano Reis E Sousa; Yoshiharu Matsuura; Takashi Fujita; Shizuo Akira

2006-01-01

346

RIG-I-like receptors: Sensing and responding to RNA virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral and microbial pathogens contain specific motifs or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are recognized by cell surface- and endosome-associated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). RNA virus infection is also detected through TLR-independent mechanisms. Early viral replicative intermediates are detected by two recently characterized cystolic viral RNA receptors—RIG-I and MDA-5. Both are DExDH\\/box RNA helicases, and RIG-I specifically recognizes 5?-triphosphate containing viral

Peyman Nakhaei; Pierre Genin; Ahmet Civas; John Hiscott

2009-01-01

347

RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Responses to Single-Stranded RNA Bearing 5'-Phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral replication is believed to be the critical trigger for activation of antiviral immunity mediated by the RNA helicase enzymes retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). We showed that influenza A virus infection does not generate dsRNA and that RIG-I is activated by viral genomic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) bearing 5'-phosphates.

Andreas Pichlmair; Oliver Schulz; Choon Ping Tan; Tanja I. Näslund; Peter Liljeström; Friedemann Weber; Caetano Reis e Sousa

2006-01-01

348

Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud treatment and high temperature resistant cementing materials, and bionic bits,that is coupling bionic PDC tooth bit and diamond-impregnated bit for hard rock.All parts of CRUST-1 were successfully assembled along with the derrick and base lift and transported about 3456 kilometers from manufacture,GuangHan city in southwest China's Sichuan province,to the well site of SK-2 in end of 2013.SK-2 will be finished during next 4 years.

Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

2014-05-01

349

Dynamic behavior of an AFBC test rig: An experimental study  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic behavior of a bubbling 0.3 MWt AFBC test rig fired with a low-quality lignite with aVCM/FC ratio of 7.6 and high ash content (50% on dry basis) was investigated. Transient responses to a step change in fuel feed rate and to a step change inbed cooling-water flow rate were examined, respectively. The corresponding changes in the oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations at the exit of the freeboard and in the temperatures of bed and freeboard were measured against time. A step increase in the fuel feed rate resulted in a decrease and an increase in oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations, respectively. Oxygen concentration show a sudden response while carbon monoxide concentration follows the change in fuel feed rate after an initial lag. The response of bed and freeboard temperatures to the change in fuel feed rate was similar to that of oxygen concentration. A step increase in bed heat withdrawal rate decreases the rate of increase of gas temperatures which, in turn, slows down the combustion rate which is confirmed by the decrease in carbon monoxide and an increase in oxygen concentrations, respectively. Rate of change of gas temperatures is lower than those of gas concentrations for step changes in both fuel feed rate and bed cooling-water flow rate for the refractory-lined combustor under consideration.

Deoirmenci, E.; Selcuk, N.

1999-07-01

350

Endoscopic PIV measurements in a low pressure turbine rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) is a useful way to acquire information about the flow in turbomachinery. Several premises have to be fulfilled to achieve high-quality data, for example, optical access, low vibrations and low reflections. However, not all test facilities comply with these requirements. If there is no optical access to the test area, measurements cannot be performed. The use of borescopic optics is a possible solution to this issue, as the access required is very small. Several different techniques can be used to measure the three components of the velocity vector, one of which is Stereo-PIV. These techniques require either large optical access from several viewing angles or highly complex setups. Orthogonal light sheet orientations in combination with borescopic optics using Planar-PIV can deliver sufficient information about the flow. This study will show the feasibility of such an approach in an enclosed test area, such as the interblade space in a Low-Pressure-Turbine-Rig. The results from PIV will be compared with data collected with conventional techniques, such as the Five-Hole-Probe and the 2-component Hot-Wire-Anemometry. An analysis of time- and phase-averaged data will be performed.

Kegalj, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter

2009-10-01

351

The vortex explosion transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type-II superconductors an applied magnetic field B, between the lower and upper critical values, produces a mixed state containing Abrikosov vortices. These vortices contain a quantum of magnetic flux h/2e and consist of a core with depressed order parameter and a pattern of perpetually circulating supercurrents. When B is applied parallel to a thin film, the circulating supercurrents get squeezed by the film surfaces causing the vortex core to become unstable and explode all the way across the film when the thickness d is below the critical value of dc = 4.4?; here ? is the superconducting coherence length. For temperatures above the explosion condition dc(T) > d, the applied B cannot induce single parallel vortices, however perpendicular vortices can be generated spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. We observe a transition from non-dissipative to dissipative behavior at the explosion condition and find that the dynamics of the spontaneous perpendicular vortices can be tuned by the pairbreaking effect of the applied parallel field.

Kunchur, M. N.; Liang, M.; Gurevich, A.

2013-02-01

352

Controlled by Distant Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

2007-03-01

353

30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 56.6309... Explosives Use § 56.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid...used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that diesel fuels with...

2010-07-01

354

Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure. PMID:19750406

Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

2009-11-01

355

Oil Impacts on Coastal Wetlands: Implications for the Mississippi River Delta Ecosystem after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 20 April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon explosion, which released a US government–estimated 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico, was responsible for the death of 11 oil workers and, possibly, for an environmental disaster unparalleled in US history. For 87 consecutive days, the Macondo well continuously released crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Many

Irving A. Mendelssohn; Gary L. Andersen; Donald M. Baltz; Rex H. Caffey; Kevin R. Carman; John W. Fleeger; Samantha B. Joye; Qianxin Lin; Edward Maltby; Edward B. Overton; Lawrence P. Rozas

2012-01-01

356

Sidewall penetrator for oil wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Penetrator bores horizontal holes in well casing to increase trapped oil drainage. Several penetrators operated by common drive are inserted into well at once. Shaft, made from spiraling cable, rotates and thrusts simultaneously through rigid curvilinear guide tube forcing bit through casing into strata. Device pierces more deeply than armor-piercing bullets and shaped explosive charges.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1981-01-01

357

High explosive characterization for the dice throw event  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation of state for detonation products was developed to describe the detonation of large charges of ammonium nitrate\\/fuel oil (ANFO). The equation of state will be used to predict air-blast and ground-motion effects in the Dice Throw Event. The explosive performance of ANFO is highly dependent on charge size. The equation developed from this work is applicable to heavily

F. Helm; M. Finger; B. Hayes; E. Lee; H. Cheung; J. Walton

1976-01-01

358

Explosives Detection for Aviation Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

Anthony Fainberg

1992-01-01

359

BP, Corporate R&D, and the University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

April 20, 2010, and the days following, provided the world with graphic images of a burning oil rig, a perception that the oil industry and state and federal governments were helpless, and a pervasive sense of the devastation wrought on coastal residents by the rig explosion and the oil spill. The residents of the Gulf Coast soon realized that…

Lea, Russ

2010-01-01

360

Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

361

The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

2002-07-05

362

Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors  

SciTech Connect

Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2008-01-01

363

Lumped mass modeling of overburden motion during explosive blasting  

SciTech Connect

The in situ extraction of oil from most oil shale beds is highly dependent upon explosive fracturing and rubbling of rock in a controlled and predictable manner. Besides the rubbling requirement, it is also important that the surrounding rock remain competent to minimize fluid leakage during processing. For rubbling concepts in which the overburden is explosively lifted to provide the required void in an oil shale zone, an engineering lumped mass model has been devised to describe the motion of the overburden. The model simulates the overburden as an array of interacting lumped masses which are loaded from below with a time-dependent force to approximate the explosive load. Correlation with experimental data obtained from field blasting operations shows that this model will provide an adequate approximation of overburden behavior. The basic features of the model are described in the report along with the correlations with field data. Results from several parametric studies are also presented which were used to aid in blast design. This lumped mass model can be extended to include other parameters and has potential for the study of other related blasting situations.

Schamaun, J. T.

1981-02-01

364

Characterization of secondary grain dust explosions  

E-print Network

. Parnell, Jr. Presently, grain dust explosion research has been directed mainly into the mechanisms of the primary explosions with interest in the secondary explosion phenomena being virtually unrecord. ed. . Research 1n the area of' secondary grain... dust, explosions would provide new information as well as increase the understanding of the total dust explosion phenomena. This greater knowledge could potentially aid in the reduction of future grain dust explosions. This study on the mechanisms...

Schulman, Cheryl Wendler

1983-01-01

365

Origin and evolution of the RIG-I like RNA helicase gene family  

PubMed Central

Background The DExD/H domain containing RNA helicases such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for detecting nucleotide pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of invading viruses. The RIG-I and MDA5 proteins differentially recognise conserved PAMPs in double stranded or single stranded viral RNA molecules, leading to activation of the interferon system in vertebrates. They share three core protein domains including a RNA helicase domain near the C terminus (HELICc), one or more caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and an ATP dependent DExD/H domain. The RIG-I/MDA5 directed interferon response is negatively regulated by laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) and is believed to be controlled by the mitochondria antiviral signalling protein (MAVS), a CARD containing protein associated with mitochondria. Results The DExD/H containing RNA helicases including RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 were analysed in silico in a wide spectrum of invertebrate and vertebrate genomes. The gene synteny of MDA5 and LGP2 is well conserved among vertebrates whilst conservation of the gene synteny of RIG-I is less apparent. Invertebrate homologues had a closer phylogenetic relationship with the vertebrate RIG-Is than the MDA5/LGP2 molecules, suggesting the RIG-I homologues may have emerged earlier in evolution, possibly prior to the appearance of vertebrates. Our data suggest that the RIG-I like helicases possibly originated from three distinct genes coding for the core domains including the HELICc, CARD and ATP dependent DExD/H domains through gene fusion and gene/domain duplication. Furthermore, presence of domains similar to a prokaryotic DNA restriction enzyme III domain (Res III), and a zinc finger domain of transcription factor (TF) IIS have been detected by bioinformatic analysis. Conclusion The RIG-I/MDA5 viral surveillance system is conserved in vertebrates. The RIG-I like helicase family appears to have evolved from a common ancestor that originated from genes encoding different core functional domains. Diversification of core functional domains might be fundamental to their functional divergence in terms of recognition of different viral PAMPs. PMID:19400936

Zou, Jun; Chang, Mingxian; Nie, Pin; Secombes, Chris J

2009-01-01

366

Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I  

SciTech Connect

Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs. RIG-I is activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNA with or without a 5'-triphosphate (ppp), by single-stranded RNA marked by a 5'-ppp and by polyuridine sequences. Upon binding to such PAMP motifs, RIG-I initiates a signalling cascade that induces innate immune defences and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. The RIG-I pathway is highly regulated and aberrant signalling leads to apoptosis, altered cell differentiation, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The helicase and repressor domains (RD) of RIG-I recognize dsRNA and 5'-ppp RNA to activate the two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) for signalling. Here, to understand the synergy between the helicase and the RD for RNA binding, and the contribution of ATP hydrolysis to RIG-I activation, we determined the structure of human RIG-I helicase-RD in complex with dsRNA and an ATP analogue. The helicase-RD organizes into a ring around dsRNA, capping one end, while contacting both strands using previously uncharacterized motifs to recognize dsRNA. Small-angle X-ray scattering, limited proteolysis and differential scanning fluorimetry indicate that RIG-I is in an extended and flexible conformation that compacts upon binding RNA. These results provide a detailed view of the role of helicase in dsRNA recognition, the synergy between the RD and the helicase for RNA binding and the organization of full-length RIG-I bound to dsRNA, and provide evidence of a conformational change upon RNA binding. The RIG-I helicase-RD structure is consistent with dsRNA translocation without unwinding and cooperative binding to RNA. The structure yields unprecedented insight into innate immunity and has a broader impact on other areas of biology, including RNA interference and DNA repair, which utilize homologous helicase domains within DICER and FANCM.

Jiang, Fuguo; Ramanathan, Anand; Miller, Matthew T.; Tang, Guo-Qing; Gale, Jr., Michael; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph (Rutgers); (RWJ-Med); (UW-MED)

2012-05-29

367

NASA Spinoff Article: Automated Procedures To Improve Safety on Oil Rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On May 11th, 2013, two astronauts emerged from the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) and worked their way toward the far end of spacecraft. Over the next 51/2 hours, the two replaced an ammonia pump that had developed a significant leak a few days before. On the ISS, ammonia serves the vital role of cooling components-in this case, one of the station's eight solar arrays. Throughout the extravehicular activity (EVA), the astronauts stayed in constant contact with mission control: every movement, every action strictly followed a carefully planned set of procedures to maximize crew safety and the chances of success. Though the leak had come as a surprise, NASA was prepared to handle it swiftly thanks in part to the thousands of procedures that have been written to cover every aspect of the ISS's operations. The ISS is not unique in this regard: Every NASA mission requires well-written procedures-or detailed lists of step-by-step instructions-that cover how to operate equipment in any scenario, from normal operations to the challenges created by malfunctioning hardware or software. Astronauts and mission control train and drill extensively in procedures to ensure they know what the proper procedures are and when they should be used. These procedures used to be exclusively written on paper, but over the past decade, NASA has transitioned to digital formats. Electronic-based documentation simplifies storage and use, allowing astronauts and flight controllers to find instructions more quickly and display them through a variety of media. Electronic procedures are also a crucial step toward automation: once instructions are digital, procedure display software can be designed to assist in authoring, reviewing, and even executing them.

Garud, Sumedha

2013-01-01

368

Marine riser protector for use on offshore oil drilling rigs in icy waters  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for protecting a marine riser extending downwardly from a platform of an offshore station above a sea level toward a sea bottom. A tubular protector is removably mounted on the underside of the platform in surrounding relation to the marine riser in the vicinity of the sea level. According to another embodiment, a tubular protector has an upper portion in the shape of a truncated cone for contact with ice floes and a lower portion shaped as a grid-like truncated cone flaring downwardly for diverting ice floes away from the tubular protector.

Yashima, N.

1985-03-19

369

Watersheds and Explosive percolation  

E-print Network

The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster differing significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

Herrmann, Hans J

2011-01-01

370

Watersheds and Explosive percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

371

Explosion risks from nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging nanomanufactured products are being incorporated in a variety of consumer products ranging from closer body contact products (i.e. cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, clothing) to more remote body-contact products (electronics, plastics, tires, automotive and aeronautical), hence posing potential health and environmental risks. The new field of nanosafety has emerged and needs to be explored now rather than after problems becomes so ubiquitous and difficult to treat that their trend become irreversible. Such endeavour necessitates a transdisciplinary approach. A commonly forgotten and/or misunderstood risk is that of explosion/detonation of nanopowders, due to their high specific active surface areas. Such risk is emphasized and illustrated with the present development of an appropriate risk analysis. For this particular risk, a review of characterization methods and their limitations with regard to nanopowders is presented and illustrated for a few organic and metallic nanopowders.

Bouillard, Jacques; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Thomas, Dominique

2009-05-01

372

Investigating the use of oil platform marine fouling invertebrates as monitors of oil exposure in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

The concentration of 51 parent and alkylated PAHs was examined in oysters, Ostrea equestris, and corals, Tubastrea coccinea, collected from oil-rig structures off the coast of Louisiana during April and May 2011 to investigate their potential use as monitors for offshore contamination events. Corals and oysters collected from both sampling trips had lower PAH accumulation than most bivalves collected in previous studies near the shoreline of Louisiana and elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. In April, total PAH (TPAH) concentrations ranged from 8.73 to 15.17ngg(-1) in corals and 2.52 to 22.04ngg(-1) in oysters. In May, corals and oysters had elevated concentrations of TPAH ranging from 24.28 to 79.23ngg(-1) and 7.18 to 95.55ngg(-1), respectively. This increase could be a result of Mississippi River flooding that occurred during that time, as evidenced by the high perylene concentrations (3.92-41.49ngg(-1)) measured in May oysters. Oysters and corals collected in May from MC21B, the closest rig to the Mississippi River Delta, had the highest TPAH concentrations observed among all locations and the only rig to have predominantly petrogenic source inputs. Overall, given the low baseline of PAHs demonstrated in this study and the rapid accumulation of diagnostic chemicals in response to a possible contamination event (i.e. sediment plume from May flooding), oil-rig invertebrates could make excellent monitoring tools to examine the exposure to and recovery from oil (and oil-spill response options) in the offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pre-spill baseline data of chemical and biological biomarkers of contamination is key to better estimating the impacts and recovery of oil exposure. Therefore, this screen of PAH accumulation represents a crucial first step in determining baseline contaminant levels in order to utilize these unique resources as monitors for offshore oil exposure in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. PMID:25434470

Pie, Hannah V; Heyes, Andrew; Mitchelmore, Carys L

2015-03-01

373

On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives  

SciTech Connect

Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.

1997-07-01

374

Comparisons of Rig and Engine Dynamic Events in the Compressor of an Axi-Centrifugal Turboshaft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steady state and dynamic data were acquired in a T55-L-712 compressor rig. In addition, a T55-L-12 engine was instrumented and similar data were acquired. Rig and engine stall/surge data were analyzed using modal techniques. This paper compares rig and engine preliminary results for the ground idle (approximately 60% of design speed) point. The results of these analyses indicate both rig and engine dynamic event are preceded by indications of traveling wave energy in front of the compressor face. For both rig and engine, the traveling wave energy contains broad band energy with some prominent narrow peaks and, while the events are similar in many ways, some noticeable differences exist between the results of the analyses of rig data and engine data.

Owen, A. Karl; Mattern, Duane L.; Le, Dzu K.

1996-01-01

375

Nucleotide Sequences and Modifications That Determine RIG-I/RNA Binding and Signaling Activities ?  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic viral RNAs with 5? triphosphates (5?ppp) are detected by the RNA helicase RIG-I, initiating downstream signaling and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-?/?) expression that establish an antiviral state. We demonstrate here that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) 3? untranslated region (UTR) RNA has greater activity as an immune stimulator than several flavivirus UTR RNAs. We confirmed that the HCV 3?-UTR poly(U/UC) region is the determinant for robust activation of RIG-I-mediated innate immune signaling and that its antisense sequence, poly(AG/A), is an equivalent RIG-I activator. The poly(U/UC) region of the fulminant HCV JFH-1 strain was a relatively weak activator, while the antisense JFH-1 strain poly(AG/A) RNA was very potent. Poly(U/UC) activity does not require primary nucleotide sequence adjacency to the 5?ppp, suggesting that RIG-I recognizes two independent RNA domains. Whereas poly(U) 50-nt or poly(A) 50-nt sequences were minimally active, inserting a single C or G nucleotide, respectively, into these RNAs increased IFN-? expression. Poly(U/UC) RNAs transcribed in vitro using modified uridine 2? fluoro or pseudouridine ribonucleotides lacked signaling activity while functioning as competitive inhibitors of RIG-I binding and IFN-? expression. Nucleotide base and ribose modifications that convert activator RNAs into competitive inhibitors of RIG-I signaling may be useful as modulators of RIG-I-mediated innate immune responses and as tools to dissect the RNA binding and conformational events associated with signaling. PMID:19224987

Uzri, Dina; Gehrke, Lee

2009-01-01

376

Shock desensitizing of solid explosive  

SciTech Connect

Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

Davis, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

377

Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

Cho, Kwang-Hyun

2014-12-01

378

Detection of explosives in soils  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

379

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Cartwright, Lisa

2010-01-01

380

Donor free radical explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

1980-04-01

381

High Explosive Radio Telemetry System  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.

Bracht, R.R.; Crawford, T.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Mclaughlin, B.M.

1998-11-04

382

75 FR 47825 - Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit to Rehabilitate Sea Turtles Affected by the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rehabilitate Sea Turtles Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...spill occurred as a result of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion in the Gulf...spill occurred as a result of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion in the...

2010-08-09

383

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2011-04-01

384

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2010-04-01

385

Design and Checkout of a High Speed Research Nozzle Evaluation Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Flow Jet Exit Rig (HFJER) was designed to provide simulated mixed flow turbojet engine exhaust for one- seventh scale models of advanced High Speed Research test nozzles. The new rig was designed to be used at NASA Lewis Research Center in the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig and the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Capabilities were also designed to collect nozzle thrust measurement, aerodynamic measurements, and acoustic measurements when installed at the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig. Simulated engine exhaust can be supplied from a high pressure air source at 33 pounds of air per second at 530 degrees Rankine and nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. In addition, a combustion unit was designed from a J-58 aircraft engine burner to provide 20 pounds of air per second at 2000 degrees Rankine, also at nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. These airflow capacities were designed to test High Speed Research nozzles with exhaust areas from eighteen square inches to twenty-two square inches. Nozzle inlet flow measurement is available through pressure and temperature sensors installed in the rig. Research instrumentation on High Speed Research nozzles is available with a maximum of 200 individual pressure and 100 individual temperature measurements. Checkout testing was performed in May 1997 with a 22 square inch ASME long radius flow nozzle. Checkout test results will be summarized and compared to the stated design goals.

Castner, Raymond S.; Wolter, John D.

1997-01-01

386

Natural gas in Lake Erie: a reconnaissance survey of discharges from an offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted May 28-June 1, 1979, to determine the chemical composition and physical behavior of discharges from an offshore gas drilling rig in the central basin of Lake Erie. The drilling operation was observed for four days, from rig jackup to the circulation of mud through the borehole after drilling had been completed. Resuspension studies using nephelometry, supplemented with chemical analyses, indicated little resuspension of lake bottom materials or release of metals to the water column during rig jack-up. Portions of the turbidity plumes generated during drilling were buoyant. Three surface turbidity plumes were mapped with nephelometry to a point at which particulate concentrations reached background levels in the Lake. Detectable plumes were approx. 400 to 1500 m in length and had maximum widths < 230 m. A chemical survey conducted in the plume during early gas shows indicated that discharged inorganic chemical species were rapidly diluted to background concentrations and that methane and ethane concentrations were substantially reduced within 330 m of the rig. There was no evidence of carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons (CTEH) above background concentrations during this chemical plume survey. However, a pair of water samples taken within 100 m of the rig approximately 3 hours after drilling of the target zone was completed had CTEH concentrations that were a factor of 2.4 above background.

Ferrante, J.G.; Dettmann, E.H.; Parker, J.I.

1980-10-01

387

The Chase for the RIG-I Ligand—Recent Advances  

PubMed Central

Multicellular organisms evolved efficient host-defense mechanisms to sense viruses and to block their replication and spread. Invertebrates and plants mainly rely on RNA interference (RNAi) for antiviral defense. In mammals, the initiation of antiviral defense mechanisms is largely based on the detection of viral nucleic acids by innate receptors: retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-I)–like helicases (RLHs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). RLHs play a pivotal role in sensing viral RNA and DNA in the cytoplasm of cells. RLHs, like Dicer of the RNAi pathway, belong to the phylogenetically conserved DExD/H-box family of helicases. Unlike TLRs, RLHs are functional in all somatic cells. Activation of RIG-I triggers antiviral responses including type I interferon (IFN), inflammasome activation and proapoptotic signaling. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current literature on the ligand structures detected by RIG-I, and conclude with the molecular definition of the RIG-I ligand: short double-stranded blunt-end 5?-triphosphate RNA. The recent information on the RIG-I ligand now allows the design of short double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) oligonucleotides that are ideally suited alone or in combination with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) for the treatment of viral infection and cancer. PMID:20461060

Schlee, Martin; Hartmann, Gunther

2010-01-01

388

On the relation between rigging inner product and master constraint direct integral decomposition  

SciTech Connect

Canonical quantization of constrained systems with first-class constraints via Dirac's operator constraint method proceeds by the theory of Rigged Hilbert spaces, sometimes also called refined algebraic quantization. This method can work when the constraints form a Lie algebra. When the constraints only close with nontrivial structure functions, the Rigging map can no longer be defined. To overcome this obstacle, the master constraint method has been proposed which replaces the individual constraints by a weighted sum of absolute squares of the constraints. Now the direct integral decomposition (DID) methods, which are closely related to Rigged Hilbert spaces, become available and have been successfully tested in various situations. It is relatively straightforward to relate the rigging inner product to the path integral that one obtains via reduced phase space methods. However, for the master constraint, this is not at all obvious. In this paper we find sufficient conditions under which such a relation can be established. Key to our analysis is the possibility to pass to equivalent, Abelian constraints, at least locally in phase space. Then the master constraint DID for those Abelian constraints can be directly related to the rigging map and therefore has a path integral formulation.

Han Muxin [MPI f. Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institut f. Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Thiemann, Thomas [MPI f. Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Institut f. Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2010-09-15

389

World oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

Sweeney, J. L.

1982-06-01

390

Hydrogen Fuel Capability Added to Combustor Flametube Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Facility capabilities have been expanded at Test Cell 23, Research Combustor Lab (RCL23) at the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a new gaseous hydrogen fuel system. The purpose of this facility is to test a variety of fuel nozzle and flameholder hardware configurations for use in aircraft combustors. Previously, this facility only had jet fuel available to perform these various combustor flametube tests. The new hydrogen fuel system will support the testing and development of aircraft combustors with zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Research information generated from this test rig includes combustor emissions and performance data via gas sampling probes and emissions measuring equipment. The new gaseous hydrogen system is being supplied from a 70 000-standard-ft3 tube trailer at flow rates up to 0.05 lb/s (maximum). The hydrogen supply pressure is regulated, and the flow is controlled with a -in. remotely operated globe valve. Both a calibrated subsonic venturi and a coriolis mass flowmeter are used to measure flow. Safety concerns required the placement of all hydrogen connections within purge boxes, each of which contains a small nitrogen flow that is vented past a hydrogen detector. If any hydrogen leaks occur, the hydrogen detectors alert the operators and automatically safe the facility. Facility upgrades and modifications were also performed on other fluids systems, including the nitrogen gas, cooling water, and air systems. RCL23 can provide nonvitiated heated air to the research combustor, up to 350 psig at 1200 F and 3.0 lb/s. Significant modernization of the facility control systems and the data acquisition systems was completed. A flexible control architecture was installed that allows quick changes of research configurations. The labor-intensive hardware interface has been removed and changed to a software-based system. In addition, the operation of this facility has been greatly enhanced with new software programming and graphic operator interface stations. Glenn s RCL23 facility systems were successfully checked out in the spring of 2002, and hydrogen combustor research testing began in the summer of 2002.

Frankenfield, Bruce J.

2003-01-01

391

Explosive actuated valve  

DOEpatents

1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

Byrne, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

392

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Marsh, S.P.

1987-03-12

393

Explosive Spot Joining of Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

394

Explosives characterization in terahertz range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Thz spectral characterization of the behaviour of different explosives is presented in this paper. This characterization will be done in the frequency range from 20 GHz to 4 THz using a Teraview Spectra 3000. This system has a capacity of measuring from 20 GHz to 4 THz fed by a laser source. With the Teraview Spectra 3000 equipment will be possible to calculate the refractive index, the absorbance and other important parameters of the explosive samples. With this study it will be possible to characterize some of the most common used explosives, i.e., gun explosive, gunpowder mine, pent, TNT, RDX, etc, and it will allow to determine their electromagnetic peculiarities in order to design a future imaging system that allow detecting them in security and defense sectors.

Maestrojuán, I.; Palacios, I.; Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

2011-11-01

395

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

Marsh, S.P.

1988-03-08

396

JiTT - Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) How do scientists come up with the number 2 billion years ago for the first branch of life? Explain the dating technique and information that is used. 2) Describe the evidence AGAINST the Cambrian Explosion. ...

Guertin, Laura

397

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function

Kuhl

2009-01-01

398

Explosive-powder compaction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a pressure-control system and a test fixture to study the behavior of explosive materials during compaction. Both the pressure-control system and the test fixture are self-contained and portable. Explosive materials are compacted in a bridged header charge holder assembly by means of a test fixture and a pneumatic cylinder arrangement. Forces are measured with load

A. P. Montoya; M. L. Reichenbach

1981-01-01

399

On coupling factors of explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the seismic effect of an explosion plays an important part in the theory and practice of demolition engineering, antiseismic engineering, nuclear explosion engineering, seismic exploration, and seismic depth sounding. A still unresolved issue in this regard is concerned with the calculation of energy conversion process. An attempt is made to explore this issue by drawing on the research done in the field of seismic depth sounding.

Shao-Quan, Z.

1985-04-01

400

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

401

Quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanisms of detonation transfer across hermetically sealed interfaces created by necessary interruptions in high explosive trains, such as at detonators to explosive columns, field joints in explosive columns, and components of munitions fuse trains are demostrated. Reliability of detonation transfer is limited by minimizing explosive quantities, the use of intensitive explosives for safety, and requirements to propagate across gaps and angles dictated by installation and production restraints. The major detonation transfer variables studied were: explosive quanity, sensitivity, and thickness, and the separation distances between donor and acceptor explosives.

Schimmel, M. L.

1973-01-01

402

Molecular characterization, expression patterns, and subcellular localization of RIG-I in the Jinding duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) have recently been identified as cytoplasmic sensors for RNA virus. Recent research has shown that RIG-I, a member of this family, play an important role in innate immunity. In this study, we cloned the RIG-I gene from Jinding duck by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). We determined that the cDNA of duRIG-I contains a 14-bp 5' UTR, a 2802-bp open reading frame, and alternative 3' UTRs (295-bp and 927-bp) and encodes a polypeptide of 933 amino acids. Based on this sequence, the duRIG-I protein is predicted to have conserved domains typical of RLRs. In addition, duRIG-I was found to be distributed throughout DF1 cells by indirect immunofluorescence, as predicted. duRIG-I mRNA was scarcely detected in healthy tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR). To study the role of RIG-I in innate immunity, we used synthetic double-stranded RNA to mimic viral infection in vivo and detected duRIG-I transcripts in spleen and liver by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of duRIG-I mRNA was significantly elevated at 8h post-injection (P < 0.05) and was indistinguishable from control levels at other time points (P > 0.05). These results suggest that duRIG-I plays an important role in innate immune responses to double-stranded RNA viruses and warrant further studies to reveal the possible mechanism. PMID:23916689

Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Zhengyang; Xu, Qi; Zhu, Zhen; Tong, Yiyu; Yu, Qinmin; Ding, Jiatong; Chen, Guohong

2013-12-01

403

RIG-I knockdown impedes neurogenesis in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a well established pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in neurons infected with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as reported previously from our laboratory. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection in brain has been shown to decrease the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) which has its implications in neurological sequelae in JE survivors. We have found that ablation of RIG-I both in vivo and in vitro models results in significant decrease in NSPC proliferation post JEV infection. We hypothesize that knockdown of RIG-I diminishes the expression of antiviral molecules resulting in an increase in viral replication, which in turn results in enhancement of the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, hence affecting the proliferation of NSPCs. PMID:25077467

Mukherjee, Sriparna; Ghosh, Sourish; Nazmi, Arshed; Basu, Anirban

2015-02-01

404

Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Materials Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Technical Memorandum presents the current capabilities of the state-of-the-art Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility. It is used for materials research including oxidation, corrosion, erosion and impact. Consisting of seven computer controlled jet-fueled combustors in individual test cells, these relatively small rigs burn just 2 to 3 gal of jet fuel per hour. The rigs are used as an efficient means of subjecting potential aircraft engine/airframe advanced materials to the high temperatures, high velocities and thermal cycling closely approximating actual operating environments. Materials of various geometries and compositions can be evaluated at temperatures from 700 to 2400 F. Tests are conducted not only on bare superalloys and ceramics, but also to study the behavior and durability of protective coatings applied to those materials.

Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Perez, Michael; Cuy, Michael D.; Robinson, R. Craig

2011-01-01

405

Analysis of polymorphisms in RIG-I-like receptor genes in German multiple sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Variation in genes encoding retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. We investigated if polymorphisms in the IFIH1, RIG-I, LGP2 and VISA genes influence the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) in a German case-control cohort comprising 716 patients and 706 controls. Evaluation of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes did not reveal significant single-SNP associations with MS risk, but two VISA polymorphisms were modestly associated with age of onset. Further, we provide initial evidence for combinatorial effects of polymorphic variants in the RIG-I, LGP2 and IFIH1 genes on MS risk. PMID:25288302

Varzari, Alexander; Bruch, Kathrin; Deyneko, Igor V; Chan, Andrew; Epplen, Joerg T; Hoffjan, Sabine

2014-12-15

406

Segmented negative-strand RNA viruses and RIG-I: divide (your genome) and rule.  

PubMed

The group of negative-stranded RNA viruses (NSVs) with a segmented genome comprises pathogens like influenza virus (eight segments), Rift Valley fever virus and Hantavirus (three segments), or Lassa virus (two segments). Partitioning the genome allows rapid evolution of new strains by reassortment. Each segment carries a short double-stranded (ds) 'panhandle' structure which serves as promoter. Similar dsRNA structures, however, represent the optimal ligand for RIG-I, a cytoplasmic pathogen sensor of the antiviral interferon response. Thus, segmenting a virus genome can entail an increased RIG-I sensitivity. Here, we outline the astonishingly diverse and efficient strategies by which segmented NSVs are compensating for the elevated number of RIG-I ligands in their genome. PMID:24930021

Weber, Michaela; Weber, Friedemann

2014-08-01

407

Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Fasteners Exposed in a Combustion Liner Rig Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion tests on SiC/SiC CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) components were performed in an aircraft combustion environment using the Rich-burn, Quick-quench, Lean-burn (RQL) sector rig. SiC/SiC fasteners were used to attach several of these components to the metallic rig structure. The effect of combustion exposure on the fastener material was characterized via microstructural examination. Fasteners were also destructively tested, after combustion exposure, and the failure loads of fasteners exposed in the sector rig were compared to those of as-manufactured fasteners. Combustion exposure reduced the fastener failure load by 50% relative to the as-manufactured fasteners for exposure times ranging from 50 to 260 hours. The fasteners exposed in the combustion environment demonstrated failure loads that varied with failure mode. Fasteners that had the highest average failure load, failed in the same manner as the unexposed fasteners.

Verrilli, Michael J.; Brewer, David; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

408

Computer simulation of a test rig to model sloshing in spin-stabilized satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain communications satellites carry liquid stores on board for station tending and attitude adjustment. However, sloshing of the liquid can cause an undesirable nutational motion of the spin-stabilized vehicle. In previous work a test rig was designed, built and instrumented to study the interaction between the rotating structure and liquid. To augment that experimental project, a computer model of the test rig has been developed to simulate the dynamic motion of the system for various parameter values. The sloshing liquid was replaced by a two degree-of-freedom pendulum in the mathematical model. Simulation results were compared with those from a general multibody dynamics program and with experimental measurements of the test rig motion to demonstrate the mathematical model's validity. Good agreement was achieved in both instances.

Flugrad, D. R.; Obermaier, L. A.

1992-12-01

409

BOOM CONFIGURATION TESTS FOR CALM-WATER, MEDIUM-CURRENT OIL SPILL DIVERSION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this test program was to determine the effects of boom angle, length, and rigging configuration on diversion of oil floating on moving streams. The B.F. Goodrich Seaboom was chosen for the program because of its availability, durability, and stability. It was rigge...

410

Systems Analysis of a RIG-I Agonist Inducing Broad Spectrum Inhibition of Virus Infectivity  

PubMed Central

The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5? triphosphate (5?ppp) terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5?pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN) signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5?pppRNA, and not by IFN?-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5?pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5?pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5?pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:23633948

Goulet, Marie-Line; Olagnier, David; Xu, Zhengyun; Paz, Suzanne; Belgnaoui, S. Mehdi; Lafferty, Erin I.; Janelle, Valérie; Arguello, Meztli; Paquet, Marilene; Ghneim, Khader; Richards, Stephanie; Smith, Andrew; Wilkinson, Peter; Cameron, Mark; Kalinke, Ulrich; Qureshi, Salman; Lamarre, Alain; Haddad, Elias K.; Sekaly, Rafick Pierre; Peri, Suraj; Balachandran, Siddharth; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John

2013-01-01

411

Oxidation of a Silica-Containing Material in a Mach 0.3 Burner Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primarily silica-containing material with traces of organic compounds, as well as aluminum and calcium additions, was exposed to a Mach 0.3 burner rig at atmospheric pressure using jet fuel. The sample was exposed for 5 continuous hours at 1370 C. Post exposure x-ray diffraction analyses indicate formation of cristobalite, quartz, NiO and Spinel (Al(Ni)CR2O4). The rig hardware is composed of a nickel-based superalloy with traces of Fe. These elements are indicated in the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. This material was studied as a candidate for high temperature applications under an engine technology program.

Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

412

Dynamic analysis of a rig shafting vibration based on finite element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recently, finite elements method (FEM) has been used most popular for analysis of stress, vibration, heat flow and many other phenomena. Taking a rig shafting as an example, this paper studies the lateral vibration of the rig shafting with multi-degree-of-freedom by using FEM. The FEM model is created and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated and analyzed to find natural frequencies, critical speeds, mode shapes and unbalance responses. Then critical and mode shapes are determined. Finally, responses of unbalance force are analyzed in case of undamped and damped system, and peaks of response are compared.

Ngo, Van Thanh; Xie, Danmei; Xiong, Yangheng; Zhang, Hengliang; Yang, Yi

2013-09-01

413

Experimental verification of vapor deposition model in Mach 0.3 burner rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive theoretical framework of deposition from combustion gases was developed covering the spectrum of various mass delivery mechanisms including vapor, thermophoretically enhanced small particle, and inertially impacting large particle deposition. Rational yet simple correlations were provided to facilitate engineering surface arrival rate predictions. Experimental verification of the deposition theory was validated using burner rigs. Toward this end, a Mach 0.3 burner rig apparatus was designed to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded combustion gases on an internally cooled cylindrical collector.

Gokoglu, S. A.

1984-01-01

414

Wear Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Acetal Spur, Helical, Bevel and Worm Gears Using a TS Universal Test Rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the applications of nanotechnologies are increasing, there remains a significant barrier between nanotechnology and machine element applications. This work aims to remove this barrier by blending carbon nanotubes (CNT) with common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel and worm). This was done by using adhesive oil (paraffin) during injection molding to synthesize a flange and short bars containing 0.02% CNT by weight. The flanges and short bars were machined using hobbing and milling machines to produce nanocomposite polymer gears. Some defects that surfaced in previous work, such as the appearance of bubbles and unmelted pellets during the injection process, were avoided to produce an excellent dispersion of CNT in the acetal. The wear resistances of the gears were measured by using a TS universal test rig using constant parameters for all of the gears that were fabricated. The tests were run at a speed of 1420 rpm and a torque of 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear resistances of the CNT/acetal gears were increased due to the addition of CNT, especially the helical, bevel and worm gears.

Yousef, Samy; Osman, T. A.; Abdalla, Abdelrahman H.; Zohdy, Gamal A.

2014-12-01

415

Department of Mechanical Engineering/Material Science and Engineering Spring 2013 Project Name Development of Test Rig to  

E-print Network

into an actual project, general machining (boring, reaming, broaching), advanced machining (CNC), and data optical profilometry and devise a test rig for testing samples. General machining (milling, lathing reduced set up time, assembly time, tool wear, etc. Flowserve now has a fully operational test rig

Demirel, Melik C.

416

Rig-I regulates NF-?B activity through binding to Nf-?b1 3?-UTR mRNA  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) senses viral RNAs and triggers innate antiviral responses through induction of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. However, whether RIG-I interacts with host cellular RNA remains undetermined. Here we report that Rig-I interacts with multiple cellular mRNAs, especially Nf-?b1. Rig-I is required for NF-?B activity via regulating Nf-?b1 expression at posttranscriptional levels. It interacts with the multiple binding sites within 3?-UTR of Nf-?b1 mRNA. Further analyses reveal that three distinct tandem motifs enriched in the 3?-UTR fragments can be recognized by Rig-I. The 3?-UTR binding with Rig-I plays a critical role in normal translation of Nf-?b1 by recruiting the ribosomal proteins [ribosomal protein L13 (Rpl13) and Rpl8] and rRNAs (18S and 28S). Down-regulation of Rig-I or Rpl13 significantly reduces Nf-?b1 and 3?-UTR–mediated luciferase expression levels. These findings indicate that Rig-I functions as a positive regulator for NF-?B signaling and is involved in multiple biological processes in addition to host antivirus immunity. PMID:23553835

Zhang, Hong-Xin; Liu, Zi-Xing; Sun, Yue-Ping; Lu, Shun-Yuan; Liu, Xue-Song; Huang, Qiu-Hua; Xie, Yin-Yin; Dang, Su-Ying; Zheng, Guang-Yong; Li, Yi-Xue; Kuang, Ying; Fei, Jian; Chen, Zhu; Wang, Zhu-Gang

2013-01-01

417

Rig-G negatively regulates SCF-E3 ligase activities by disrupting the assembly of COP9 signalosome complex.  

PubMed

We previously showed that Rig-G, an antiproliferative protein induced by interferon, can sequester CSN5 protein in the cytoplasm. Here, we report that Rig-G can destroy the functions of CSN5-containing COP9 signalosome (CSN), a highly conserved multiprotein complex implicated in protein deneddylation, deubiquitination, and phosphorylation. By damaging integrity and stability of the CSN complex, Rig-G can dramatically reduce the cellular content of CSN complex and inhibit its regulatory roles in assembly and activation of cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRL). Furthermore, Rig-G can cause excessive activation of CRL through inhibition of CSN-mediated deneddylation, largely decreasing protein levels of Cul1 and ?TrCP, two important subunits of SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein)-E3 ligase. Rig-G can also attenuate the ability of CSN to recruit USP15 and impair CSN-associated deubiquitination. Increased autoubiquitination of ?TrCP and concomitant accumulation of target substrates (such as I?B?) are observed in Rig-G-expressing cells. Taken together, our findings reveal for the first time the negative regulation of Rig-G on SCF-E3 ligase activities through disrupting CSN complex, not only contributing to further investigation on biological functions of Rig-G, but also leading to better understanding of the CSN complex as a potential target in tumor diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23415865

Xu, Gui-Ping; Zhang, Zhang-Lin; Xiao, Shu; Zhuang, Li-Kun; Xia, Di; Zou, Qing-Ping; Jia, Pei-Min; Tong, Jian-Hua

2013-03-15

418

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

Lisa Cartwright

2010-01-01

419

Inhibition of RIG-I-Mediated Signaling by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Encoded Deubiquitinase ORF64?  

PubMed Central

Virus infection triggers interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune defenses in part through viral nucleic acid interactions. However, the immune recognition mechanisms by which the host identifies incoming DNA viruses are still elusive. Here, we show that increased levels of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) persistency are observed in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-deficient cells and that KSHV ORF64, a tegument protein with deubiqutinase (DUB) activity, suppresses RIG-I-mediated IFN signaling by reducing the ubiquitination of RIG-I, crucial for its activation. This study suggests that RIG-I plays a potential role in sensing KSHV infection and that KSHV ORF64 DUB counteracts RIG-I signaling. PMID:21835791

Inn, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Rathbun, Jessica Y.; Wong, Lai-Yee; Toth, Zsolt; Machida, Keigo; Ou, Jing-Hsiung James; Jung, Jae U.

2011-01-01

420

Breccias related to explosive volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive breccia pipes were formed in the phreatomagmatic eruption of Taal volcano 60 km south of Manila, Philippines in September 1976. They were photographed in eruption which consisted of a series of small explosions occurring during the peak of activity at 10 sec intervals. These four breccia pipes formed on the collapse fault marking the margin of the much more intense eruption of 28 September 1965 when a diatreme 800 m in diameter formed. Renewed eruption in October 1977 on one of the breccia pipes blasted out the sealed plug and breccia fragments in all stages of alteration were included in the tephra. They ranged from barely agglomerated to strongly cemented through argillized and pyritized to totally replaced by silica and pyrite, fragments indistinguishable from those found in many mining districts. The violence of the explosion initiating a phreatomagmatic eruptive sequence results in strong crackling of the walls of the pipe and the crakle zone may become mineralized (cf. Braden, Chile). Usually the crater collapses on ring faults after eruption, forming a marginal tectonic breccia which can be mineralized (cf. Balatoc, Philippines.) The small craters with steep inner walls and tapering outer slopes which form during phreatomagmatic eruptions, sometimes containing lakes, are called maars and they are the surficial expression of an explosive breccia pipe or diatreme. Superficially similar craters are formed over kimberlite pipes. Hydrothermal explosion craters are somewhat similar. Collapse breccia pipes can form in the same sequence with explosive pipes. When one rising plug encounters ground water and explodes, fluostatic pressure on any other cupolas rising from the same magma drops rapidly, resulting in withdrawal of magma and collapse of walls and roof (Perry 1961). "Fluidization" is not thought to be of any significance in formation of breccia pipes (Wolfe 1980) contrary to Reynolds (1954) and many authors who have cited that work. An explosive breccia pipe is like an open window resulting in rapid depression of the isotherms of a pluton. A concentrated brine front can build up in minutes after an explosion. The very rapid cooling may explain why many explosive breccia pipes are altered by silica and pyrite only, the system being cooled before metallic solutions have time to replace breccia matrix or fragments.

Wolfe, John A.

421

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

Kuhl, A L

2009-10-16

422

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01

423

An alternate lining scheme for solar ponds - Results of a liner test rig  

SciTech Connect

Solar pond lining schemes consisting of combinations of clays and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) films have been experimentally evaluated by means of a Solar Pond Liner Test Rig. Results indicate that LDPE film sandwiched between two layers of clay can be effectively used for lining solar ponds.

Raman, P.; Kishore, V.V.N. (Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India))

1990-01-01

424

Some dynamic and time-averaged flow measurements in a turbine rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four types of sensors were used to make both dynamic and time-averaged flow measurements in a cold turbine rig to determine the magnitude of errors in time-averaged total-pressure measurement at a station 5 1/2 blade cords downstream from the rotor. The errors turned out to be negligible. The sensors and their intended use are discussed.

Krause, L. N.; Fralick, G. C.

1980-01-01

425

Design and Implementation of a Characterization Test Rig for Evaluating High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Flow Modulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test rig was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the purpose of characterizing high bandwidth liquid fuel flow modulator candidates to determine their suitability for combustion instability control research. The test rig is capable of testing flow modulators at up to 600 psia supply pressure and flows of up to 2 gpm. The rig is designed to provide a quiescent flow into the test section in order to isolate the dynamic flow modulations produced by the test article. Both the fuel injector orifice downstream of the test article and the combustor are emulated. The effect of fuel delivery line lengths on modulator dynamic performance can be observed and modified to replicate actual fuel delivery systems. For simplicity, water is currently used as the working fluid, although future plans are to use jet fuel. The rig is instrumented for dynamic pressures and flows and a high-speed data system is used for dynamic data acquisition. Preliminary results have been obtained for one candidate flow modulator.

Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; DeLaat, John C.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

2010-01-01

426

Development of a turbojet engine gearbox test rig for prognostics and health management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft engine gearboxes represent one of the many critical systems/elements that require special attention for longer and safer operation. Reactive maintenance strategies are unsuitable as they usually imply higher repair costs when compared to condition based maintenance. This paper discusses the main prognostics and health management (PHM) approaches, describes a newly designed gearbox experimental facility and analyses preliminary data for gear prognosis. The test rig is designed to provide full capabilities of performing controlled experiments suitable for developing a reliable diagnostic and prognostic system. The rig is based on the accessory gearbox of the GE J85 turbojet engine, which has been slightly modified and reconfigured to replicate real operating conditions such as speeds and loads. Defect to failure tests (DTFT) have been run to evaluate the performance of the rig as well as to assess prognostic metrics extracted from sensors installed on the gearbox casing (vibration and acoustic). The paper also details the main components of the rig and describes the various challenges encountered. Successful DTFT results were obtained during an idle engine performance test and prognostic metrics associated with the sensor suite were evaluated and discussed.

Rezaei, Aida; Dadouche, Azzedine

2012-11-01

427

A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)  

SciTech Connect

This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

Bart Patton

2007-09-30

428

MicroRNAs in the regulation of TLR and RIG-I pathways  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system recognizes invading pathogens through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which elicit innate antimicrobial and inflammatory responses and initiate adaptive immunity to control or eliminate infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) are the key innate immune PRRs and are tightly regulated by elaborate mechanisms to ensure a beneficial outcome in response to foreign invaders. Although much of the focus in the literature has been on the study of protein regulators of inflammation, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important controllers of certain features of the inflammatory process. Several miRNAs are induced by TLR and RIG-I activation in myeloid cells and act as feedback regulators of TLR and RIG-I signaling. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the recent understanding of how miRNA networks respond to TLR and RIG-I signaling and their role in the initiation and termination of inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence also indicates that both virus-encoded miRNAs and cellular miRNAs have important functions in viral replication and host anti-viral immunity. PMID:23262976

Li, Yingke; Shi, Xueyin

2013-01-01

429

What can be seen in three dimensions with an uncalibrated stereo rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of determining the kind of three-dimensional reconstructions that can be obtained from a binocular stereo rig for which no three-dimensional metric calibration data is available. The only information at our disposal is a set of pixel correspondences between the two retinas which we assume are obtained by some correlation technique or any other means. We

Olivier D. Faugeras

1992-01-01

430

Hydraulic system design for tunnel drilling rig based on pump-controlled technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to raise the performance of tunnel drilling rig with all hydraulic head type, pump-controlled technology was applied in hydraulic system design. Working condition and basic circuit of hydraulic system were analyzed in this paper, at the base of which some disadvantages of the hydraulic system with valve- controlled technology were introduced. A comparison of characteristic and working condition

Dong Fan; Qingxiu Liu; Ke Yao; Hongliang Tian; Xinsheng Yin

2011-01-01

431

RIG-1 receptor expression in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and involves activation of the innate immune response via recognition of diverse stimuli by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The inflammatory inducers and precise innate signaling pathway contributing to AD pathology remain largely undefined. Results In the present study we analyzed expression levels of innate immune proteins in temporal and occipital cortices from preclinical (no cognitive impairment, NCI, N?=?22) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI, N?=?20) associated with AD pathology (N?=?20) and AD patients (N?=?23). We found that retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-1) is significantly elevated in the temporal cortex and plasma in patients with MCI. In addition, primary human astrocytes stimulated with the RIG-1 ligand 5?ppp RNA showed increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-? (A?), supporting the idea that RIG-1 is involved in the pathology of MCI associated with early progression to AD. Conclusion These findings suggest that RIG-1 may play a critical role in incipient AD. PMID:24694234

2014-01-01

432

Haze growth on reticles: What's the RigHT thing to do?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are reporting on the comparison of various industry methods of managing, controlling and limiting haze growth on 193nm reticles. This comparison includes reporting on the results from the Reticle Haze Treatment (RigHT) process developed at Micron \\/ Photronics Mask Technology Center and transferred to Photronics, Inc. This process provides 193nm PSM reticles that have shown no haze growth

Steven M. McDonald; Daniel V. Chalom; Michael J. Green; Jeffrey A. McMurran; Michael B. Garrett; David W. Dlouhy

2009-01-01

433

An Antitrust Primer: How To Avoid Bid Rigging and Other Collusions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows school business officials how to detect and avoid bid rigging, price fixing, and other types of unlawful collusion prohibited by the Sherman Antitrust Act. School administrators should expand the list of bidders, consolidate purchases as a defensive tactic, consider reletting the contract in tie-bid situations, recognize the elements of…

Connolly, Robert E.

1997-01-01

434

Insensitive fuze train for high explosives  

DOEpatents

A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

435

Insensitive fuze train for high explosives  

SciTech Connect

A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

1994-01-04

436

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

437

Evidence for Nearby Supernova Explosions  

E-print Network

Supernova explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. Scientists have speculated for decades about the possible consequences for life on Earth of a nearby supernova, but plausible candidates for such an event were lacking. Here we show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at~130 parsecs from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. We find that the deposition on Earth of 60Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ~2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

Narciso Benitez; Jesus Maiz-Apellaniz; Matilde Canelles

2002-01-02

438

The vapor pressures of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

2013-01-05

439

Saccharification of explosively dried corn  

SciTech Connect

Very rapid or explosive drying of grains such as corn leads to obvious physical changes in the macrostructure of the grain kernel, probable alteration in starch molecular structure, and reduction in starch average molecular weight. These changes lead to greater susceptibility to attack by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes. Rates of formation of nonreducing and reducing sugars by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes applied to explosively dried and milled yellow dent corn and small-kernel flint corn were 3.3-10.6 times greater then rates for the normally milled grains. The enzymatic conversion of explosively dried flint corn containing absorbed ethyl alcohol, as would be the case if it had been used as an adsorbent to dewater aqueous ethyl alcohol, was not significantly different from that of ethyl-alcohol-free flint corn. 15 references.

Robertson, G.H.; Zaragosa, E.M.; Pavlath, A.E.

1986-08-01

440

Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques  

SciTech Connect

In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

1980-01-01

441

Explosive evaporation in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

Fisher, George H.

1987-01-01

442

Operational approach for oil spill monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the methodological approach of the oil spill monitoring system that is being put into operation by the National Petroleum Agency (NPA) in Brazil. The methodology is based on integrated analysis of multi-sensor data which includes satellites products, such as, GOES and AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SeaWiFs chlorophyll concentration, QuikScat near sea surface wind field, GOES and AVHRR convective rain areas, and Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) data from RADARSAT-1 satellite. The methodology is implemented by means of a system composed by four subsystems called, data reception (SAR, GOES, NOAA and QuikScat), Integrator, hydrodynamic model and database. The methodology was applied to the accidental oil spill caused by PETROBRAS oil rig P-36. A RADARSAT-1 image was acquired during accident period at 21:07 (GMT) on 22nd of March 2001 and used. The results are presented and discussed.

Franca, Gutemberg B.; Landau, Luiz; Tores, Audalio R., Jr.; Drumond, Jose A. L.; Fragoso, Mauricio R.; De Almeida, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Gerson G.; Pedroso, Enrico C.; Beisl, Carlos H.

2003-05-01

443

Nonequilibrium detonation of composite explosives  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nonequilibrium diffusional flow on detonation velocities in composite explosives is examined. Detonation conditions are derived for complete equilibrium, temperature and pressure equilibrium, and two forms of pressure equilibrium. Partial equilibria are associated with systems which have not had sufficient time for transport to smooth out the gradients between spatially separate regions. The nonequilibrium detonation conditions are implemented in the CHEQ equation of state code. We show that the detonation velocity decreases as the non-chemical degrees of freedom of the explosive are allowed to equilibrate. It is only when the chemical degrees of freedom are allowed to equilibrate that the detonation velocity increases.

Nichols III, A.L.

1997-07-01

444

Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

Ong, M

2001-12-01

445

In Vivo Ligands of MDA5 and RIG-I in Measles Virus-Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs: RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) play a major role in the innate immune response against viral infections and detect patterns on viral RNA molecules that are typically absent from host RNA. Upon RNA binding, RLRs trigger a complex downstream signaling cascade resulting in the expression of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. In the past decade extensive efforts were made to elucidate the nature of putative RLR ligands. In vitro and transfection studies identified 5?-triphosphate containing blunt-ended double-strand RNAs as potent RIG-I inducers and these findings were confirmed by next-generation sequencing of RIG-I associated RNAs from virus-infected cells. The nature of RNA ligands of MDA5 is less clear. Several studies suggest that double-stranded RNAs are the preferred agonists for the protein. However, the exact nature of physiological MDA5 ligands from virus-infected cells needs to be elucidated. In this work, we combine a crosslinking technique with next-generation sequencing in order to shed light on MDA5-associated RNAs from human cells infected with measles virus. Our findings suggest that RIG-I and MDA5 associate with AU-rich RNA species originating from the mRNA of the measles virus L gene. Corresponding sequences are poorer activators of ATP-hydrolysis by MDA5 in vitro, suggesting that they result in more stable MDA5 filaments. These data provide a possible model of how AU-rich sequences could activate type I interferon signaling. PMID:24743923

Hembach, Katharina; Baum, Alina; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Söding, Johannes; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

2014-01-01

446

RIG-I Enhanced Interferon Independent Apoptosis upon Junin Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Junin virus (JUNV) is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a human disease with a high case-fatality rate. It is widely accepted that arenaviral infections, including JUNV infections, are generally non-cytopathic. In contrast, here we demonstrated apoptosis induction in human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549), human hepatocarcinoma and Vero cells upon infection with the attenuated Candid#1 strain of, JUNV as determined by phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, Caspase 3 (CASP3) activation, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and/or chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, as determined by DNA fragmentation, we found that the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV was less cytopathic than Candid#1 in human hepatocarcinoma and Vero, but more apoptotic in A549 and Vero E6 cells. Additionally, we found that JUNV-induced apoptosis was enhanced by RIG-I signaling. Consistent with the previously reported role of RIG-I like helicase (RLH) signaling in initiating programmed cell death, we showed that cell death or DNA fragmentation of Candid#1-infected A549 cells was decreased upon siRNA or shRNA silencing of components of RIG-I pathway in spite of increased virus production. Similarly, we observed decreased DNA fragmentation in JUNV-infected human hepatocarcinoma cells deficient for RIG-I when compared with that of RIG-I-competent cells. In addition, DNA fragmentation detected upon Candid#1 infection of type I interferon (IFN)-deficient Vero cells suggested a type I IFN-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction in response to JUNV. Our work demonstrated for the first time apoptosis induction in various cells of mammalian origin in response to JUNV infection and partial mechanism of this cell death. PMID:24918927

Huang, Cheng; Smith, Jennifer K.; Poussard, Allison L.; Tian, Bing; Brasier, Allan R.; Peters, Clarence J.; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; de la Torre, Juan C.; Paessler, Slobodan

2014-01-01

447

SRSF1 Facilitates Cytosolic DNA-Induced Production of Type I Interferons Recognized by RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence has shown that psoriasis is closely associated with infection; however, the mechanism of this association remains unclear. In mammalian cells, viral or bacterial infection is accompanied by the release of cytosolic DNA, which in turn triggers the production of type-I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFNs and their associated genes are significantly upregulated in psoriatic lesions. RIG-I is also highly upregulated in psoriatic lesions and is responsible for IFN production. However, RIG-I mediated regulatory signaling in psoriasis is poorly understood. Methods We screened a cDNA library and identified potential RIG-I interacting partners that may play a role in psoriasis. Results We found that serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) could specifically interact with RIG-I to facilitate RIG-I mediated production of type-I IFN that is triggered by cytosolic DNA. We found SRSF1 associates with RNA polymerase III and RIG-I in a DNA-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with a TNF? inhibitor downregulated SRSF1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from psoriasis vulgaris patients. Discussion Based on the abundance of pathogenic cytosolic DNA that is detected in psoriatic lesions, our finding that RIG-I interacts with SRSF1 to regulate type-I IFN production reveals a critical link regarding how cytosolic DNA specifically activates aberrant IFN expression. These data may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:25658361

Xue, Feng; Li, Xia; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Lanqi; Liu, Min; Shi, Ruofei; Zheng, Jie

2015-01-01

448

78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operators in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. The FAA inadvertently did not correctly...operators in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. In the discussion of the...

2013-01-08

449

14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...each public area, including the launch site boundary; (2) A listing of the maximum quantities of liquid and solid propellants and other explosives to be located at each explosive hazard facility, including the class and division for...

2010-01-01

450

14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...each public area, including the launch site boundary; (2) A listing of the maximum quantities of liquid and solid propellants and other explosives to be located at each explosive hazard facility, including the class and division for...

2011-01-01

451

Storage stability of Kraton-bonded HMX-based explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressed pieces of X-0287 (97\\/1.8\\/1.2 (wt %)-HMX\\/Kraton G-6500\\/B²-wax 170) and X-0298 ((97.5\\/1.12\\/1.38 (wt %)-HMX\\/Kraton G-6500\\/Cenco Hyvac oil)) were stored for various time intervals at oven temperatures ranging from 40 to 90°C. Amounts of evolved-gas, polymer molecular-weight changes, and tensile property differences were used to assess the stability of the explosives stored under the test conditions. After 1 yr in open

E. D. Loughran; H. L. Flaugh

1978-01-01

452

Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

2007-05-04

453

Powerful explosions at Z = 0?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-free stars are assumed to evolve at constant mass because of the very low stellar winds. This leads to large CO-core mass at the end of the evolution, so primordial stars with an initial mass between 25 and 85 M? are expected to end as direct black holes, the explosion energy being too weak to remove the full envelope. We show that when rotation enters into play, some mass is lost because the stars are prone to reach the critical velocity during the main sequence evolution. Contrary to what happens in the case of very low- but non zero-metallicity stars, the enrichment of the envelope by rotational mixing is very small and the total mass lost remains modest. The compactness of the primordial stars lead to a very inefficient transport of the angular momentum inside the star, so the profile of ?(r) is close to ?r2 = const. As the core contracts, the rotation rate increases, and the star ends its life with a fast spinning core. Such a configuration has been shown to modify substantially the dynamics of the explosion. Where one expected a weak explosion or none at all, rotation might boost the explosion energy and drive a robust supernova. This will have important consequences in the way primordial stars enriched the early Universe.

Ekström, Sylvia; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Maeder, André

2008-12-01

454

Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-11-12

455

Soft container for explosive nuts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

1981-01-01

456

Type IA Supernova Explosion Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because calibrated light curves of type Ia supernovae have become a major tool to determine the local expansion rate of the universe and also its geometrical structure, considerable attention has been given to models of these events over the past couple of years. There are good reasons to believe that perhaps most type Ia supernovae are the explosions of white

Wolfgang Hillebrandt; Jens C. Niemeyer

2000-01-01

457

Electrical explosion of segmented wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena occurring during the electrical explosion of segmented wires are described. It was observed that with a wire of varying thickness, the smaller diameter parts explode first, ejecting metal vapor radially. Breakdown occurs through the vapor, creating current carrying channels which bypass the larger diameter parts of the wire. This may result, in some cases, in the larger diameter

Y. Me-Bar; R. Harel

1996-01-01

458

Modeling Type Ia Supernova Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia Supernovae are one class of bright stellar explosions that are distinguished by a lack of hydrogen in the observed spectra. The most widely accepted scenario is a thermonuclear runaway occurring in a C/O white dwarf that has gained mass from a companion star. The details of the explosion mechanism are incompletely understood, and at present there are competing models that differ in the details of the initial conditions and the nature of the thermonuclear burning. I will present an overview of proposed mechanisms for the explosion and describe the requisite physics for each. Many scenarios invoke a deflagration born near the center of the white dwarf, and the subsequent evolution of the fireball sensitively depends on the relative size of the ignition point and its location. I will describe the flame and ash nuclear energetics and demonstrate that for the case of rising bubbles, featured in some explosion scenarios, the bubble evolution depends sensitively on the nuclear physics included in the models.

Calder, Alan

2008-04-01

459

Remote detector of explosive traces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the research of possibility of remote detection of explosive traces using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) approach. Experimental data on the detection of traces of cyclonite in fingerprints at a distance of 4 m are presented.

Bobrovnikov, Sergey M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Viktor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.; Aksenov, Valery A.; Kikhtenko, Andrey V.; Tivileva, Maria I.

2014-11-01

460

Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation  

E-print Network

of experiments have been performed with blast waves arising from the ignition .if homogeneous and well defined for this is that larger and larger quantities of dangerous materials are produced, transported and consumed ignition. This develop- ment has made it still more urgent to consider explosion loads in the design phase

461

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2011-07-01

462

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2014-07-01

463

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2012-07-01

464

30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

2014-07-01

465

30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

2014-07-01

466

30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

2012-07-01

467

27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

2014-04-01

468

30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

2010-07-01

469

27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

2011-04-01

470

27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

2010-04-01

471

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2010-07-01

472

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2013-07-01

473

30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2014-07-01

474

30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

2011-07-01

475

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

2012-04-01

476

30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

2011-07-01

477

30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2012-07-01

478

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2014-07-01

479

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2014-07-01

480

27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

2010-04-01

481

30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

2012-07-01

482

30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

2010-07-01

483

29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

2010-07-01

484

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2010-07-01

485

27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Identification of explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of...

2010-04-01

486

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2011-07-01

487

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2012-07-01

488

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2012-07-01

489

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2011-07-01

490

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2011-07-01

491

30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2010-07-01

492

30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

2013-07-01

493

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2012-07-01

494

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2013-07-01

495

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2010-07-01

496

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2013-07-01

497

30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

2014-07-01

498

30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

2010-07-01

499

27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

2013-04-01

500

30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2011-07-01