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1

Oil well rig with water tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil well rig having a flotatable hull and support legs which are lifted and supported by the floating hull for moving the oil well rig and moved down to engage the sea bottom and jack up or raise the hull above the water at an operating site for drilling or servicing a well or serving an offshore well platform.

Younes

1984-01-01

2

Cholera on a Gulf Coast oil rig.  

PubMed

A single case of severe diarrhea on a floating Texas oil rig was followed two days later by what proved to be the largest outbreak of cholera in the United States in over a century. After isolation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae El Tor Inaba of the typical United States phage type from the index patient's stool, the ensuing investigation detected 14 additional cases of cholera and one asymptomatic infection serologically. Infection was associated with eating rice on the oil rig on a particular day (P = 0.03) when an open valve permitted the rig's drinking-water system to be contaminated by canal water containing sewage (including that from the index patient) discharged from the rig. The rice had been rinsed in the contaminated water after cooking, and before being served it had been maintained at a temperature that allows V. cholerae 01 to multiply. Toxigenic V. cholerae 01 is persisting in the United States, and large common-source outbreaks of cholera can occur if proper sanitation is not maintained. PMID:6877323

Johnston, J M; Martin, D L; Perdue, J; McFarland, L M; Caraway, C T; Lippy, E C; Blake, P A

1983-09-01

3

Oil well rig with water tower  

SciTech Connect

An oil well rig having a flotatable hull and support legs which are lifted and supported by the floating hull for moving the oil well rig and moved down to engage the sea bottom and jack up or raise the hull above the water at an operating site for drilling or servicing a well or serving an offshore well platform. A water tower has pipes longitudinally mounted by brackets on each side on a beam and is mounted for vertical movement in a well in the hull. An elevator mechanism mounted in the hull is employed to raise and lower the water tower which has guide means fitting a guide portion of the well to provide guided vertical movement of the water tower. When the water tower is lowered, a pump at the bottom of the pipe pumps sea water through the pipe to machinery on the hull to meet the water requirements of the machinery.

Younes, D. T.

1984-09-18

4

A new detection method of oil rigs in SAR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It's difficult for simple space-borne SAR to identify oil rigs effectively in single pass SAR image. One method of oil rig detection is using multi-temporal SAR images. Some papers had do some research on it. In this paper, we use interferometry SAR image to detect the oil rigs. We get the correlation coefficient image from the In-SAR data, and using the histogram of correlation coefficient image, A Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm is imported to detect the oil rigs. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is used to get the threshold of detection. The test result shows that sea coherent target detection in the coherent coefficient image is efficacious.

Chen, Peng; Yang, Jingsong; Ren, Lin

2013-10-01

5

Oil rigs and offshore sport fishing in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago, offshore sport fishing in Louisiana was almost nonexistent. Offshore oil drilling platforms are the primary cause of the present increase in sport fishing in this area. Algae and other organisms forming the first step in the food chain cluster around the subsurface structures of the rigs, attracting fish that seek food and shelter. Major game species frequenting

R. Dugas; V. Guillory; M. Fischer

2009-01-01

6

Coral growing on North Sea oil rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summer the coral Lophelia pertusa was found growing on oil platforms in the North Sea and on the Brent Spar oil-storage buoy during its decommissioning. The findings indicate that Lophelia has a wider distribution and a more rapid rate of growth than previously believed. The discovery also has implications for the debate over oil exploration in the Atlantic Ocean

Niall Bell; Jan Smith

1999-01-01

7

World Oil`s Marine drilling rigs `96/`97  

SciTech Connect

The paper lists performance data for each of 567 mobile offshore drilling units in worldwide competitive and state owned fleets. Listings are separated into four categories, including: jackups (357); semi-submersibles (132); drillships and barges (63); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (15). Owners and rigs are listed alphabetically, with rigs grouped by class under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. Addresses of owners/managers are shown in a separate table.

NONE

1996-12-01

8

World Oil`s marine drilling rigs `97/`98  

SciTech Connect

The paper lists performance data for each of 588 mobile offshore drilling units in worldwide competitive and state-owned fleets. Listings are separated into four categories, including: jackups (362); semi-submersibles (147); drillships and barges (70); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (9). Owners and rigs are listed alphabetically, with rigs grouped by class under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. Addresses of owners/managers are shown in a separate table.

NONE

1997-12-01

9

World Oil`s marine drilling rigs `95  

SciTech Connect

This paper lists performance data for each of 573 mobile offshore drilling units in worldwide competitive and state-owned fleets. Listings are separated into four categories, including: Jackups (367); semi-submersibles (133); drillships and barges (58); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (15). Owners and rigs are listed alphabetically, with rigs grouped by class under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. Addresses of owners/managers are shown in a separate table. Rigs can be located in the index.

NONE

1995-12-01

10

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01

11

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shales  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01

12

A Supply-Demand Analysis. Volume I. Of the Mobile Oil Drilling Rig Market, 1977 - 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a comprehensive short-to-medium range analysis of the supply and demand factors impacting on the markets for offshore oil drilling rigs and related support vessels. Descriptions of the mobile drilling rig and support vessel markets we...

J. H. Durfee

1977-01-01

13

Challenges associated with pre-border management of biofouling on oil rigs.  

PubMed

The potential for oil rigs to transport diverse, reef-like communities around the globe makes them high risk vectors for the inadvertent spread of non-indigenous species (NIS). This paper describes two case studies where a suite of pre-border management approaches was applied to semi-submersible drilling rigs. In the first case study, a drilling rig was defouled in-water prior to departure from New Zealand to Australia. Risk mitigation measures were successful in reducing biosecurity risks to the recipient region, but they resulted in the unintentional introduction of the non-indigenous brown mussel (Perna perna) to New Zealand when the rig was defouled in-water by divers. In the second case study, lessons learned from this high-profile incursion resulted in a more structured approach to pre-border management, and this serves as a useful template for future rig transfers. PMID:20696440

Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

2010-11-01

14

A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

Howard, Samuel A.

2007-01-01

15

Rubber for offshore oil rigs: growing market, sophisticated compounds, specialized products  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fastest-growing markets for rubber products based on sophisticated compounds is in the offshore oil rig industry. Rubber is used for unions, couplings, valves, seals, etc. Synthetic elastomers are more versatile than natural rubber. The products in greatest use are hose and belting. Water pollution by oil spills and the like and their alleviation by rubber are discussed.

Schultz

1977-01-01

16

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Oklahoma: A Driller Died After Falling Through an Opening in the Oil Rig Floor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 59-year-old oil rig driller died on May 28, 2004 from head trauma he received after falling through an opening in the drilling floor. The decedent and his co-workers had just finished raising the derrick into the upright position. During the oil rig ass...

2005-01-01

17

Submergence Depth Control of a Free-Fall Submersible Escape Capsule for an Offshore Oil Rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some exploratory work on a new evacuation system for an offshore oil rig. The proposed system would free-fall to the ocean surface and then sink down to a level where water motions are insignificant. So, in severe storms, it would avoid the violent air and water motions that exist near the surface. The paper concentrates on the

Michael Hinchey; Raju Goteti

1989-01-01

18

An axisymmetric guided wave encoded system for flood detection of oil rig cross-beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and completely autonomous guided wave system for flood detection in the hollow cross-beam members of offshore steel oil rigs is presented. Underwater non-destructive testing methods such as ultrasound have been used to inspect for the presence of seawater in these applications, often in conjunction with remote operating vehicles. Alternatively, a monolithic PZT guided wave transducer which can be

Rito Mijarez; Patrick Gaydecki; Michael Burdekin

2005-01-01

19

Power system harmonic mitigation of an offshore oil rig using passive shunt filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore oil rigs use large dc drives, usually fed from a.c. utility services through ac\\/dc converters, thus distorting current and voltage waveforms. Passive filters have been very effective solution for the harmonic mitigation as well as reactive VAR compensation. However, improper choice of filter components may lead to severe voltage and current stress to power system components or even sometimes

Shib Sankar Saha; Ramesh Suryavanshi

2010-01-01

20

A supply-demand analysis. Volume I. of the mobile oil drilling rig market, 1977--1987. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains a comprehensive short-to-medium range analysis of the supply and demand factors impacting on the markets for offshore oil drilling rigs and related support vessels. Descriptions of the mobile drilling rig and support vessel markets were prepared in which relevant factors and variables which interact to form the 'market' were identified and evaluated. To provide the data base

Durfee

1977-01-01

21

Permanently Attached Single PZT Guided Wave Encoded Sensor for Flood Detection of Oil Rig Crossbeams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a new guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow crossbeam members of offshore steel oil-rigs. A sensor, permanently attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 10m×0.5m ×16mm, completely

R. Mijarez; P. Gaydecki; M. Burdekin

2005-01-01

22

Shift type and season affect adaptation of the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm in offshore oil rig workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm of oil rig workers on a 2-week night shift (1800–0600 h) adapts to the shift via a phase delay. We now report the findings of a study on two offshore drill crews working a 1 week day (1200–0000 h), 1 week night (0000–1200 h) swing shift. Urine samples were collected every 2–3

R. G Barnes; M. J Forbes; J Arendt

1998-01-01

23

Oil rigs and offshore sport fishing in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental effects of Louisiana's offshore oil platforms are discussed with regard to an increase in sport-fishing. The effects upon fish populations, species diversity, underwater habitats, and food chains from the offshore platforms are obtained from several summaries of studies undertaken between 1970-1979. (DS)

R. Dugas; V. Guillory; M. Fischer

1979-01-01

24

Procedure-Authoring Tool Improves Safety on Oil Rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dark, cold, and dangerous environments are plentiful in space and on Earth. To ensure safe operations in difficult surroundings, NASA relies heavily on procedures written well ahead of time. Houston-based TRACLabs Inc. worked with Ames Research Center through the SBIR program to create an electronic procedure authoring tool, now used by NASA and companies in the oil and gas industry.

2014-01-01

25

Flight investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to oil rigs using airborne weather and mapping radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne weather and mapping radar is a near-term, economical method of providing 'self-contained' navigation information for approaches to offshore oil rigs and its use has been rapidly expanding in recent years. A joint NASA/FAA flight test investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico was initiated in June 1978 and conducted under contract to Air Logistics. Approximately 120 approaches were flown in a Bell 212 helicopter by 15 operational pilots during the months of August and September 1978. The purpose of the tests was to collect data to (1) support development of advanced radar flight director concepts by NASA and (2) aid the establishment of Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria by the FAA. The flight test objectives were to develop airborne radar approach procedures, measure tracking errors, determine accpetable weather minimums, and determine pilot acceptability. Data obtained will contribute significantly to improved helicopter airborne radar approach capability and to the support of exploration, development, and utilization of the Nation's offshore oil supplies.

Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Phillips, J. D.; Sturgeon, W. R.; Hunting, A. W.; Pate, D. P.

1979-01-01

26

Permanently Attached Single PZT Guided Wave Encoded Sensor for Flood Detection of Oil Rig Crossbeams  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary results of a new guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow crossbeam members of offshore steel oil-rigs. A sensor, permanently attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 10mx0.5m x16mm, completely immersed in seawater showed that although attenuation was significant, the system successfully identified the signals.

Mijarez, R.; Gaydecki, P. [Department of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Burdekin, M. [Fatigue Monitoring Bureau, Macclesfield, Sk10 5LX (United Kingdom)

2005-04-09

27

Permanently Attached Single PZT Guided Wave Encoded Sensor for Flood Detection of Oil Rig Crossbeams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents preliminary results of a new guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow crossbeam members of offshore steel oil-rigs. A sensor, permanently attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 10m×0.5m ×16mm, completely immersed in seawater showed that although attenuation was significant, the system successfully identified the signals.

Mijarez, R.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, M.

2005-04-01

28

Navigation errors encountered using weather-mapping radar for helicopter IFR guidance to oil rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1978 a joint NASA-FAA helicopter flight test was conducted to examine the use of weather-mapping radar for IFR guidance during landing approaches to oil rig helipads. The following navigation errors were measured: total system error, radar-range error, radar-bearing error, and flight technical error. Three problem areas were identified: (1) operational problems leading to pilot blunders, (2) poor navigation to the downwind final approach point, and (3) pure homing on final approach. Analysis of these problem areas suggests improvement in the radar equipment, approach procedure, and pilot training, and gives valuable insight into the development of future navigation aids to serve the off-shore oil industry.

Phillips, J. D.; Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Dugan, D. C.

1980-01-01

29

Benthic community metabolism on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico. [Baseline study to determine effects of offshore oil rig operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of oxygen uptake on the continental shelf indicate large temporal changes and significant differences between stations. Similar measurements at 10, 50, and 100 m distance from an operating oil rig revealed rates of benthic community metabolism that have no apparent effect from the oil rig presence and operation. Anaerobic experiments on pure cultures of Clostridium sporogenes and Bacteroides sp.

Pamatmat

1979-01-01

30

Identification of oil film coefficients of large journal bearings on a full scale journal bearing test rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt of adding a facility of investigating dynamic characteristics of oil film to a large full scale journal bearing test rig which was designed with only the function of static measurement is implemented. The considerations of impulse excitation, vibration measurement, data log and process, and dynamic characteristics identification are presented. The measured results are compared with theoretical data and

G. D. Jiang; H. Hu; W. Xu; Z. W. Jin; Y. B. Xie

1997-01-01

31

Dust explosion hazards due to blasting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The conditions favoring secondary explosions of dust or gas accompanying the blasting of oil shale are the subject of continuing investigation by the Bureau of Mines. In the present study, oil shale dust was dispersed in a gallery and ignited by various blasting agents blown out of a cannon according to a standard testing procedure. Parallel tests were conducted in the Bureau's Experimental Mine to test propagation as well as ignition of oil shale dust. In both gallery and mine, the minimum explosion limits were determined as a function of dust loading, weight and type of blasting agent, and amount of added methane. The results of these experiments are compared with previous measurements using methane-air explosions as an initiation source. In view of recent mine dust sampling data, the main explosion hazard in nongassy oil shale mines is likely to be limited to the region of the face. But in gassy mines, dust-gas explosions could be expected to propagate considerable distances.

Richmond, J.K.; Beitel, F.P.

1984-04-01

32

A low-cost decision support network for electrocardiograph transmission from oil rigs in the North Sea.  

PubMed

A telemedicine service consisting of electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation and advice on the management of chest pain offshore was offered to oil rig installations in the North Sea. A total of 14 subscribing oil rigs were supplied with thrombolytic drugs and rig paramedics were trained in their delivery. Electrocardiographs could be recorded using a standard ECG machine and then digitized using a scanner for transmission as an email attachment. Several oil companies invested in ECG equipment which allowed direct recording of the patient's ECG in electronic form for transmission by email. Uptake of the telemedicine service was very rapid. The majority of rig medics found the system very easy to use. During a 36-month study period from August 2004, 47 cases of chest pain were dealt with by telemedicine. Of these 47 cases, only six patients (13%) were airlifted to shore. The 41 remaining ECGs did not to have acute changes requiring immediate evacuation. The use of email for ECG transmission proved to be highly effective in managing chest pain offshore. PMID:18430291

Webster, Karyn; Fraser, Susan; Mair, Fiona; Ferguson, James

2008-01-01

33

Red oil explosions at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Two red-oil explosions occurred at the Savannah River Plant. The first of these was in an evaporator at the semiworks prior to plant operation. The second occurred 22 years later in an A-Line facility calciner (called a denitrator).

Durant, W.S.

1984-01-01

34

Big oil production may come with fracturing by nuclear explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear fracturing can successfully stimulate oil and gas reservoirs to a degree never attainable with conventional methods. This is a conclusion reached from the many contained nuclear explosions already conducted for other purposes. The underground nuclear blast creates not only a mammoth chimney of broken rock, but also sends out fractures through the formation for hundreds of feet in all

H. F. Coffer; H. H. Aronson

1966-01-01

35

China on the move: Oil price explosion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid expansion of highway and jet traffic in China has created a surge of demand for oil products, putting pressure on world energy markets and petroleum product prices. This paper examines trends in freight and passenger traffic to assess how growth in China's transport demand relates to growth in China's economy, as well as the energy intensity of transport. Based

Jeffrey Skeer; Yanjia Wang

2007-01-01

36

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01

37

Continuous Structural Monitoring of Oil Rig SubSea Structures for Flood Member Detection Using Axisymmetric Guided Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axisymmetric guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of offshore steel oil-rigs is presented. A sensor, attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m × 0.5 m × 16 mm,

R. Mijarez; P. Gaydecki; M. Burdekin

2006-01-01

38

An axisymmetric guided wave encoded system for flood detection of oil rig cross-beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and completely autonomous guided wave system for flood detection in the hollow cross-beam members of offshore steel oil rigs is presented. Underwater non-destructive testing methods such as ultrasound have been used to inspect for the presence of seawater in these applications, often in conjunction with remote operating vehicles. Alternatively, a monolithic PZT guided wave transducer which can be permanently attached to a sub-sea installation and that can be powered by the action of the seawater is now being developed. Upon activation, the transducer transmits an ultrasound-encoded signal to a receiver, in the form of a real-time digital signal processing system at the surface level. Experiments have been carried out using a jointed steel pipe structure, 10 m in length, 0.5 m in diameter and 16 mm in thickness, completely immersed in seawater. The transmitter was attached to the inner wall of a spur pipe and configured to generate narrow bandwidth, low frequency ultrasonic chirp signals, coupled to the pipe as an axisymmetric mode. Results confirmed that although some attenuation occurs, the system signal processing system successfully identified the signals above the background noise.

Mijarez, Rito; Gaydecki, Patrick; Burdekin, Michael

2005-11-01

39

A rigged market  

SciTech Connect

The mobile rig market remains a unique sector of the global upstream oil and gas industry. Big oil is continuing to emerge blinking from the darkness of its recent cash-starved existence to bask in the glory of a resurgent oil price. But the rig sector is once again lagging behind the pace being set by operators as they open up their wallets for new or delayed exploration and production projects. This paper gives statistics on worldwide count and contracts.

Thomas, M.

2000-02-01

40

Rigs-to-reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rigs-to-Reefs is a catchy term for converting obsolete, nonproductive offshore oil and gas structures (platforms and rigs) to designated artificial reefs. The concept has been around for a long time; however, it is only in the last few years that broad public and private support for the idea has emerged. Government and industry have begun to look at the opportunities

Reggio; V. C. Jr

2009-01-01

41

Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

Banker, John G. [Dynamic Materials Corp., 5405 Spine Rd., Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Massarello, Jack [Global Metallix, Consultant to DMC, 5405 Spine Rd., Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Pauly, Stephane [DMC., Nobelclad Business Unit, 1 Allee Alfred NOBEL, 66600 Rivesaltes (France)

2011-01-17

42

Augmented Rigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the Phase 2 Resonant Infrasonic Gauging System (RIGS) development program are presented. The program consisted of design, fabrication, and testing of an augmented RIGS concept. The RIGS is a gauging system capable of measuring propellant qu...

R. A. Kaminskas D. Mcguire

1974-01-01

43

Continuous Structural Monitoring of Oil Rig Sub-Sea Structures for Flood Member Detection Using Axisymmetric Guided Waves  

SciTech Connect

An axisymmetric guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of offshore steel oil-rigs is presented. A sensor, attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m x 0.5 m x 16 mm, completely immersed in seawater showed optimal performance at 38 kHz contrasted to 21 kHz, corroborating values predicted by disperse theoretical model.

Mijarez, R.; Gaydecki, P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Burdekin, M. [Fatigue Monitoring Bureau, Macclesfield, Sk10 5LX (United Kingdom)

2006-03-06

44

Continuous Structural Monitoring of Oil Rig Sub-Sea Structures for Flood Member Detection Using Axisymmetric Guided Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An axisymmetric guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of offshore steel oil-rigs is presented. A sensor, attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m × 0.5 m × 16 mm, completely immersed in seawater showed optimal performance at 38 kHz contrasted to 21 kHz, corroborating values predicted by disperse theoretical model.

Mijarez, R.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, M.

2006-03-01

45

Ambient Pressure Test Rig Developed for Testing Oil-Free Bearings in Alternate Gases and Variable Pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team at the NASA Glenn Research Center is conducting research to develop turbomachinery systems that utilize high-speed, high temperature foil (air) bearings that do not require an oil lubrication system. Such systems combine the most advanced foil bearings from industry with NASA-developed hightemperature solid-lubricant technology. New applications are being pursued, such as Oil- Free turbochargers, auxiliary power units, and turbine propulsion systems for aircraft. An Oil-Free business jet engine, for example, would be simpler, lighter, more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain than current engines. Another application is NASA's Prometheus mission, where gas bearings will be required for the closed-cycle turbine based power-conversion system of a nuclear power generator for deep space. To support these applications, Glenn's Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team developed the Ambient Pressure Test Rig. Using this facility, researchers can load and heat a bearing and evaluate its performance with reduced air pressure to simulate high altitude conditions. For the nuclear application, the test chamber can be purged with gases such as helium to study foil gas bearing operation in working fluids other than air.

Bauman, Steven W.

1990-01-01

46

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Oklahoma: Derrick Man Dies of a Crush Injury Following a 65-Foot Fall with a Collapsing Oil Drilling Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1998, a 32-year-old Derrick man died after he fell 65 feet when the oil-drilling rig he was working on collapsed and fell to the ground. The 6-man drilling crew had taken the last pieces of drill pipe and drill collars out of the hole when the...

1998-01-01

47

44. Annual Reed rig census  

SciTech Connect

Reed Tool Company`s 44th annual rotary rig census found a spirit of increased optimism in the US oil and gas drilling industry. Rig utilization rose to 77% this year, the highest since the boom times of 15 years ago. A combination of a higher number of active rigs and another decline in available units to a historical low, led to this higher-than-average utilization rate. The paper discusses results from the survey.

Stokes, T.A.; Rodriguez, M.R. [Reed Tool Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

48

Explosively Produced Fracture of Oil Shale. Progress Report, April-June 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preshot and postshot characterization of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Colony Oil Shale Mine experiments and the geologic parameters affecting their interpretation are discussed. Because site-specific geologic features affect explosive rock ...

W. A. Morris

1980-01-01

49

Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).  

PubMed

On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf. PMID:24720059

Flin, Rhona

2014-03-01

50

Oil in the Water, Fire in the Sky: Responding to Technological/Environmental Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On April 20, 2010, a massive explosion killed 11 workers on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Survivors of this explosion recounted terrifying near-death experiences and mourned the loss of coworkers and friends who had perished. Shock and grief spread through small coastal communities composed mostly of fishers and oil workers. However, this was…

Lazarus, Philip J.; Sulkowski, Michael L.

2010-01-01

51

Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.  

PubMed

Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness. PMID:1546944

Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

1992-02-01

52

Method of detonating explosives for fragmenting oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a method for explosively expanding oil shale formation toward a limited void volume provided by a void excavated in a retort site in formation containing oil shale, wherein said void has at least one vertical free face, the improvement comprising the steps of: placing explosive in a roiw of blasting holes in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a vertical free face, said blasting holes being mutually spaced apart along the length of the void; and detonating explosive in the blasting holes in a single round in a time delay sequence progressing along the length of the row of blasting holes for explosivelyexpanding formation in said remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward such vertical free face for forming at least a portion of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort.

Hutchins, N.; Ridley, R.

1980-07-01

53

2010 Oil Spill: Criminal Liability Under Wildlife Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In April 2010 an explosion occurred on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, reportedly killing 11 people, and, according to federal experts, causing the worst oil spill in U.S. history. Millions of barrels of oil are believed to have leaked into the Gulf of ...

K. Alexander

2010-01-01

54

CONTINUOUS MONITORING GUIDED WAVE ENCODED SENSOR FOR FLOOD DETECTION OF OIL RIGS CROSS BEAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:Structural flooded member,detection of offshore oil platforms involves the detection of seawater in their normally hollow steel crossbeam members. ,NDT methods ,such as ultrasound have been used to inspect for the presence of water in these applications, often in conjunction with remote operating vehicles. Alternatively, a guided wave sensor system is now being developed,which can be permanently,attached to a sub-sea

R. Mijarez; P. gaydecki; M. Burdekin

55

A Question of Rigs, of Rules, or of Rigging the Rules?: Upstream Profits and Taxes in US Gulf Offshore Oil and Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Set in the context of the dramatic increases in the price of oil and gas which consumers all over the world have had to endure since 2000, this book gives an overview of oil and gas production activities in the US Gulf of Mexico, focusing on four key producing areas: a suprasalt province in very shallow and shallow waters; a

Juan Carlos Boue

56

Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

1980-01-01

57

Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

1980-01-01

58

Staggered array of explosives for fragmented oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, a void in the form of a vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent to a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in at least two rows of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes in each row are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot and longitudinally offset from blasting holes in the next adjacent row, and the row of blasting holes extends generally parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding formation in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward the vertical free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort.

Hutchins, N.M.; Studebaker, I.G.

1980-03-25

59

Method of detonating explosives for fragmenting oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

An oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation. A void in the form of a narrow vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in a row of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot, and the row of blasting holes extends parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding the formation in the vertical free face. A fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale is formed in an in situ oil shale retort. 34 claims.

Hutchins, N.M.; Ridley, R.D.

1980-07-01

60

Stress Waves Measured And Calculated For In Situ Explosive Rubblization Experiments In Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-part ''bore-springing'' experiment to rubblize Green River formation oil shale was conducted near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The experiment involved the detonation of a cylindrical explosive charge at the bottom of a 60 m deep well, the detonation of a second charge in the now expanded cavity of this same well, and the detonation of a third charge at the

R. P. Reed; R. R. Boade

1977-01-01

61

Rig designers continue fine-tuning  

SciTech Connect

Rig designers and owners continue to fine-tune a variety of sophisticated new generation semisubmersible and jackup designs that will go into production once supply catches up with demand, later in the decade. The units will be designed to meet the latest international safety requirements, be more highly specialized that most existing rigs, and they will be expensive. Rising oil prices and improved rig utilization will be the catalysts to spur future rig orders. Over the longer term, the aging semi fleet will need to be upgraded or replaced beginning in the second half of the deacade. Rig life extension programs will be economically justified for many rigs, but new construction will pay a significant role in the semi fleet this decade. Many rig designs will be capable of ultra-deep-water drilling and production in water depths as deep as 10,000 feet. Additional designs concepts and projects are discussed.

Pagano, S.S.

1993-04-01

62

RIG, rochester\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RIG system provides convenient access to a wide range of computing facilities. The system includes five large mini-computers in a very fast internal network, disk and tape storage, a printer\\/plotter, and a number of display terminals. These are connected to larger campus machines (IBM 360\\/65 and DEC KL10) and to the ARPANET. The operating system and other software support

E. Ball; Jerome A. Feldman; James R. Low; Richard F. Rashid; Paul Rovner

1976-01-01

63

Continuum modelling of explosive fracture in oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture and fragmentation studies on 80 ml\\/kg Anvil Points oil shale with plate impact, Hopkinson bar, capacitor discharge, and HE techniques have shown that the dynamic fracture stress, fracture energy, and fragment size depend on the rate of tensile loading. A model coupling fracture, fragmentation, and stress wave propagation and based on the activation and growth of an initial Weibull

D. E. Grady; M. E. Kipp

1980-01-01

64

Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

2005-01-01

65

Fire and explosion assessment on oil and gas floating production storage offloading (FPSO): An effective screening and comparison tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires and explosions have been identified as major potential hazards for Oil and Gas Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) installations and pose risk to personnel, assets, and the environment. Current fire and explosion assessment (FEA) tools require physical effect modeling software and follows standards from API, ISO, and engineering practices. However, the tools are not specific to any particular system

Jaffee A. Suardin; A. Jeff McPhate Jr.; Anthony Sipkema; Matt Childs; M. Sam Mannan

2009-01-01

66

Deepwater rig upgrades face equipment, financial challenges  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the flat oil and gas prices, industry representatives are comparing the costs of upgrading production and drilling rigs rather than constructing new ones. This paper discusses the technologies available for upgrading these existing rigs and provides numerous case studies of such projects. It provides cost comparisons for the various upgrades as compared to new systems.

NONE

1996-04-01

67

Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

1985-01-01

68

Supply-demand analysis. Executive summary of the mobile oil drilling rig and support craft markets. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assist the Maritime Administration in determining the economic soundness of vessel construction projects submitted pursuant to the Federal Ship Financing Guarantee program. In addition, there is a detailed discussion of worldwide offshore oil and gas reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, recent production trends, and exploration\\/development policies of principal current and potential oil producing

Durfee

1977-01-01

69

Deepwater Coral Distribution and Abundance on Active Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms and Decommissioned Rigs-to-Reefs Platforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thousands of oil platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum which has not been present in GOM shallow water for thousands of years. These platforms, acting as numerous artificial islands throughout the region, have facilitated ...

P. W. Sammarco

2013-01-01

70

Deepwater, harsh environment drilling rig supply reaches critical stage  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the steady decline of oil prices and the affects this is had on the construction of new deepwater drilling rigs. However, as the decline of construction in new rigs occurs, the success of deep water drilling is requiring the use of the existing drilling equipment. As a result a deepwater drilling rig shortage is anticipated. It provides data showing the amount of drilling activity going on in deepwater regions and the anticipated supply and demand for these rigs. It makes recommendations on the construction of new rigs while minimizing potential economic liabilities.

Flatern, R. von

1995-09-01

71

Somebody better find some rigs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah.

NONE

1997-08-01

72

World rig locator  

SciTech Connect

More than 5,000 rigs, operated by 573 drilling contractors around the world, are listed in an exclusive directory that covers all contract rigs at work or available both on land and offshore. Almost 1,000 of the rigs are offshore.

Not Available

1985-03-01

73

New generation drill rigs  

SciTech Connect

Six new drilling rigs, all designed for use under arctic conditions, are described briefly as to use, proposed location, construction company, and state of completion. Better ideas for all phases of arctic operations have been incorporated into design of these rigs. Some of the rigs are adaptable for Beaufort Sea offshore operations. (BLM)

Not Available

1980-06-01

74

Handling the pressure on an offshore rig.  

PubMed

The chief instigator of offshore stress is time which in oil parlance is money, writes Patrick Whyte, an offshore medical officer. He explains that medical personnel by showing that they practice a healthy lifestyle on the offshore oil rigs can set a practical example of coping with the stressful conditions. PMID:1775283

Whyte, P

1991-11-01

75

Laboratory investigation using solvent to recover heavy oil from a fractured reservoir. [Combined explosive fracturing-solvent injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were performed in support of explosive fracturing-solvent injection research in a shallow, heavy-oil reservoir near Bartlett, Kansas. Tests were run on 25 solvents to determine their effectiveness in reducing the viscosity of the 2,820-cp oil and in preventing the precipitation of its 15% asphaltene content. The commercial solvent selected contains 74.3% aromatics to prevent precipitation; it lowers the

F. S. Johnson; R. A. Jones; J. S. Miller

1976-01-01

76

Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity  

SciTech Connect

The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

Rappold, K.

1995-09-25

77

Four rigs refurbished for West Africa drilling  

SciTech Connect

In April and May 1990, Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria Ltd. awarded Noble Drilling West Africa Inc. four separate contracts to drill oil and gas wells in the inland waterways of Nigeria. The contracted rigs included a shallow water jack up, the NN-1, and three posted barges, the Gene Rosser, the Chuck Syring, and the Lewis Dugger. The jack up was built in 1978, and the three posted barges are 1980s vintage. Three of the rigs have been idle for a number of years. The Shell Nigeria contracts required major modifications to the rigs before putting them into international service. Noble replaced or refurbished all major pieces of equipment in the drilling, power, and service systems on the rigs. Rig crews serviced all other equipment. A significant amount of general service piping and electrical wiring was replaced. Each rig also required additional motor control centers to support the new drilling and mud processing equipment. Alfa-Laval waste-heat water desalination plants and new sewage treatment units were installed on all four rigs. Because of the tidal variances and high silt conditions expected in the African waterways, all engine cooling systems were converted from heat exchangers to radiators. Rotary tables were made common on all rigs at 37 1/2 in. Noble had all traveling equipment completely inspected and modified as necessary. Strict attention was paid to certification and documentation of all equipment. Safety upgrades conformed to both Shell and Noble standards. Fire and gas detection systems were installed throughout each rig. Water and foam deluge systems were installed in the wellhead areas, and new foam systems and monitors were installed on the helldecks.

Not Available

1991-06-10

78

Gulf of Mexico rig activity up, international lags  

SciTech Connect

Demand for jack up and semisubmersible rigs has improved in the Gulf of Mexico following a decline in activity earlier this year. International drilling activity, however, has shown slight declines in several regions. Relatively firm natural gas prices have helped buoy rig activity in North America. Rig day rates have not followed suit, mainly because of the influx of rigs from weaker international markets. Day rates in the US may not increase until international activity picks up and the world-wide drilling market tightens. Oil prices have hit almost $20/bbl, mainly because of the recent oil worker' strike in Nigeria and good demand. Natural gas prices in the US have hovered around $2.00/MMBTU, and many industry analysts expect gas prices to remain strong over the next few years. This paper gives data on drilling rig counts and crude oil and gas prices in the Gulf of Mexico and onshore.

Rappold, K.

1994-09-19

79

Marine drilling rigs '94  

SciTech Connect

Listings in this paper contain performance data for each of 582 mobile offshore drilling units in the worldwide competitive and nationalized fleet. For the four categories shown, the totals are: jackups (372); semi-submersibles (137); drillships and barges (57); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (16). Owners and their rigs are listed alphabetically. Units of the same class are grouped under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. An index of rig names is also provided.

Not Available

1994-12-01

80

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

81

Development of Isothermal Rigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the Resonant Infrasonic Gauging System (RIGS) development program are reported. The RIGS is a gauging system that is capable of measuring propellant quantity under zero-G as well as under accelerated (one-G) conditions. With the exception o...

R. A. Kaminskas D. J. Malone

1973-01-01

82

Well servicing rig  

SciTech Connect

A totally contained movable rig is described, including a frame portion thereon, for servicing and drilling and for handling elongated well elements from a horizontal storage position to a vertical position in operating relationship with a well, or the reverse of the positions. The rig consists of: (a) horizontal storing means mounted on the frame of the movable rig for storing the well elements in horizontal position, the horizontal storing means including a pair of pipe rack arms pivotally mounted on each side of the frame of the movable rig so as to be pivoted about a vertical axis between stored position in alignment with the frame and operating position generally horizontal and perpendicular to the frame and a pair of crane means rotatably mounted on the frame of the movable rig so as to be in operational relationship with the pipe rack arms to load and unload the elongated well elements from the pipe rack arms; (b) conveying means mounted on the frame of the movable rig for conveying individual well elements from the horizontal storing means to a transfer location; (c) transfer means mounted on the frame of the movable rig including means for holding the individual well element and means for rotating the well elements to a vertical position parallel to the center line of the well; (d) manipulating means mounted on the frame of the movable rig including means for grasping the well element from the transfer means and moving the well element in a horizontal direction to position the longitudinal axis of the well elements in alignment with the center line of the well; (e) means, mounted on the frame of the movable rig, for moving the well element along the longitudinal axis thereof into operative position with respect to the well; (f) power rotating coupling means mounted on the frame of the movable rig for coupling the well element to other well elements located in the well; (g) and control means.

Hutchison, S.O.; Oldershaw, P.V.; Hansen, J.E.

1986-05-27

83

Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment  

SciTech Connect

The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

1980-06-01

84

Utah rig count indicates lively activity  

SciTech Connect

A flurry of drilling applications late last year suggests that a number of operators in Utah look forward to a fairly busy 1984. The Utah Overthrust, and the Uinta and Paradox basins are expected to see continued exploration and development work this year. This article discusses the exploratory and oil drilling activity planned for Utah. The rig count in Utah in early December was about 55, not far below the number of rigs that were drilling in the state in 1981, when the count was in the 60's.

Rountree, R.

1984-01-01

85

Seismo-acoustic analysis of the Buncefield oil depot explosion in the UK, 2005 December 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

A massive vapour cloud explosion occurred at the Buncefield fuel depot near Hemel Hempstead, UK, in the morning of 2005 December 11. The explosion was the result of an overflow from one of the storage tanks with the release of over 300 tons of petrol and generating a vapour cloud that spread over an area of 80000 m2, before being

L. Ottemöller; L. G. Evers

2008-01-01

86

DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data  

DOE Data Explorer

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

87

Rock Springs Site 12 Hydraulic/Explosive True in Situ Oil Shale Fracturing Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and ...

R. L. Parrish R. R. Boade A. L. Stevens A. Long T. F. Turner

1980-01-01

88

Rigged Configurations and Kashiwara Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For types A^{(1)}_n and D^{(1)}_n we prove that the rigged configuration bijection intertwines the classical Kashiwara operators on tensor products of the arbitrary Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystals and the set of the rigged configurations.

Sakamoto, Reiho

2014-03-01

89

Seismo-acoustic analysis of the Buncefield oil depot explosion in the UK, 2005 December 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive vapour cloud explosion occurred at the Buncefield fuel depot near Hemel Hempstead, UK, in the morning of 2005 December 11. The explosion was the result of an overflow from one of the storage tanks with the release of over 300 tons of petrol and generating a vapour cloud that spread over an area of 80000 m2, before being ignited. Considerable damage was caused in the vicinity of the explosion and a total of 43 people were injured. The explosion was detected by seismograph stations in the UK and the Netherlands and by infrasound arrays in the Netherlands. We analysed the seismic recordings to determine the origin time of 06:01:31.45 +/-0.5 s (UTC) from P-wave arrival times. Uncertainties in determination of origin time from acoustic arrival times alone were less than 10 s. Amplitudes of P-, Lg and primary acoustic waves were measured to derive decay relationships as function of distance. From the seismic amplitudes we estimated a yield of 2-10 tons equivalent to a buried explosion. Most seismic stations recorded primary and secondary acoustic waves. We used atmospheric ray tracing to identify the various travel paths, which depend on temperature and wind speed as function of altitude, leading to directional variation. Refracted waves were observed from the troposphere, stratosphere and thermosphere with a good match between observed and calculated traveltimes. The various wave types were also identified through array processing, which provides backazimuth and slowness, of recordings from an infrasound array in the Netherlands. The amplitude of stratospheric refracted acoustic waves recorded by the array microbarometers was used to estimate a yield of 21.6 (+/-5) tons TNT equivalent. We have demonstrated through joint seismo-acoustic analysis of the explosion that both the seismic velocity model and the atmospheric model are sufficient to explain the observed traveltimes.

Ottemöller, L.; Evers, L. G.

2008-03-01

90

Product Module Rig Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence time. Minimal sensitivity was observed for all of these parameters.

Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

2004-01-01

91

Process for preparing explosive  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for preparing a gas bubble sensitized explosive composition. The present process comprises preparing an explosive composition comprising a water-in-oil emulsion and mechanically entraining gas bubbles into the explosive composition. Low viscosity emulsion explosives are able to be sensitized by this process. There is a preference for wax free emulsions to be used. The process is applicable to emulsion explosives comprising ammonium nitrate particles. By providing a process for the mechanical entrainment of stable gas bubbles we allow explosive compositions to be sensitized on-site by readily available mixing means.

1990-06-26

92

Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO

Mark E. Fuller; Charles E. Schaefer; Robert J. Steffan

2009-01-01

93

Effect of pressure on the micro-explosion of water/oil emulsion droplets over a hot plate  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present investigation is experimentally to study the micro-explosion behavior of water/oil emulsion droplets over a hot plate in general, and the effect of pressure on this droplet/plate system in particular. The technological relevance of this study stems from the interest in direct injection high-compression-ratio engines because droplet/wall interaction is believed to be an important process within these engines, and because water/oil emulsion is most suitable for application with the heavier oils used by them. From the fundamental viewpoint it is not clear a priori that insights gained from results of freely falling droplets can be readily applied to the present system. This is because droplet gasification behavior over a hot plate (commonly known as the Leidenfrost phenomenon) is a nonmonotonic one. Specifically, for a droplet originally in contact with the plate, with increasing plate temperature the droplet lifetime will first decrease, then increase rapidly as the droplet attempts to levitate itself by its outgoing vapor, and finally decrease gradually when it is in the totally levitated mode. Furthermore, a change in pressure not only will shift the transition plate temperatures for the different gasification modes, but it can also conceivably alter the nucleation mode of the superheated water microdroplets depending on whether the emulsion droplet is in physical contact with the plate.

Cho, P. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (USA)); Law, C.K. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Mizomoto, M. (Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan))

1991-02-01

94

Instrumentation and Evaluation of the Talley Energy Systems, Inc. Oil Shale Project. Part II. Explosive Insertion, Detonation and Post-Shot Evaluation Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

January 1979 marked the completion of Phase I of the Talley Energy Systems, Inc. (TESI) contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) which was undertaken to examine the hydraulic/explosive fracturing method for preparing an underground oil shale bed for t...

R. R. Beasley R. R. Boade

1980-01-01

95

Prices affect rig count more than 3-D  

SciTech Connect

The idea is discounted that 3-D seismic works so well that fewer dry holes are drilled, the discoveries made are more prolific, and that fewer wells are needed to efficiently develop reservoirs. This line of reasoning suggests that the low rig counts (currently at 676 rigs working the onshore and offshore U.S.) are nothing to worry about - that oil is just being more efficiently discovered for fewer dollars. It is suggested that the low rig count, even though 3-D is a marvelous prospecting tool, is a serious matter. The rig count is essentially a measure of expectation and that expectation is about price. An operator starts with price, figures in costs and risks and decides whether the project generates cash flow.

Williams, P.; Lyle, D.

1995-07-01

96

Offshore rig outlook may improve in 3-5 years  

SciTech Connect

Continued weakness in oil and gas prices and depressed levels of capital expenditures by oil companies have kept and real trend from developing in the supply and demand for mobile offshore drilling rigs. In fact, some forecasters around 1983 who saw substantial market improvement by the middle of this decade may have missed the future by 8 - 10 years. However, an analysis of the current supply situation for offshore rigs and the implications of dayrates from the analysis will provide some perspective of the future.

Wagner, R.D. Jr.

1989-05-01

97

Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.  

PubMed

Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation. PMID:25010458

Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

2014-08-15

98

Rig activity strengthening, utilization high  

SciTech Connect

Strong, stable gas prices have increased demand for offshore rigs worldwide. Several regions have been 100% utilization rates for both jack ups and semisubmersibles. Onshore markets have also improved because of increased gas drilling, but in the US the number of contractors continues to dwindle. The paper gives data on the worldwide demand for jackups and semisubmersibles, US drilling rigs, directional and horizontal drilling activity, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

Rappold, K.

1996-09-23

99

Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Young, C. III [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)] [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)

1992-12-31

100

30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General...

2013-07-01

101

Science Nation: Hidden Oil and Gas Plumes in the Gulf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Days after the oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, University of Georgia oceanographer Samantha Joye got the wheels in motion to submit a proposal for a "Grant for Rapid Response Research" from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Her goal was to investigate underwater oil and gas plumes, and determine how this disaster was impacting deepwater organisms. Within a week, NSF approved the grant. Joye and her team from the University of Georgia, along with researchers from several other universities, spent May 24 through June 6, 2010 aboard the University of Miami research vessel, Walton Smith, departing from Gulfport, Miss.

102

Pressure Rig for Repetitive Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metals. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal i...

P. Vasquez W. R. Hutto A. R. Philips

1987-01-01

103

Comparing rig power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Installed power on drilling rigs has increased steadily since the inception of rotary drilling technology as a result of technical advances and the need to penetrate deeper horizons. Higher power levels for the pumps, rotary table and drawworks are also required for drilling deep wells within an economically reasonable period. Power initially available on a rig had been about 35

W. Gutsche; T. Noevig

1989-01-01

104

Cranes, hoists, and rigging. A safety training manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handling equipment discussed in this manual is the type that lifts, lowers, and locates (positions) heavy material - cranes and hoists. The crane\\/hoist family of equipment may be as small as a single pulley\\/rope system handling several pounds, or as large as a marine crane system that recently (1985) hoisted a 5005-metric ton oil drilling rig from a barge

Stinnett

1986-01-01

105

Rig Diagnostic Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

2008-01-01

106

Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)  

SciTech Connect

This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

NONE

1995-06-01

107

29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54...Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a) Guy and preventer placement...chafe on any standing or other running rigging. Exception: Rigging shall not be...

2009-07-01

108

29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54...Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a) Guy and preventer placement...chafe on any standing or other running rigging. Exception: Rigging shall not be...

2010-07-01

109

Rowan Arctic Rig 41--history and operation  

SciTech Connect

Rowan Arctic Rig 41 is a diesel-electric, air mobile, Arctic development and exploration land rig. The rig was built in 1980 to meet the specifications of ARCO, ALASKA, INC. and is representative of current generation Prudhoe Bay development rigs.

Gardner, L.R.

1983-02-01

110

Combination offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with respect to such barge hull, the cantilever structure being so located relative to the drilling slot as to be movable horizontally into a position in vertical alignment with the drilling slot, a derrick and drilling machinery mounted to the cantilever structure and movable into a position above the drilling slot whereby well drilling operations may be conducted through the drilling slot, the cantilever structure also being movable horizontally to a position which locates the derrick and the drilling machinery outboard of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, whereby a drilling operations may be conducted outside of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means mounted on the barge hull for moving the cantilever structure horizontally to different positions relative to the barge hull.

Lorenz, D.B.; Laid, J.S. II

1986-07-29

111

Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

Lee, Chi-Ming

1998-01-01

112

Geotechnical hazards associated with leg penetration of jack-up rigs  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been a large increase in offshore oil and gas exploration activities. A large proportion of the work is being performed with jack-up drilling rigs. Jack-up rigs basically are of 2 types, depending on their foundation: Mat-supported or Individual footings (spud cans). Mat supported rigs have a large foundation bearing area and therefore impose relatively low bearing pressures on the seabed resulting in limited penetration. Mats are usually A-shaped and are suitable for use when the seabed comprises very soft clay soils. However, mat supported rigs require that the seabed is fairly level and their stability is sensitive to factors such as subsoil variability, cyclic and eccentric load effects, lateral sliding resistance and seabed instability. Rigs supported on individual footings are more numerous and much more widely used in South East Asia and this paper presents aspects of geotechnical hazards that may be encountered when their legs penetrate into the seabed.

Kee, R.

1984-02-01

113

77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the Gulf of Mexico...Macondo well and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. The Complaint alleges...Oil Spill by the Oil Rig ``Deepwater Horizon'' in the Gulf of...

2012-02-24

114

Explosive Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explosive welding occurs when adjacent surfaces of appropriately positioned metals are properly thrust together by energy released from an explosive source. The procedure consists essentially of locating the metal members being welded between an explosive...

H. J. Addison

1964-01-01

115

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65 Transportation Other...Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers...

2009-10-01

116

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65 Transportation Other...Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers...

2010-10-01

117

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65 Transportation Other...Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers...

2013-10-01

118

Rigs-to-Reef Programs in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Louisiana and Texas Artificial Reef Programs are the largest rigs-to-reef programs in the world. The program involves donating obsolete oil and gas structures for use as artificial reefs in lieu of on-shore removal. The National Fishing Enhancement Act of 1984 established the U.S. National Artificial Reef Plan and provided guidelines for state development of artificial reef programs. In 1986,

Mark J. Kaiser; Allan G. Pulsipher

2005-01-01

119

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111 Transportation...Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers...permissible. (b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects. Springs or...

2009-10-01

120

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111 Transportation...Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers...permissible. (b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects. Springs or...

2010-10-01

121

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111 Transportation...Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers...permissible. (b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects. Springs or...

2013-10-01

122

Rigged Hilbert spaces for chaotic dynamical systems  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators of the Renyi and the baker maps. We show that the rigged Hilbert space for the Renyi maps has some of the properties of a strict inductive limit and give a detailed description of the rigged Hilbert space for the baker maps. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Suchanecki, Z. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)] [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); [Hugo Steinhaus Center and Institute of Mathematics, Wrocl/aw Technical University, ul. Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Antoniou, I. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)] [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); [Theoretische Natuurkunde Free University of Brussels; Tasaki, S. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium and] [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium and; [Institute for Fundamental Chemistry 34-4 Takano Nishihiraki-cho Kyoto 606 (Japan); Bandtlow, O.F. [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)] [International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, CP 231, Campus Plaine ULB, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB30HE (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01

123

Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

Heinlein, Fritz

1926-01-01

124

Argentina's YPF outlines plan for sale of rigs  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that state owned Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) has unveiled the schedule it plans to follow to privatize oil and gas contract drilling in Argentine. YPF proposes to exit the drilling business by selling state owned drilling rigs, drill pipe, and accessories in a series of auctions beginning next month and lasting through first quarter 1993. YPF intends to open bids Dec. 16 for a completion unit and 30 drilling rigs, several working under contract. Bids will be opened during first quarter 1993 for new and used YPF drill pipe and collars, spare equipment and accessories, and an inventory of fishing tools said to be one of the largest in South America. Winners are to be notified immediately after each auction. YPF plans to hand over by Feb. 1, 1993, the rigs sold in December. Companies buying YPF drilling assets in first quarter 1993, the rigs sold in December. Companies buying YPF drilling assets in first quarter 1993 are to assume ownership by Mar. 24, 1993.

Not Available

1992-11-16

125

Animating explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce techniques for animating explosions and their effects. The primary effect of an explosion is a disturbance that causes a shock wave to propagate through the surrounding medium. The disturbance determines the behavior of nearly all other secondary effects seen in explosion. We simulate the propagation of an explosion through the surrounding air using a computational

Gary D. Yngve; James F. O'Brien; Jessica K. Hodgins

2000-01-01

126

Explosives tester  

DOEpatents

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11

127

38th annual Reed rig census  

SciTech Connect

According to this report, sharp and encouraging movement toward a balance between rig supply and demand is becoming apparent. During the past year, contractors reported the number of rigs available for drilling in the U.S. fell by 222 (8.7%). Contractors also reported that rigs meeting the census definition of active increased by 233 (16.1%). Highlights of the 1990 census, presented by the authors, include: The available U.S. fleet now stands at 2,320 rigs, the lowest since 1976. Last year's count was 2,542. The census active count of 1,677 rigs is the highest since 1985 and up from 1,444 last year. Rig utilization increased to 72%, up from the 57% a year ago. The number of rig owners declined from 558 to 500. More than 190 companies have left the drilling business since 1987. About 6.5% of last year's fleet was cannibalized or auctioned as parts.

Fitts, R.L.; Crowhurst, M.E. (Market Research and Analysis, Reed Tool Co., Houston, TX (US))

1990-10-01

128

Gulf Oil Spill Commission Report Calls for Major Drilling Safety Reforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion and the resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico last year were “foreseeable and preventable,” according to the report of a presidentially appointed commission, issued on 11 January, that recommended significant changes in U.S. government and industry practices to avoid future oil spill disasters. Among the recommendations of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling are that Congress and the Obama administration create an independent safety agency within the Department of the Interior (DOI) to oversee all aspects of offshore drilling safety and that the oil and gas industry establish a “safety institute” to develop and enforce safety standards.

Showstack, Randy

2011-01-01

129

Testing the Generalization Efficiency of Oil Slick Classification Algorithm Using Multiple SAR Data for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

Ozkan, C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.; Kalkan, K.; Bal?k Sanl?, F.

2012-07-01

130

Explosive welding of metal plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of explosive welding of metal plates. The properties of a locally prepared mix of 77\\/23 ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) explosive and the dynamics of the plates are investigated and the results from welding tests presented. The strength of the clad plates is measured and ultrasonic inspection performed to identify and locate defects. The

S. A. A. Akbari-Mousavi; L. M. Barrett; S. T. S. Al-Hassani

2008-01-01

131

Characterization of Commercial, Composite Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The explosive performance of a number of commercial blasting agents was investigated. EOS detonation parameters for a typical dynamite, aluminized and non-aluminized blasting agents, and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) were determined. The investigation ...

M. Finger F. Helm E. Lee R. Boat H. Cheung

1976-01-01

132

Drilling rig breakout wrench system  

SciTech Connect

A breakout wrench utilized on a drilling rig to break open threaded joints of drill pipe sections in either direction is described comprising: a body member including - extension arm means which is pivotally attached to the drilling rig allowing the wrench to be swung out of its working position on the drilling rig; an inside cam surface on the body; a plurality of locking cogs positioned inside the cam surface, each cog being rotatably journaled on a shaft with a loose fit allowing the cogs limited lateral movement; extended arcuate surface means on the cam surface partially surrounding each locking cog, allowing outward lateral movement of the cogs so a drill pipe section can freely pass between the cogs, and; side plate means on the side of the body member supporting the cog shafts, the side plate means including a handle for rotation of the side plate means relative to the body causing the locking cogs to engage the extended arcuate surface of the cam surface and move inwardly into gripping engagement with the drill pipe section.

Lee, D.W.

1993-08-03

133

User's guide and history of ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) as a nuclear weapons effect simulation explosive. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The history of the development and use of ANFO as a nuclear-weapons blast, cratering, and ground-shock simulation source, is traced from 1966 to 1976 when the first full-scale target-testing operation was conducted on DICE THROW with a 600-ton ANFO charge. The results of the development tests, of DICE THROW, and of subsequent tests with ANFO through PRE-DIRECT COURSE in 1982, are given and analyzed in terms of explosive-charge performance. The results indicate that ANFO is a safe, economical, and reliable explosive source for effects simulation purposes. The details presented serve as a guide for utilization of ANFO for future similar and more-demanding simulation purposes.

Petes, J.; Miller, R.; McMullan, F.

1983-03-31

134

Modular designs highlight several new rigs  

SciTech Connect

A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

Rappold, K.

1995-12-04

135

Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The test equipment for studying the vaporization of heavy and medium oils is described as well as some of the experimental properties explored such as vaporization speed and diffusion coefficient. The experiemtal arrangement is also discussed.

Heinlein, Fritz

1926-01-01

136

RQL Integrated Module Rig Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the activities conducted under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Components (CPC) Program to evaluate the low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor capable of achieving the program goal of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOxEI) less than 5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic light condition while maintaining combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.9 percent. The chosen combustor module would then be tested in the subscale annular rig test prior to testing in the subscale core engine demonstrator, if the RQL concept were to be chosen at the Combustor Downselect.

Koopman, Frederick S.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Siskind, Kenneth S.; Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor)

2004-01-01

137

Oil Spill Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive flash model from the Living Ocean Society allows users to the explore hypothetical oil spills in the Hecate Straight off the northwest coast of Canada. The several scenarios include oil rig spills, spills from oil tankers, as well as accidents involving other vessels. Users can see how the seasonal winds and tides affect which areas are affected by a particular spill.

Society, Living O.

138

Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part IV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical treatment of the vaporization process of medium and heavy oils. The results of this investigation, which were mostly obtained from the lighter components of the heavy fuels, require a 10- or 16-fold vaporization in comparison with gasoline. We must attain a still finer degree of atomization, in order to include the heavier components.

Heinlein, Fritz

1926-01-01

139

Offshore drilling and oil recovery: keys to half a century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological and structural developments in offshore drilling and oil recovery during the past 50 yr are reviewed. The earliest steps into the open sea were pier and pile-supported rigs built off the California and Louisiana coasts in the 1920s and 1930s, respectively. Jackup rigs were designed to lift the rig above storm wave level, and currently 53% of the world's

Kastrop

1979-01-01

140

Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

Albaugh, E.K.

1985-07-01

141

Metric calibration of a stereo rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a method to determine affine and metric calibration for a stereo rig. The method does not involve the use of calibration objects or special motions, but simply a single general motion of the rig with fixed parameters (i.e. camera parameters and relative orientation of the camera pair). The novel aspects of this work are: first, relating the distinguished objects

Andrew Zisserman; Paul A Beardsley; Ian D Reid

1995-01-01

142

Antenna bias rigging for performance objective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimum bias rigging for a paraboloidal antenna can be used to minimize the expected average mean-square half-pathlength surface deviations. Statistics of deep space planetary missions are employed to develop weighting factors for antenna elevation angles during these missions. A procedure is shown to compute the optimum rigging angle from these weights.

Levy, R.

1977-01-01

143

Conquering Alaska's Arctic drilling problems. Part 3 (conclusion). Completion techniques and drilling rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved well-completion procedures, along with the development of rigs specially designed for Arctic service, have contributed substantially to the optimization of Alaska's oil and gas fields. Many of the techniques pioneered at Prudhoe Bay will prove useful in developing future Arctic discoveries.

1981-01-01

144

Conquering Alaska's Arctic drilling problems. Part 3 (conclusion). Completion techniques and drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect

Improved well-completion procedures, along with the development of rigs specially designed for Arctic service, have contributed substantially to the optimization of Alaska's oil and gas fields. Many of the techniques pioneered at Prudhoe Bay will prove useful in developing future Arctic discoveries.

Moore, S.D.

1981-07-01

145

Offshore Drilling Industry and Rig Construction Market in the Gulf of Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) are a critical element of the offshore oil and gas industry. Drilling rig markets have a large geographic expanse and are economically important with large labor impacts. The purpose of this report is to describe the...

A. G. Pulsipher B. Snyder M. J. Kaiser

2013-01-01

146

Offshore oil exploration and exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Exploration and drilling for petroleum in the North Sea is described. There are about 30 rigs drilling in the North Sea at present. Precautions, regulations and liability in such drilling are described. In the world at the end of 1978, there were about 400 rigs of various types drilling for oil offshore. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-03-01

147

Factors in Selecting and Applying Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report commercial blasting compounds are classified according to their nitroglycerin (or equivalent explosive oil) and ammonium nitrate content as dynamites, gelatins, blasting agents, military explosives, and blasting accessories. The ingredients ...

R. A. Dick

1968-01-01

148

Influence of Mississippi River induced circulation on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion caused ˜7 × 105 m3 of oil gushing from the Northern Gulf of Mexico bottom. The close proximity of the rig to the Mississippi Delta raised early questions from disaster managers about possible influence of river induced circulation on oil patch evolution. In particular, it was hypothesized that the high Mississippi River (MR) discharge in May 2010 might have helped to initially keep oil from reaching coastal marshes. We have explored this intriguing hypothesis, quantifying similar and connecting patterns in the evolution of riverine and oil covered waters. We used numerical simulations, satellite and in situ data to show the unique influence of a large river plume on a surface oil patch resulting from a deep oil release. The MR induced circulation, modified by shelf and slope flows, was found to substantially influence the near surface transport of oil. The MR plume buoyancy-driven effects on oil transport had different aspects east and west of the Mississippi Delta. Anticyclonic circulation within the upstream plume region (east of the Delta, extending over the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida shelf) created a front that restrained onshore transport. Conversely, the shoreward tendency within the downstream plume region (west of the Delta, dominated by the westward, buoyancy-driven narrow coastal current) guided oil transport along the Louisiana-Texas shelf. Periods of low discharge reduced the dominance of buoyancy-driven effects, but an interval of sustained downwelling-favorable winds, combined with river induced stratification, resulted in a strong westward current and surface oil patch extension along the Louisiana coast.

Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Androulidakis, Yannis S.

2013-08-01

149

Chemical dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico oil crisis are cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.  

PubMed

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico drew attention to the need for toxicological studies of chemical dispersants. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. Little is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527). Corexit 9500 and 9527 were both cytotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts. Corexit 9527 was less cytotoxic than 9500. S9 mediated metabolism did not alter cytotoxicity of either dispersant. Both dispersants were genotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts; S9 mediated metabolism increased Corexit 9527 genotoxicity. PMID:24813266

Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

2014-07-01

150

North Sea rigs risk more stress  

SciTech Connect

Semisubmersible accommodation rigs are more exposed to the dangers of stress and fatigue in the North Sea than rigs employed on exploration drilling. Fatigue risks, mooring stresses and wave forces were all considered. Continued analysis has lead to structural improvements and changes in design engineering. All eight accommodation rigs now operating in the North Sea have been purpose built for the job to Pacesetter or Aker H-3 design and the oldest has only been in service for five years or so. None of them has been specially designed or modified to take account of the greater stresses that will be experienced in service. (DP)

Steven, R.R.

1982-02-01

151

Department of Energy Hoisting and Rigging Manual  

SciTech Connect

The manual is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. The manual quotes verbatim or paraphrases the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was developed to emcompass, under one cover, hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations. In doing so, it eliminates the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout the DOE.

Not Available

1993-04-01

152

Cranes, hoists, and rigging. A safety training manual  

SciTech Connect

The handling equipment discussed in this manual is the type that lifts, lowers, and locates (positions) heavy material - cranes and hoists. The crane/hoist family of equipment may be as small as a single pulley/rope system handling several pounds, or as large as a marine crane system that recently (1985) hoisted a 5005-metric ton oil drilling rig from a barge and placed it on the seabed of England's North Atlantic offshore oil field. An equivalent ''pick'' would be a 6-ft-high solid pine board, 360 ft long and 160 ft wide (the dimensions of a football field). The capacity of the cranes and hoists at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNLA) fits somewhere within the first 2% of the marine pick or lift described above. SNLA has several mobile cranes and more than 500 other types of cranes and hoists located in more than 100 buildings. The Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL have safety policies and directives that require the operators of heavy equipment to be trained and authorized. The Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety Training Program, sponsored by the SNLA Safety Department, is an effort to fulfill those safety policy requirements. This manual will be used as a safety training aid and will be issued as a reference document for supervisors, operators, inspectors, and service personnel who use cranes or hoists during their regular duties.

Stinnett, L.

1986-07-01

153

An Orientation to Explosive Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

Harris, Betty W.

1987-01-01

154

Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), a unique, state-of-the-art facility for conducting combustion research, is located at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The ASCR, which was nearing completion at the close of 1995, will be capable of simulating the very high pressure and high temperature conditions that are expected to exist in future, advanced subsonic gas turbine (jet) engines. Future environmental regulations will require much cleaner burning (more environmentally friendly) aircraft engines. The ASCR is critical to the development of these cleaner engines. It will allow NASA and U.S. aircraft engine industry researchers to identify and test promising clean-burning gas turbine engine combustion concepts under the pressure and temperature conditions that are expected for those future engines. Combustion processes will be investigated for a variety of next-generation aircraft engine sizes, including engines for large, long-range aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 3000 mi) and for regional aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 400 mi). The ASCR design was conceived and initiated in 1993, and fabrication and construction of the rig, including the buildup of an advanced control room, took place throughout 1994 and 1995. In early 1996, the ASCR will be operational for obtaining research data. The ASCR is an intricate part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program, which is aimed at developing technologies critical to the next generation of gas turbine engines. This effort is in collaboration with the U.S. aircraft gas turbine engine industry. A goal of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program is to develop combustion concepts and technologies that will result in gas turbine engines that produce 50 percent less nitrous oxide (NO_x) pollutants than current engines do. This facility is unique in its capability to simulate advanced subsonic engine pressure, temperature, and air flow rate conditions. Specifically, it will provide operating temperatures up to 3000 F and pressures up to 60 atm. Under these conditions, researchers will obtain detailed combustion temperatures, pressures, and flow velocities as well as the chemical compositions of the combustion exhaust. Researchers also will be able to obtain data by using nonintrusive laser diagnostic techniques. The ASCR facility will be used to test fundamental combustion configurations (flametubes) for detailed study of combustion processes, to test sectors of gas turbine combustors to study the process in configurations more like those of aircraft engines, and in some cases to test full annular combustors.

1995-01-01

155

Frankenrigs: building character rigs from multiple sources.  

PubMed

We present a new rigging and skinning method which uses a database of partial rigs extracted from a set of source characters. Given a target mesh and a set of joint locations, our system can automatically scan through the database to find the best-fitting body parts, tailor them to match the target mesh, and transfer their skinning information onto the new character. For the cases where our automatic procedure fails, we provide an intuitive set of tools to fix the problems. When used fully automatically, the system can generate results of much higher quality than a standard smooth bind, and with some user interaction, it can create rigs approaching the quality of artist-created manual rigs in a small fraction of the time. PMID:21301025

Miller, Christian; Arikan, Okan; Fussell, Don

2011-08-01

156

Statoil develops next-generation arctic rigs  

SciTech Connect

Statoil is midway through a project which will culminate with year-round drilling in the harshest Norwegian waters. The first phase, elaborate rig winterization, is complete. It allows exploration between the 62/sup 0/ and 71/sup 0/ parallels. Planning is complete on the second phase, and implementation is underway. It will allow year-round development of the area just north of the 71/sup 0/ parallel. The final phase will require a new generation of rigs capable of drilling north of the 72/sup 0/ parallel. This article is a progress report with emphasis on the final phase-a fourth generation arctic drilling rig. This article is a follow-up of the presentation ''Rig winterization to allow year-round drilling off northern Norway'' (OGJ, Aug. 1, 1983) which gives detailed environmental discussions of Tromsoflaket.

Baller, H.; Friedberg, R.

1984-12-17

157

Explosive Entrances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive Technology, Inc. manufactured explosives first used by NASA to separate stages of the Gemini launch vehicle. When firemen need to get into a burning building or chop a hole to provide ventilation, axes can be devastatingly slow. Controlled explosives developed to separate manned upper stages of space rockets in case of mishap have been adapted to cutting emergency exits and demolishing unsafe buildings and bridges. Detonation cuts through thick steel girders or other materials more cleanly than torches or saws. This device can also cut emergency holes in airplanes and trains so surviving passengers can escape.

1976-01-01

158

Explosive Magnetohydrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies on the production of short duration pulses of electrical power by MHD principles in a radial flow channel are presented. Plasma currents in excess of 10000 amperes were measured in a radially expanding explosive driven plasma. The pla...

M. S. Jones F. H. Webb P. Webster S. Handlin R. Harrison

1965-01-01

159

Oil well fire control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for delaying the ignition of and assisting in the extinguishing of a fire around the oil pipe steam on and oil drilling rig during a blowout. It involves injecting chemicals and untreated water into the flow of hydrocarbons in the drill stem before the hydrocarbons are exposed to the ambient at the well head. The drilling rig having a stack of safety devices for horizontally closing off the well located between the well casing and the rig floor and below the mud return line element.

Poole, D.

1990-02-13

160

Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of those principal states dedicated neural network classifier were trained using the sensor data as input. As network architecture the completely connected perceptron was applied in combination with parallel learning. Automatic network growing was used to match the model complexity to the complexity of the particular classification problem and thus to prevent from over fitting. In addition forward selection method was used to identify the sensor data necessary to recognise the particular states. The approach was evaluated using real-time/real-world data and the results show that the proposed approach has the ability to classify drilling operations highly accurate. The performances of the classifiers were evaluated by cross-validation, the average correct classification rate was above 99%, for both, the training and the testing data sets.

Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

2012-04-01

161

Explosive welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The results of our research have shown that when plane charges of granular explosives are employed it is necessary to take into account the change in detonation velocity D as a function of the initial density?0 and the thickness of the charged0.The relations D=f(?0), D=f(d0) have been obtained experimentally and used to determine the impact parameters in explosive welding.2.The use

A. A. Deribas; V. M. Kudinov; F. I. Matveenkov; V. A. Simonov

1967-01-01

162

Lofting of dust by very large explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the goals of the Minor Scale test was to determine the quantity, form, and composition of dust lofted by a large detonation of a conventional high explosive at ground level. The explosive charge was 4427 tonnes of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), whose blast effect is approximately equal to that of an 8 kT nuclear device. The experimental techniques

A. S. Mason; D. L. Finnegan; R. C. Hagan; R. Jr. Raymond; G. G. Cocks; W. H. Zoller; C. L. Peach

1987-01-01

163

Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig (SHJAR), located in the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, was commissioned in 2001 to test jet noise reduction concepts at low technology readiness levels (TRL 1-3) and develop advanced measurement techniques. The first series of tests on the SHJAR were designed to prove its capabilities and establish the quality of the jet noise data produced. Towards this goal, a methodology was employed dividing all noise sources into three categories: background noise, jet noise, and rig noise. Background noise was directly measured. Jet noise and rig noise were separated by using the distance and velocity scaling properties of jet noise. Effectively, any noise source that did not follow these rules of jet noise was labeled as rig noise. This method led to the identification of a high frequency noise source related to the Reynolds number. Experiments using boundary layer treatment and hot wire probes documented this noise source and its removal, allowing clean testing of low Reynolds number jets. Other tests performed characterized the amplitude and frequency of the valve noise, confirmed the location of the acoustic far field, and documented the background noise levels under several conditions. Finally, a full set of baseline data was acquired. This paper contains the methodology and test results used to verify the quality of the SHJAR rig.

Brown, Cliff; Bridges, James

2006-01-01

164

26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...property). Thus, an oil or gas...case of onshore oil or gas development...for a drilling rig, or excavating...unit. (ii) Offshore activities. ...such as a mobile rig, drilling ship, or an offshore drilling platform...the taxpayer's oil or gas...

2013-04-01

165

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.

1996-04-09

166

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

167

Unique rig designed for northern areas  

SciTech Connect

The development of a new generation of drilling and support vessels specially designed to allow year-round drilling off the northern coast of Norway is discussed. New and better equipment is necessary so year-round operations can be done safely and without danger to the environment. To achieve that, a specially designed drilling rig, as well as support and standby vessels are being developed. A quantitative safety analysis of the rig is presently being carried out. The rig will be highly computerized. The computer software will contain programs for stability calculation, ballast recommendation, automatic trim, automatic ballast, automatic mud mix, strain/stress monitoring, dynamic stability, warehouse/maintenance and drilling data acquisition.

Not Available

1984-05-01

168

Supernova explosions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent history of theoretical investigations of the supernova mechanism is considered, giving attention also to a number of nuclear physical problems which have yet to be solved in connection with the thermonuclear detonation. A variety of different processes of nucleo-synthesis are expected to occur in association with the supernova explosions. Aspects of the chemical evolution of the galaxy are discussed including the cosmic ray production of lithium, beryllium, and boron in the interstellar medium. Various hypotheses to account for the very large amount of light that comes from a supernova explosion are also examined.

Cameron, A. G. W.

1971-01-01

169

Engineering Design Handbook. Explosives Series. Explosive Trains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook presents theoretical and practical data pertaining to explosive trains. It includes consideration of the various elements which, in considerable variation, may constitute the explosive train of an item. The main charge of an explosive item, s...

1974-01-01

170

International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development  

EIA Publications

Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

Information Center

1993-11-01

171

Protective shroud for offshore oil wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention provides means and methods for servicing offshore oil wells under routine and emergency conditions. Thus, a protective shroud surrounding the well site and provided with pumping means can be used to recover spilled oil, store oil, extinguish blowouts and fires, and protect rigs, platforms and personnel. A hollow shroud structure, preferably of circular cross section surrounding an oil

A. O. Johnson; D. Personette

1981-01-01

172

NASA GRC Cryogenic Seal Test Rig Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been about six years since any cryogenic seal tests were run at NASA GRC (Glenn Research Center). The Cryogenic Components Lab, where the cryogenic seal test rigs are located, has been shutdown due to the impending expansion of the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The current plan is to move the Cryogenic Components Lab (CCL), Cells I and 2 to NASA Plumbrook in Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this presentation is to inform the seal community of the cryogenic seal test rig capabilities available at NASA GRC for planning of future programs.

Proctor, Margaret

2001-01-01

173

Magnetic Suspension for Dynamic Spin Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Rig, located in Building 5, Test Cell CW-18, is used to test turbomachinery blades and components by rotating them in a vacuum chamber. A team from Lewis' Machine Dynamics Branch successfully integrated a magnetic bearing and control system into the Dynamic Spin Rig. The magnetic bearing worked very well both to support and shake the shaft. It was demonstrated that the magnetic bearing can transmit more vibrational energy into the shaft and excite some blade modes to larger amplitudes than the existing electromagnetic shakers can.

Johnson, Dexter

1998-01-01

174

Rig scarcity prompts innovative drilling solution  

SciTech Connect

Unable to locate a shallow-water offshore rig for its program in Indonesia, British Gas International developed an innovative pad/ballasted barge configuration to utilize a land rig, which was available. Many non-typical problems were encountered and solved to establish the drilling location 600 m (2,000 ft) from the shore in Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, eastern Indonesia. The final hybrid configuration has sparked interesting debate as to whether the operation should be designated as onshore or offshore. The paper discusses the project overview, concept development, construction, and operations.

Lattimore, G.M.; Gott, T.; Feagin, J.

1997-11-01

175

Design and development of a high-speed bearing test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a high-speed test rig, to be used for compiling an experimental data base of bearing signatures for bearings with known faults, is described. This bearing test rig can be adapted to test oil-film bearings as well as rolling element bearings. This is achieved by mounting the test bearing in one of two special test housings, either of which can be mounted onto a common test shaft which can be driven up to 30,000 rpm. The test bearing housing for rolling element bearings can accommodate proximity displacement transducers, accelerometers, thermocouples, and acoustic emission sensors. The test bearing housing for the fluid-film bearings can accommodate the same instrumentation as well as Bourdon tube-type transducers for measuring oil film pressures around the bearing circumference.

Cockburn, J. A.

1995-01-01

176

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22

177

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of experiments explore the effects of increased population growth on a population of Fast Plants. Through these inquiries, students will better understand the many substantial and pertinent issues surrounding human population explosion on Earth.These experiments can be adjusted toward middle, high school or post-secondary levels.

Program, The W.

178

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

179

Soda Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity lets participant explore chemical reactions as they create a soda explosion with lots of bubbles. The bubbles in soda are made of carbon dioxide gas. Using lifesaver mint candy, create a fun, foaming mess. Experimenting in an outside space is suggested.

Connecticut, Science C.

1999-01-01

180

Check the weather before selecting a floating rig  

SciTech Connect

When making the selection between floating vessels (drillships or semi-submersibles), the operator should consider the amount of down time that a particular rig will spend waiting on weather. This article presents a method to evaluate various rigs and determine overall rig cost based on analysis of work categories as affected by weather. The net result shows that the rig with the lowest day rate may not always be the most economical and efficient to use.

Sheffield, R.

1983-10-01

181

World's largest-capacity heli-rig debuts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the world's largest-capacity heli-rig debuts. Industry's leading manufacturer of helicopter-transportable rigs has improved on previous models by building a flyable rig with the deepest drilling capability to date. Designed for jungles and mountain tops, it stresses safety and environmental features.

Abraham, K.S.

1991-05-01

182

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Hoisting and rigging. 1926.753 Section 1926.753...Erection § 1926.753 Hoisting and rigging. (a) All the provisions of § 1926.550 apply to hoisting and rigging with the exception of §...

2010-07-01

183

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Hoisting and rigging. 1926.753 Section 1926.753...Erection § 1926.753 Hoisting and rigging. (a) All the provisions of § 1926.550 apply to hoisting and rigging with the exception of §...

2009-07-01

184

ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

Scott Reome; Dan Davies

2004-04-30

185

Simulation of explosive welding using the Williamsburg equation of state to model low detonation velocity explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosive welding is a process for producing bi-metallic plates and tubes. Whilst well established it has been essentially an empirical process. In most welding operations, low-speed explosives such as ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) mixtures, are used. Such explosives have a low velocity of detonation with an appreciable detonation zone. The usual Jones–Wilkins–Lee equation of state (EOS) is not valid.

A. A. Akbari Mousavi; S. J. Burley; S. T. S. Al-Hassani

2005-01-01

186

Dual rigs conduct guyed tower drilling  

SciTech Connect

The author describes Exxon's Platform 280-A, the only existing guyed tower. It is the first ''complaint'' tower-a unit, which unlike conventional offshore platforms, can move with the forces of wind and waves. The author also describes the advantages of operating two rigs on the same platform.

Not Available

1986-04-01

187

Detection of Bid Rigging in Procurement Auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines bidding in auctions for state highway construction contracts, in order to determine whether bid rigging occurred. Detection of collusion is possible because of limited participation in the collusive scheme. Collusion did not take the form of a bid rotation scheme. Instead, several ring members bid on most jobs. One was a serious bidder, and the other submitted

Robert H. Porter; J Douglas Zona

1993-01-01

188

NUMERICAL TEST RIG FOR TURBINE GAS METER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the determination of the performance and quality of volumetric flow meters i s being carried out using so called error curves. They are the result of experiments performed on test rigs for different design variations and operating conditions. In order to au gment this development process for flow meter to reduce costs in terms of money and time, computational

Toralf Hoch; Ernst von Lavante

189

Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) Startup Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work accomplished to date to design, procure, assemble, authorize, and startup the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the reasons for establishing this capability, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, initial success, and plans for completing the initial 1,000 hour test.

Charles Park

2011-02-01

190

Rotating head for rotary drilling rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotating head is claimed for a rotary drilling rig which is to be secured to the top of a well pipe having an inner rotating portion with an opening therethrough which permits passage of drill pipe, pipe joints, and Kelly tools; the rotating portion has an annular drive rubber formed integrally with the top portion thereof. A rotating head

1983-01-01

191

Burner Rig Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TECs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were ach...

M. A. Gedwill

1981-01-01

192

Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance

2009-01-01

193

78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2013-10-28

194

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

Hazen, T. C.

2012-12-01

195

Structural and biochemical studies of RIG-I antiviral signaling.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important pattern recognition receptor that detects viral RNA and triggers the production of type-I interferons through the downstream adaptor MAVS (also called IPS-1, CARDIF, or VISA). A series of structural studies have elaborated some of the mechanisms of dsRNA recognition and activation of RIG-I. Recent studies have proposed that K63-linked ubiquitination of, or unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin binding to RIG-I positively regulates MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling. Conversely phosphorylation of RIG-I appears to play an inhibitory role in controlling RIG-I antiviral signal transduction. Here we performed a combined structural and biochemical study to further define the regulatory features of RIG-I signaling. ATP and dsRNA binding triggered dimerization of RIG-I with conformational rearrangements of the tandem CARD domains. Full length RIG-I appeared to form a complex with dsRNA in a 2:2 molar ratio. Compared with the previously reported crystal structures of RIG-I in inactive state, our electron microscopic structure of full length RIG-I in complex with blunt-ended dsRNA, for the first time, revealed an exposed active conformation of the CARD domains. Moreover, we found that purified recombinant RIG-I proteins could bind to the CARD domain of MAVS independently of dsRNA, while S8E and T170E phosphorylation-mimicking mutants of RIG-I were defective in binding E3 ligase TRIM25, unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin, and MAVS regardless of dsRNA. These findings suggested that phosphorylation of RIG inhibited downstream signaling by impairing RIG-I binding with polyubiquitin and its interaction with MAVS. PMID:23264040

Feng, Miao; Ding, Zhanyu; Xu, Liang; Kong, Liangliang; Wang, Wenjia; Jiao, Shi; Shi, Zhubing; Greene, Mark I; Cong, Yao; Zhou, Zhaocai

2013-02-01

196

USP4 positively regulates RIG-I-mediated antiviral response through deubiquitination and stabilization of RIG-I.  

PubMed

Protein ubiquitination plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation and the antiviral immune response. However, the function of the opposite process of deubiquitination in RIG-I activation remains elusive. In this study, we have identified the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 4 (USP4) as a new regulator for RIG-I activation through deubiquitination and stabilization of RIG-I. USP4 expression was attenuated after virus-induced RIG-I activation. Overexpression of USP4 significantly enhanced RIG-I protein expression and RIG-I-triggered beta interferon (IFN-?) signaling and, at the same time, inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of USP4 expression had an opposite effect. Furthermore, USP4 was found to interact with RIG-I and remove K48-linked polyubiquitination chains from RIG-I. Therefore, we identified USP4 as a new positive regulator for RIG-I that acts through deubiquitinating K48-linked ubiquitin chains and stabilizing RIG-I. PMID:23388719

Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Kai; Zhao, Xueying; Yang, Shangru; Gao, Chengjiang

2013-04-01

197

Analysis of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of explosives is of major importance in several analytical fields:1. Forensic identification of explosives is a major problem in the criminalistic investigation of a bombing which involves connecting the type of explosive used with the suspect. The detection and identification of explosive residues in debris material constitutes a highly difficult task. The thermal instability of most explosives, along

Jehuda Yinon; John C. Hoffsommer

1977-01-01

198

Guyline anchor design keys rig stability  

SciTech Connect

Inadequate design and field installation of ground anchors at lease well sites have frequently led to the collapse of well service rigs operating in high surface wind conditions (>50 mph). Such catastrophes incur significant equipment damage and injury to operating personnel. Although collapse of a well service rig can be attributed to inadequate strength in the guyline connection to the mast or anchor or to deformed or inadequate wire rope strength in the guyline itself, most failures result from improperly placed anchors not meeting API specifications to withstand 14,000 lb of force in tension. This article defines the length, diameter, and depth necessary (based on soil conditions) for a buried guyline anchor to meet API specifications. Deficiencies in guyline connection and strength can be alleviated by following the manufacturer's guidance on size of wire rope, its inspection, and size connection criteria in mounting guyline connectors to the mast and anchor.

Murphy, R.J.; Laguros, J.G.

1983-09-01

199

Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes work performed in setting up and performing tests on a regenerator test rig. An earlier status report presented test results, together with heat transfer correlations, for four regenerator samples (two woven screen samples and two felt metal samples). Lessons learned from this testing led to improvements to the experimental setup, mainly instrumentation as well as to the test procedure. Given funding and time constraints for this project it was decided to complete as much testing as possible while the rig was set up and operational, and to forego final data reduction and analysis until later. Additional testing was performed on several of the previously tested samples as well an on five newly fabricated samples. The following report is a summary of the work performed at OU, with many of the final test results included in raw data form.

Wood, J. G.; Gedeon, D. R.

1994-01-01

200

Explosion modelling for complex geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature review suggested that the combined effects of fuel reactivity, obstacle density, ignition strength, and confinement result in flame acceleration and subsequent pressure build-up during a vapour cloud explosion (VCE). Models for the prediction of propagating flames in hazardous areas, such as coal mines, oil platforms, storage and process chemical areas etc. fall into two classes. One class involves use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This approach has been utilised by several researchers. The other approach relies upon a lumped parameter approach as developed by Baker (1983). The former approach is restricted by the appropriateness of sub-models and numerical stability requirements inherent in the computational solution. The latter approach raises significant questions regarding the validity of the simplification involved in representing the complexities of a propagating explosion. This study was conducted to investigate and improve the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code EXPLODE which has been developed by Green et al., (1993) for use on practical gas explosion hazard assessments. The code employs a numerical method for solving partial differential equations by using finite volume techniques. Verification exercises, involving comparison with analytical solutions for the classical shock-tube and with experimental (small-scale, medium and large-scale) results, demonstrate the accuracy of the code and the new combustion models but also identify differences between predictions and the experimental results. The project has resulted in a developed version of the code (EXPLODE2) with new combustion models for simulating gas explosions. Additional features of this program include the physical models necessary to simulate the combustion process using alternative combustion models, improvement to the numerical accuracy and robustness of the code, and special input for simulation of different gas explosions. The present code has the capability of predicting venting failures by different combustion models, something that was not shown clearly in the open literature by the previous numerical studies in gas explosions. The work accomplished in this research was undertaken put of the need for an objective method to predict explosion parameters for vapour cloud explosions in confined and semi-confined areas. The thesis describes basic features of a numerical explosion model that has been developed for predicting explosion pressure and flame propagation in confined and semi confined regions. The validation of the code and combustion models against analytical and several experimental data supports the code and its combustion models as a good tool for prediction of VCEs. This thesis starts with a basic description of explosion, assessment methods, theory, turbulent combustion, different combustion models and concludes with a discussion of the results and areas of uncertainty.

Nehzat, Naser

201

Oil well fire control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a system for delaying the ignition of and assisting in the extinguishing of a fire around the oil pipe steam on and oil drilling rig during a blowout. It involves injecting chemicals and untreated water into the flow of hydrocarbons in the drill stem before the hydrocarbons are exposed to the ambient at the well head. The

Poole

1990-01-01

202

Statoil develops next-generation arctic rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statoil is midway through a project which will culminate with year-round drilling in the harshest Norwegian waters. The first phase, elaborate rig winterization, is complete. It allows exploration between the 62° and 71° parallels. Planning is complete on the second phase, and implementation is underway. It will allow year-round development of the area just north of the 71° parallel. The

H. Baller; R. Friedberg

1984-01-01

203

Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

Ege, J. R.

1967-01-01

204

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

2006-10-01

205

Temperature-dependent contamination distribution between oil, paper and pressboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully enclosed oil circulation rig has been made for studying the temperature-dependent equilibrium distribution of contaminants between oil-impregnated cellulose materials and oil. This is relevant for the distribution of contaminants in the solid insulation in power transformers. Used with clean, new material the rig gave humidity equilibrium results reasonably close to results found in literature. With service-aged pressboard the

D. Linhjell; L. E. Lundgaard; C. M. Selsbak

2011-01-01

206

Passive Explosion Barrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates generally to explosion barriers for mines, or the like, and more particularly to a passive explosion barrier that is responsive to relatively low velocity, as well as intermediate and high velocity explosion generated wind, ...

Liebman Corry

1975-01-01

207

Development of a test rig for a helium twin-screw compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large helium cryogenic system is being developed for use in great science projects, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Large Helical Device (LHD), and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In this cryogenic system, a twin-screw compressor is a key component. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the compressor performance. To obtain the performance characteristics, a test rig for the compressor has been built. All the important performance parameters, including adiabatic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, oil injection characteristic, and noise characteristic can be acquired with the rig when sensors are installed in the test system. With the test performance, the helium twin-screw compressor can be evaluated. Using these results, the design of the compressor can be improved.

Wang, B. M.; Hu, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Li, Q.

2014-01-01

208

Explosive stimulation of a geothermal well: GEOFRAC  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the first known explosive stimulation successfully conducted in a geothermal well. Two tests were performed in a 2690-meter-(8826-ft.) deep Union Oil well at the Geysers field in Northern California in December 1981. The heat-resistant process, called GEOFRAC, uses a new unique, explosive HITEX 2, which is a nondetonable solid at room temperature. Upon melting at a temperature of 177[degrees]C (350[degrees]F), the HITEX 2 liquid becomes an explosive that can be safely heated to temperatures greater than 260[degrees]C (500[degrees]F). These unique properties of the explosive were exploited in the GEOFRAC process through the cooperative efforts of Physics International Company (PI), Rocket Research Company (RRC), Union oil Company (UO), and the university of California Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL).

Mumma, D.M. (Physics International Co., San Leandro, CA (United States))

1982-07-01

209

NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

2010-01-01

210

Offshore oil & gas: Deep waters dominate in 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep water exploration and field development dominate the energy market as 1997 begins. All indicators point that a turnaround in the oil and gas industry is in full swing. Strong market fundamentals are in place: the worldwide offshore mobile rig fleet is approaching full utilization of marketed rigs, which has tightened the supply\\/demand balance and boosted day rates for all

1997-01-01

211

Effect of Pressure on the Micro-explosion of Water/Oil Emulsion Droplets Over a Hot Plate. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the original suggestion and preliminary observation by Ivanov and Nefedov (1965) that water/oil emulsion droplets undergoing combustion can spontaneously explode and thereby promote almost instant gasification of the droplets, much experimental (Dry...

P. Cho C. K. Law M. Mizomoto

1991-01-01

212

Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.  

PubMed

In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24582034

Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

2014-08-01

213

Burner rig evaluation of thermal barrier coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrOâ-YâOâ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems

Gedwill

1981-01-01

214

Design considerations for offshore oil rig cathodic protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational design of cathodic protection (CP) configurations for jackets is addressed in the context of large, open, complex, multi-component structures. The approach is illustrated by an impressed current CP (ICCP) design study, employing physical scale modeling for the selection of the numbers and locations of zones, anodes, and reference electrodes for a relatively simple unpainted jacket under static conditions.

D. J. Tighe-Ford; J. N. McGrath

1993-01-01

215

75 FR 71455 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rigging...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rigging Equipment for Material Handling ACTION...collection request (ICR) titled, ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling (29 CFR...collection of information provisions of the rigging equipment for material handling...

2010-11-23

216

Optically detonated explosive device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

217

Chromospheric explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

1986-01-01

218

Supernova Explosions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are reminded that the Universe is made up of elements and that the heavier elements are created inside of a star, as they learned in the "Elements and You" activity. They are introduced to the life cycle of a star and to the way in which a star's mass affects its process of fusion and eventual death. Students discuss the physical concept of equilibrium as a balancing of forces and observe an experiment to demonstrate what happens to a soda can when the interior and exterior forces are not in equilibrium. An analogy is made between this experiment and core collapse in stars, to show the importance of maintaining equilibrium in stars. Finally, students participate in an activity which demonstrates how mass is ejected from a collapsed star in a supernova explosion, thereby dispersing heavier elements throughout the Universe. This activity is part of a series that has been designed specifically for use with Girl Scouts, but the activities can be used in other settings. Most of the materials are inexpensive or easily found. It is recommended that a leader with astronomy knowledge lead the activities, or at least be available to answer questions, whenever possible.

219

Corrosion evaluation of fuel canister crusher rigging  

SciTech Connect

A fuel canister crusher with attached rigging is located in the 105 K-East Basin discharge chute. This equipment is slated to be moved as part of seismic mitigation to prevent a major basin leak through a construction joint located in the base of the chute. This corrosion analysis assessed the load-bearing ability of the rigging, which consists of shackles and thimble-spliced wire rope. The K-East Basin demineralized water results in corrosion rates of <2 mil/year (<0.05 mm/year) for carbon, low-alloy carbon, and stainless steels. The galvanized carbon steel shackles (with low-alloy steel anchor pins) have experienced negligible corrosion and are judged to be mechanically unaffected by their water exposure. The carbon steel wire rope and stainless steel thimbles have undergone minimal corrosion. Due to the small amount of corrosion products (as seen from video inspection), the absence of wire breakage, and a Factor of Safety calculation, it is judged that the wire rope and thimbles would withstand the proposed relocation activities.

Graves, C.E.

1994-11-02

220

Ammonium nitrate explosive systems  

DOEpatents

Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

221

Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

Dan Davies

2004-10-30

222

Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig  

SciTech Connect

Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

Dan Davis

2006-09-30

223

Jack-up leveling barge for shallow water rigs  

SciTech Connect

Generally, the only alternative to a shell pad is a shallow water jack-up or a submersible rig. And in some instances, it is impractical to tow these mobile rigs to the location because of the necessary dredging. A possible solution to this problem, devised by Chain Jacks, Inc., is a jack-up leveling barge that extends its legs and pads to the bottom in waters ranging to 35 ft deep, then ballasts down to a depth of 10 ft or so below the surface. The barge-mounted rigs move over the leveling barges, ballast down and start rigging up. At this point, the leveling barge de-ballasts to minimize the load on the legs and mats. Chain Jack says the concept will enable barge mounted rigs to drill in waters ranging from 25 to 35 ft, and the cost will be considerably less than that of jack-ups or submersibles.

Not Available

1982-07-01

224

Performance calculations on the ANFO explosive RX-HD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Non-Proliferation Experiment of 1993 consisted of firing 2.85 million pounds of RX-HD explosive, made of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), of average density 1.32 g/cc. The explosive was poured into a disc-shaped cavity in tuffaceous rock; the cavity ...

P. C. Souers D. B. Larson C. M. Tarver

1995-01-01

225

Recovering Oil by Retorting a Nuclear Chimney in Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for recovering oil by retorting oil shale shattered by deep underground nuclear explosions. Because most of the oil will be obtained from chunks of oil shale with maximum dimensions exceeding 1 ft, retorting times of up to several weeks are needed for complete recovery. A study of the heat economy of the retorting process in an

D. B. LOMBARD; H. C. Carpenter

1967-01-01

226

Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

Asdonk, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.asdonk@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Motz, Inga; Werner, Nikos [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)] [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

2012-03-30

227

Bioremediation of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

1995-09-01

228

Properties and Preparation of Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Oxyliquits; Nitro compounds; Ammonium nitrate explosives; Smoking powders and powders and powdered dynamons; Nitroethers (Nitrates); Nitroglycerin explosives; Smokeless powders; Chlorate and perchlorate explosives; Cardox and hydrox cartridges; ...

N. E. Yaremenko B. Y. Svetlov

1970-01-01

229

Numerical Simulation of the RTA Combustion Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator (RTA)/Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) project is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space. NASA Glenn Research Center and GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) planned to develop a ground demonstrator engine for validation testing. The demonstrator (RTA-1) is a variable cycle, turbofan ramjet designed to transition from an augmented turbofan to a ramjet that produces the thrust required to accelerate the vehicle from Sea Level Static (SLS) to Mach 4. The RTA-1 is designed to accommodate a large variation in bypass ratios from sea level static to Mach 4 conditions. Key components of this engine are new, such as a nickel alloy fan, advanced trapped vortex combustor, a Variable Area Bypass Injector (VABI), radial flameholders, and multiple fueling zones. A means to mitigate risks to the RTA development program was the use of extensive component rig tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Buehrle, Robert; Liu, Nan-Suey; Winslow, Ralph

2005-01-01

230

Burner rig evaluation of thermal barrier coating  

SciTech Connect

Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO/sub 2/-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

Gedwill, M.A.

1981-02-01

231

Proceedings of the twenty-second annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This conference proceedings presents approximately 22 papers which have been individually indexed and abstracted. Papers deal primarily with blast pattern planning and effects, rock mechanics associated with drilling and explosive fracturing, and optimization of drilling. Papers also deal with the actual explosives, their performance, effects of fuel-oil mixtures, effects of water, and results of performance testing of various explosives.

NONE

1996-12-31

232

Method of loading blast hole with explosive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for loading an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) explosive mixture upward into a vertical blast hole is discussed. The blast hole may extend as much as 70 ft or more from the open end at the face of the rock structure into which the blast hole is drilled. In order to achieve adequate packing in the hole, the ANFO

1977-01-01

233

Variable Energy Explosive Driver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an apparatus for providing a variable explosive energy source. The apparatus has an outer annular body with a wall containing a plurality of radial explosive chambers. A rotatable circular body positioned within the annul...

G. A. Greene

1974-01-01

234

Totally confined explosive welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

Bement, L. J. (inventor)

1978-01-01

235

Understanding Vented Gas Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. T...

R. Lautkaski

1997-01-01

236

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24

237

1997 Mid-to-large directional drilling rig census  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline and Gas Journal`s 1997 census of mid-to-large horizontal directional drilling contractors demonstrates the continued growth and popularity of this technology. For the purpose of this census, the authors have used the general industry definition of a mid-sized rig--over 50,000 pounds and less than 100,000 pounds of pullback force. Large rigs are those defined as having over 100,000 pounds of pullback force. Data are presented on the company name, address, phone and FAX numbers, specifications of drilling rigs, and operational area of the company. Approximately 47 companies are listed.

NONE

1997-10-01

238

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

239

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

240

72 FR 18791 - Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...industry has changed significantly. New forms of explosives have been developed (e.g., emulsions...employed to create, handle and use explosives (e.g., new kinds of bulk delivery vehicles...transportation, handling, and use of explosives. This new requirement is intended to ensure...

2007-04-13

241

40. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF STAGE SHOWING RIGGING FOR FLYING SETS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF STAGE SHOWING RIGGING FOR FLYING SETS, LOCATION OF ORIGINAL DOORS IN PROSCENIUM WALL, AND COUNTERWEIGHTS FOR STAGE CURTAIN. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

242

14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION OF BUILDING 4. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

243

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISEDNOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISED-NOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING TO GUIDE SAILS DOWN TO BOOM AND CLUB (REQUIRES LESS CREW) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

244

19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT DETAILS - HATCH COVER REMOVED TO SHOW CENTERBOARD TRUNK - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

245

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

246

Emerging Role of Ubiquitination in Antiviral RIG-I Signaling  

PubMed Central

Summary: Detection of viruses by the innate immune system involves the action of specialized pattern recognition receptors. Intracellular RIG-I receptors sense the presence of viral nucleic acids in infected cells and trigger signaling pathways that lead to the production of proinflammatory and antiviral proteins. Over the past few years, posttranslational modification of RIG-I and downstream signaling proteins by different types of ubiquitination has been found to be a key event in the regulation of RIG-I-induced NF-?B and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation. Multiple ubiquitin ligases, deubiquitinases, and ubiquitin binding scaffold proteins contribute to both positive and negative regulation of the RIG-I-induced antiviral immune response. A better understanding of the function and activity of these proteins might eventually lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for management of viral diseases.

Maelfait, Jonathan

2012-01-01

247

Marshall Space Flight Center High Speed Turbopump Bearing Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center has a unique test rig that is used to test and develop rolling element bearings used in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. The tester is unique in that it uses liquid hydrogen as the coolant for the bearings. This test rig can simulate speeds and loads experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. With internal modifications, the tester can be used for evaluating fluid film, hydrostatic, and foil bearing designs. At the present time, the test rig is configured to run two ball bearings or a ball and roller bearing, both with a hydrostatic bearing. The rig is being used to evaluate the lifetimes of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride rolling elements and steel races.

Gibson, Howard; Moore, Chip; Thom, Robert

2000-01-01

248

Interfacial tension dynamics, interfacial mechanics, and response to rapid dilution of bulk surfactant of a model oil-water-dispersant system.  

PubMed

In the 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig explosion and subsequent oil spill, five million barrels of oil were released into the Gulf over the course of several months. Part of the resulting emergency response was the unprecedented use of nearly two million gallons of surfactant dispersant at both the sea surface and well head, giving rise to previously untested conditions of high temperature gradients, high pressures, and flow conditions. To better understand the complex interfacial transport mechanisms that this dispersant poses, we develop a model surfactant-oil-aqueous system of Tween 80 (a primary component in the Corexit dispersant used in the Gulf), squalane, and both simulated seawater as well as deionized water. We measure surfactant adsorption dynamics to the oil-aqueous interface for a range of surfactant concentrations. Using techniques developed in our laboratory, we investigate the impact of convection, step changes in bulk concentration, and interfacial mechanics. We observe dynamic interfacial behavior that is consistent with a reorganization of surfactant at the interface. We demonstrate irreversible adsorption behavior of Tween 80 near a critical interfacial tension value, as well as measure the dilatational elasticity of equilibrium and irreversibly adsorbed layers of surfactant on the oil-aqueous interface. We report high values of the surface dilatational elasticity and surface dilatational viscosity, and discuss these results in terms of their impact regarding oil spill response measures. PMID:23311916

Reichert, Matthew D; Walker, Lynn M

2013-02-12

249

Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.  

PubMed

After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

2012-01-01

250

Unique rigging key to transformer change-out  

SciTech Connect

A contractor`s rigging plan and the procedures used to replace four transformers at a nuclear power plant are briefly outlined. The work scope involved removing four 340-ton transformed, fully dressed, and replacing them in 10 days. A streamlined changeout plan coordinated the project and used a new rigging to complete the work in three days. The five stages of the work, which used specially designed telescoping beams with 160-ton jacks for lifting, are described.

Hansen, T.

1996-09-01

251

ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program initiated this quarter, provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principle activity during this first reporting period were preparing for and conducting a project kick-off meeting, working through plans for the project implementation, and beginning the conceptual design of the test section.

Scott Reome; Dan Davies

2004-01-01

252

The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

Nordyke, M.D.

2000-07-26

253

Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner  

SciTech Connect

Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

1995-07-01

254

RIG-I activation inhibits HIV replication in macrophages.  

PubMed

The RIG-I signaling pathway is critical in the activation of the type I IFN-dependent antiviral innate-immune response. We thus examined whether RIG-I activation can inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. We showed that the stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages with 5'ppp-dsRNA, a synthetic ligand for RIG-I, induced the expression of RIG-I, IFN-?/?, and several IRFs, key regulators of the IFN signaling pathway. In addition, RIG-I activation induced the expression of multiple intracellular HIV-restriction factors, including ISGs, several members of the APOBEC3 family, tetherin and CC chemokines, the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor (CCR5). The inductions of these factors were associated with the inhibition of HIV replication in macrophages stimulated by 5'ppp-dsRNA. These observations highlight the importance of RIG-I signaling in macrophage innate immunity against HIV, which can be beneficial for the treatment of HIV disease, where intracellular immune defense is compromised by the virus. PMID:23744645

Wang, Yizhong; Wang, Xu; Li, Jieliang; Zhou, Yu; Ho, Wenzhe

2013-08-01

255

Conventional Protein Kinase C-? (PKC-?) and PKC-? Negatively Regulate RIG-I Antiviral Signal Transduction  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a key sensor for viral RNA in the cytosol, and it initiates a signaling cascade that leads to the establishment of an interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral state. Because of its integral role in immune signaling, RIG-I activity must be precisely controlled. Recent studies have shown that RIG-I CARD-dependent signaling function is regulated by the dynamic balance between phosphorylation and TRIM25-induced K63-linked ubiquitination. While ubiquitination of RIG-I is critical for RIG-I's ability to induce an antiviral IFN response, phosphorylation of RIG-I at S8 or T170 suppresses RIG-I signal-transducing activity under normal conditions. Here, we not only further define the roles of S8 and T170 phosphorylation for controlling RIG-I activity but also identify conventional protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) and PKC-? as important negative regulators of the RIG-I signaling pathway. Mutational analysis indicated that while the phosphorylation of S8 or T170 potently inhibits RIG-I downstream signaling, the dephosphorylation of RIG-I at both residues is necessary for optimal TRIM25 binding and ubiquitination-mediated RIG-I activation. Furthermore, exogenous expression, gene silencing, and specific inhibitor treatment demonstrated that PKC-?/? are the primary kinases responsible for RIG-I S8 and T170 phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that PKC-?/? interact with RIG-I under normal conditions, leading to its phosphorylation, which suppresses TRIM25 binding, RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, and thereby RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. PKC-?/? double-knockdown cells exhibited markedly decreased S8/T170 phosphorylation levels of RIG-I and resistance to infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. Thus, these findings demonstrate that PKC-?/?-induced RIG-I phosphorylation is a critical regulatory mechanism for controlling RIG-I antiviral signal transduction under normal conditions.

Maharaj, Natalya P.; Wies, Effi; Stoll, Andrej

2012-01-01

256

Explosives detection: potential problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most explosive detection technologies have been focused on nitro-based military explosives becuase they have figured in international terrorist incidents. Not only are they readily available through purchase or theft or from sponsoring states, but methods for home synthesis are widely available. Many of explosive detection technolgies now under development target a specific characteristic of military or commercial explosives (e.g. mass density, nitrogen density). However, as counterterrorist measures make traditional explosives more difficult to obtain or more risky to use, we should anticipate terrorists may turn to nontraditional explosives. There are hundreds of energetic compounds and many common explosives which, while they do not meet exacting military demands, might be effective terrorist tools. Although explosive handbooks list hundreds of explosives, this talk focuses on only a handful. These have been chosen because they do not follow the classic patterns of military explosives or because they are easily obtainable. This paper will also point out energetic systems that can produce violently exothermic reactions without the aid of traditional initiating systems, such as batteries or detonators.

Oxley, Jimmie C.

1995-09-01

257

New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suggested and tested were some mix explosives---powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)---for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30--70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

Andreevskikh, Leonid

2011-06-01

258

Modeling of buried explosions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

1987-01-01

259

In situ recovery of shale oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean oil shale deposit by excavating a columnar void having a vertically extending free face, drilling blasting holes adjacent to the columnar void and parallel to the free face, loading the blasting holes with explosive, and detonating the explosive in a single round to expand the shale adjacent to the

1977-01-01

260

High-Explosive Field Tests, Explosion Phenomena and Environmental Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methodologies are formulated to predict to magnitudes of high-explosive explosions phenomena for various high-explosive charge sizes and configurations and to relate these magnitudes to impacts on the natural physical and biological environment and on hum...

K. E. Gould

1981-01-01

261

Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought  

SciTech Connect

A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

Kelly, P. [Rowan Companies Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-10

262

Structural insights into RNA recognition by RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including RIG-I, MDA-5, and LGP-2) recognize viral RNAs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an antiviral immune response. To understand the molecular basis of this process, we determined the crystal structure of RIG-I in complex with double-stranded RNA. The dsRNA is sheathed within a network of protein domains that include a conserved “helicase” domain (regions HEL1 and HEL2), a specialized insertion domain (HEL2i), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD). A V-shaped pincer connects HEL2 and the CTD by gripping an ?-helical shaft that extends from HEL1. In this way, the pincer coordinates functions of all the domains and couples RNA binding with ATP hydrolysis. RIG-I falls within the Dicer-RIG-I clade of super family 2 of helicases and this structure reveals complex interplay between motor domains, accessory mechanical domains and RNA that has implications for understanding the nanomechanical function this protein family and other ATPases more broadly.

Luo, Dahai; Ding, Steve C.; Vela, Adriana; Kohlway, Andrew; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Pyle, Anna Marie

2011-01-01

263

Passive Explosion Barrier for Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A passive explosion barrier is provided for use in mining operations in suppressing mine explosions. The barrier basically comprises a receptacle or tub which contains an explosion suppressing substance, such as water, and is mounted on a frame adjacent t...

I. Liebman R. Pro J. Corry

1979-01-01

264

33 CFR 155.400 - Platform machinery space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other platforms...space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other platforms...person may operate an oceangoing fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform unless...

2013-07-01

265

New hydraulic lift rig for drilling and workover  

SciTech Connect

Maritime Hydraulics of Kristiansand, Norway, has developed a new concept for a drilling rig that utilizes long hydraulic rams for the basic lifting mechanism. By eliminating the conventional drawworks, traveling block and derrick, the new configuration offers distinct weight, safety and operational advantages for offshore applications. The new concept, called RamRig, was conceived in 1987 and was the subject of a two-year joint engineering study with BP Development Norway Ltd. In 1994, a Saga Petroleum initiative revitalized the concept, and a complete design for a deepwater exploration operation was completed in mid-1995. In August 1995, third-party verification was supplied by Sintef. An order was recently placed by Reading and Bates for a RamRig type system to be used on the company`s new deepwater work vessel Iolair. This paper briefly reviews the design and operation of this equipment.

NONE

1996-07-01

266

Modern Diesel-Electric Drilling Rig Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern Diesel-electric powered drilling equipment for drilling oil wells consists of several internal combustion engines driving d-c generators, which supply adjustable voltage power to the several d-c motors driving the various motions. This paper gives a description of the functions performed by the draw works, mud pumps, rotary table, and coring reel, and a typical arrangement of apparatus or

T. R. Rhea

1946-01-01

267

Compact explosion diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system to automatically generate compact explosion diagrams. Inspired by handmade illustrations, our approach reduces the complexity of an explosion diagram by rendering an exploded view only for a subset of the assemblies of an object. However, the exploded views are chosen so that they allow inference of the remaining unexploded assemblies of the entire 3D model.

Markus Tatzgern; Denis Kalkofen; Dieter Schmalstieg

2010-01-01

268

Performance of Emulsion Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some performance of a number of emulsion explosives containing glass micro-baloons were studied experimentally and theoretically. For each of the explosives, detonation velocity was measured and calculated and ballistic mortar tests and cylinder expansion tests were carried out. The results obtained enables a comparison of the usefulness of both testing methods. The influence of some metal nitrates contained in the

S. Cudzilo; P. Kohlicek; V. A. Trzcinski; S. Zeman

2002-01-01

269

Estimates of explosive yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive yield as a function of propellant type and accident conditions was discussed along with the characteristics of propellant explosions. Three types of fuel-hypergolic, liquid oxygen-hydrocarbon, and liquid oxygen-liquid-hydrogen were considered. Data are also given on three modes (failure modes) of mixing: confinement by missile, confinement by ground surface, and high velocity impact.

1977-01-01

270

The Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Bristol page discusses in detail the Cambrian Explosion event that occurred about 545 million years ago. This site covers what the 'explosion' was and when it happened, the Cambrian environment, what caused this event to occur, fossil groups and their significance, and controversies surrounding this theory as well as recent discoveries.

271

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and

Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

2005-01-01

272

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the War a general investigation was commenced at the Road Research Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives-the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by adjusting the constitution-and their relation to primers of different

D. Croney

1948-01-01

273

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

274

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

275

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry

Stauffer

1981-01-01

276

Binder study for HMX/TATB explosives  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons were made on Estane, Kraton G, and Kraton G with HyVac Oil for sensitivity and performance in plastic-bonded HMX/TATB formulations. Data obtained on sensitivity, performance, and processability suggest that Estane is superior, so it will be used in further studies. The goal of this study is to develop a relatively insensitive high explosive with a sensitivity between that of RX-26-AF and of PBX 9502.

Sanchez, J.A.

1985-09-01

277

Binder study for HMX\\/TATB explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made on Estane, Kraton G, and Kraton G with HyVac Oil for sensitivity and performance in plastic-bonded HMX\\/TATB formulations. Data obtained on sensitivity, performance, and processability suggest that Estane is superior, so it will be used in further studies. The goal of this study is to develop a relatively insensitive high explosive with a sensitivity between that of

1985-01-01

278

Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

Maienschein, J. L.

2014-05-01

279

Skid-off rig speeds up platform work  

SciTech Connect

The author describes a new class of cantilever jackup built by Chiles Offshore. The jackup helps solve the problem and expense of drilling additional wells or working over wells that are out of the 35-45 foot reach of standard cantilever jackup rigs. The unit is unique because the entire drilling floor and the substructure can be skidded off from the platform in 24 to 36 hours. This compares with the 480 hours (20 days) required to install a self-contained platform rig.

Cochram, T.J.

1986-04-01

280

Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional drilling. It has the advantage that the drill string stays in the drilled hole during the entire drilling process and prevents the drilled hole from collapsing while the inner core barrels comprising the drilled core sections are hooked up inside the drill string using a wire.

Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

2009-04-01

281

Fuel-Slosh Test Rigs for Geos and Meteosat. Design Study, Manufacture and Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of two test rigs intended to enable the effects of fuel sloshing on spacecraft nutation damping to be investigated is described. The problems encountered with material acquisition and with design, manufacture, and testing of rigs are enume...

J. W. Rowley

1975-01-01

282

GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

2013-12-01

283

Gunshot and Explosion Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7.8% in the GSW group compared with 5.3% in the explosion group. A larger proportion of gunshot victims died during the first day (97% versus 58%). Conclusions: GSW and injuries from explosions differ in the body region of injury, distribution of severity, LOS, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and time of inpatient death. These findings have implications for treatment and for preparedness of hospital resources to treat patients after a terrorist attack in any region of the world. Tailored protocol for patient evaluation and initial treatment should differ between GSW and explosion victims. Hospital organization toward treating and admitting these patients should take into account the different arrival and injury patterns.

Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

2004-01-01

284

Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole  

DOEpatents

There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01

285

Effect of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifiers on engine fuel economy and gear oil efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A selection of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifier additives was tested comparatively in engine dynamometer tests on gasoline and diesel engines; the tests measured variations in brake specific fuel consumption with speed. A similar selection of molybdenum-containing additives was evaluated in terms of transmission efficiency in a hypoid-gear, rear-axle test rig; the baseline oil was a formulated SAE-75W gear oil. Bench-scale friction tests utilizing the Press-Fit, Timken and Four-Ball test devices were employed to establish a correlation between small-scale rigs and full-scale engine tests. 13 refs.

Greene, A.B.; Risdon, T.J.

1981-01-01

286

DOE explosives safety manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires that all activities be conducted in a manner that protects the safety of the public and provides a safe and healthful workplace for employees. DOE has also prescribed that all personnel be protected in any explosives operation undertaken. The level of safety provided shall be at least equivalent to that of the best industrial practice. The risk of death or serious injury shall be limited to the lowest practicable minimum. DOE and contractors shall continually review their explosives operations with the aim of achieving further refinements and improvements in safety practices and protective features. This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in explosives safety. In addition, it is essential that applicable criteria and requirements for implementing this policy be readily available and known to those responsible for conducting DOE programs. This document shall be periodically reviewed and updated to establish new requirements as appropriate. Users are requested to submit suggestions for improving the DOE Explosives Safety Manual through their appropriate Operations Office to the Office of Quality Programs.

1990-05-01

287

DOE explosives safety manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation (on site), processing, or testing of explosives, or assemblies containing explosives. It contains guidelines and standards for these operations in order to safeguard personnel and to prevent property damage. Criteria established by this manual are specific to high explosives but also apply to propellants and pyrotechnics when these materials can undergo explosive reactions. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives and the safe management of such operations. Design criteria for facilities used in conjunction with explosives operations are addressed only indirectly. Design criteria for explosives facilities are contained in DOE 6430.1, ''General Design Criteria Manual.'' It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with this manual's provisions, except as required by law. Facility conditions determined to be noncompliant shall be resolved among the DOE Field Operations Office (FOO), Program Office, and the Office of Operational Safety (OOS). The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ''shall,'' ''must,'' or ''will,'' are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ''should'' are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management. 2 refs.

Not Available

1987-08-01

288

Optically measured explosive impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

2014-06-01

289

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes “re-freezing” the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge

M. N. Makhov

2004-01-01

290

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes ``re-freezing'' the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge

M. N. Makhov

2004-01-01

291

Improved Coward explosive triangle for determining explosibility of mixture gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very important to determine the explosibility of the mixture gas in the coal mine sealed area after a gas explosion occurred. If the combustible mixture gas has high explosive tendency, the potential re-occurring explosion would cause rescue workers’ death when they proceed with their rescue operations in the accident mine. Therefore, no one is allowed to go down

Jian-wei Cheng; Sheng-qiang Yang

2011-01-01

292

A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department

Bart Patton

2007-01-01

293

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

294

Simplified representation of rigging efficiency in brake force calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for predicting brake shoe force of a rail vehicle as a linear function of effective brake cylinder pressure. Historically, the braking force has been calculated as the product of cylinder pressure, cylinder area, rigging leverage ratio, and an overall system efficiency factor. The efficiency factor, which takes into account frictional forces and other losses, is a

Graydon Booth; A. Prabhakaran; S. K. Punwani; M. Stewart

2006-01-01

295

Hoisting and rigging of critical components and related equipment. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This standard covers hoisting and rigging of critical items (3.2) and of materials, components, or supplies handled over, in, or around spaces in which critical items are located. The purpose of this standard is to provide requirements and rules that will minimize the likelihood of physical damage to critical items due to dropping, upset, impact, or other handling accident.

Not Available

1985-12-13

296

Bid Rigging and the Threat of Government Prosecution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I develop a simple bidding model in which collusion is endogenous. Buyers at a first-price sealed-bid auction decide whether to rig their bids given that they face the threat of government prosecution. A legal authority chooses whether to investigate the buyers on the basis of the bids tendered. In the unique sequential equilibrium of the game, buyers

Chantale LaCasse

1995-01-01

297

Hoisting, rigging, and transporting of items for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This standard provides requirements and guidelines for the design, manufacture, acceptance, testing, and use of hoisting, rigging, and transporting equipment to maintain the quality of safety-related nuclear power plant items which require special handling from the time these safety-related items are delivered to the point of receipt for the plant until the operating phase of the plant.

Not Available

1981-01-01

298

Automatic rigging and animation of 3D characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animating an articulated 3D character currently requires manual rigging to specify its internal skeletal structure and to define how the input motion deforms its surface. We present a method for ani- mating characters automatically. Given a static character mesh and a generic skeleton, our method adapts the skeleton to the character and attaches it to the surface, allowing skeletal motion

Ilya Baran; Jovan Popovic

2007-01-01

299

A Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Test Rig with Dynamic Measurement Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bearing lest rig was developed to characterize the static and dynamic properties of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Static measurement capabilities include operating eccentricity, pressure and thermal boundary conditions, and continuous circumferential pressure and film thickness profiles at multiple axial planes. Dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient measurements are achieved using steady state harmonic excitations generated by a two-axis shaker system. All

Ronald D. Flack; Gregory J. Kostrzewsky; David V. Taylor

1993-01-01

300

Geothermal Space Heating of a Geothermal Drilling Rig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A geothermal space heating demonstration unit to establish the viability of geothermal water is described in this report. Heating of a drilling rig by geothermal hot water from a nearby artesian well has greatly reduced heating costs. The results of this ...

J. G. Keller L. G. Miller G. L. Mines A. S. Richardson

1975-01-01

301

Disc brake squeal characterization through simplified test rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of recent investigations on brake squeal noise carried out on simplified experimental rigs. The common theme of these works is that of approaching the study of squeal noise on experimental set-ups that are much simpler than commercial disc brakes, providing the possibility of repeatable measurements of squeal occurrence. As a consequence, it is possible to

A. Akay; O. Giannini; F. Massi; A. Sestieri

2009-01-01

302

29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...who is also a qualified person) shall inspect the rigging prior to each shift in accordance with § 1926.251. (3) The headache ball, hook or load shall not be used to transport personnel except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this...

2013-07-01

303

Thermal Barrier Coatings: Burner Rig Hot Corrosion Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6...

P. E. Hodge S. Stecura M. A. Gedwill I. Zaplatynsky S. R. Levine

1978-01-01

304

Thermal Barrier Coatings: Burner Rig Hot Corrosion Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings to the combustion products of Na- and V-contaminated fuels and to identify alternate coatings with improved resistance to potential utility ...

P. E. Hodge S. Stecura M. A. Gedwill I. Zaplatynsky S. R. Levine

1978-01-01

305

Rig Evaluation of the On-Line Ferrograph.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An on-line ferrograph has been rig evaluated using the dynamic foam apparatus. The on-line ferrograph appears to be operational based upon determination of the effect of operational temperature and pressures. The unit has the required sensitivity as indic...

P. W. Centers

1980-01-01

306

Mixed Stream Test Rig Winter FY-2011 Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the data and analysis of the initial testing campaign of the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the test specimen selection, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, and data and analysis of specimens exposed in two environments designed to represent those expected for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE).

Chalres Park; Tedd Lister; Kevin DeWall

2011-04-01

307

75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2010-11-17

308

76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2011-10-19

309

77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2012-09-20

310

An “Olympic” framework for a green decommissioning of an offshore oil platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas offshore platform and installations have a limited life of operations. When oil runs out, many terms are used to describe the situation: abandonment, removal, disposal, decommissioning, etc. Even the issue of decommissioning is now at the forefront of deep water oil drilling for many reason (the enormous costs required for disposal, the increasing number of rigs which

Salem Y. Lakhal; M. I. Khan; M. Rafiqul Islam

2009-01-01

311

Offshore oil service contracts new incentive schemes to promote drilling efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged creativity in designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. In particular for oil service contracts, since those companies have the most direct control of drilling efficiency. A large variety of contract types are in use, including within the individual oil company. This article describes and analyses the compensation formats utilised in offshore oil

Petter Osmundsen; Terje Sørenes; Anders Toft

2010-01-01

312

Explosive nucleosynthesis: prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions - the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high-intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of supernovae 1987A and 1998bw (GRB980425?), and /? Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

Arnett, D.

2000-08-01

313

Explosives Vapor Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vaporous emissions from seventeen explosives were investigated by gas chromatographic and combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques using a novel collection device. The vapor emission rates were followed as a function of time untile t...

F. H. Jarke S. M. Gordon

1982-01-01

314

Molecular Models for Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of fo...

J. P. Ritchie S. M. Bachrach

1987-01-01

315

Explosives Detecting Immunosensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To meet environmental remediation goals, there is a need for rapid, quantitative detection of hazardous pollutants such as explosives. Biosensors provide a rapid, specific, sensitive, portable, and inexpensive means to fulfill those needs. The Naval Resea...

A. Kusterbeck L. Shriver-Lake

2000-01-01

316

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

317

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

318

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

SciTech Connect

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2011-01-01

319

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Reber, Edward L.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Jewell, J. Keith; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Klinger, Jeffery B.

2005-12-01

320

Countering Improvised Explosive Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have no greater responsibility than providing for the safety and security for our citizens, allies, and partners, while providing an economic environment that promotes opportunity and prosperity. The use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) threatens...

B. Obama

2013-01-01

321

Explosively Separable Casing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding gr...

A. K. Jacobson R. E. Rychnovsky C. N. Visbeck

1983-01-01

322

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

ScienceCinema

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2013-05-28

323

Nuclear explosive safety study process  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

NONE

1997-01-01

324

Offshore oil and gas technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years offshore drilling and production technology has evolved in response to the challenges of deep waters and Arctic conditions. In this paper we discuss the development of offshore drilling rigs, platforms, subsea completion systems, pipelines, and tanker loading facilities. We conclude that current technologies modified to meet site-specific requirements are capable of drilling and producing oil and gas

L. Otteman; R. Crooke; R. Shoemaker

1985-01-01

325

Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Hypernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the characteristics of nucleosynthesis in ``hypernovae,'' i.e., supernovae with very large explosion energies (>~1052 ergs). We carry out detailed nucleosynthesis calculations for these energetic explosions and compare the yields with those of ordinary core-collapse supernovae. We find that both complete and incomplete Si-burning takes place over more extended, lower density regions, so that the alpha-rich freezeout is enhanced

Takayoshi Nakamura; Hideyuki Umeda; Koichi Iwamoto; Ken'ichi Nomoto; Masa-aki Hashimoto; W. Raphael Hix; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

2001-01-01

326

Explosive Welding and Cladding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive welding or cladding is usually performed on relative thick plates by means of a large scale parallel plate set-up. At TNO-PML several of the explosive welding configurations that were developed mainly in the nineteen sixties and seventies are being investigated for their potential use in modern industrial applications. Configurations for explosive cladding of curved surfaces such as tubes and rods are also being examined. This can be used to make special bimetallic heat exchanger tubes, or for the protection of electrodes that are used in electrolysis. Explosive line and seam welding are important bonding techniques that allow the welding of both similar and dissimilar metal plates and sheets. Here, bonding occurs over a small overlapping fraction of the two surfaces. This requires only a small amount of explosive (e.g. 5 g/m for line welds in thin ductile sheets). Explosive foil cladding can be used as an alternative coating technique. Plates that are clad with a foil on one or both sides were fabricated in one process step. They can be further machined or deformed using conventional techniques, due to the ductility of the bond and clad material.

Meuken, D.; Carton, E. P.

2004-07-01

327

Volcanic explosion on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VOLCANIC EXPLOSION ON IO: Voyager 1 acquired this image of Io on March 4 at 5:30 p.m. (PST) about 11 hours before closest approach to the Jupiter moon. The distance to Io was about 490,000 kilometers (304,000 miles). An enormous volcanic explosion can be seen silhouetted against dark space over Io's bright limb. The brightness of the plume has been increased by the computer as it is normally extremely faint, whereas the relative color of the plume (greenish white) has been preserved. At this time solid material had been thrown up to an altitude of about 100 miles. This requires an ejection velocity from the volcanic vent of about 1200 miles per hour, material reaching the crest of the fountain in several minutes. The vent area is a complex circular structure consisting of a bright ring about 300 kilometers in diameter and a central region of irregular dark and light patterns. Volcanic explosions similar to this occur on the Earth when magmatic gases expand explosively as material is vented. On Earth water is the major gas driving the explosion. Because Io is thought to be extremely dry, scientists are searching for other gases to explain the explosion. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1979-01-01

328

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

329

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

330

RIG-I Detects mRNA of Intracellular Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium during Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The cytoplasmic helicase RIG-I is an established sensor for viral 5?-triphosphorylated RNA species. Recently, RIG-I was also implicated in the detection of intracellular bacteria. However, little is known about the host cell specificity of this process and the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates RIG-I. Here we show that RNA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium activates production of beta interferon in a RIG-I-dependent fashion only in nonphagocytic cells. In phagocytic cells, RIG-I is obsolete for detection of Salmonella infection. We further demonstrate that Salmonella mRNA reaches the cytoplasm during infection and is thus accessible for RIG-I. The results from next-generation sequencing analysis of RIG-I-associated RNA suggest that coding bacterial mRNAs represent the activating PAMP.

Schmolke, Mirco; Patel, Jenish R.; de Castro, Elisa; Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria T.; Uccellini, Melissa B.; Miller, Jennifer C.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Satoh, Takashi; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo; Merad, Miriam; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo

2014-01-01

331

Stress wave propagationin the site 12 hydraulic\\/explosive fracturing experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site 12 experiment was a heavily instrumented field event performed to examine the hydraulic\\/explosive fracturing concept for preparing an underground oil shale bed for true in situ processing. One of the key phases of this fracturing concept is the blasting operation which involves the insertion and detonation of slurry explosive in a pre-formed system of hydrofractures. To obtain a

R. R. Boade; R. P. Reed

1980-01-01

332

Explosion of Comet Holmes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on observations and theoretical interpretation of the explosion on comet 17P/Holmes 2007 Oct 23. Observed used the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrograph (5-40 microns), the Spitzer imaging photometer (24 and 70 microns), the Palomar Observatory 60-inch telescope, and frequent optical images from the Holloway comet observatory. The 2007 Nov 10 infrared spectral mapping revealed spatially diffuse emission with detailed mineralogical features, including those of small crystalline olivine grains. The 2008 Feb 27 spectra, and the central core of the 2007 Nov 10 spectral map, are nearly featureless, due to prevalence much larger grains that were ejected from the nucleus more slowly. The images and spectra in 2008 Mar can be segmented into three components: (1) a hemispherical shell due to the fastest (262 m/s), smallest (2 micron) debris; (2) a `blob' or `pseudonucleus' offset from the true nucleus, due to intermediate speed (93 m/s) and size (8 micron) particles; and (3) a `core' centered on the nucleus due to slower (9 m/s), larger (200 micron) ejecta. This decomposition of the mid-infrared observations also explains the temporal evolution of the mm-wave flux. The orientation of the leading edge of the ejecta shell and the ejecta `blob,' relative to the nucleus, do not change as the orientation of the Sun changes; instead, the configuration is imprinted by the orientation of the initial explosion. Using digitized versions of E. E. Barnard's images of the 1892 explosion of comet Holmes, we find remarkably similar properties of the explosion, including the direction of the ejecta remaining constant (rather than moving with the Sun). The earlier explosion was less energetic by a factor of about 20, meaning that the first and second most energetic cometary explosions witnessed by man are the 2007 and 1892 explosions of comet Holmes, in that order.

Reach, William T.; Vaubaillon, J.; Lisse, C. M.; Holloway, M.; Rho, J.

2009-09-01

333

Potentially explosive colonic concentrations of hydrogen after bowel preparation with mannitol.  

PubMed

Hydrogen (H2) concentrations were measured in undiluted samples of intracolonic gas and in expired air in twenty patients undergoing colonoscopy after preparation with either mannitol or castor oil. Potentially explosive intracolonic H2 concentrations were present in six out of ten patients given mannitol, but in none given castor oil. This has important implications for colonoscopic, as well as for surgical, electrosurgery. H2 concentrations in expired air sampled preoperatively did not identify patients with potentially explosive intracolonic hydrogen levels. PMID:6110863

La Brooy, S J; Avgerinos, A; Fendick, C L; Williams, C B; Misiewicz, J J

1981-03-21

334

Explosively separable casing  

DOEpatents

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

335

Drive Rig Mufflers for Model Scale Engine Acoustic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of air breathing propulsion systems in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center depends on compressed air turbines for power. The drive rig turbines exhaust directly to the wind tunnel test section, and have been found to produce significant unwanted noise that reduces the quality of the acoustic measurements of the model being tested. In order to mitigate this acoustic contamination, a muffler can be attached downstream of the drive rig turbine. The modern engine designs currently being tested produce much less noise than traditional engines, and consequently a lower noise floor is required of the facility. An acoustic test of a muffler designed to mitigate this extraneous noise is presented, and a noise reduction of 8 dB between 700 Hz and 20 kHz was documented, significantly improving the quality of acoustic measurements in the facility.

Stephens, David

2010-01-01

336

Energy efficient engine sector combustor rig test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft has successfully completed a comprehensive combustor rig test using a 90-degree sector of an advanced two-stage combustor with a segmented liner. Initial testing utilized a combustor with a conventional louvered liner and demonstrated that the Energy Efficient Engine two-stage combustor configuration is a viable system for controlling exhaust emissions, with the capability to meet all aerothermal performance goals. Goals for both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were surpassed and the goal for oxides of nitrogen was closely approached. In another series of tests, an advanced segmented liner configuration with a unique counter-parallel FINWALL cooling system was evaluated at engine sea level takeoff pressure and temperature levels. These tests verified the structural integrity of this liner design. Overall, the results from the program have provided a high level of confidence to proceed with the scheduled Combustor Component Rig Test Program.

Dubiel, D. J.; Greene, W.; Sundt, C. V.; Tanrikut, S.; Zeisser, M. H.

1981-01-01

337

A rig for acquisition of standardized trabecular bone radiographs.  

PubMed

To assess osteoarthritic changes in knee joints a radiography rig for acquisition of standardized radiographs of trabecular bone has been developed. The rig contains a steel frame on castors, a turntable, a cassette holder frame, calibration Plexiglas sheets, body supports and points. It is used to lock the patient in a standardized position. A film cassette holder frame was also developed to reduce scattering of X-rays, and consequently the amount of noise in the radiographs. Calibration Plexiglas sheets were mounted on ball bearing slides to obtain radiographs without a calibration pattern (suitable for the analysis of trabecular bone texture) and radiographs containing a calibration pattern (suitable for the measurement of leg alignment). PMID:11972471

Podsiadlo, P; Stachowiak, G W

2002-01-01

338

Immune signaling by RIG-I-like receptors  

PubMed Central

The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 play a major role in pathogen sensing of RNA virus infection to initiate and modulate antiviral immunity. The RLRs detect viral RNA ligands or processed self RNA in the cytoplasm to triggers innate immunity and inflammation and to impart gene expression that serves to control infection. Importantly, RLRs cooperate in signaling crosstalk networks with Toll-like receptors and other factors to impart innate immunity and to modulate the adaptive immune response. RLR regulation occurs at a variety of levels ranging from autoregulation to ligand and co-factor interactions and post-translational modifications. Abberant RLR signaling or dysregulation of RLR expression is now implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases. Understanding the processes of RLR signaling and response will provide insights to guide RLR-targeted therapeutics for antiviral and immune modifying applications.

Loo, Yueh-Ming; Gale, Michael

2011-01-01

339

Electromagnetic Field Effects in Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H.; Lee, R. J.

2009-12-01

340

New High-Temperature Turbine Seal Rig Fabricated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current NASA program goals for aircraft engines and vehicle performance include reducing direct operating costs for commercial aircraft by 3 percent in large engines and 5 percent in regional engines, reducing engine fuel burn up to 10 percent, and reducing engine oxides of nitrogen emissions by more than 50 percent. Significant advancements in current gas turbine engines and engine components, such as seals, are required to meet these goals. Specifically, advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight ratio, emissions, durability, and operating costs. In a direct effort to address and make progress toward these goals, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field have developed a unique high-temperature, high-speed engine seal test rig to evaluate seals under the temperature, speed, and pressure conditions anticipated for next generation turbine engines. This new seal test rig has capabilities beyond those of any existing seal rigs. It can test air seals (i.e., labyrinth, brush, and new seal concepts) at temperatures of up to 1500 F and pressures up to 100 psid (even higher pressures are possible at lower temperatures), and at all surface speeds anticipated in future NASA (Ultra Efficient Engine Technology, UEET, and Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology, IHPTET) engine programs. In addition, seals can be tested offset from the rotor centerline, in the rotor runout condition, and with simulated mission profiles. Support for this new rig was provided by NASA Glenn, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Army.

Delgado, Irebert R.

2000-01-01

341

Fabrication and characterization of a micro turbine\\/bearing rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a process to build, package, and instrument a 5-level wafer-bonded micromachined turbine\\/bearing rig. The process flow involves the use of 5 wafers, 16 masks, and 9 deep silicon etching steps, as well as utilizing aligned wafer bonding, double-sided deep reactive ion etching and laser-assisted-etching. This paper also shows experimental results on flow characteristics of the hydrostatic

Chuang-Chia Lin; Reza Ghodssi; Arturo A. Ayon; Dye-Zone Chen; Stuart Jacobson; Kenneth Breuer; Alan H. Epstein; Martin A. Schmidt

1999-01-01

342

Thermal barrier coatings: burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings to the combustion products of Na- and V-contaminated fuels and to identify alternate coatings with improved resistance to potential utility gas turbine environments. Coatings were evaluated on air-cooled, hollow superalloy erosion bar specimens of nickel-base alloy IN-792 and cobalt-base alloy MM-509. Operating conditions

P. E. Hodge; S. Stecura; M. A. Gedwill; I. Zaplatynsky; S. R. Levine

1978-01-01

343

Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a reproducible method of fabricating adiabatic tapers with 3–4 ?m diameter. The method is based on a heat-and-pull rig, whereby a CO2 laser is continuously scanned across a length of fiber that is being pulled synchronously. Our system relies on a CO2 mirror mounted on a geared stepper motor in order to scan the laser beam across the

Jonathan M. Ward; Danny G. O’Shea; Brian J. Shortt; Michael J. Morrissey; Kieran Deasy; Si´le G. Nic Chormaic

2006-01-01

344

Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a reproducible method of fabricating adiabatic tapers with 3-4 mum diameter. The method is based on a heat-and-pull rig, whereby a CO2 laser is continuously scanned across a length of fiber that is being pulled synchronously. Our system relies on a CO2 mirror mounted on a geared stepper motor in order to scan the laser beam across the

Jonathan M. Ward; Danny G. O'Shea; Brian J. Shortt; Michael J. Morrissey; Kieran Deasy; Síle G. Nic Chormaic

2006-01-01

345

Lateral Stability Simulation of a Rail Truck on Roller Rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing is being complemented by analytic studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles in order to guide development of the Roller Rigs and to establish an analytic framework for the design and interpretation of tests to be conducted on Roller Rigs. The work described here represents initial efforts towards meeting these objectives. Generic linear models were developed of a freight car (with a characteristic North American three-piece truck) on tangent track. The models were developed using the generalized multi body dynamics software MEDYNA. Predictions were made of the theoretical linear model hunting (lateral stability) characteristics of the freight car, i. e., the critical speeds and frequencies, for five different configurations: (a) freight car on track, (b) the freight car's front truck on the roller stand and its rear truck on track, (c) freight car on the roller rig, (d) a single truck on track, and (e) single truck on the roller stand. These were compared with the Association of American Railroads' field test data for an 80-ton hopper car equipped with A-3 ride control trucks. Agreement was reached among all the analytical models, with all models indicating a range of hunting speeds of 2% from the highest to lowest. The largest discrepancy, approximately 6%, was indicated between the models and the field test data. Parametric study results using linear model of freight truck on the roller rig show that (a) increasing roller radius increases critical speed (b) increasing the wheel initial cone angle will decrease the hunting speed (c) increasing the roller cant increases hunting speed (d) decrowning of the wheelset on the rollers will not effect the hunting speed but induces longitudinal destabilizing horizontal forces at the contact and (e) lozenging of wheelset on the rollers induces a yaw moment and the hunting speed decreases with increasing wheelset yaw angle.

Dukkipati, Rao V.

346

New wave drilling rigs offer automation, ergonomics and economy  

SciTech Connect

The drilling industry is being pressured to do its job not just faster and cheaper, but also safer and cleaner. The latest land and offshore platform drilling rig designs incorporate modularization, mechanization, computers and environmental protection in an attempt to meet those demands. This paper reviews the technology of these new designs and how they can operate to ensure safety and environmental protection for lower costs.

Von Flatern, R.

1996-05-01

347

Offshore data base shows decline in rig accidents  

SciTech Connect

Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.

Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Maimaison (FR))

1991-09-16

348

5'Triphosphate RNA Is the Ligand for RIG-I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural basis for the distinction of viral RNA from abundant self RNA in the cytoplasm of virally infected cells is largely unknown. We demonstrated that the 5'-triphosphate end of RNA generated by viral polymerases is responsible for retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)-mediated detection of RNA molecules. Detection of 5'-triphosphate RNA is abrogated by capping of the 5'-triphosphate end or

Veit Hornung; Jana Ellegast; Sarah Kim; Krzysztof Brzózka; Andreas Jung; Hiroki Kato; Hendrik Poeck; Shizuo Akira; Karl-Klaus Conzelmann; Martin Schlee; Stefan Endres; Gunther Hartmann

2006-01-01

349

Effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of rocks at large deformations is characterized, including the effects of crack growth when unstable, the effects of anisotropy, the distinction between open and closed cracks, the influence of crack intersections, the role of pore pressure, and a calculation of permeability. The theory is quite general, and is intended for use in a computer program rather than as a vehicle for obtaining analytic results. When a spherical explosive charge is embedded in oil shale it produces an aspirin-shaped cavity at late times as a result of the bedded structure of the rock. In this paper a calculation of the cavity produced by a spherical explosive is compared with a radiograph, showing remarkable agreement between the two. The shape of the cavity is explained by the behavior of cracks lying in the bedding planes.

Dienes, J.K.

1981-01-01

350

Explosion and Explosives. Vol 32, No. 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

351

Explosion and Explosives, Volume 32, Number 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

352

Viscosity Measurements of Malleable Explosive (MEX), a New Demolition Explosive,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rheological characterisation of Malleable Explosive (MEX), a new explosive intended for demolition use, is presented. A Brookfield viscometer with T-bar spindles and Helipath stand is used to investigate the viscosity of MEX at shear rates similar to ...

H. H. Billon M. A. Parry

1988-01-01

353

A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.  

PubMed

The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. PMID:22858504

Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

2012-10-01

354

Activation of RIG-I-like Receptor Signal Transduction  

PubMed Central

Mammalian cells have the ability to recognize virus infection and mount a powerful antiviral response. Pattern recognition receptor proteins detect molecular signatures of virus infection and activate antiviral signaling cascades. The RIG-I-like receptors are cytoplasmic DExD/H box proteins that can specifically recognize virus-derived RNA species as a molecular feature discriminating the pathogen from the host. The RIG-I-like receptor family is composed of three homologous proteins, RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2. All of these proteins can bind double-stranded RNA species with varying affinities via their conserved DExD/H box RNA helicase domains and C-terminal regulatory domains. The recognition of foreign RNA by the RLRs activates enzymatic functions and initiates signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of antiviral cytokines and the establishment of a broadly effective cellular antiviral state that protects neighboring cells from infection and triggers innate and adaptive immune systems. The propagation of this signal via the interferon antiviral system has been studied extensively, while the precise roles for enzymatic activities of the RNA helicase domain in antiviral responses are only beginning to be elucidated. Here, current models for RLR ligand recognition and signaling are reviewed.

Bruns, Annie; Horvath, Curt M.

2011-01-01

355

Continuous steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C. [Stake Technology Ltd., Norval, Ontario (Canada)

1995-02-01

356

Bioremediation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon dioxide. The focus of this paper will be on our present understanding of the microbial metabolism of the explosives, TNT and RDX, which have been used most extensively in the United States. To assure that an efficient process is developed for TNT biodegradation, we are conducting appropriate lab scale tests with TNT contaminated soil. First, we are testing their efficiency in soil/water slurries; we are also testing their efficiency in a column system designed to simulate composting conditions. A pilot scale test of this bacterial degradation will be conducted as soon as weather permits. 36 refs., 5 figs.

Unkefer, P.J.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Unkefer, C.J.; Stenger, M.; Margiotta, E.A.

1990-01-01

357

Goose RIG-I functions in innate immunity against Newcastle disease virus infections.  

PubMed

Mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a chief antiviral gene sensing viral RNA molecules including Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this study, goose RIG-I gene (gRIG-I) was identified. The 2805 bp-long gene encodes a gRIG-I protein that exhibits 93.8% amino acid identity to duck RIG-I. DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells transfected with full-length of gRIG-I or CARD domain of gRIG-I plasmids respond significantly to the agonist of 21-mer 5'ppp RNA, evident through enhancement of IFN-? promoter activity. Goose RIG-I transfected 293T/17 cells were then tested for the response to NDV infection, resulting in up-regulated activity of IFN-? promoter, and mRNA levels of IRF-3 and IFIT1, but decreased virus titer. Similar results were obtained in transfected DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells and goose embryo fibroblast cells in response to NDV infections Animal experiments further support a role of gRIG-I in goose innate immunity against NDV infections by showing increased gRIG-I mRNA levels and decreased virus titer in geese lung and air sac post-infection. PMID:23063767

Sun, Yingjie; Ding, Na; Ding, Siyu Serena; Yu, Shengqing; Meng, Chunhun; Chen, Hongjun; Qiu, Xusheng; Zhang, Shilei; Yu, Yang; Zhan, Yuan; Ding, Chan

2013-04-01

358

RIG-I Is Required for the Inhibition of Measles Virus by Retinoids  

PubMed Central

Vitamin A can significantly decrease measles-associated morbidity and mortality. Vitamin A can inhibit the replication of measles virus (MeV) in vitro through an RAR?- and type I interferon (IFN)-dependent mechanism. Retinoid-induced gene I (RIG-I) expression is induced by retinoids, activated by MeV RNA and is important for IFN signaling. We hypothesized that RIG-I is central to retinoid-mediated inhibition of MeV in vitro. We demonstrate that RIG-I expression is increased in cells treated with retinoids and infected with MeV. The central role of RIG-I in the retinoid-anti-MeV effect was demonstrated in the Huh-7/7.5 model; the latter cells having non-functional RIG-I. RAR-dependent retinoid signaling was required for the induction of RIG-I by retinoids and MeV. Retinoid signaling was also found to act in combination with IFN to induce high levels of RIG-I expression. RIG-I promoter activation required both retinoids and MeV, as indicated by markers of active chromatin. IRF-1 is known to be regulated by retinoids and MeV, but we found recruitment of IRF-1 to the RIG-I promoter by retinoids alone. Using luciferase expression constructs, we further demonstrated that the IRF-1 response element of RIG-I was required for RIG-I activation by retinoids or IFN. These results reveal that retinoid treatment and MeV infection induces significant RIG-I. RIG-I is required for the retinoid-MeV antiviral response. The induction is dependent on IFN, retinoids and IRF-1.

Richardson, Chris D.; Ward, Brian J.; Miller, Wilson H.

2011-01-01

359

Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral signaling by SEC14L1.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a key sensor for recognizing nucleic acids derived from RNA viruses and triggers beta interferon (IFN-?) production. Because of its important role in antiviral innate immunity, the activity of RIG-I must be tightly controlled. Here, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify a SEC14 family member, SEC14L1, as a RIG-I-associated negative regulator. Transfected SEC14L1 interacted with RIG-I, and endogenous SEC14L1 associated with RIG-I in a viral infection-inducible manner. Overexpression of SEC14L1 inhibited transcriptional activity of the IFN-? promoter induced by RIG-I but not TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Knockdown of endogenous SEC14L1 in both HEK293T cells and HT1080 cells potentiated RIG-I and Sendai virus-triggered IFN-? production as well as attenuated the replication of Newcastle disease virus. SEC14L1 interacted with the N-terminal domain of RIG-I (RIG-I caspase activation and recruitment domain [RIG-I-CARD]) and competed with VISA/MAVS/IPS-1/Cardif for RIG-I-CARD binding. Domain mapping further indicated that the PRELI-MSF1 and CRAL-TRIO domains but not the GOLD domain of SEC14L1 are required for interaction and inhibitory function. These findings suggest that SEC14L1 functions as a novel negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by preventing RIG-I interaction with the downstream effector. PMID:23843640

Li, Meng-Tong; Di, Wei; Xu, Hao; Yang, Yong-Kang; Chen, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Fei-Xiong; Zhai, Zhong-He; Chen, Dan-Ying

2013-09-01

360

An explosion in Tunguska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on 30 June 1908 is given, including that of a meteor impact, asteroid impact, atomic explosion (F. Zigel and other), comet impact (V.G. Fesenkov and other). The theory sustained by author is that of a methan gas explosion initialazed by a meteor in a volume of about 0.25-2.5 billions m3 of methan. The shape of the place could be explained by few gaseous pouches, which could explode in a chain reaction. A review of similar explosions on the level of ground is given in the USSR as well as elsewhere. The soil fluidization is reviewed during earthquakes and similar phenomena. The original hypothesis by author was published in the "Lumea" N 41 magazin (Romania) on October 12 1989. The author disagree with atomic hypotesis enounced by F. Zigel, while the main factor of the explosion is the formation of one or few methan pouches above the soil. The programe of one of the most important international workshops (Tunguska 96 in Bologna on July 14-17) is attached. The site by Ioan Nistor gives a collection of informations about the event from elsewhere as well as the "gaseous pouches" hypothesis by the author.

Nistor, Ioan

361

Tight oil or gas formation fracturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for fracturing tight oil or gas formations is described. A band of small holes is drilled into the oil or gas formation from a well borehole, so that more explosive or hydraulic fracturing fluids can be placed at a selected depth and positioned to provide more lifting and fracturing force on the oil or gas formation. The holes

Driver

1974-01-01

362

Attosecond molecular Coulomb explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular Coulomb explosion has been utilized as a precise temporal clock for probing ultrafast motion of nucleus and electrons during chemical reactions. With an intense attosecond pulse train in the extreme ultraviolet region, we were able to image attosecond molecular Coulomb explosion via two photon double ionization process. The present autocorrelation measurement, from which the duration of the attosecond pulse train was determined to be 300 as, serves as the first step toward a pump-and-probe measurement of molecular dynamics with attosecond temporal resolution.

Okino, Tomoya; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

2006-12-01

363

High-nitrogen explosives  

SciTech Connect

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

2002-01-01

364

Explosive Welding with Nitroguanidine.  

PubMed

By using the explosive nitroguanidine, continuous welds can be made between similar and dissimilar metals. Since low detonation pressures are attainable, pressure transfer media are not required between the explosive and the metal surface. The need for either a space or an angle between the metals is eliminated, and very low atmospheric pressures are not required. Successful welds have been made between tantalum and 4140 steel, 3003H14 aluminum and 4140 steel, and 304 stainless steel and 3003H14 aluminum. PMID:17833901

Sadwin, L D

1964-03-13

365

Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint

Tabetha Osborn; Sindhu Kaimal; Jason Causey; William Burns; Scott Reeve

2009-01-01

366

Effect of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifiers on engine fuel economy and gear oil efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifier additives was tested comparatively in engine dynamometer tests on gasoline and diesel engines; the tests measured variations in brake specific fuel consumption with speed. A similar selection of molybdenum-containing additives was evaluated in terms of transmission efficiency in a hypoid-gear, rear-axle test rig; the baseline oil was a formulated SAE-75W gear oil. Bench-scale

A. B. Greene; T. J. Risdon

1981-01-01

367

Drilling fleet pegged at 4,723 rigs in C. I. S  

SciTech Connect

More than 4,700 drilling rigs are stationed in the former Soviet Union, says a study compiled by Petroconsultants SA. There were 4,699 land and platform rigs and 24 mobile offshore rigs either idle or active as of Jan. 1, 1991, the Geneva firm reports. The biggest concentrations were in western Siberia with 1,306 rigs and the Volga-Ural province with 1,058. Petroconsultants the the petroleum drilling sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States is extremely fragmented and divided among drilling operators and equipment manufacturing enterprises. In 1990 and early 1991 there were 33 administrations involved in exploration and appraisal drilling throughout the C.I.S. The paper provides operational statistics and technical parameters for rigs and an indication of the overall state and performance of the rig fleet of a given administration.

Not Available

1992-04-27

368

More MODU attrition key to better rigs and contractor profits. [Mobile Offshore Drilling Units  

SciTech Connect

For the offshore drilling industry to remain profitable, the attrition rate of aging mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) needs to increase. These aging rigs should be removed and possibly replaced with new or upgraded rigs so contractors can deliver more reliable equipment and service to the operators. Unfortunately, only moderate attrition of the worldwide fleet appears likely. An increase in rig day rates is necessary to increase cash flow to levels that can support new rig construction. The long-term challenge for the contract drilling industry is to develop enough cash flow to allow for rig fleet replacement during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The paper discusses rig attrition, the MODU supply, day rates, and consolidation of contractors.

Kott, G.L. (Global Marine Drilling Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-09-13

369

IMPROVEMENTS IN SUBTERRANEAN NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested to let a non-military nuclear explosion take place in an ; evacuated subterranean space, created by digging or by a preliminary explosion. ; It is stated that due to the evacuation, less nuclear energy is mechanically ; wasted in the form of shock waves. Thus, the thermal output of the explosion is ; increased whereas subterranean destruction

Rougeron; P. M. C. M

1959-01-01

370

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a

Robert H. Dinegar; John Kirkham

1982-01-01

371

New explosive seam welding concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

Bement, L. J.

1973-01-01

372

Environmental fate of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal practices associated with military production of weapons, especially before and during World War II, have resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground water with high explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX. Development of remediation and risk management strategies for these contaminated sites as well as development of approaches for sustainable use of active training and weapons

Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon

2002-01-01

373

Explosively Welded Scarf Joint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention describes a method for producing a modified scarf weld which is not limited due to small gage of the parts to be welded. It uses the simple technique of explosive welding to bond and simultaneously shape sheet material so that an essentiall...

L. J. Bement

1972-01-01

374

Halting explosions with technology  

SciTech Connect

An account is given of an ignition suppression system developed under contract for the US Bureau of Mines. The machine mounted system utilises an ultra-violet flame detector, a cannister containing a dry powder extinguishing agent and a cannon-type dispersion unit. The results of explosion-suppression tests are given.

Not Available

1985-05-01

375

Aspherical supernova explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core collapse supernovae (SN) are the final stages of stellar evolution in massive stars during which the central region collapses, forms a neutron star (NS), and the outer layers are ejected. Recent explosion scenarios assumed that the ejection is due to energy deposition by neutrinos into the envelope, but detailed models do not produce powerful explosions. There is new and mounting evidence for an asphericity and, in particular, for axial symmetry in several supernovae which may be hard to reconcile within the spherical picture. This evidence includes the observed high polarization and its variation with time, pulsar kicks, high velocity iron-group and intermediate-mass elements material observed in remnants, direct observations of the debris of SN 1987A, etc. Some of the new evidence is discussed in more detail. To be in agreement with the observations, any successful mechanism must invoke some sort of axial symmetry for the explosion. We consider jet-induced/dominated explosions of core collapse supernovae. Our study is based on detailed 3-D hydrodynamical and radiation transport models. We find that the observations can be explained by low velocity, massive jets which stall well within the SN envelope. Such outflows may be produced by MHD-mechanisms, convective dominated accretion disks on the central object or asymmetric neutrino emissions. Asymmetric density/chemical distributions and, for SN 2002ap, off-center energy depositions have been identified as crucial for the interpretation of the polarization.

Höflich, Peter A.; Baade, Dietrich; Khokhlov, Alexei M.; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J. Craig

376

75 FR 5545 - Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 [Docket No. OSHA-2007-0032 (formerly Docket Nos. OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...

2010-02-03

377

Managing the data explosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

Hooper, Richard, P.; Aulenbach, Brent, T.

1993-01-01

378

Fundamentals of Explosive Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the basic mechanism of adhesion in all welding processes, and a brief review of fusion and pressure welding techniques is given. A completely new method of welding which employs high explosives is briefly described and explained in terms of the principle used in the hollow charge, which wm developed during days of war to defeat

B. Crossland; A. S. Bahrani

1968-01-01

379

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

380

Portable Raman explosives detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics,\\u000a as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy,\\u000a both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

David S. Moore; R. Jason Scharff

2009-01-01

381

Explosive Safety Container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The container is in the form of a plastic block with a hole for containing an explosive. The plastic is loaded into a tubular vessel such as glass or polyethylene. The plastic block is made of a plastic material which does not shatter like metal.

M. F. T. Zimmer L. K. Asaoka

1965-01-01

382

Negative regulation of the RIG-I signaling by the ubiquitin ligase RNF125  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cytokine production induced by pathogens. The RIG-I also augments the production of IFN and other cytokines via an amplification circuit. Because the production of cytokines is closely controlled, up- and down-regulation of RIG-I signaling also needs strict regulation. The mechanism of this regulation, however, remains elusive. Here,

Kei-ichiro Arimoto; Hitoshi Takahashi; Takayuki Hishiki; Hideyuki Konishi; Takashi Fujita; Kunitada Shimotohno

2007-01-01

383

The powerstroke and camshaft of the RIG-I antiviral RNA detection machine.  

PubMed

The innate immune sensor RIG-I responds to infection by binding to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In this issue of Cell, Kowalinski et al. (2011) and Luo et al. (2011) reveal the structure of RIG-I, and in combination with functional analyses, they show how RIG-I recognizes viral RNA to initiate signaling and a type I interferon response. PMID:22000004

O'Neill, Luke A J; Bowie, Andrew G

2011-10-14

384

Design and Development of High-Velocity Slurry Erosion Test Rig Using CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry erosion (SE) is commonly observed in almost all kinds of components and machineries involved in fluid (liquid) transfer and delivery. During design and development phase of these components, test rigs are usually required to evaluate their performance; however, only few detailed designs of test rigs are available for SE investigations. Among the existing designs of SE test rigs, most of them belong to rotary type. In the present study, design of a new type of SE test rig has been proposed, which is simpler in construction and working. This newly designed test rig could possibly eliminate some of the limitations (velocity-concentration interdependence and lack of acceleration distance) found in the existing set-ups. Calibration of the test rig was done for jet velocity and erodent concentration. Commissioning of the rig was undertaken by evaluating the effect of operating parameters (concentration and impingement angle) on the erosion rates of aluminum and cast iron. Results show that the rig was able to capture the traditional responses of ductile and brittle erosion behaviors being observed for these materials. Repeatability of the test rig was ensured, and the results were found to be within the acceptable error limits.

Grewal, H. S.; Agrawal, Anupam; Singh, H.

2013-01-01

385

Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

2012-01-01

386

Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

2014-05-01

387

Molecular hydrodynamics of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

High explosives release mechanical energy through chemical reactions. Applications of high explosives are vast in the mining and military industries and are beginning to see more civilian applications such as the deployment of airbags in modern automobiles. One of the central issues surrounding explosive materials is decreasing their sensitivity, necessary for their safe handling, while maintaining a high yield. Many practical tests have been devised to determine the sensitivity of explosive materials to shock, to impact, to spark, and to friction. These tests have great value in determining yield and setting precautions for safe handling but tell little of the mechanisms of initiation. How is the mechanical energy of impact or friction transformed into the chemical excitation that initiates explosion? The answer is intimately related to the structure of the explosive material, the size and distribution of grains, the size and presence of open areas such as voids and gas bubbles, and inevitably the bonding between explosive molecules.

Belak, J.

1994-11-01

388

Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

1998-01-01

389

Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

Huttrer, G.W. [Geothermal Management Company, Inc., Frisco, CO (United States)

1997-11-01

390

Artificial radionuclides in oils from the underground nuclear test site (Perm region, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of radionuclide determination in oil samples from the Gezh oil deposit (Perm region, Russia) where five underground\\u000a nuclear explosions took place are presented. High3H and14C concentrations were found in oil from the wells were the explosions were made as well as from distant wells. This contradicts\\u000a the assumption that the holes after the explosion are hermetic and the

S. N. Kalmykov; Yu. A. Sapozhnikov; B. N. Goloubov

1999-01-01

391

Singular solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations and rigged configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a conjecture for the following two quantities related to the spin-\\frac{1}{2} isotropic Heisenberg model defined over rings of even lengths: (i) the number of solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations which correspond to non-zero Bethe vectors; (ii) the number of physical singular solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations in the sense of Nepomechie and Wang 2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 325002. The conjecture is based on a natural relationship between the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations and the rigged configurations.

Kirillov, Anatol N.; Sakamoto, Reiho

2014-05-01

392

Disc brake squeal characterization through simplified test rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of recent investigations on brake squeal noise carried out on simplified experimental rigs. The common theme of these works is that of approaching the study of squeal noise on experimental set-ups that are much simpler than commercial disc brakes, providing the possibility of repeatable measurements of squeal occurrence. As a consequence, it is possible to build consistent and robust models of the experimental apparatus to simulate the squeal events and to understand the physics behind squeal instabilities.

Akay, A.; Giannini, O.; Massi, F.; Sestieri, A.

2009-11-01

393

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated\\u000a combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3\\/Ni-16.2Cr5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in weight percent unless stated otherwise) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was\\u000a developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such

Philip E. Hodge; Stephan Stecura; Michael A. Gedwill; Isidor Zaplatynsky; Stanley R. Levine

1980-01-01

394

Planetary-gear-support bearing test rig design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test rig was designed to evaluate the performance of a spherical roller bearing with a geared outer ring operating under conditions similar to those of a planet bearing in a helicopter transmission. The configuration is an extension of the widely accepted four-square gearbox arrangement. It provides for testing of two bearings simultaneously with outer ring rotation, misalignment, diametrically opposed loading through the gear teeth, and under race lubrication. Instrumentation permits the measurement of inner and outer ring temperature, bearing drag torque, degree of misalignment, outer ring speed, cage speed, and applied load.

Rosenlieb, J. W.

1985-01-01

395

Ixtoc 1 oil spill: flaking of surface mousse in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blowout at the Ixtoc 1 offshore oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico (19°24' N, 92°12' W) produced a major oil spill. An estimated 140 million gallons of oil escaped before the well was finally capped1; this compares with a spill of 66 million gallons of oil from the tanker Amoco Cadiz2,3. In contrast to the rapid, close-to-shore release

John S. Patton; Mark W. Rigler

1981-01-01

396

Successive explosions in Mumbai the economic center of India.  

PubMed

Terrorist activities in India are increasing day by day with sophistication in modus operandi. Mumbai the economic center of India was attacked by a series of bomb blasts at twelve different places within a span of an hour on 12th March 1993. The main explosive used was RDX [Krishnamurthy R, Malve MK, Shinde BM. J Indian Acad Forensic Sci 1996;35(1& 2):46-61.]. After about 10 years, terrorist activity of late has again erupted taking a toll on innocent lives, with the use of explosives causing death and destruction. On 2.12.02 a public bus at Ghatkopar was blown up by an improvised explosive device (IED) with two casualties. On 27.1.03 the public vegetable market at Vileparle was targeted causing heavy damage and panic among common people. On 13.3.03 a fully packed local train compartment at Mulund railway station was blown up by an improved explosive device and the casualties ranged up to 10. In most of the explosions the explosives used were RDX, NC-NG, etc. The blasts that occurred at the Zaveri bazaar and the gateway of India on 25/8/03 showed the presence of big craters at the blast site and on analysis the presence of RDX and petroleum oil. PMID:17055401

Krishnamurthy, R; Daundkar, B B; Malve, M K

2006-01-01

397

Explosive welding of pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A.

2006-08-01

398

Simulating Explosive Volcanic Eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanic eruptions represent a significant geological hazard. Depending on the setting and the circumstances of the eruption, the hazard may consist of pyroclastic flows, ash falls from plumes, lahars, or floods from sudden melting of glaciers. Numerical modelling of volcanic eruptions is an art still in infancy, but notable strides have been made in the last few years. We list four distinct recent approaches. Pelanti and Leveque (2006) used a finite-volume code to simulate the hot dusty gas of an explosive volcanic jet by coupling the compressible fluid equations of a gas to equations for the pressure-less flow of dust. Dartevelle and Valentine (2007) modelled an explosive eruption that occurred through a geothermal borehole as an analogue of natural volcanic eruptions, using a multiphase gas-particle code. Ogden, Glatzmeier and Wohletz (2008) used a single-fluid Eulerian code to model unsteady flow in an overpressured column. These four different numerical approaches have different realms of applicability and respective advantages and disadvantages. We will discuss some of these, and will also present some all-new simulations with the adaptive-mesh multi-material finite-volume code Sage. We have simulated an erupting column of magma arising from depth, penetrating layered media, and emerging at the surface. When pockets of water are encountered at depth and heated suddenly, the resulting supercritical fluid aids the vertical penetration, eventually exploding violently at the surface. When a dry magma column encounters water or ice at the surface, explosive fragmentation is also observed.

Gisler, G. R.

2010-12-01

399

UNDERGROUND EXPLOSION EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements were made of surface and subsurface effects of an ; underground explosion of a 1.2-kt nuclear burst. The measurements included free-; field earth and air-blast effects, as well as loading on underground structural ; devices. From the 76 channels installed on TEAPOT Shot 7, 75 usable records were ; obtained. The free-field quantities measured include air-blast pressure, earth ;

D. C. Sachs; L. M. Swift

1958-01-01

400

QGP fireball explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange\\u000ahadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of\\u000athe ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in\\u000arelativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical\\u000aproperties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an\\u000aanalysis of

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-01-01

401

Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

1983-01-01

402

Analysis of propagating explosions  

SciTech Connect

Weapons are often in close proximity to one another during transport or storage. If one weapon explodes, there is a possibility that the fragments generated will initiate a subsequent explosion in one or more neighboring weapons. Propagating explosions of this sort have the potential for severe consequences either because of the total amount of explosives that react or because the response of individual weapons may be particularly energetic. In this paper, we consider a well-defined problem in which the nature of the progression to all possible end states can be studied. We wish to determine the expected number of weapons to detonate along with other useful quantities. We examine the possible end states that the system can reach and show that we can represent the propagation process as a series of discrete time transitions. The transition probabilities from one state to the next then will depend only on the present state of the system. We present results of simulations that illustrate the effect of varying the detonation probability parameters.

Luck, L.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.

1996-07-01

403

Dust cluster explosion  

SciTech Connect

A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2012-09-15

404

Adhesion of explosives.  

PubMed

It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

2013-06-01

405

Explosive Welding of Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was ˜2%.

Burtseva, Olga

2007-06-01

406

Explosives signatures and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

2008-05-01

407

Experimental investigation on system performance using palm oil as hydraulic fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate hydraulic system performance using vegetable-based palm oil as hydraulic fluid. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The hydraulic system performance test at different operating conditions, such as pressure, speed and oil ageing, was performed using a Yuken vane pump test rig. The endurance system performance test was also conducted for 200 and 400 h.

W. B. Wan Nik; M. A. Maleque; F. N. Ani; H. H. Masjuki

2007-01-01

408

Possible Accumulation of Heavy Metals Around Offshore Oil Production Facilities in the Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heavy metals chromium, zinc, cadmium and lead have accumulated in the sediments around some offshore oil rigs. Oil production is now being considered for some nearshore sections of the Beaufort Sea coast. During winter in the Beaufort Sea, heavy metals in the sediments will not be dispersed; the under-ice currents are slow, and some of the bottom is covered

THOMAS K. NEWBURY

409

Seabirds at Risk around Offshore Oil Platforms in the North-west Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabirds aggregate around oil drilling platforms and rigs in above average numbers due to night lighting, flaring, food and other visual cues. Bird mortality has been documented due to impact on the structure, oiling and incineration by the flare. The environmental circumstances for offshore hydrocarbon development in North-west Atlantic are unique because of the harsh climate, cold waters and because

Francis K Wiese; W. A Montevecchi; G. K Davoren; F Huettmann; A. W Diamond; J Linke

2001-01-01

410

Offshore oil & gas: Deep waters dominate in 1997  

SciTech Connect

Deep water exploration and field development dominate the energy market as 1997 begins. All indicators point that a turnaround in the oil and gas industry is in full swing. Strong market fundamentals are in place: the worldwide offshore mobile rig fleet is approaching full utilization of marketed rigs, which has tightened the supply/demand balance and boosted day rates for all types of drilling units. The exploration and production niche is in its healthiest shape in more than 15 years with a growth spurt in progress. The excess rig supply has disappeared and some market observers believe the present supply of deep water rigs needs to triple just to meet demand in the Gulf of Mexico market alone. There is evidence that some energy companies are delaying drilling programs because suitable rigs simply are not available. Floating rigs generally are working longer-term contracts with some units under contract until late in the decade. Analysts forecast a heated market over the next 12 to 18 months. Gas prices are expected to remain strong through 1997 and crude prices should hold steady.

Pagano, S.S. [ed.] [Offshore International Newsletter, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-01-01

411

Master sensors of pathogenic RNA - RIG-I like receptors.  

PubMed

Initiating the immune response to invading pathogens, the innate immune system is constituted of immune receptors (pattern recognition receptors, PRR) that sense microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Detection of pathogens triggers intracellular defense mechanisms, such as the secretion of cytokines or chemokines to alarm neighboring cells and attract or activate immune cells. The innate immune response to viruses is mostly based on PRRs that detect the unusual structure, modification or location of viral nucleic acids. Most of the highly pathogenic and emerging viruses are RNA genome-based viruses, which can give rise to zoonotic and epidemic diseases or cause viral hemorrhagic fever. As viral RNA is located in the same compartment as host RNA, PRRs in the cytosol have to discriminate between viral and endogenous RNA by virtue of their structure or modification. This challenging task is taken on by the homologous cytosolic DExD/H-box family helicases RIG-I and MDA5, which control the innate immune response to most RNA viruses. This review focuses on the molecular basis for RIG-I like receptor (RLR) activation by synthetic and natural ligands and will discuss controversial ligand definitions. PMID:23896194

Schlee, Martin

2013-11-01

412

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes ``re-freezing'' the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the ``re-freezing'' temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude ``re-freezing'' of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

Makhov, M. N.

2004-07-01

413

Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: innks@khu.ac.kr

2013-07-19

414

Test rig for high speed electromechanical flywheels in Sub Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a test rig designed at the University of Cape Town to evaluate the performance of a high speed electromechanical flywheel for energy storage. The electromechanical flywheel is specifically designed to enhance rural electrification through improving the energy storage component in solar home systems. A safe, flexible and low vibration test rig has been designed. Modal analysis using

R. Okou; M. A. Khan; P. Barendse; P. Pillay

2009-01-01

415

Direct Estimation of Motion and Extended Scene Structure from a Moving Stereo Rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the relationship between the kine- matics (infinitesimal motion model) of a calibrated Stereo Rig and point and line image feature measure- ments seen at two time instances of the rig's motion (four images in all). In particular, we are interested in the byproduct of this analysis providing a direct con- nection between the spatio-temporal derivatives of the images

Gideon P. Stein; Amnon Shashua

1998-01-01

416

NASA GRC's High Pressure Burner Rig Facility and Materials Test Capabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at NASA Glenn Research Center is a high-velocity. pressurized combustion test rig used for high-temperature environmental durability studies of advanced materials and components. The facility burns jet fuel and air in c...

R. C. Robinson

1999-01-01

417

Defining the functional determinants for RNA surveillance by RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is an intracellular RNA sensor that activates the innate immune machinery in response to infection by RNA viruses. Here, we report the crystal structure of distinct conformations of a RIG-I:dsRNA complex, which shows that HEL2i-mediated scanning allows RIG-I to sense the length of RNA targets. To understand the implications of HEL2i scanning for catalytic activity and signalling by RIG-I, we examined its ATPase activity when stimulated by duplex RNAs of varying lengths and 5? composition. We identified a minimal RNA duplex that binds one RIG-I molecule, stimulates robust ATPase activity, and elicits a RIG-I-mediated interferon response in cells. Our results reveal that the minimal functional unit of the RIG-I:RNA complex is a monomer that binds at the terminus of a duplex RNA substrate. This behaviour is markedly different from the RIG-I paralog melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), which forms cooperative filaments.

Kohlway, Andrew; Luo, Dahai; Rawling, David C; Ding, Steve C; Pyle, Anna Marie

2013-01-01

418

Incoming RNA virus nucleocapsids containing a 5'-triphosphorylated genome activate RIG-I and antiviral signaling.  

PubMed

Host defense to RNA viruses depends on rapid intracellular recognition of viral RNA by two cytoplasmic RNA helicases: RIG-I and MDA5. RNA transfection experiments indicate that RIG-I responds to naked double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) with a triphosphorylated 5' (5'ppp) terminus. However, the identity of the RIG-I stimulating viral structures in an authentic infection context remains unresolved. We show that incoming viral nucleocapsids containing a 5'ppp dsRNA "panhandle" structure trigger antiviral signaling that commences with RIG-I, is mediated through the adaptor protein MAVS, and terminates with transcription factor IRF-3. Independent of mammalian cofactors or viral polymerase activity, RIG-I bound to viral nucleocapsids, underwent a conformational switch, and homo-oligomerized. Enzymatic probing and superresolution microscopy suggest that RIG-I interacts with the panhandle structure of the viral nucleocapsids. These results define cytoplasmic entry of nucleocapsids as the proximal RIG-I-sensitive step during infection and establish viral nucleocapsids with a 5'ppp dsRNA panhandle as a RIG-I activator. PMID:23498958

Weber, Michaela; Gawanbacht, Ali; Habjan, Matthias; Rang, Andreas; Borner, Christoph; Schmidt, Anna Mareike; Veitinger, Sophie; Jacob, Ralf; Devignot, Stéphanie; Kochs, Georg; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Weber, Friedemann

2013-03-13

419

Defining the functional determinants for RNA surveillance by RIG-I.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is an intracellular RNA sensor that activates the innate immune machinery in response to infection by RNA viruses. Here, we report the crystal structure of distinct conformations of a RIG-I:dsRNA complex, which shows that HEL2i-mediated scanning allows RIG-I to sense the length of RNA targets. To understand the implications of HEL2i scanning for catalytic activity and signalling by RIG-I, we examined its ATPase activity when stimulated by duplex RNAs of varying lengths and 5' composition. We identified a minimal RNA duplex that binds one RIG-I molecule, stimulates robust ATPase activity, and elicits a RIG-I-mediated interferon response in cells. Our results reveal that the minimal functional unit of the RIG-I:RNA complex is a monomer that binds at the terminus of a duplex RNA substrate. This behaviour is markedly different from the RIG-I paralog melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), which forms cooperative filaments. PMID:23897087

Kohlway, Andrew; Luo, Dahai; Rawling, David C; Ding, Steve C; Pyle, Anna Marie

2013-09-01

420

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL TEST RIG  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design, construction, and installation of a fluidized-bed coal combustion sampling and analytical test rig in the High Bay Area (Wing G) of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The rig, to be u...

421

Research on Reciprocal Power-fed Linear Induction Motor Drive Test Rig for Linear Metro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a reciprocal power-fed linear induction motor (LIM) drive test rig for linear metro. Two inverter-fed linear induction motors on a common shaft are used in this test rig. One is as the drive motor, and the other is as the traction load. The DC links of both inverters are connected to each other to circulate the energy,

Jianqiang Liu; Zhiwen Ma; Zhongping Yang; Trillion Q. Zheng

2006-01-01

422

Research on reciprocal power-fed AC drive test rig for electric traction applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a reciprocal power-fed AC drive test rig for electric traction applications. Two inverter-fed induction motors on a common shaft are used in this test rig. One is as the drive motor, and the other is as the load motor. The DC links of both inverters are connected to each other to circulate the energy, and supplied from

Zhiwen Ma; Trillion Zheng; Fei Lin

2005-01-01

423

Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

Yang, Lien C. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

424

New ultra-deepwater rig with dual rotaries will reduce costs  

SciTech Connect

The Discoverer Enterprise, a next generation, ultra-deepwater drill ship with a dual rotary system, will decrease drilling and completion costs by reducing bottom hole assembly (BHA) and tubular preparation time. Transocean Offshore received a contract from Amoco Corp. to build the ultra-deep floating rig and is scheduled to spud its first well in July 1998. It will generally work in water deeper than 6,000 ft. The rig design involves a new approach that addresses the overall well-construction process and equipment required to decrease significantly deepwater drilling time. The Discoverer is the first ultra-deepwater rig designed specifically for handling subsea completions and extended well tests. The paper discusses increased deepwater rig demand, rig construction costs, drillship design, well construction, development drilling, and cost justification.

Cole, J.C.; Herrmann, R.P.; Scott, R.J. [Transocean Offshore Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shaughnessy, J.M. [Amoco Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-05-26

425

Visualizing the determinants of viral RNA recognition by innate immune sensor RIG-I  

PubMed Central

Summary Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a key intracellular immune receptor for pathogenic RNAs, particularly from RNA viruses. Here we report the crystal structure of human RIG-I bound to a 5?tri-phosphorylated RNA hairpin and ADP nucleotide at 2.8Å resolution. The RNA ligand contains all structural features that are essential for optimal recognition by RIG-I, as it mimics the panhandle-like signatures within the genome of negative stranded RNA viruses. RIG-I adopts an intermediate, semi-closed conformation in this product state of ATP hydrolysis. The structure of this complex allows us to visualize the first steps in RIG-I recognition and activation upon viral infection.

Luo, Dahai; Kohlway, Andrew; Vela, Adriana; Pyle, Anna Marie

2012-01-01

426

Evaluation of inhibitors for sour crude oil transmission pipe lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is generally a need for a better evaluation of inhibitors for sour oil pipe lines than provided by the traditional bubble test and wheel tests. A test rig has been built that allows assessment of the ability of an inhibitor to become effective in a water phase under service simulating conditions. A subsequent test loop is then used to

C. Christensen; E. Maahn; C. Juhl

1988-01-01

427

Stress and accidents in the offshore oil and gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a comprehensive analysis of occupational stress and accidents among personnel working in the European offshore oil and gas industry. Identifies sources of stress and predicts stressor outcomes. Examines job dissatisfaction, mental well-being and their relation to accidents. Also explores the differences within occupational status (operator versus contractor) and type of installation (drilling rigs versus fixed production platforms).

V. J. Sutherland; C. L. Cooper

1991-01-01

428

Linear accelerator for explosive detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14 MeV, S-band linear accelerator has been designed and built by Beta Development for use in the MIDEP explosive detection program at Titan\\/Spectron Division. The explosive detection technique utilizes photoneutron activation of the nitrogen which is an integral component in most commercial and military explosives. The accelerator was designed to be a small, high power, light weight, and portable

K. Whitham; R. C. Miller; H. Anamkath; J. R. Clifford; R. B. Miller; K. Habiger

1991-01-01

429

Regulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIG-I is an RNA helicase containing caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs). RNA binding and signaling by RIG-I are implicated in pathogen recognition and triggering of IFN-?\\/? immune defenses that impact cell permissiveness for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we evaluated the processes that control RIG-I signaling. RNA binding studies and analysis of cells lacking RIG-I, or the related MDA5

Takeshi Saito; Reiko Hirai; Y.-M. Loo; David Owen; C. L. Johnson; S. C. Sinha; Shizuo Akira; Takashi Fujita; Michael Gale Jr.

2007-01-01

430

Conformational rearrangements of RIG-I receptor on formation of a multiprotein:dsRNA assembly.  

PubMed

The retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like family of receptors is positioned at the front line of our innate cellular defence system. RIG-I detects and binds to foreign duplex RNA in the cytoplasm of both immune and non-immune cells, and initiates the induction of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanism of RIG-I activation by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) involves a molecular rearrangement proposed to expose the N-terminal pair of caspase activation recruitment domains, enabling an interaction with interferon-beta promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) and thereby initiating downstream signalling. dsRNA is particularly stimulatory when longer than 20 bp, potentially through allowing binding of more than one RIG-I molecule. Here, we characterize full-length RIG-I and RIG-I subdomains combined with a stimulatory 29mer dsRNA using multi-angle light scattering and size-exclusion chromatography-coupled small-angle X-ray scattering, to build up a molecular model of RIG-I before and after the formation of a 2:1 protein:dsRNA assembly. We report the small-angle X-ray scattering-derived solution structure of the human apo-RIG-I and observe that on binding of RIG-I to dsRNA in a 2:1 ratio, the complex becomes highly extended and flexible. Hence, here we present the first model of the fully activated oligomeric RIG-I. PMID:23325848

Beckham, Simone A; Brouwer, Jason; Roth, Anna; Wang, Die; Sadler, Anthony J; John, Matthias; Jahn-Hofmann, Kerstin; Williams, Bryan R G; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Wilce, Matthew C J

2013-03-01

431

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

SciTech Connect

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

432

Towards optoelectronic detection of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of explosives is an important challenge for contemporary science and technology of security systems. We present an application of NOx sensors equipped with concentrator in searching of explosives. The sensors using CRDS with blue — violet diode lasers (410 nm) as well as with QCL lasers (5.26 ?m and 4.53 ?m) are described. The detection method is based either on reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides emitted by explosives or to NOx produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX the detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved.

Wojtas, J.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Rutecka, B.; Medrzycki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.

2013-06-01

433

Simplified explosive-weld evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weld surfaces, coated with commercially available molybdenum disulfide, allow visual inspection of significant indications of bond quality. Process reduces number of trial welds, making explosive bonding more competitive.

Mclarty, D. M.

1976-01-01

434

Introduction to gasdynamics of explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Questions concerning the genesis and sustenance of an explosion are investigated, giving attention to the mechanics of explosions, the gasdynamics of explosions, aspects of technological significance, and future prospects. The dynamics of exothermic processes is discussed together with the most prominent effects of explosions. Blast waves are considered, taking into account conservation principles, blast wave transformation, conservative equations in nondimensional form, the equation of state, Eulerian space profiles, Eulerian time profiles, Lagrangian time profiles, boundary conditions and integral relations, and self-similar flow fields.

Oppenheim, A. K.

1973-01-01

435

Modeling of explosion thermal radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic and radiation processes accompanying explosions of chemical explosives and fuel-air mixtures have been considered. Computer modeling of the radiation from a fire ball of explosion and a flame of diffusion combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel has been performed. The dependences of the heat flux density from the region occupied by explosion and combustion products on its temperature and geometric characteristics have been determined. Thermal load distributions on targets of different orientations in the vicinity of the energy release zone have been obtained. A comparison of the thermal parameters on radiation detectors with the criteria of thermal affection of people and ignition of combustible materials has been made.

Stepanov, K. L.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stankevich, Yu. A.

2011-01-01

436

33 CFR 155.400 - Platform machinery space drainage on oceangoing fixed and floating drilling rigs and other...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...an oceangoing fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform unless it either...an oceangoing fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform is in a special...of this chapter, provided the drilling rig or platform is not within a...

2010-07-01

437

Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.  

PubMed

We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741

Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

2013-06-21

438

Effect of "terminal explosion"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the entry into the Earth's atmosphere of a cosmic body at hypersonic speeds. Large aerodynamic charges, the forces of inertia, and heat flow to the body surface lead to mass loss or even destruction of the body. The movement of the fragment cloud caused by the destruction of the body is a separate problem. From observations, we know that the flight of a cosmic body often ends with a terminal flare. We present one possible estimate of the energy in the final stages of the destruction of the body, confirming the possibility of the observed effect of the "terminal explosion" of the meteoroid.

Egorova, L.

2012-01-01

439

Gasdynamics of explosions today.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review is given of blast and detonation wave phenomena and some of their uses in war and peace. It is concluded that great strides have been made over the last three decades toward the physical understanding, the analytical-numerical solution, and the measurement of dynamic and thermodynamic quantities, also taking into consideration severe environments and extremely short durations. Questions of internal ballistics are discussed together with hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes, collapsing cylindrical drivers, spherical implosions, explosive weapons, dynamic response, and equation of state data.

Brode, H. L.; Glass, I. I.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1971-01-01

440

Engine-Scale Combustor Rig Designed, Fabricated, and Tested for Combustion Instability Control Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-emission combustor designs are prone to combustor instabilities. Because active control of these instabilities may allow future combustors to meet both stringent emissions and performance requirements, an experimental combustor rig was developed for investigating methods of actively suppressing combustion instabilities. The experimental rig has features similar to a real engine combustor and exhibits instabilities representative of those in aircraft gas turbine engines. Experimental testing in the spring of 1999 demonstrated that the rig can be tuned to closely represent an instability observed in engine tests. Future plans are to develop and demonstrate combustion instability control using this experimental combustor rig. The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is leading the Combustion Instability Control program to investigate methods for actively suppressing combustion instabilities. Under this program, a single-nozzle, liquid-fueled research combustor rig was designed, fabricated, and tested. The rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor, including an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, and an effusion-cooled liner. Prior to designing the experimental rig, a survey of aircraft engine combustion instability experience identified an instability observed in a prototype engine as a suitable candidate for replication. The frequency of the instability was 525 Hz, with an amplitude of approximately 1.5-psi peak-to-peak at a burner pressure of 200 psia. The single-nozzle experimental combustor rig was designed to preserve subcomponent lengths, cross sectional area distribution, flow distribution, pressure-drop distribution, temperature distribution, and other factors previously found to be determinants of burner acoustic frequencies, mode shapes, gain, and damping. Analytical models were used to predict the acoustic resonances of both the engine combustor and proposed experiment. The analysis confirmed that the test rig configuration and engine configuration had similar longitudinal acoustic characteristics, increasing the likelihood that the engine instability would be replicated in the rig. Parametric analytical studies were performed to understand the influence of geometry and condition variations and to establish a combustion test plan. Cold-flow experiments verified that the design values of area and flow distributions were obtained. Combustion test results established the existence of a longitudinal combustion instability in the 500-Hz range with a measured amplitude approximating that observed in the engine. Modifications to the rig configuration during testing also showed the potential for injector independence. The research combustor rig was developed in partnership with Pratt & Whitney of West Palm Beach, Florida, and United Technologies Research Center of East Hartford, Connecticut. Experimental testing of the combustor rig took place at United Technologies Research Center.

DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.

2000-01-01

441

Explosive components facility certification tests  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01

442

Stricter marine pollution standards accelerate move to zero discharge rigs  

SciTech Connect

The trend toward solving pollution problems on site has accelerated the replacement and upgrading of rig equipment, specifically with the conversion of many mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) to zero discharge operations. This approach will increase as governments with jurisdiction over onshore disposal facilities grapple with the shrinking availability of land-based waste disposal facilities. Recent Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing U.S. outer continental shelf mandate compliance using the best available technology to deal with waste disposal. The determination of best is debatable and leaves the door open for requiring the continual replacement of equipment as technology improves. New regulations are being imposed so rapidly that technology is hard pressed to keep pace. This paper reports on the techniques for controlling discharges that cover two general areas: solids and liquids.

Thorson, J.A. (Global Marine Drilling Co., Houston, TX (US))

1991-12-30

443

Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

444

Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

445

Hoisting and rigging of critical components and related equipment  

SciTech Connect

This standard covers hoisting and rigging of large coolant system components such as pumps and heat exchangers, fuel elements, and other critical components, and also of any materials, equipment, or supplies handled over, in, or around spaces in which such critical items are located. The standard specifies minimal requirements for hoisting and materials handling equipment and for tackle; requirements, recommendations, and precautions in their use; and tests and inspections to verify that they are in good operating condition and can safely and reliably accommodate the loads involved under the operational conditions that will prevail. The purpose of this standard is to minimize the likelihood of physical damage to critical items due to dropping, upset, impact, or other accident.

Not Available

1980-01-01

446

Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

1984-01-01

447

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

448

V/STOL model fan stage rig design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model single-stage fan with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) was designed to demonstrate efficient point operation while providing flow and pressure ratio modulation capability required for a V/STOL propulsion system. The fan stage incorporates a split-flap VIGV with an independently actuated ID flap to permit independent modulation of fan and core engine airstreams, a flow splitter integrally designed into the blade and vanes to completely segregate fan and core airstreams in order to maximize core stream supercharging for V/STOL operation, and an EGV with a variable leading edge fan flap for rig performance optimization. The stage was designed for a maximum flow size of 37.4 kg/s (82.3 lb/s) for compatibility with LeRC test facility requirements. Design values at maximum flow for blade tip velocity and stage pressure ratio are 472 m/s (1550 ft/s) and 1.68, respectively.

Cheatham, J. G.; Creason, T. L.

1983-01-01

449

Advances in measuring techniques for turbine cooling test rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface temperature distribution measurements for turbine vanes and blades were obtained by measuring the infrared energy emitted by the airfoil. The IR distribution can be related to temperature distribution by suitable calibration methods and the data presented in the form of isotherm maps. Both IR photographic and real time electro-optical methods are being investigated. The methods can be adapted to rotating as well as stationary targets, and both methods can utilize computer processing. Pressure measurements on rotating components are made with a rotating system incorporating 10 miniature transducers. A mercury wetted slip ring assembly was used to supply excitation power and as a signal transfer device. The system was successfully tested up to speeds of 9000 rpm and is now being adapted to measure rotating blade airflow quantities in a spin rig and a research engine.

Pollack, F. G.

1972-01-01

450

75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore...Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore...root cause of the BP Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire...investigation into the Macondo well blowout....

2010-10-22

451

The vortex explosion transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type-II superconductors an applied magnetic field B, between the lower and upper critical values, produces a mixed state containing Abrikosov vortices. These vortices contain a quantum of magnetic flux h/2e and consist of a core with depressed order parameter and a pattern of perpetually circulating supercurrents. When B is applied parallel to a thin film, the circulating supercurrents get squeezed by the film surfaces causing the vortex core to become unstable and explode all the way across the film when the thickness d is below the critical value of dc = 4.4? here ? is the superconducting coherence length. For temperatures above the explosion condition dc(T) > d, the applied B cannot induce single parallel vortices, however perpendicular vortices can be generated spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. We observe a transition from non-dissipative to dissipative behavior at the explosion condition and find that the dynamics of the spontaneous perpendicular vortices can be tuned by the pairbreaking effect of the applied parallel field.

Kunchur, M. N.; Liang, M.; Gurevich, A.

2013-02-01

452

Controlled by Distant Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

2007-03-01

453

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA) [Tracy, CA

2000-01-01

454

Tenderizing Meat with Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

2001-06-01

455

Safety Standard for Explosives, Propellants, and Pyrotechnics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document prescribes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) safety standards/procedures for operations involving explosives handling and processing. These operations are an integral part of explosives and explosives-related developme...

1993-01-01

456

Laser-Based Detection Methods for Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many well-known explosive detection techniques such as mass spectrometry and chromatography rely on close-contact sampling of surface residues or explosive vapors. Effective detection of explosive materials using laser-based methods has been demonstrated ...

A. W. Miziolek C. A. Munson J. F. De Lucia J. L. Gottfried K. L. McNesby

2007-01-01

457

Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisi...

D. A. Clements

1994-01-01

458

Change in the length of the middle section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, November 17, 2010, through September 6, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115-150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70-90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands' beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the middle section are described in this report.

Plant, N.G., Guy, K.K.

2013-01-01

459

Change in the length of the northern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, September 5, 2010, through September 3, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the northern section are described in this report.

Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

2013-01-01

460

Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

2007-03-01

461

Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.  

PubMed

Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

2003-06-01

462

Condensed Explosive Gas Dynamic Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The condensed explosive of a gas dynamic laser is a condensed mixture of one or more nonhydrogenous organic explosive compounds, such as TNM, with a sufficient amount of aluminum or zirconium powder to supply energy to the products so that a temperature o...

J. Hershkowitz M. Y. D. Lanzerotti

1978-01-01

463

Explosives Detection for Aviation Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

Anthony Fainberg

1992-01-01

464

Optical Pressure Measurements of Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-speed video and streak-camera imaging are used to measure peak pressures for explosions of spherical charges of C-4. The technique measures the velocity of the air shock produced by the detonation of the explosive charges, converts this velocity to a...

K. L. McNesby M. M. Biss R. A. Benjamin R. A. Thompson

2013-01-01

465

Calculating overpressure from BLEVE explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a certain number of authors have analyzed the prediction of boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) and fireball effects, only very few of them have proposed methodologies for predicting the overpressure from such explosions. In this paper, the methods previously published are discussed and shown to introduce a significant overestimation due to the erroneous thermodynamic assumptions—ideal gas behaviour and

E. Planas-Cuchi; J. M. Salla; J. Casal

2004-01-01

466

After an explosion, what happens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever an explosion or fire occurs in the presence of LP-gas, an investigation is usually necessary to determine the cause and to protect the marketer from unreasonable lawsuits. Haag Engineering Co., Dallas, urges that the evidence be studied carefully so that mistakes do not obliterate evidence before a conclusion is reached. Overall effects of the explosion should be examined to

1975-01-01

467

Radiation-induced explosive initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for explosive initiation under the influence of high energy radiation has been developed. The possibility for comparing explosive initiation conditions under the influence of radiation pulse and shock wave loads of microsecond duration has been shown and the initiation conditions as a function of the radiolysis constants have been determined.

Yakovlev, M.

1999-08-01

468

Radiation-induced explosive initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for explosive initiation under the influence of high energy radiation has been developed. The possibility for comparing explosive initiation conditions under the influence of radiation pulse and shock wave loads of microsecond duration has been shown and the initiation conditions as a function of the radiolysis constants have been determined.

M. Yakovlev

1999-01-01

469

Kaliski's explosive driven fusion experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment performed by a group in Poland on the production of DD fusion neutrons by purely explosive means is discussed. A method for multiplying shock velocities ordinarily available from high explosives by a factor of ten is described, and its application to DD fusion experiments is discussed.

1979-01-01

470

Recent developments in explosive welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosion welding (EXW) is one of the joining methods consisting of a solid state welding process in which controlled explosive detonation on the surface of a metal. During the collision, a high velocity jet is produced to remove away the impurities on the metal surfaces. Flyer plate collides with base plate resulting in a bonding at the interface of metals.

Fehim Findik

2011-01-01

471

Explosive Welding for Remote Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive seam welding produces up to 100-percent joint strength. Ribbon explosive activated by remote energy source produces metallurgically sound joint. Success of technique verified for joints between like metals and joints between two different metals. Applications include structural assembly in toxic atmospheres and in radioactive or otherwise hazardous environments.

Bement, L. J.

1985-01-01

472

Monitored Natural Attenuation of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosives are subject to several attenuation processes that potentially reduce concentrations in groundwater over time. Some of these processes are well defined, while others are poorly understood. The objective of the project was to optimize data collection and processing procedures for evaluation and implementation of monitored natural attenuation of explosives. After conducting experiments to optimize data quality, a protocol was

Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon; Douglas Gunnison; D. W. Harrelson; M. Zakikhani; Paul Miyares; Thomas F. Jenkins; Joan Clarke; Charolett Hayes; David Ringleberg; Ed Perkins; Herb Fredrickson

2001-01-01

473

Chemistry and Properties of Liquid Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid explosives are classified in several groups, and groups of liquid explosives characterised. Special attention is given\\u000a to properties of liquid explosives based on the mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and alcohols and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide\\u000a with solid fuels. Some specific aspects of explosive behaviour of liquid explosives are discussed. Important procedures for\\u000a the detection of liquid explosives and limits

P. Mostak

474

Relationships between rigging set-up, anthropometry, physical capacity, rowing kinematics and rowing performance.  

PubMed

The general aim of this study was to examine the relations between rigging set up, anthropometry, physical capacity, rowing kinematics and rowing performance. Fifteen elite single scullers participated in the experiment. Each sculler's preferred rigging set-up was quantified using measurements that included oar length, inboard, span, gearing ratio, swivel-seat height, footstretcher-seat height and distance, and footstretcher angles. Rowing performance was assessed using 2000 m race times from the Australian National Selection trials. Selected anthropometric, physical capacity and kinematic variables were also quantified. Several rigging variables were significantly correlated with each other, and with various anthropometric, physical capacity and kinematic variables. The individual variables that had the highest correlations with race time were 2 km ergometer time (r=0.90), mass (r=-0.87), height (r=-0.86), oar length (r = -0.85) and strength (r = -0.84). Overall results of this study indicated that the fastest rowers tend to be the largest and strongest, and that these larger body dimensions are reflected in the choice of rigging settings. Rigging set-up by itself should not be considered to be a primary determinant of rowing performance, but rather a consequence of faster rowers being larger and stronger and scaling their rigging set-up accordingly. To maximise rowing performance it appears important to tune the rigging of the boat to match the rower's size and strength. PMID:15552582

Barrett, R S; Manning, J M

2004-07-01

475

The immunoglobulin super family protein RIG-3 prevents synaptic potentiation and regulates Wnt signaling.  

PubMed

Cell surface Ig superfamily proteins (IgSF) have been implicated in several aspects of neuron development and function. Here, we describe the function of a Caenorhabditis elegans IgSF protein, RIG-3. Mutants lacking RIG-3 have an exaggerated paralytic response to a cholinesterase inhibitor, aldicarb. Although RIG-3 is expressed in motor neurons, heightened drug responsiveness was caused by an aldicarb-induced increase in muscle ACR-16 acetylcholine receptor (AChR) abundance, and a corresponding potentiation of postsynaptic responses at neuromuscular junctions. Mutants lacking RIG-3 also had defects in the anteroposterior polarity of the ALM mechanosensory neurons. The effects of RIG-3 on synaptic transmission and ALM polarity were both mediated by changes in Wnt signaling, and in particular by inhibiting CAM-1, a Ror-type receptor tyrosine kinase that binds Wnt ligands. These results identify RIG-3 as a regulator of Wnt signaling, and suggest that RIG-3 has an anti-plasticity function that prevents activity-induced changes in postsynaptic receptor fields. PMID:21745641

Babu, Kavita; Hu, Zhitao; Chien, Shih-Chieh; Garriga, Gian; Kaplan, Joshua M

2011-07-14

476

Identification of avian RIG-I responsive genes during influenza infection  

PubMed Central

Ducks can survive infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that are lethal to chickens. We showed that the influenza detector, RIG-I, can initiate antiviral responses in ducks, but this gene is absent in chickens. We can reconstitute this pathway by transfecting chicken DF-1 embryonic fibroblast cells with duck RIG-I, which augments their antiviral response to influenza and decreases viral titre. However, the genes downstream of duck RIG-I that mediate this antiviral response to influenza are not known. Using microarrays, we compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts transfected with duck RIG-I or empty vector, and infected with low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Transfected duck RIG-I expressed in chicken cells was associated with the marked induction of many antiviral innate immune genes upon infection with both viruses. We used real-time PCR to confirm upregulation of a subset of these antiviral genes including MX1, PKR, IFIT5, OASL, IFNB, and downregulation of the influenza matrix gene. These results provide some insight into the genes induced by duck RIG-I upon influenza infection, and provide evidence that duck RIG-I can function to elicit an interferon-driven, antiviral response against influenza in chicken embryonic fibroblasts.

Barber, Megan RW; Aldridge, Jerry R; Fleming-Canepa, Ximena; Wang, Yong-Dong; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

2013-01-01

477

USP21 negatively regulates antiviral response by acting as a RIG-I deubiquitinase.  

PubMed

Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I is essential in antiviral immune defense, yet the molecular mechanism that negatively regulates this critical step is poorly understood. Here, we report that USP21 acts as a novel negative regulator in antiviral responses through its ability to bind to and deubiquitinate RIG-I. Overexpression of USP21 inhibited RNA virus-induced RIG-I polyubiquitination and RIG-I-mediated interferon (IFN) signaling, whereas deletion of USP21 resulted in elevated RIG-I polyubiquitination, IRF3 phosphorylation, IFN-?/? production, and antiviral responses in MEFs in response to RNA virus infection. USP21 also restricted antiviral responses in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). USP21-deficient mice spontaneously developed splenomegaly and were more resistant to VSV infection with elevated production of IFNs. Chimeric mice with USP21-deficient hematopoietic cells developed virus-induced splenomegaly and were more resistant to VSV infection. Functional comparison of three deubiquitinases (USP21, A20, and CYLD) demonstrated that USP21 acts as a bona fide RIG-I deubiquitinase to down-regulate antiviral response independent of the A20 ubiquitin-editing complex. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized role for USP21 in the negative regulation of antiviral response through deubiquitinating RIG-I. PMID:24493797

Fan, Yihui; Mao, Renfang; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shangfeng; Shi, Zhongcheng; Cheng, Jin; Zhang, Huiyuan; An, Lei; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhenghu; Kogiso, Mari; Zhang, Dekai; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Pumin; Jung, Jae U; Li, Xiaonan; Xu, Guotong; Yang, Jianhua

2014-02-10

478

RIG-I modulates Src-mediated AKT activation to restrain leukemic stemness.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid (RA)-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is highly upregulated and functionally implicated in the RA-induced maturation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. However, the underlying mechanism and the biological relevance of RIG-I expression to the maintenance of leukemogenic potential are poorly understood. Here, we show that RIG-I, without priming by foreign RNA, inhibits the Src-facilitated activation of AKT-mTOR in AML cells. Moreover, in a group of primary human AML blasts, RIG-I reduction renders the Src family kinases hyperactive in promoting AKT activation. Mechanistically, a PxxP motif in RIG-I, upon the N-terminal CARDs' association with the Src SH1 domain, competes with the AKT PxxP motif for recognizing the Src SH3 domain. In accordance, mutating PxxP motif prevents Rig-I from inhibiting AKT activation, cytokine-stimulated myeloid progenitor proliferation, and in vivo repopulating capacity of leukemia cells. Collectively, our data suggest an antileukemia activity of RIG-I via competitively inhibiting Src/AKT association. PMID:24412064

Li, Xian-Yang; Jiang, Lin-Jia; Chen, Lei; Ding, Meng-Lei; Guo, He-Zhou; Zhang, Wu; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Xiang-Zhen; Xi, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu; Zhu, Jiang

2014-02-01

479

Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein.  

PubMed

RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways. PMID:23810392

Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

2013-07-19

480

Identification of avian RIG-I responsive genes during influenza infection.  

PubMed

Ducks can survive infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that are lethal to chickens. We showed that the influenza detector, RIG-I can initiate antiviral responses in ducks, but this gene is absent in chickens. We can reconstitute this pathway by transfecting chicken DF-1 embryonic fibroblast cells with duck RIG-I, which augments their antiviral response to influenza and decreases viral titer. However, the genes downstream of duck RIG-I that mediate this antiviral response to influenza are not known. Using microarrays, we compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts transfected with duck RIG-I or empty vector, and infected with low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Transfected duck RIG-I expressed in chicken cells was associated with the marked induction of many antiviral innate immune genes upon infection with both viruses. We used real-time PCR to confirm upregulation of a subset of these antiviral genes including MX1, PKR, IFIT5, OASL, IFNB, and downregulation of the influenza matrix gene. These results provide some insight into the genes induced by duck RIG-I upon influenza infection, and provide evidence that duck RIG-I can function to elicit an interferon-driven, antiviral response against influenza in chicken embryonic fibroblasts. PMID:23220072

Barber, Megan R W; Aldridge, Jerry R; Fleming-Canepa, Ximena; Wang, Yong-Dong; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

2013-05-01

481

Field tests of the stem-induced explosive fracturing technique  

SciTech Connect

The explosive stem-induced fracturing technique has been field tested in over 20 producing oil wells in western Pennsylvania. The technique basically involves the placement of a primary explosive charge in an expendable rathole below the pay zone(s) to be fractured and of a solid gravel near the top of the pay zone to cause local fracturing through the dynamic reflection of the explosive gases. In the best cases, production increases realized with the technique are comparable to those obtained with conventional hydraulic fracturing in the area. A 35-mm downhole camera was developed and used to obtain photographs that show the absence of any vertical fracturing before the explosive treatments and well-developed vertical fractures in all zones designed to be fractured. This vertical fracturing is developed despite the fact that the in-situ stresses favor horizontal fracturing. The photographs also show that multiple radial fracturing, which might be expected with the high rates of the explosive loading, does not usually occur and that wellbore damage is less than predicted.

Young, C.; Barker, D.B.; Clark, H.C. Jr.

1986-07-01

482

Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

483

Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?  

SciTech Connect

The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

Simmons, M.R. [Simmons and Co. International, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-02-01

484

Thermal properties of explosives. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1964  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henkin`s test data are reported for comparisons of the following: dry-to-moist samples, PBX 9404 in brass and gold-plated blasting caps, Holston HMX with Bridgewater HMX, LX-04-1 and LX-04-1 + Ucon oil, and PETN, LX-04-1 and Extex. The time-to-explosion curves for HMX and PBX 9404 are also given. A description of the pyrolysis apparatus and the method of calibrating the sample

1997-01-01

485

Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials,\\u000a span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of\\u000a the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or\\u000a plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or

Suhithi M. Peiris; Jared C. Gump

486

Explosive welding: Principles and potentials  

SciTech Connect

Explosive welding is a solid-state process in which controlled explosive detonations force two or more metals together at high pressures. The resultant composite system is joined with a high-quality metallurgical bond. Explosive welding (or explosive bonding) is a high-pressure process in which contaminant surface films are plastically jetted off the base metals as a result of the collision of two metals. The time duration involved in the explosive welding event is so short that the reaction zone (or heat affected zone) between the constituent metals is microscopic. During the process, the first few atomic layers of each metal become plasma because of the high velocity of the impact (200 to 500 m/s, 660 to 1,640 ft/s.) The angle of collision causes the plasma to jet in front of the collision point, effectively scrub-cleaning both surfaces, and leaving clean metal behind.

Brasher, D.G.; Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States)

1995-03-01

487

The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

2002-07-05

488

Coexpressed RIG-I agonist enhances humoral immune response to influenza virus DNA vaccine.  

PubMed

Increasing levels of plasmid vector-mediated activation of innate immune signaling pathways is an approach to improve DNA vaccine-induced adaptive immunity for infectious disease and cancer applications. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a critical cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) pattern receptor required for innate immune activation in response to viral infection. Activation of RIG-I leads to type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokine production through interferon promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1)-mediated activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-?B signaling. DNA vaccines coexpressing antigen and an expressed RNA (eRNA) RIG-I agonist were made, and the effect of RIG-I activation on antigen-specific immune responses to the encoded antigen was determined. Plasmid vector backbones expressing various RIG-I ligands from RNA polymerase III promoters were screened in a cell culture assay for RIG-I agonist activity, and optimized, potent RIG-I ligands were developed. One of these, eRNA41H, combines (i) eRNA11a, an immunostimulatory dsRNA expressed by convergent transcription, with (ii) adenovirus VA RNAI. eRNA41H was integrated into the backbone of DNA vaccine vectors expressing H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). The resultant eRNA vectors potently induced type 1 IFN production in cell culture through RIG-I activation and combined high-level HA antigen expression with RNA-mediated type I IFN activation in a single plasmid vector. The eRNA vectors induced increased HA-specific serum antibody binding avidity after naked DNA intramuscular prime and boost delivery in mice. This demonstrates that DNA vaccine potency may be augmented by the incorporation of RIG-I-activating immunostimulatory RNA into the vector backbone. PMID:21106745

Luke, Jeremy M; Simon, Gregory G; Söderholm, Jonas; Errett, John S; August, J Thomas; Gale, Michael; Hodgson, Clague P; Williams, James A

2011-02-01

489