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Sample records for oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays

  1. The efficacy of an experimental oil-adjuvanted encephalomyocarditis vaccine in elephants, mice and pigs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, P; Swanepoel, S P; Esterhuysen, J J; Raath, J P; Bengis, R G; van der Lugt, J J

    1998-01-01

    An oil-adjuvanted inactivated encephalomyocarditis (EMC) vaccine was developed to protect a wild population of elephants against a natural outbreak of disease. The experimental vaccine was initially tested for efficacy by challenging mice and pigs. Mice showed protection against challenge and pigs developed high antibody levels. Since both vaccinated and control pigs failed to develop clinical disease, apparently due to the low virulence of the strain in this species, protection in pigs could not be evaluated. Vaccinated elephants developed high antibody titers which protected all vaccinates from a challenge roughly two months post-vaccination, whereas controls developed fatal or sub-clinical myocarditis. This is the first report of an inactivated EMC vaccine inducing high antibody titers in domestic and wild animal species. Due to the potency of this vaccine and the acceptability of the oil adjuvant used, it has potential for use in animals in zoological collections as well as in the pig industry. PMID:9607009

  2. Adverse and long-term protective effects following oil-adjuvanted vaccination against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic measures against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis, have been an active field of research for decades, with studies mainly focused on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In the present study we have examined the protective and adverse effects of mineral oil-adjuvanted injection vaccines on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A commercial vaccine and an experimental auto vaccine, as well as their respective adjuvant formulations alone were used to evaluate their individual effects, both prior to and during an experimental waterborne infection challenge. Macro- and microscopic examination revealed signs of vaccine-induced adverse effects from 10 weeks to 14 months post vaccination. Both vaccines induced statistically significant protection during the experimental challenge (P=0.018 for both vaccines), as well as significantly elevated levels of specific circulating antibodies prior to and during the experimental challenge when compared to an unvaccinated control group. During the early, critical time points of the infection, both vaccines appeared to protect against pathological changes to the liver and spleen, which provides a probable explanation for the reduced mortality seen in the vaccinated groups. A significant correlation was found between the level of A. salmonicida-specific antibodies measured prior to challenge and the endpoint survival of each group after the experimental infection, and furthermore, the levels of these antibodies remained elevated for at least 14 months post vaccination. PMID:25281580

  3. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and aluminium hydroxide are used. However, the use of saponin with an oil adjuvant is not common and is sometimes linked to toxicity. QS-21, which is less toxic than Quil A, has been presented as an alternative for use with saponin. In this study, the addition of QS-21 to a commercially available foot-and-mouth disease water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccine was evaluated in cattle. Materials and Methods After vaccination, serum samples were collected periodically over 3 months. Sera of the QS-21 and normal oil vaccine groups were compared via serum virus neutralization antibody titre and liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titre. Results The results showed that there was a significant early antibody increase in the QS-21 group. Conclusion Strong early virus neutralizing antibody response will be useful for emergency or ring vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease in target animals. PMID:27489804

  4. Effect of alum co-adjuvantation of oil adjuvant vaccine on emulsion stability and immune responses against haemorhagic septicaemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujeet; Chaturvedi, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Bablu; Kumar, Pankaj; Somarajan, Sudha Rani; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), caused by Pasteurella multocida, is the most important bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes in India. Oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV) is the most potent vaccine available for the control of HS. The study aims to evaluate the effect of alum co-adjuvantation of OAV on emulsion stability and immune response. Materials and Methods: Two different oil adjuvant vaccines viz., standard oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV) and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (A–OAV) were prepared with Pasteurella multocida antigen. Emulsion stability was tested by centrifugation, storage at 37 °C for 3 months and microscopy. Immune responses were evaluated by ELISA antibody titer, CD4, CD8 T cell populations and survival post challenge by P. multocida in mice. Results: The separation of aqueous and oil phase of emulsion by centrifugation and storage test were 0 and 6.76% in A-OAV as compared to 11.00 and 26.39% in OAV, respectively. The mean droplet size was significantly smaller (p<0.01) in A–OAV as compared to OAV. The A–OAV recorded higher ELISA antibody titer (p<0.05) up to 21st days post vaccination, and higher CD4 (p>0.05) and CD8 T cell (p<0.05) populations compared to OAV. The A–OAV group conferred 100% protection after challenge with both 100 LD50 and 1000 LD50 as compared to 100 and 60% respective protection by OAV group. Conclusion: The results indicates that A–OAV had better emulsion stability, produces higher level of CD4, CD8 T cells and antibody titer with better protection compared to oil adjuvant vaccine. PMID:26622968

  5. Concomitant turkey herpesvirus-infectious bursal disease vector vaccine and oil-adjuvanted inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine administration: consequences for vaccine intake and protection.

    PubMed

    Lemiere, Stephane; Fernández, Rafael; Pritchard, Nikki; Cruz-Coy, Julio; Rojo, Francisco; Wong, Siam Yit; Saint-Gerand, Anne-Lise; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Perozo, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Hatchery vaccination protocols in day-old chicks are designed to provide early priming and protection against several poultry diseases including, but not limited to, Marek's disease (MD), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND). The constraint of concomitant administration of live MD and IBD vaccines plus ND inactivated oil-adjuvanted vaccines (IOAVs) requires improvements in vaccine technology. Single-needle concomitant subcutaneous (SC) application of IBD/MDV and killed NDV vaccine and the use of viral vectors for expression of immunogenic proteins are a current trend in the industry. The objective of this work was to assess the compatibility of a turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-infectious bursal disease (vHVT-IBD) vector vaccine applied simultaneously with IOAV and to evaluate the consequences for vaccine intake, the need for additional immunizations with the respective vaccines, and protection. Five separate trials were performed using double- and/or single-needle injectors. The levels and persistence of vaccine intake, serologic response, vHVT-IBD virus combination with the MD Rispens strain, and/or live NDV vaccination were also assessed. Histopathology and PCR at injection sites showed adequate vaccine intake detected up to 44 days postvaccination. Serologic evidence of vaccine priming was observed, and all vaccinated groups differed (P < 0.05) from the control at different time points. MD, NDV, and IBD protection results after concomitant double-shot single-needle vaccination were near 85%, 95%, and 100%, respectively. Taken together the results indicate no deleterious effects on the efficacy of the vHVT-IBD vaccine monitored by vaccine intake, serologic and challenge results, and combinations after concomitant live/killed vaccination, suggesting the suitability of its use in hatchery vaccination. All types of injectors used as well as injection techniques, vaccines injected separately or together, gave the same results. PMID:22312985

  6. Development of an in vitro assay based on humoral immunity for quality control of oil-adjuvant Pseudotuberculosis vaccine in Yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Fumiya; Imamura, Saiki; Nakajima, Nao; Yamamoto, Kinya; Uchiyama, Mariko; Nagai, Hidetaka; Kijima, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is an infectious pathogen that causes Pseudotuberculosis in Yellowtail fish. In Japan, several oil-adjuvant vaccines for Pseudotuberculosis have been approved for control of infectious diseases in aquaculture. Before distribution of an approved fish vaccine, an artificial challenge test for quality control is performed by the manufacturer and National Veterinary Assay Laboratory under Pharmaceutical Law of Japan to confirm potency. In this study, artificial challenge tests with a range of five diluted or undiluted approved vaccines was performed to determine the relationship between antigen levels and vaccine efficacy. Immunization of fish with the undiluted vaccine prevented Pseudotuberculosis. Results of artificial challenge tests demonstrated vaccine efficiency was dose dependent. Agglutination assays using immune sera were performed to determine agglutination titers, which were also dose dependent. These results suggest a link between survival rate in the artificial challenge tests and agglutination titers. Western blotting analysis identified a specific protein approximately 37 kDa in size in vaccinated fish. We confirmed antibodies were produced in vaccinated fish by immunoreactions with the approved vaccine. An agglutination assay based on humoral immunoreactions would be a useful alternative to the artificial challenge test for quality control of vaccines for aquaculture. PMID:24325870

  7. Quantitative risk analysis applied to innocuity and potency tests on the oil-adjuvanted vaccine against foot and mouth disease in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Rodríguez Toledo, J; Falczuk, A; Leanes, L F; Manetti, J C; Maradei, E; Verde, P

    1995-12-01

    The authors describe the method used in Argentina for quantification of risk in controls of the potency and innocuity of foot and mouth disease vaccine. Quantitative risk analysis is a relatively new tool in the animal health field, and is in line with the principles of transparency and equivalency of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT: now World Trade Organisation [WTO]). The risk assessment is presented through a description of the steps involved in manufacturing the vaccine, and the controls performed by the manufacturer and by the National Health Animal Service (Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Animal: SENASA). The adverse situation is considered as the lack of potency or innocuity of the vaccine, and the risk is estimated using a combination of the Monte Carlo simulation and the application of a Bayesian model. PMID:8639949

  8. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education Programs and Tools VTrckS (Vaccine Tracking System) Immunization Registries (IIS) Vaccines for Children (VFC) Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project (VMBIP) Global Immunizations & Vaccinations Immunization Program ...

  9. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  10. Immunoprotective activity of a Salmonid Alphavirus Vaccine: comparison of the immune responses induced by inactivated whole virus antigen formulations based on CpG class B oligonucleotides and poly I:C alone or combined with an oil adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Thim, Hanna L; Iliev, Dimitar B; Christie, Karen E; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian F; Strandskog, Guro; Jørgensen, Jorunn B

    2012-07-01

    CpG oligonucleotides and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) are toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that mimic the immunostimulatory properties of bacterial DNA and double-stranded viral RNA respectively, and which have exhibited potential to serve as vaccine adjuvants in previous experiments. Here, a combination of CpGs and poly I:C together with water- or oil-formulated Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) antigen preparations has been used for a vaccine in Atlantic salmon and tested for protection in SAV challenge trial. The results demonstrate that vaccination with a high dose of the SAV antigen induced protection against challenge with SAV which correlated with production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). As the high antigen dose alone induced full protection, no beneficial effect from the addition of CpG and poly I:C could be observed. Nevertheless, these TLR ligands significantly enhanced the levels of NAbs in serum of vaccinated fish. Interestingly, gene expression analysis demonstrated that while addition of oil suppressed the CpG/poly I:C-induced expression of IFN-γ, the upregulation of IFNa1 was substantially enhanced. A low dose of the SAV antigen combined with oil did not induce any detectable levels of NAbs either with or without TLR ligands present, however the addition of CpG and poly I:C to the low SAV antigen dose formulation significantly enhanced the protection against SAV suggesting that CpG/poly I:C may have enhanced a cytotoxic response - a process which is dependent on the up-regulation of type I IFN. These results highlight the immunostimulatory properties of the tested TLR ligands and will serve as a ground for further, more detailed studies aimed to investigate their capacity to serve as adjuvants in vaccine formulations for Atlantic salmon. PMID:22634299

  11. Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R

    2015-03-15

    Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0 h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24 h (4 treatments × 6 replicates per treatment × 20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration. PMID:25638718

  12. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    PubMed

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed. PMID:24463951

  13. A game dynamic model for delayer strategies in vaccinating behaviour for pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, C T

    2010-12-01

    Several studies have found that some parents delay the age at which their children receive pediatric vaccines due to perception of higher vaccine risk at the recommended age of vaccination. This has been particularly apparently during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella scare in the United Kingdom. Under a voluntary vaccination policy, vaccine coverage in certain age groups is a potentially complex interplay between vaccinating behaviour, disease dynamics, and age-specific risk factors. Here, we construct an age-structured game dynamic model, where individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to imitation dynamics depending on age-dependent disease prevalence and perceived risk of vaccination. Individuals may be timely vaccinators, delayers, or non-vaccinators. The model exhibits multiple equilibria and a broad range of possible dynamics. For certain parameter regimes, the proportion of timely vaccinators and delayers oscillate in an anti-phase fashion in response to oscillations in infection prevalence. Under an exogenous change to the perceived risk of vaccination as might occur during a vaccine scare, the model can also capture an increase in delayer strategists similar in magnitude to that observed during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine scare in the United Kingdom. Our model also shows that number of delayers steadily increases with increasing severity of the scare, whereas it saturates to specific value with increases in duration of the scare. Finally, by comparing the model dynamics with and without the option of a delayer strategy, we show that adding a third delayer strategy can have a stabilizing effect on model dynamics. In an era where individual choice--rather than accessibility--is becoming an increasingly important determinant of vaccine uptake, more infectious disease models may need to use game theory or related techniques to determine vaccine uptake. PMID:20831873

  14. Delayed Anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine unrelated to known non-viral components.

    PubMed

    David, J; Horbal, J; Tcheurekdjian, H; Sher, T H; Hostoffer, R

    2015-09-01

    On February 4, 2010 the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted for universal flu vaccination to expand protection against the flu throughout the United States. In addition to this administration expansion, six new influenza vaccines have been introduced into the market possibly introducing new allergenic potentials. We report two cases of delayed anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine. PMID:26357001

  15. Infectious bursal disease DNA vaccination conferring protection by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of invading viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Tung, Chun-Yu; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2011-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of viral load and immune response in protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by DNA vaccination. Chickens were DNA-vaccinated and challenged with IBDV one week after the third vaccination. Tissues were collected at 12 hours postinfection (HPI), 1 day postinfection (DPI), 3, 5, 7 and 10 DPI. The vaccinated chickens had less viral RNA, with delayed appearance and shorter duration in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and cecal tonsil than the challenged control chickens. Their ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers were decreased at 12 HPI and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those in the challenged control chickens at later time points. Their spleen IFNγ expression was up-regulated compared to that in the DNA-vaccinated chickens without IBDV challenge. These results indicate that DNA vaccination confers protection against IBDV challenge by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of the invading viruses. PMID:21984266

  16. Analysis of an SIR Epidemic Model with Pulse Vaccination and Distributed Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shujing; Teng, Zhidong; Nieto, Juan J.; Torres, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Pulse vaccination, the repeated application of vaccine over a defined age range, is gaining prominence as an effective strategy for the elimination of infectious diseases. An SIR epidemic model with pulse vaccination and distributed time delay is proposed in this paper. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain the exact infection-free periodic solution of the impulsive epidemic system and prove that the infection-free periodic solution is globally attractive if the vaccination rate is larger enough. Moreover, we show that the disease is uniformly persistent if the vaccination rate is less than some critical value. The permanence of the model is investigated analytically. Our results indicate that a large pulse vaccination rate is sufficient for the eradication of the disease. PMID:18322563

  17. Risk Factors of Delay Proportional Probability in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis Vaccination of Iranian Children; Life Table Approach Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Mohsen; Rezaeimanesh, Masoomeh; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P < 0. 001). Moreover, child gender and parent's job were not significant factors (P > 0.05). Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care. PMID:26752871

  18. Live attenuated Salmonella vaccines displaying regulated delayed lysis and delayed antigen synthesis to confer protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Yang, Jiseon; Kader, Rebin; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E

    2012-02-01

    Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains have great potential to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by delivering M. tuberculosis antigens. Recently, we reported that, in orally immunized mice, RASV strains delivering the M. tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) antigens via the Salmonella type III secretion system (SopE amino-terminal region residues 1 to 80 with two copies of ESAT-6 and one copy of CFP-10 [SopE(Nt80)-E2C]) afforded protection against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. Here, we constructed and evaluated an improved Salmonella vaccine against M. tuberculosis. We constructed translational fusions for the synthesis of two copies of ESAT-6 plus CFP-10 fused to the OmpC signal sequence (OmpC(SS)-E2C) and amino acids 44 to 338 of antigen 85A (Ag85A(294)) flanked by the signal sequence (SS) and C-terminal peptide (CT) of β-lactamase (Bla(SS)-Ag85A(294)-Bla(CT)) to enable delivery via the Salmonella type II secretion system. The genes expressing these proteins were cloned as an operon transcribed from P(trc) into isogenic Asd(+)/MurA(+) pYA3681 lysis vector derivatives with different replication origins (pBR, p15A, pSC101), resulting in pYA4890, pYA4891, and pYA4892 for SopE(Nt80)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis and pYA4893 and pYA4894 for OmpC(SS)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis. Mice orally immunized with the RASV χ11021 strain engineered to display regulated delayed lysis and regulated delayed antigen synthesis in vivo and harboring pYA4891, pYA4893, or pYA4894 elicited significantly greater humoral and cellular immune responses, and the RASV χ11021 strain afforded a greater degree of protection against M. tuberculosis aerosol challenge in mice than RASVs harboring any other Asd(+)/MurA(+) lysis plasmid and immunization with M. bovis BCG, demonstrating that RASV strains displaying regulated delayed lysis with delayed antigen synthesis

  19. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    PubMed

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination. PMID:27195118

  20. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children

    PubMed Central

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3–5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination. PMID:27195118

  1. B Cell Responses Associated with Vaccine-Induced Delayed SIVmac251 Acquisition in Female Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Venkatramanan; Demberg, Thorsten; Musich, Thomas; Tuero, Iskra; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Miller-Novak, Leia; Venzon, David; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2016-09-15

    An established sex bias in HIV pathogenesis is linked to immune responses. Recently we reported a vaccine-induced sex bias: vaccinated female but not male rhesus macaques exhibited delayed SIV acquisition. This outcome was correlated with SIV Env-specific rectal IgA, rectal memory B cells, and total rectal plasma cells. To uncover additional contributing factors, using samples from the same study, we investigated memory B cell population dynamics in blood, bone marrow, and rectal tissue during immunization and postchallenge; IgG subtypes and Ab avidity; and regulatory B (Breg) cell frequency and function. Few sex differences were seen in Env-specific memory B cell, plasmablast, or plasma cell frequencies in the three compartments. Males had higher IgG Ab titers and avidity indices than females. However, females had elevated levels of Env-specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 Abs compared with males. gp140-specific IgG3 Abs of females but not males were correlated with Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity against gp120 targets (p = 0.026) and with Ab-dependent phagocytic activity (p = 0.010). IgG3 Ab of females but not males also correlated with decreased peak viremia (p = 0.028). Peripheral blood CD19(+)CD25(+) Breg cells suppressed T cell proliferation compared with CD19(+)CD25(-) cells (p = 0.031) and exhibited increased IL-10 mRNA expression (p = 0.031). Male macaques postvaccination (p = 0.018) and postinfection (p = 0.0048) exhibited higher Breg frequencies than females. Moreover, male Breg frequencies correlated with peak viremia (p = 0.0071). Our data suggest that vaccinated females developed better Ab quality, contributing to better functionality. The elevated Breg frequencies in males may have facilitated SIV acquisition. PMID:27534560

  2. Evaluation of regulated delayed attenuation strategies for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine vectors in neonatal and infant mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huoying; Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-06-01

    We developed regulated delayed attenuation strategies for Salmonella vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the combination of these strategies in recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine vectors with similar genetic backgrounds in vitro and in vivo. Our goal is to develop a vaccine to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in newborns; thus, all strains delivered a pneumococcal antigen PspA and the impact of maternal antibodies was evaluated. The results showed that all strains with the regulated delayed attenuated phenotype (RDAP) displayed an invasive ability stronger than that of the S. Typhi vaccine strain, Ty21a, but weaker than that of their corresponding wild-type parental strains. The survival curves of different RDAP vaccine vectors in vitro and in vivo exhibited diverse regulated delayed attenuation kinetics, which was different from S. Typhi Ty21a and the wild-type parental strains. Under the influence of maternal antibody, the persistence of the S. Typhimurium RDAP strain displayed a regulated delayed attenuation trend in nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT), lung, and Peyer's patches, while the persistence of S. Typhi RDAP strains followed the curve only in NALT. The bacterial loads of S. Typhi RDAP strains were lower in NALT, lung, and Peyer's patches in mice born to immune mothers than in those born to naive mothers. In accordance with these results, RDAP vaccine strains induced high titers of IgG antibodies against PspA and against Salmonella lipopolysaccharides. Immunization of mothers with S. Typhi RDAP strains enhanced the level of vaginal mucosal IgA, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and resulted in a higher level of protection against S. pneumoniae challenge. PMID:23616408

  3. Chloroquine neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development in a murine Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination model.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Tejram; Lambert, Lynn; Herrod, Jessica; Conteh, Solomon; Orr-Gonzalez, Sachy; Carter, Dariyen; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-01-01

    Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination (CVac) confers long lasting sterile protection against homologous parasite strains in humans, and involves inoculation of infectious sporozoites (SPZ) under drug cover. CVac using the drug chloroquine (CQ) induces pre-erythrocytic immunity in humans that includes antibody to SPZ and T-cell responses to liver stage (LS) parasites. The mechanism by which CVac with CQ induces strong protective immunity is not understood as untreated infections do not confer protection. CQ kills blood stage parasites, but its effect on LS parasites is poorly studied. Here we hypothesized that CQ may prolong or perturb LS development of Plasmodium, as a potential explanation for enhanced pre-erythrocytic immune responses. Balb/c mice with or without CQ prophylaxis were infected with sporozoite forms of a luciferase-expressing rodent parasite, Plasmodium yoelii-Luc (Py-Luc). Mice that received primaquine, a drug that kills LS parasites, served as a positive control of drug effect. Parasite burden in liver was measured both by bioluminescence and by qRT-PCR quantification of parasite transcript. Time to appearance of parasites in the blood was monitored by microscopic analysis of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. The parasite load in livers of CQ-treated and untreated mice did not significantly differ at any of the time points studied. Parasites appeared in the blood smears of both CQ-treated and untreated mice 3 days after infection. Taken together, our findings confirm that CQ neither eliminates LS parasites nor delays their development. Further investigations into the mechanism of CQ-induced protection after CVac are required, and may give insights relevant to drug and vaccine development. PMID:25914686

  4. Chloroquine neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development in a murine Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination model

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Tejram; Lambert, Lynn; Herrod, Jessica; Conteh, Solomon; Orr-Gonzalez, Sachy; Carter, Dariyen; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination (CVac) confers long lasting sterile protection against homologous parasite strains in humans, and involves inoculation of infectious sporozoites (SPZ) under drug cover. CVac using the drug chloroquine (CQ) induces pre-erythrocytic immunity in humans that includes antibody to SPZ and T-cell responses to liver stage (LS) parasites. The mechanism by which CVac with CQ induces strong protective immunity is not understood as untreated infections do not confer protection. CQ kills blood stage parasites, but its effect on LS parasites is poorly studied. Here we hypothesized that CQ may prolong or perturb LS development of Plasmodium, as a potential explanation for enhanced pre-erythrocytic immune responses. Balb/c mice with or without CQ prophylaxis were infected with sporozoite forms of a luciferase-expressing rodent parasite, Plasmodium yoelii-Luc (Py-Luc). Mice that received primaquine, a drug that kills LS parasites, served as a positive control of drug effect. Parasite burden in liver was measured both by bioluminescence and by qRT-PCR quantification of parasite transcript. Time to appearance of parasites in the blood was monitored by microscopic analysis of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. The parasite load in livers of CQ-treated and untreated mice did not significantly differ at any of the time points studied. Parasites appeared in the blood smears of both CQ-treated and untreated mice 3 days after infection. Taken together, our findings confirm that CQ neither eliminates LS parasites nor delays their development. Further investigations into the mechanism of CQ-induced protection after CVac are required, and may give insights relevant to drug and vaccine development. PMID:25914686

  5. Gradual reduction of testosterone using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination delays castration resistance in a prostate cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Jesús A. Junco; Millar, Robert P.; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Pimentel, Eulogio; Basulto, Roberto; Calzada, Lesvia; Morán, Rolando; Rodríguez, Ayni; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Castro, Maria D.; Bringas, Ricardo; Arteaga, Niurka; Toudurí, Henio; Rabassa, Mauricio; Fernández, Yairis; Serradelo, Andrés; Hernández, Eduardo; Guillén, Gerardo E.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study aimed to design a novel prostate cancer vaccine, the authors of the present study demonstrated the advantage of combining the adjuvants Montanide ISA 51 with very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) to promote a significant humoral immune response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy animals. The present study compared the efficacy of this vaccine formulation versus the standard treatment currently available in terms of preventing the development of tumors in DD/S mice injected with Shionogi carcinoma (SC) 115 cells. The results demonstrated that 5 non-vaccinated control mice exhibited a fast tumor growth, and succumbed to the disease within 19–31 days. Mice immunized with the GnRH/Montanide ISA 51/VSSP vaccine exhibited a moderate decline in testosterone levels that was associated with a decrease in anti-GnRH antibody titers, which lead to a sustained tumor growth inhibition. In total, 2 mice in the immunized group exhibited complete remission of the tumor for the duration of the present study. In addition, castrated mice, which were used as a control for standard hormonal therapy, exhibited an accelerated decrease in tumor size. However, tumor relapse was observed between days 50 and 54, and between days 65 and 85, following the injection of SC 155 cells. Therefore, these mice were sacrificed at day 90. The present study concludes that the slow and moderate reduction of testosterone levels observed using the GnRH-based vaccine may delay the appearance of castration resistance in a Shionogi prostate cancer model. These findings suggest that this vaccine may be used to delay castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:27446378

  6. Initial design and physical characterization of a polymeric device for osmosis-driven delayed burst delivery of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Fehr, Ingo; Reitz, Annika S; Dunker, Urip; Beagley, Kenneth W; Dargaville, Tim R; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2015-09-01

    Achieving the combination of delayed and immediate release of a vaccine from a delivery device without applying external triggers remains elusive in implementing single administration vaccination strategies. Here a means of vaccine delivery is presented, which exploits osmosis to trigger delayed burst release of an active compound. Poly(ε-caprolactone) capsules of 2 mm diameter were prepared by dip-coating, and their burst pressure and release characteristics were evaluated. Burst pressures (in bar) increased with wall thickness (t in mm) following Pburst  = 131(.) t + 3(.) 4 (R(2)  = 0.93). Upon immersion in PBS, glucose solution-filled capsules burst after 8.7 ± 2.9 days. Copolymers of hydrophobic ε -caprolactone and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol were synthesized and their physico-chemical properties were assessed. With increasing hydrophilic content, the copolymer capsules showed increased water uptake rates and maximum weight increase, while the burst release was earlier: 5.6 ± 2.0 days and 1.9 ± 0.2 days for 5 and 10 wt% polyethylene glycol, respectively. The presented approach enables the reproducible preparation of capsules with high versatility in materials and properties, while these vaccine delivery vehicles can be prepared separately from, and independently of the active compound. PMID:25787134

  7. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  8. Transient CD4+ T Cell Depletion Results in Delayed Development of Functional Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Bricault, Christine A.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Larocca, Rafael A.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Seaman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have recently demonstrated that CD4+ T cell help is required at the time of adenovirus (Ad) vector immunization for the development of functional CD8+ T cell responses, but the temporal requirement for CD4+ T cell help for the induction of antibody responses remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that induction of antibody responses in C57BL/6 mice can occur at a time displaced from the time of Ad vector immunization by depletion of CD4+ T cells. Transient depletion of CD4+ T cells at the time of immunization delays the development of antigen-specific antibody responses but does not permanently impair their development or induce tolerance against the transgene. Upon CD4+ T cell recovery, transgene-specific serum IgG antibody titers develop and reach a concentration equivalent to that in undepleted control animals. These delayed antibody responses exhibit no functional defects with regard to isotype, functional avidity, expansion after boosting immunization, or the capacity to neutralize a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env-expressing pseudovirus. The development of this delayed transgene-specific antibody response is temporally linked to the expansion of de novo antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, which develop after transient depletion of CD4+ T cells. These data demonstrate that functional vaccine-elicited antibody responses can be induced even if CD4+ T cell help is provided at a time markedly separated from the time of vaccination. IMPORTANCE CD4+ T cells have a critical role in providing positive help signals to B cells, which promote robust antibody responses. The paradigm is that helper signals must be provided immediately upon antigen exposure, and their absence results in tolerance against the antigen. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to the current model that the absence of CD4+ T cell help at priming results in long-term antibody nonresponsiveness, antibody responses can be induced by adenovirus vector immunization or alum

  9. Greater efficacy of the ECMS-oil adjuvant over other formulations on immune responses against Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chenwen; Bao, Guolian; Liu, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Ji, Quanan; Liu, Yaping; Pan, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    the ECMS800μg+oil groups was significantly higher than the oil, ECMS800μg and control using antigen alone group (p<0.05). ECMS-oil adjuvant mixture could most effectively protect B. bronchiseptica immunized rabbits and, therefore, could be an alternative way of improving B. bronchiseptica vaccination in rabbits. PMID:27288753

  10. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  11. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions. PMID:26629620

  12. The serological response of the chicken to a protein antigen in multiple emulsion oil adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    In adult chickens administration of 4 mg of bovine serum albumin as a multiple emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) by the s.c., i.m. or i.p. route stimulated a persistent precipitin response that was still detectable in nine out of twelve birds when the experiment was terminated 286 days after injection. In each group the mean serum total antibody response curve was biphasic. An initial rapid response, reaching a peak of 350–500 μg antibody N/ml of serum on day 7–9, declined in fluctuating fashion and was succeeded after 30–60 days by a slower sustained rise in antibody level, reaching a peak similar to that of the initial response. Splenectomy impaired precipitin production, delayed and suppressed the initial phase of antibody synthesis, but did not significantly alter the second phase. Synthesis during the secondary phase is considered to proceed in the granulomata where, in contrast to other tissues of the body, antigen remains in readily detectable amounts for several weeks after injection. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4202421

  13. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  14. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs. PMID:26685562

  15. Optimal Vaccination of an Endemic Model with Variable Infectivity and Infinite Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Gul; Saito, Yasuhisa; Khan, Madad

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we consider a nonlinear SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infectious, and removed) endemic model, which describes the dynamics of the interaction between susceptible and infected individuals in a population. The model represents the disease evolution through a system of nonlinear differential equations with variable infectivity which determines that the infectivity of an infected individual may not be constant during the time after infection. To control the spread of infection and to find a vaccination schedule for an endemic situation, we use optimal control strategies which reduce the susceptible, exposed, and infected individuals and increase the total number of recovered individuals. In order to do this, we introduce the optimal control problem with a suitable control function using an objective functional. We first show the existence of an optimal control for the control problem and then derive the optimality system. Finally the numerical simulations of the model is identified to fit realistic measurement which shows the effectiveness of the model.

  16. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... help the body defend itself against foreign invaders. As the antigens invade the body's tissues, they attract ... the suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of ...

  17. A study on the immune response of sheep to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine type 'O' prepared with different inactivants and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Nair, S P; Sen, A K

    1992-10-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) type 'O' was inactivated either with formaldehyde or binaryethyleneimine (BEI). Vaccines were prepared with inactivated virus incorporating aluminum hydroxide gel or mineral oil as an adjuvant. The antibody response in sheep was monitored by serum neutralization and ELISA test for a period of six months. Significant difference in antibody response was not observed between vaccines inactivated with formaldehyde or BEI. On the other hand significant difference in the antibody response was noticed between alhydrogel and oil vaccines. The high titer of antibodies stimulated by oil adjuvant vaccines persisted longer than those of alhydrogel vaccines within the period of study. PMID:1364024

  18. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine. PMID:22129866

  19. ALVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env-Based Vaccination and Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (A*01) Delay Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac-Induced Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pal, R.; Venzon, D.; Letvin, N. L.; Santra, S.; Montefiori, D. C.; Miller, N. R.; Tryniszewska, E.; Lewis, M. G.; VanCott, T. C.; Hirsch, V.; Woodward, R.; Gibson, A.; Grace, M.; Dobratz, E.; Markham, P. D.; Hel, Z.; Nacsa, J.; Klein, M.; Tartaglia, J.; Franchini, G.

    2002-01-01

    T-cell-mediated immune effector mechanisms play an important role in the containment of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) replication after infection. Both vaccination- and infection-induced T-cell responses are dependent on the host major histocompatibility complex classes I and II (MHC-I and MHC-II) antigens. Here we report that both inherent, host-dependent immune responses to SIVmac251 infection and vaccination-induced immune responses to viral antigens were able to reduce virus replication and/or CD4+ T-cell loss. Both the presence of the MHC-I Mamu-A*01 genotype and vaccination of rhesus macaques with ALVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env (ALVAC-SIV-gpe) contributed to the restriction of SIVmac251 replication during primary infection, preservation of CD4+ T cells, and delayed disease progression following intrarectal challenge exposure of the animals to SIVmac251 (561). ALVAC-SIV-gpe immunization induced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses cumulatively in 67% of the immunized animals. Following viral challenge, a significant secondary virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response was observed in the vaccinated macaques. In the same immunized macaques, a decrease in virus load during primary infection (P = 0.0078) and protection from CD4 loss during both acute and chronic phases of infection (P = 0.0099 and P = 0.03, respectively) were observed. A trend for enhanced survival of the vaccinated macaques was also observed. Neither boosting the ALVAC-SIV-gpe with gp120 immunizations nor administering the vaccine by the combination of mucosal and systemic immunization routes increased significantly the protective effect of the ALVAC-SIV-gpe vaccine. While assessing the role of MHC-I Mamu-A*01 alone in the restriction of viremia following challenge of nonvaccinated animals with other SIV isolates, we observed that the virus load was not significantly lower in Mamu-A*01-positive macaques following intravenous challenge with either SIVmac251 (561) or

  20. An adenoviral cancer vaccine co-encoding a tumor associated antigen together with secreted 4-1BBL leads to delayed tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Laursen, Henriette; Holst, Peter J

    2016-04-19

    Previous studies have shown promising results when using an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody treatment against established tumors. While this is promising, this type of treatment can induce severe side effects. Therefore, we decided to incorporate the membrane form of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) in a replicative deficient adenovirus vaccine expressing the invariant chain (Ii) adjuvant fused to a tumor associated antigen (TAA). The Ii adjuvant increases and prolongs TAA specific CD8+ T cells as previously shown and local expression of 4-1BBL was chosen to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic antibody administration. Furthermore, adenovirus encoded 4-1BBL expression has previously been successfully used to enhance responses toward Plasmodium falciparum and Influenza A antigens. We showed that the incorporation of 4-1BBL in the adenovirus vector led to surface expression of 4-1BBL on antigen presenting cells, but it did not enhance T cell responses in mice towards the Ii linked antigen. In tumor-bearing mice, our vaccine was found to decrease the frequency of TAA specific CD8+ T cells, but this difference did not alter the therapeutic efficacy. In order to reconcile our findings with the previous reports of increased anti-cancer efficacy using systemically delivered 4-1BB agonists, we incorporated a secreted version of 4-1BBL (Fc-4-1BBL) in our vaccine and co-expressed it with the Ii linked to TAA. In tumor bearing mice, this vaccine initially delayed tumor growth and slightly increased survival compared to the vaccine expressing the membrane form of 4-1BBL. Accordingly, secreted 4-1BBL co-encoded with the Ii linked antigen may offer a simplification compared to administration of drug and vaccine separately. PMID:27004934

  1. Indoor Air Pollution and Delayed Measles Vaccination Increase the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in Children: Results from a Case-Control Study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    PrayGod, George; Mukerebe, Crispin; Magawa, Ruth; Jeremiah, Kidola; Török, M. Estée

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014. Cases were children with severe pneumonia and controls were children with other illnesses. Data on demography, social-economical status, nutritional status, environmental factors, vaccination status, vitamin A supplementation and deworming, and nasopharyngeal carriage were collected and analysed using logistic regression. Results 117 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45 were cases and 72 controls. Cases were younger than controls, but there were no differences in social-economic or nutritional status between the two groups. In multiple regression, we found that an increased risk of severe pneumonia was associated with cooking indoors (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1), and delayed measles vaccination (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 14.8). The lack of vitamin A supplementation in the preceding six month and Enterobacter spp nasopharyngeal carriage were not associated with higher risk of severe pneumonia. Age ≥24 months (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.8) and not receiving antibiotics before referral (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) were associated with lower risk for severe pneumonia. Conclusions Indoor air pollution and delayed measles vaccination increase the risk for severe pneumonia among children aged below five years. Interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and to promote timely administration of measles vaccination are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe pneumonia in children in Tanzania PMID:27508389

  2. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein) Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen.

    PubMed

    Thim, Hanna L; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian; Christie, Karen Elina; Grove, Søren; Frost, Petter; Jørgensen, Jorunn B

    2014-01-01

    Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV) as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs) before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing receptor (PRR

  3. Prevention of hepatitis B infection in newborns through mass screening and delayed vaccination of all infants of mothers with hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Schalm, S W; Mazel, J A; de Gast, G C; Heijtink, R A; Botman, M J; Bänffer, J R; Cerards, L J; Zwijnenberg, J; Fetter, W P; Nuijten, S M

    1989-06-01

    Beginning in 1982 all pregnant women undergoing prenatal routine blood analysis in three large city hospitals and one large rural area were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Infants of all HBsAg-positive mothers received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg), 0.5 mL/kg of body weight within two hours of birth and, after randomization, 10 micrograms of hepatitis B vaccine either at 0, 1, 2, and 11 months of age (schedule A) or at 3, 4, 5, and 11 months of age (schedule B). A second injection of HBIg (1 mL) was given to infants on schedule B at 3 months of age. Blood samples were obtained at 3, 6, 11, 12, 24, and 36 months. In a two-year period, 28,412 pregnant women were tested for HBsAg; screening efficiency varied between 85% and 98%. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8%, with a marked variation between urban centers (2.2%) and the rural area (0.3%). Vaccinations were received by 180 of 193 infants of HBsAg-positive mothers (90 on schedule A and 90 on schedule B). Concentrations of hepatitis B surface antibody less than 10 IU/L were observed in nine instances in five children from group A and in seven instances in six children from group B. Four hepatitis B viral infections (two HBsAg carriers, two who underwent antihepatitis B core seroconversions) were recorded in group A v one infection (antihepatitis B core seroconversion) in group B. The protective efficacy of the program (screening plus passive immunization and delayed vaccination) was 94%. The estimated cost of preventing one cae of hepatitis B infection in neonates was $3,000 (US currency).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2726331

  4. Protection of sheep against experimental footrot by vaccination with pili purified from Bacteroides nodosus.

    PubMed

    Every, D; Skerman, T M

    1982-10-01

    Merino sheep vaccinated with either whole Bacteroides nodosus organisms, a crude surface antigen preparation or highly purified pili (>99% homogeneity) in oil adjuvant, developed significant resistance to artificial footrot infection when compared with unvaccinated control sheep inoculated with saline-in-oil emulsion (Freund;s incomplete adjuvant) alone. The pili-vaccinated sheep generally had higher K-agglutinating antibody titres than sheep vaccinated with whole B. nodosus. These results confirmed the role of B. nodosus pilus protein both as a protective antigen and the K-agglutinogen. Vaccines prepared with Freund;s incomplete adjuvant containing either purified pili, crude pili or B. nodosus whole cells did not produce significantly different injection-site reactions. PMID:16030827

  5. A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs.

    PubMed

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Hooker, Brian S; King, Paul G; Sykes, Lisa K; Geier, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg) exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n=49,835) using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs) administered at specific intervals in the first 6months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9): 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5.81years. Infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2months, and the first 6months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development than infants receiving no Hg doses from T-HBVs. During the decade in which T-HBVs were routinely recommended and administered to US infants (1991-2001), an estimated 0.5-1million additional US children were diagnosed with specific delays in development as a consequence of 25μg or 37.5μg organic Hg from T-HBVs administered within the first 6months of life. The resulting lifetime costs to the United States may exceed $1 trillion. PMID:26166425

  6. Vaccine hesitancy: Definition, scope and determinants.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    The SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy concluded that vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services. Vaccine hesitancy is complex and context specific, varying across time, place and vaccines. It is influenced by factors such as complacency, convenience and confidence. The Working Group retained the term 'vaccine' rather than 'vaccination' hesitancy, although the latter more correctly implies the broader range of immunization concerns, as vaccine hesitancy is the more commonly used term. While high levels of hesitancy lead to low vaccine demand, low levels of hesitancy do not necessarily mean high vaccine demand. The Vaccine Hesitancy Determinants Matrix displays the factors influencing the behavioral decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine/vaccination-specific influences. PMID:25896383

  7. [The effect of adjuvant substances on the antigenic activity of cellular antirabies vaccine in experiments on cattle].

    PubMed

    Augustinský, V; Svrcek, S; Vrtiak, O J; Závadová, J; Benísek, Z; Ondrejka, R; Beninghaus, T

    1983-12-01

    Trials were conducted with young cattle to study the effect of adjuvants, applied subcutaneously and intramuscularly, upon the antigenic activity of live and inactivated cell rabies vaccine prepared from the Vnukovo -32 strain at the level of the 107th series cell passage. Cerebral vaccine of Fermi type was also used in the trials for comparison. The antibodies were parallelly titrated by four methods, three of which were conducted in vitro. The levels of antirabies antibodies indicate a possibility of fortifying the antigenic activities of inactivated vaccine by means of the Bioveta Nitra oil adjuvant and the activities of the live vaccine by means of adjuvant prepared after Buchnev . The antigenic activity of the Czechoslovak-produced cerebral rabies vaccine for veterinary use is extraordinarily low. PMID:6426120

  8. Increased humoral immune responses of pigs to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine supplemented with ginseng stem and leaf saponins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutao; Xie, Feng; Chen, Jian; Fan, Qing; Zhai, Lijuan; Hu, Songhua

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination is a conventional approach against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. However, failure to elicit an immune response to vaccine has been reported. Our previous investigation showed that ginseng stem and leaf saponins (GSLS) and mineral oil acted synergistically to promote Th1/Th2 immune responses to FMD vaccine in mice. This study was designed to i) find the optimal doses of GSLS in oil-emulsified FMD vaccines to induce immune responses in mice and pigs and ii) to evaluate the effect of oil-emulsified FMD vaccine supplemented with GSLS on the immune responses in pigs, by measuring the serum indirect hemagglutination (IHA) titer and IgG and IgG subclass levels. The GSLS-enhanced immune response to FMD oil-emulsion vaccine depended on the dose of GSLS added to the vaccine. Addition of GSLS at a dose of 40 μg to 2 ml of FMD oil-emulsified vaccine significantly enhanced the humoral immune responses in pigs, when compared to the vaccine without GSLS (P<0.05). The increased antibodies included IgG1 and IgG2. Hence, GSLS and oil adjuvant synergistically promoted the immune responses to vaccination against FMD in pigs, and GSLS could be a promising vaccine additive to improve oil-emulsified veterinary vaccines. PMID:23081923

  9. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  10. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  11. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M; Krossøy, Bjørn; Kania, Per W; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furunculosis. Fish were vaccinated with three different adjuvanted trivalent vaccines containing formalin killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a. These were 1) the commercial vaccine Alpha Ject 3000, 2) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil adjuvant, 3) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil in water adjuvant. Fish were then exposed to A. salmonicida challenge using i.p. injection, cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater (15 ppt) or combined fresh/saltwater cohabitation. Cohabitation reflects a more natural infection mode and was shown to give better differentiation of vaccine types compared to i.p. injection of live bacteria. The latter infection mode is less successful probably due to the intra-abdominal inflammatory reactions (characterized in this study according to the Speilberg scale) induced by i.p. vaccination whereby injected live bacteria more effectively become inactivated at the site of injection. Compared to cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater was less efficient probably due to reduced survivability of A. salmonicida in saltwater, which was also experimentally verified in vitro. PMID:25783001

  12. Marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion.

    PubMed

    Fowler, V L; Knowles, N J; Paton, D J; Barnett, P V

    2010-04-26

    Previous work in cattle and pigs demonstrated that protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) could be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines, in which the VP1 G-H loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. This indicated that the VP1 G-H loop may not be essential for the protection of natural hosts against FMDV. If this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop FMD marker vaccines, characterised by the absence of this region. Here, we investigate the serological responses to vaccination with a virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in order to determine the likelihood of achieving protection and the potential of this virus as a marker vaccine. Inactivated, oil adjuvanted, vaccines, consisting of chemically inactivated virus with or without a partially deleted VP1 G-H loop, were used to immunise cattle. Serum was collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and antibody titres calculated using the virus neutralisation test (VNT) to estimate the likelihood of protection. We predict a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with a vaccine characterised by a partial VP1 G-H loop would be protected against challenge with the same virus containing the VP1 G-H loop. We also present evidence on the potential of such a construct to act as a marker vaccine, when used in conjunction with a novel serological test. PMID:20199761

  13. Polio Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... inactive polio vaccine OPV=oral polio vaccine Polio Vaccination Pronounced [PO-lee-oh] Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... handling and storage Related Pages Global Vaccines and Immunization Global Polio Also Known As & Abbreviations Polio=poliomyelitis ...

  14. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  15. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  16. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  17. The effectiveness of anti-R. equi hyperimmune plasma against R. equi challenge in thoroughbred Arabian foals of mares vaccinated with R. equi vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge. PMID:24982958

  18. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge. PMID:24982958

  19. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  20. Vaccination strategies to prevent emerging diseases for Spanish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L; Ravelo, C; López-Romalde, S; Avendaño-Herrera, R; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in Spanish aquaculture. These are lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by Pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (Solea spp). To obtain useful information for the design and development of new vaccines, antigenic characterisation of representative strains was performed. In this work we present the strategies adopted for the vaccine formulation (strains included, use of adjuvants) and administration (route, necessity of booster, etc.). The results from laboratory and/or field vaccination trials performed showed that for lactococcosis, protection lasting for five months was obtained with an oil-adjuvanted bacterin formulation. Unadjuvanted bacterin gave only a short duration of protection, which could, however, be prolonged by an antigen boost administered via the feed. A bacterin against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica gave protection for 12 weeks when tested in an experimental challenge trial in turbot. Besides the flexibacteriosis vaccine developed by our group for turbot, and due to the antigenic host-associated variability within T. maritimum, a new bacterin was developed against this bacterium to be used specifically in sole. This new bacterin, administered to sole by intraperitoneal injection, yielded RPS values of 94 % six weeks after immunization. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination constitutes a cost-effective method of controlling diseases that have emerged in the most important fish species being cultured in Spain. PMID:15962472

  1. Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  2. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  3. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123(3):712-8. PMID: ...

  4. Footrot vaccines and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dhungyel, Om; Hunter, James; Whittington, Richard

    2014-05-30

    Research on footrot in small ruminants, which is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, has led to development of vaccines and their application for control, treatment and eradication of the disease in sheep. Footrot vaccines have evolved over decades to contain monovalent whole cell, multivalent recombinant fimbrial, and finally mono or bivalent recombinant fimbrial antigens. Initially whole cell vaccines made against the few known serogroups of D. nodosus were found to be inefficient in control of the disease in the field, which was attributed to the presence of other unidentified serogroups and also the use of inefficient adjuvants. Fimbriae or pili, which are the basis for antigenic variation, were found to be the major protective and also curative antigens but they are not cross protective between the different serogroups. Multivalent vaccines incorporating all the known serogroups have been proven to be of limited efficacy due to the phenomenon of antigenic competition. Recent studies in Nepal, Bhutan and Australia have shown that outbreak-specific vaccination which involves targeting identified serogroups with mono- or bivalent recombinant fimbrial vaccines, can be very effective in sheep and goats. Where multiple serogroups are present in a flock, antigenic competition can be overcome by sequentially targeting the serogroups with different bivalent vaccines every 3 months. A common antigen which would confer immunity to all serogroups would be the ideal immunogen but the initial studies were not successful in this area. Until universal antigen/s are available, flock specific mono or bivalent fimbrial vaccines are likely to be the most effective tool for control and eradication of footrot in sheep and goats. Future research in footrot vaccines should be focused on improving the duration of prophylaxis by incorporating new and emerging immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles, discovering a common antigen and understanding the mechanisms of

  5. [Vaccination perspectives].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Plotkin, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of vaccinology is to improve the available vaccines and to develop new ones in the light of progress in immunology, molecular biology and biotechnologies. But it must go beyond this, and aim to protect all populations and control diseases, even eradicate them where possible. New vaccine strategies must be developed taking into account the epidemiology of diseases and the inherent logistic problems of implementing these strategies under local conditions. There are three major thrusts to the progress of the discipline. The improvement of the vaccines available. One of the drives of vaccinology is not only to deliver vaccines of increasing safety (replacement of the current vaccine for whooping cough with an acellular vaccine for example), but also to improve vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (in particular for flu, tuberculosis, cholera and rabies vaccines). The optimisation of vaccination programmes and strategies for vaccinations. The ideal is to protect against the greatest possible number of diseases with the smallest number of vaccinations. The development of combinations of vaccines is central to this goal. The objective for the year 2000 is a hexavalent vaccine DTPP Hib HB. The development of new vaccines. Classic techniques continue to be successfully used (inactivated hepatitis A vaccine; attenuated live vaccines for chicken pox and dengue fever; conjugated polyosidic bacterial vaccines for meningococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae). However, it will become possible to prepare vaccines against most transmissible diseases using genetic engineering techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921696

  6. Technical and economic evaluation of different methods of Newcastle disease vaccine administration.

    PubMed

    Degefa, T; Dadi, L; Yami, A; GMariam, K; Nassir, M

    2004-01-01

    Two types of locally produced live vaccines (HB1 and La Sota--lentogenic strains) and inactivated oil adjuvant (IOAV) vaccine were used to compare the efficiency of three vaccination techniques, namely drinking water, ocular and spray on broiler chicks. The ocular route of vaccination on 1-day-old chicks followed by a booster dose on the third week through the same route induced a significantly higher level of haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre (P < 0.0001). The highest mean antibody titre was log(2) 6.6 and 93.3% of the chicks were protected from the challenge. The spray technique induced a lower antibody titre (peak of log(2) 5.9) and only 53% of the chicks in this treatment survived against the challenge. The results of this study show that the ocular route is superior to the drinking water route, which is superior to the spray technique. The economic analysis result showed that the ocular HB1 and La Sota vaccine administration method to 1- and 21-day-old chicks gave the highest revenue followed by the drinking water method. In terms of total cost, the injection method required the highest cost (0.21 birr/chick) followed by the ocular method (0.18 birr/chick). The marginal cost of vaccine administration is too small compared with marginal revenues from relative effectiveness of the methods. The internal rate of return for the ocular method was very high. The results of sensitive analysis on revenues from different vaccination methods indicate that a 25% reduction in broiler price reduces the marginal revenue from the ocular method by 12 487 birr but this still does not prove that the ocular method is economically viable for small- and medium-scale poultry farms. PMID:15533121

  7. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  8. Epidemiology of vaccine hesitancy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mariam; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions against infectious diseases. However, there is evidence in the United States for parents either delaying or refusing recommended childhood vaccination. Exemptions to school immunization laws and use of alternative schedule from those recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics cannot only increase the risk of children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases but also increases the risk of infecting others who are either too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons or did not develop a sufficient immunological response to the vaccine. Healthcare providers are cited as the most influential source by parents on vaccine decision-making. Vaccine hesitancy needs to be addressed by healthcare providers and the scientific community by listening to the parental concerns and discussing risks associated with either delaying or refusing vaccines. PMID:24247148

  9. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. PMID:27012913

  10. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  11. Diphtheria Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook ... Related Pages Pertussis Tetanus Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Abbreviations DTaP=Pediatric - Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis ...

  12. Delayed discharge.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Essential facts Delays in discharging older peo ple from hospital cost the NHS £820 million a year, according to a report from the National Audit Office (NAO). Last year in acute hospitals, 1.15 million bed days were lost to delayed transfers of care, an increase of 31% since 2013. The NAO says rising demand for NHS services is compounded by reduced local authority spending on adult social care - down by 10% since 2009-10. PMID:27380673

  13. Giardia vaccination.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Ceri, H; Morck, D W

    2000-05-01

    Recently, a Giardia vaccine has become commercially available in the USA for prevention of clinical signs of giardiasis and reduction of cyst shedding in dogs and cats. The vaccine is based upon the current state of knowledge of Giardia antigenicity and immunology. Here, Merle Olson, Howard Ceri and Douglas Morck describe studies that led to the development of this vaccine and subsequent efficacy studies. Immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapeutic application of the vaccine are discussed. PMID:10782082

  14. International Dengue Vaccine Communication and Advocacy: Challenges and Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Van Roy, Rebecca; Andrus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Dengue vaccine introduction will likely occur soon. However, little has been published on international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy. More effort at the international level is required to review, unify and strategically disseminate dengue vaccine knowledge to endemic countries' decision makers and potential donors. Waiting to plan for the introduction of new vaccines until licensure may delay access in developing countries. Concerted efforts to communicate and advocate for vaccines prior to licensure are likely challenged by unknowns of the use of dengue vaccines and the disease, including uncertainties of vaccine impact, vaccine access and dengue's complex pathogenesis and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the international community has the opportunity to apply previous best practices for vaccine communication and advocacy. The following key strategies will strengthen international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy: consolidating existing coalitions under one strategic umbrella, urgently convening stakeholders to formulate the roadmap for integrated dengue prevention and control, and improving the dissemination of dengue scientific knowledge. PMID:26855170

  15. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Not Get Chickenpox Vaccine Types of Chickenpox Vaccine Child and Adult Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Also Known As & Abbreviations ...

  16. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  18. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  19. Developmental delay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  20. Dengue vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir Singh; SK, Shashikantha

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has emerged as one of the major global public health problems. The disease has broken out of its shell and has spread due to increased international travel and climatic changes. Globally, over 2.5 billion people accounting for >40% of the world's population are at risk from dengue. Since the 1940s, dengue vaccines have been under investigation. A live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV) has progressed to phase III efficacy studies. Dengue vaccine has been found to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality. Current dengue vaccine candidates aim to protect against the 4 dengue serotypes, but the recent discovery of a fifth serotype could complicate vaccine development. In recent years, an urgent need has been felt for a vaccine to prevent the morbidity and mortality from this disease in a cost-effective way. PMID:25424928

  1. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:25109229

  2. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  3. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O 1 BFS 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hema, M; Chandran, D; Nagendrakumar, S B; Madhanmohan, M; Srinivasan, V A

    2009-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in India. A stable,full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O 1 BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEM R- - 7Zf(-). An 8.2 kb PCR product was amplified from the cDNA clone and a full-length RNA was generated from it by in vitro transcription.Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious recombinant FMDV particles as evidenced by cytopathic effects (CPE). Further, characterization of the recombinant virus by immunofluorescence, microneutralization test (MNT), antigen ELISA,RT-PCR, plaque assay and electron microscopy revealed similarity to the parental strain. The immunogenicity of an oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared using the inactivated recombinant virus was tested in guinea pigs and cattle. Neutralizing antibodies were produced in both vaccinated guinea pigs and cattle. Vaccinated animals were protected on challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant virus was as stable and effective as the parental strain for the preparation of inactivated vaccine, suggesting the potential application of this strategy to make genetically engineered FMDV vaccines. PMID:19430118

  4. BCG vaccination in SCID patients: complications, risks and vaccination policies

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, Beatriz E; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Joshi, Gyan; Rezaei, Nima; Carvalho, Beatriz Costa; Allwood, Zoe; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Reda, Shereen M; Gennery, Andrew; Thon, Vojtech; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco; Al-Herz, Waleed; Porras, Oscar; Shcherbina, Anna; Szaflarska, Anna; Kiliç, Şebnem; Franco, Jose L; Raccio, Andrea C Gómez; Roxo-Jr, Persio; Esteves, Isabel; Galal, Nermeen; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Al-Tamemi, Salem; Yildiran, Alisan; Orellana, Julio C; Yamada, Masafumi; Morio, Tomohiro; Liberatore, Diana; Ohtsuka, Yoshitoshi; Lau, Yu-Lung; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Torres-Lozano, Carlos; Mazzucchelli, Juliana TL; Vilela, Maria MS; Tavares, Fabiola S; Cunha, Luciana; Pinto, Jorge A; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara E; Hernandez-Nieto, Leticia; Elfeky, Reem A; Ariga, Tadashi; Toshio, Heike; Dogu, Figen; Cipe, Funda; Formankova, Renata; Nuñez-Nuñez, M Enriqueta; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Marques, Jose Gonçalo; Pereira, María I; Listello, Viviana; Slatter, Mary A; Nademi, Zohreh; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Davies, Graham; Neven, Bénédicte; Rosenzweig, Sergio D

    2014-01-01

    Background SCID is a syndrome characterized by profound T cell deficiency. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in SCID patients. Because most countries encourage BCG vaccination at birth, a high percent of SCID patients are vaccinated before their immune defect is detected. Objectives To describe the complications and risks associated with BCG vaccination in SCID patients. Methods An extensive standardized questionnaire evaluating complications, therapeutics, and outcome regarding BCG in patients diagnosed with SCID was widely distributed. Summary statistics and association analysis was performed. Results Data on 349 BCG vaccinated SCID patients from 28 centers in 17 countries was analyzed. Fifty-one percent of the patients developed BCG complications, 34% disseminated and 17% localized (a 33,000 and 400 fold increase, respectively, over the general population). Patients receiving early vaccination (≤ 1 month) showed an increased prevalence of complications (p=0.006) and death due to BCG complications (p<0.0001). The odds of experiencing complications among patients with T cells ≤ 250/uL at diagnosis was 2.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.4-3.4; p = 0.001) than among those with T cells > 250/uL. BCG complications were reported in 2/78 patients who received anti-mycobacterial therapy while asymptomatic and no deaths due to BCG complications occurred in this group. In contrast 46 BCG-associated deaths were reported among 160 patients treated with anti-mycobacterial therapy for a symptomatic BCG infection (p<0.0001). Conclusions BCG vaccine has a very high rate of complications in SCID patients, which increase morbidity and mortality rates. Until safer and more efficient anti-tuberculosis vaccines become available, delay in BCG vaccination should be considered to protect highly vulnerable populations from preventable complications. PMID:24679470

  5. Anthrax Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... products some military personnel, as determined by the Department of Defense These people should get five doses of vaccine ( ... cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/vaccination/. Contact the U.S Department of Defense (DoD): call 1-877-438-8222 or visit ...

  6. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause problems like genital warts and some kinds of cancer, a vaccine is an important step in preventing infection and protecting against the spread of HPV. That's why doctors recommend that all girls and guys get the vaccine at these ages: ...

  7. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  8. Stability of a general SEIV epidemic model with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikal, M. M.; El-Sheikh, M. M. A.

    2013-10-01

    An SEIV epidemic model with a general nonlinear incidence rate, vaccination and time delay in treatment is considered. Sufficient conditions for the time delay to keep the stability of the endemic equilibria are given. A numerical simulations is given to illustrate our results.

  9. Schistosomiasis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease of public health importance to a billion people. An estimated 200 million people are currently infected; an additional 779 million individuals are at risk to acquire the infection in 74 countries. Despite many years of implementation of mass anti-parasitic drug therapy programs and other control measures, this disease has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas.  The discovery of a protective vaccine still remains the most potentially effective means for the control of this disease, especially if the vaccine provides long-term immunity against the infection. A vaccine would contribute to the reduction of schistosomiasis morbidity through induced immune responses leading to decrease in parasite load and reduced egg production. This vaccine could be administered to children between the ages of 3 and 12 years to prevent severe infection in a particularly high risk population. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:22048120

  10. Typhoid vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Dutta, A K

    2001-08-01

    Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries with about 33 million cases per year. Protective efficacy of traditional acetone/phenol killed vaccines is similar to newer typhoid vaccines (Ty21A and Vi antigen vaccine) but side effects of these newer vaccines are considerably less. Though the mortality is low, typhoid fever causes considerable morbidity and loss of working days. Problems during treatment are increasing due to emergence and spread of multidrug resistant S. typhi. Hence to decrease the incidence of typhoid fever in addition to ensuring safe water supply and excreta disposal a typhoid vaccine needs to be introduced in the National Immunization Schedule. PMID:11563251

  11. Approved but non-funded vaccines: accessing individual protection.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ward, Brian J; Halperin, Scott A; McNeil, Shelly A; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Bjornson, Gordean

    2014-02-01

    Funded immunization programs are best able to achieve high participation rates, optimal protection of the target population, and indirect protection of others. However, in many countries public funding of approved vaccines can be substantially delayed, limited to a portion of the at-risk population or denied altogether. In these situations, unfunded vaccines are often inaccessible to individuals at risk, allowing potentially avoidable morbidity and mortality to continue to occur. We contend that private access to approved but unfunded vaccines should be reconsidered and encouraged, with recognition that individuals have a prerogative to take advantage of a vaccine of potential benefit to them whether it is publicly funded or not. Moreover, numbers of "approved but unfunded" vaccines are likely to grow because governments will not be able to fund all future vaccines of potential benefit to some citizens. New strategies are needed to better use unfunded vaccines even though the net benefits will fall short of those of funded programs. Canada, after recent delays funding several new vaccine programs, has developed means to encourage private vaccine use. Physicians are required to inform relevant patients about risks and benefits of all recommended vaccines, publicly funded or not. Likewise, some provincial public health departments now recommend and promote both funded and unfunded vaccines. Pharmacists are key players in making unfunded vaccines locally available. Professional organizations are contributing to public and provider education about unfunded vaccines (e.g. herpes zoster, not funded in any province). Vaccine companies are gaining expertise with direct-to-consumer advertising. However, major challenges remain, such as making unfunded vaccines more available to low-income families and overcoming public expectations that all vaccines will be provided cost-free, when many other recommended personal preventive measures are user-pay. The greatest need is to

  12. Rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging results have been reported from several large trials of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine, with efficacy of 70-80% against severe disease. A recent Venezuelan study showed similar results to trials in USA and Europe. The vaccine may soon be licensed in USA. It provides the exciting prospect of a strategy to prevent one of the world's major child killers. Other candidate vaccines are under development including human-bovine reassortants, neonatal strains, non-replicating rotaviruses, vector vaccines and other genetically engineered products. Second and third generation rotavirus vaccines are on the horizon. The need for a rotavirus vaccine is well accepted by paediatricians, but public health authorities need to be lobbied. Other issues which need to be addressed include relative importance of non-group A rotaviruses, possible administration with OPV, the influence of breast feeding, and most importantly, cost. It is essential that rotavirus vaccine is somehow made available to all of the world's children, not just those in developed countries. PMID:9553287

  13. [Rabbies vaccination].

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    With very few exceptions, rabies is occurring around the globe. The clinical course of this mammal-transmitted infection is almost universally fatal. Thus, the disease is causing more human deaths than any other zoonosis. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, pre- or post-exposure vaccination remains the only effective means to avoid development of fatal disease. Save and highly effective cell culture vaccines which have been available for decades provide long-lasting protection. Various vaccination schedules have been tested and are being recommended. PMID:27268449

  14. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

  15. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  16. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  17. What are the factors that contribute to parental vaccine-hesitancy and what can we do about it?

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Parental refusal or delay of childhood vaccines is increasing. Barriers to vaccination among this population have been described, yet less is known regarding motivating factors. Researchers are beginning to evaluate various approaches to address the concerns of "vaccine-hesitant" parents, but few studies have evaluated the effect of interventions on timely vaccine uptake. Several models for communicating with vaccine-hesitant parents have been reported for healthcare providers; however, the effectiveness and utility of these strategies has not been quantified. This article reviews the known barriers to vaccination reported by vaccine-hesitant parents and the current evidence on strategies to address parental vaccine hesitancy. PMID:25483505

  18. What are the factors that contribute to parental vaccine-hesitancy and what can we do about it?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Parental refusal or delay of childhood vaccines is increasing. Barriers to vaccination among this population have been described, yet less is known regarding motivating factors. Researchers are beginning to evaluate various approaches to address the concerns of “vaccine-hesitant” parents, but few studies have evaluated the effect of interventions on timely vaccine uptake. Several models for communicating with vaccine-hesitant parents have been reported for healthcare providers; however, the effectiveness and utility of these strategies has not been quantified. This article reviews the known barriers to vaccination reported by vaccine-hesitant parents and the current evidence on strategies to address parental vaccine hesitancy. PMID:25483505

  19. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  20. Arthropod vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  1. Meningococcal Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an infection of the covering of the brain and the spinal cord. Meningococcal disease also causes ... legs, have problems with their nervous systems, become deaf or mentally ... use of meningococcal vaccine is important for people at highest risk.

  2. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination. In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:26215666

  3. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination.In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:26215666

  4. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  5. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  6. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  7. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... The best way to prevent it is through vaccinations. The childhood vaccine is called DTaP. The whooping ...

  8. Promoting Vaccine Confidence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy incorporates a wide range of parental attitudes and behaviors surrounding vaccines. Ironically, the very success of the immunization program has fueled vaccine concerns; because vaccine-preventable diseases are no longer prevalent, attention has shifted to the safety and necessity of vaccines themselves. This article reviews some of the underlying themes of vaccine hesitancy as well as specific vaccine safety concerns. Strategies for discussing vaccines with concerned parents are also discussed. PMID:26337737

  9. Microneedle-based vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Mikszta, John A.; Cormier, Michel; Andrianov, Alexander K.

    2010-01-01

    The threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs motivates development of better vaccine delivery systems. To address this need, microneedles have been developed as micron-scale needles fabricated using low-cost manufacturing methods that administer vaccine into the skin using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Delivery using solid or hollow microneedles can be accomplished by (i) piercing the skin and then applying a vaccine formulation or patch onto the permeabilized skin, (ii) coating or encapsulating vaccine onto or within microneedles for rapid, or delayed, dissolution and release in the skin and (iii) injection into the skin using a modified syringe or pump. Extensive clinical experience with smallpox, TB and other vaccines has shown that vaccine delivery into the skin using conventional intradermal injection is generally safe and effective and often elicits the same immune responses at lower doses compared to intramuscular injection. Animal experiments using microneedles have shown similar benefits. Microneedles have been used to deliver whole, inactivated virus; trivalent split antigen vaccines; and DNA plasmid encoding the influenza hemagglutinin to rodents and found strong antibody responses. In addition, ChimeriVax™-JE against yellow fever was administered to non-human primates and generated protective levels of neutralizing antibodies more than seven times greater than subcutaneous delivery; DNA plasmid encoding hepatitis B surface antigen was administered to mice and generated antibody and T cell responses at least as strong as hypodermic injections; recombinant Protective Antigen of Baccilus anthracis was administered to rabbits and provided complete protection from lethal aerosol anthrax spore challenge at a lower dose than intramuscular injection; and DNA plasmid encoding four vaccinia virus genes administered to mice in combination with electroporation generated neutralizing antibodies that apparently

  10. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia C.; Kabuluzi, Storn; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7–36), 19 days (IQR 8–36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3–46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes. PMID:27152612

  11. The adjuvanticity of ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome against an inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Ma, Xia; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the adjuvant activity of ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome (OPL) was investigated. The effects of OPL on the splenic lymphocyte proliferation of mice were measured in vitro. The results showed that OPL could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation singly or synergistically with PHA and LPS and that the effect was better than ophiopogon polysaccharide (OP) at most of concentrations. The adjuvant activities of OPL, OP and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice inoculated with inactivated PPV in vivo. The results showed that OPL could significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation, increase the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, improve the HI antibody titre and specific IgG response, and promote the production of cytokines, and the efficacy of OPL was significantly better than that of OP. In addition, OPL significantly improved the cellular immune response compared with oil adjuvant. These results suggested that OPL possess superior adjuvanticity and that a medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, OPL can be used as an effective immune adjuvant for an inactivated PPV vaccine. PMID:26529188

  12. Becoming a vaccine champion: evidence-based interventions to address the challenges of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Temoka, Erick

    2013-01-01

    The incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates of vaccine-preventable diseases have decreased drastically since the advent of modern vaccination by Edward Jenner at the end of the 18th century. In recent years, however, a growing number of parents have been refusing or delaying vaccination for their children for socioeconomical, medical, religious and/or philosophical reasons. This has resulted in a loss of herd immunity that has caused a resurgence of many infectious diseases. This article describes evidence-based methods by which a pediatric clinic can become a vaccine champion by aiming at vaccination rates of 100 percent. This goal can be attained by a team effort that addresses the challenges of vaccination by using every visit as a chance to vaccinate, educate, address the fears and the concerns of the parents and provide articles and other written documentations on the benefits and side effects of vaccines. A standardized system that identifies and tracks patients who need vaccines is also essential to find those who are seldom brought to medical attention. A consistent and systematic use of these evidence-based methods by a dedicated staff is essential to attain vaccination rates close to 100 percent. PMID:23444594

  13. Optimizing Real-Time Vaccine Allocation in a Stochastic SIR Model

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chantal; Carlson, Jean M.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time vaccination following an outbreak can effectively mitigate the damage caused by an infectious disease. However, in many cases, available resources are insufficient to vaccinate the entire at-risk population, logistics result in delayed vaccine deployment, and the interaction between members of different cities facilitates a wide spatial spread of infection. Limited vaccine, time delays, and interaction (or coupling) of cities lead to tradeoffs that impact the overall magnitude of the epidemic. These tradeoffs mandate investigation of optimal strategies that minimize the severity of the epidemic by prioritizing allocation of vaccine to specific subpopulations. We use an SIR model to describe the disease dynamics of an epidemic which breaks out in one city and spreads to another. We solve a master equation to determine the resulting probability distribution of the final epidemic size. We then identify tradeoffs between vaccine, time delay, and coupling, and we determine the optimal vaccination protocols resulting from these tradeoffs. PMID:27043931

  14. Mice develop effective but delayed protective immune responses when immunized as neonates either intranasally with nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or orally with live rhesus rotavirus vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    VanCott, John L; Prada, Anne E; McNeal, Monica M; Stone, Susan C; Basu, Mitali; Huffer, Bert; Smiley, Kristi L; Shao, Mingyuan; Bean, Judy A; Clements, John D; Choi, Anthony H-C; Ward, Richard L

    2006-05-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are delivered early in life, when the immune system is immature. To determine the effects of immaturity on responses to candidate vaccines, neonatal (7 days old) and adult mice were immunized with single doses of either Escherichia coli-expressed rotavirus VP6 protein and the adjuvant LT(R192G) or live rhesus rotavirus (RRV), and protection against fecal rotavirus shedding following challenge with the murine rotavirus strain EDIM was determined. Neonatal mice immunized intranasally with VP6/LT(R192G) were unprotected at 10 days postimmunization (dpi) and had no detectable rotavirus B-cell (antibody) or CD4(+) CD8(+) T-cell (rotavirus-inducible, Th1 [gamma interferon and interleukin-2 {IL-2}]-, Th2 [IL-5 and IL-4]-, or ThIL-17 [IL-17]-producing spleen cells) responses. However, by 28 and 42 dpi, these mice were significantly (P >or= 0.003) protected and contained memory rotavirus-specific T cells but produced no rotavirus antibody. In contrast, adult mice were nearly fully protected by 10 dpi and contained both rotavirus immunoglobulin G and memory T cells. Neonates immunized orally with RRV were also less protected (P=0.01) than adult mice by 10 dpi and produced correspondingly less rotavirus antibody. Both groups contained few rotavirus-specific memory T cells. Protection levels by 28 dpi for neonates or adults were equal, as were rotavirus antibody levels. This report introduces a neonatal mouse model for active protection studies with rotavirus vaccines. It indicates that, with time, neonatal mice develop full protection after intranasal immunization with VP6/LT(R192G) or oral immunization with a live heterologous rotavirus and supports reports that protection depends on CD4(+) T cells or antibody, respectively. PMID:16641286

  15. Cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients’ immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes. PMID:25904595

  16. Development of a subunit vaccine for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a baculovirus insect/larvae system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; McAllister, P.E.; Edwards, G.H.; Santi, N.; Evensen, O.; Vakharia, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    Various attempts to develop a vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) have not yielded consistent results. Thus, at present, no commercial vaccine is available that can be used with confidence to immunize fry of salmon and trout. We generated a cDNA clone of the large genome segment A of an IPNV Sp strain and expressed all structural protein genes in insect cells and larvae using a baculovirus expression system. Green fluorescent protein was also co-expressed as a reporter molecule. High yields of IPNV proteins were obtained and the structural proteins self assembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs). We tested the immunogenicity of the putative VLP antigen in immersion vaccine experiments (two concentrations) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry, and by intraperitoneal immunisation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts using an oil adjuvant formulation. Rainbow trout were challenged by immersion using either the Sp or the VR-299 strain of IPNV two or three weeks post-vaccination, while Atlantic salmon were bath challenged with Sp strain after two months, after parr-smolt transformation. In the rainbow trout fry challenged two weeks post-immunization, cumulative mortality rates three weeks post challenge were 14 % in the fry that had received the highest dose versus 8 % in the control groups. No indication of protection was seen in repeated trials using a lower dose of antigen and challenge three weeks post-immunisation. The cumulative mortality rate of intraperitoneally immunised Atlantic salmon post-smolts four weeks post challenge was lower (56 %) than in the control fish (77 %), showing a dose-response pattern.

  17. Evaluation of the immune response elicited by vaccination with viral vectors encoding FMDV capsid proteins and boosted with inactivated virus.

    PubMed

    Romanutti, Carina; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Palacios, Carlos; Quattrocchi, Valeria; Zamorano, Patricia; La Torre, Jose; Mattion, Nora

    2013-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of introducing a priming step with replication-defective viral vectors encoding the capsid proteins of FMDV, followed by a boost with killed virus vaccines, using a suitable BALB/c mice model. Additionally, the immune response to other combined vector immunization regimens was studied. For this purpose, we analyzed different prime-boost immunizations with recombinant adenovirus (Ad), herpesvirus amplicons (Hs) and/or killed virus (KV) vaccines. The highest antibody titers were found in the group that received two doses of adjuvanted KV (P<0.002). Antibody titers were higher in those groups receiving a mixed regimen of vectors, compared to immunization with either vector alone (P<0.0001). Priming with any of the viral vectors induced a shift of the cytokine balance toward a Th1 type immune response regardless of the delivery system used for boosting. The highest IgG1 titer was induced by two doses of adjuvanted KV (P=0.0002) and the highest IgG2a titer corresponded to the group primed with Ad and boosted with KV (P=0.01). Re-stimulation of all groups of mice with 0.5 μg of inactivated virus five months later resulted in a fast increase of antibody titers in all the groups tested. After virus stimulation, antibody titers in the groups that received KV alone or Ad prime-KV boost, were indistinguishable (P=0.800). Protection from challenge was similar (75%) in the groups of animals that received Ad prime-Hs boost or Ad prime-KV boost, or two doses of oil-adjuvanted KV. The data presented in this study suggest that sequential immunization with viral vectors-based vaccines combined with protein-based vaccines have the potential to enhance the quality of the immune response against FMDV. PMID:23683999

  18. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  19. Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Ouakki, Manale; Bettinger, Julie A; Guay, Maryse; Halperin, Scott; Wilson, Kumanan; Graham, Janice; Witteman, Holly O; MacDonald, Shannon; Fisher, William; Monnais, Laurence; Tran, Dat; Gagneur, Arnaud; Guichon, Juliet; Saini, Vineet; Heffernan, Jane M; Meyer, Samantha; Driedger, S Michelle; Greenberg, Joshua; MacDougall, Heather

    2016-01-01

    "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept now frequently used in vaccination discourse. The increased popularity of this concept in both academic and public health circles is challenging previously held perspectives that individual vaccination attitudes and behaviours are a simple dichotomy of accept or reject. A consultation study was designed to assess the opinions of experts and health professionals concerning the definition, scope, and causes of vaccine hesitancy in Canada. We sent online surveys to two panels (1- vaccination experts and 2- front-line vaccine providers). Two questionnaires were completed by each panel, with data from the first questionnaire informing the development of questions for the second. Our participants defined vaccine hesitancy as an attitude (doubts, concerns) as well as a behaviour (refusing some / many vaccines, delaying vaccination). Our findings also indicate that both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada. Diffusion of negative information online and lack of knowledge about vaccines were identified as the key causes of vaccine hesitancy by the participants. A common understanding of vaccine hesitancy among researchers, public health experts, policymakers and health care providers will better guide interventions that can more effectively address vaccine hesitancy within Canada. PMID:27257809

  20. Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Ouakki, Manale; Bettinger, Julie A.; Guay, Maryse; Halperin, Scott; Wilson, Kumanan; Graham, Janice; Witteman, Holly O.; MacDonald, Shannon; Fisher, William; Monnais, Laurence; Tran, Dat; Gagneur, Arnaud; Guichon, Juliet; Saini, Vineet; Heffernan, Jane M.; Meyer, Samantha; Driedger, S. Michelle; Greenberg, Joshua; MacDougall, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy” is a concept now frequently used in vaccination discourse. The increased popularity of this concept in both academic and public health circles is challenging previously held perspectives that individual vaccination attitudes and behaviours are a simple dichotomy of accept or reject. A consultation study was designed to assess the opinions of experts and health professionals concerning the definition, scope, and causes of vaccine hesitancy in Canada. We sent online surveys to two panels (1- vaccination experts and 2- front-line vaccine providers). Two questionnaires were completed by each panel, with data from the first questionnaire informing the development of questions for the second. Our participants defined vaccine hesitancy as an attitude (doubts, concerns) as well as a behaviour (refusing some / many vaccines, delaying vaccination). Our findings also indicate that both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada. Diffusion of negative information online and lack of knowledge about vaccines were identified as the key causes of vaccine hesitancy by the participants. A common understanding of vaccine hesitancy among researchers, public health experts, policymakers and health care providers will better guide interventions that can more effectively address vaccine hesitancy within Canada. PMID:27257809

  1. Impact of the free-vaccine policy on timely initiation and completion of hepatitis B vaccination in Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, J N; Wen, X Z; Zhou, Y; Lin, D; Zhang, S Y; Yan, Y S

    2015-06-01

    The extent to which the free-vaccine policy impacts the initiation and completion of a hepatitis B vaccine series is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the free-vaccine policy on hepatitis B vaccination. A provincial survey was conducted in 2006 in Fujian Province, south-east of China, where the free-vaccine policy for hepatitis B was announced in 2002 and implemented in 2003. A total of 1628 children were investigated, and 1443 (88.6%) were included in this analysis. Among the children studied, 55.2% were vaccinated within 24 h of birth, and 76.1% completed the hepatitis B vaccine series on time. The rate of hepatitis B surface antibody positivity increased from 29.9% among children born in 1992 to 90.5% among children born in 2005, while the corresponding HBV infection rate decreased from 30.4% to 1.72%. Logistic regression indicated that, compared to children born between 1996 and 2001, the odds ratios (ORs) for timely initiation were 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-3.84), 5.24 (95% CI, 3.26-8.43) and 9.06 (95% CI, 4.48-18.34) among children born in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively; the corresponding ORs for completing the vaccine series were 4.23 (95% CI, 1.97-9.10), 3.76 (95% CI, 1.81-7.82) and 4.94 (95% CI, 1.74-14.00) among children born in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Children with delayed vaccine initiation (>24 h after birth) were less likely to complete the vaccine series than those who received a timely first dose (OR = 0.02, 95% CI, 0.005-0.09). The impact of the free-vaccine policy on vaccine initiation and vaccine series completion did not differ by children's residence area (rural vs urban). As hypothesized, the odds of completing the vaccine series increased after the free-vaccine policy was announced in 2002 among children with delayed initiation (>24 h after birth) but not among those with timely initiation (≤ 24 h after birth). In conclusion, the free-vaccine policy significantly improved the

  2. Adjuvant potential of resiquimod with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine and its mechanism of action in chicken.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Swati; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Malik, Hina; Saravanan, B C; Jain, Lata; Saxena, Meeta; Kumar, Ajay; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2015-08-26

    Resiquimod (R-848), an imidazoquinoline compound, is a potent synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist. Although the solitary adjuvant potential of R-848 is well established in mammals, such reports are not available in avian species hitherto. Hence, the adjuvant potential of R-848 was tested in SPF chicken in this study. Two week old chicks were divided into four groups (10 birds/group) viz., control (A), inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine prepared from velogenic strain (B), commercial oil adjuvanted inactivated NDV vaccine prepared from lentogenic strain (C) and inactivated NDV vaccine prepared from velogenic strain with R-848 (D). Booster was given two weeks post primary vaccination. Humoral immune response was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA while the cellular immune response was quantified by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and flow cytometry post-vaccination. Entire experiment was repeated twice to check the reproducibility. Highest HI titre was observed in group D at post booster weeks 1 and 2 that corresponds to mean log2 HI titre of 6.4 ± 0.16 and 6.8 ± 0.13, respectively. The response was significantly higher than that of group B or C (P<0.01). LTT stimulation index (P ≤ 0.01) as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in flow cytometry (P<0.05) were significantly high and maximum in group D. Group D conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge, while it was only 80% in group B and C. To understand the effects of R-848, the kinetics of immune response genes in spleen were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR after R-848 administration (50 μg/bird, i.m. route). Resiquimod significantly up-regulated the expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and MHC-II genes (P<0.01). In conclusion, the study demonstrated the adjuvant potential of R-848 when co-administered with inactivated NDV vaccine in SPF chicken which is likely due to the up-regulation of immune response genes

  3. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  4. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  5. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  6. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... it while traveling. Typhoid strikes about 21 million people a year around the world and kills about 200,000. ... booster dose is needed every 2 years for people who remain at risk. Live typhoid vaccine (oral)Four doses: one capsule every other day for a week (day 1, day 3, day ...

  7. Rabies Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... and booster doses should be given as needed. (Testing or booster doses are not recommended for travelers.) Ask your doctor for details. Vaccination After an Exposure:Anyone who has been bitten by an animal, or who otherwise may have been exposed to ...

  8. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  9. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the world. It would only take one person infected with polio virus coming from another country to bring the ... However, any medicine could cause a serious side effect, such as a severe allergic reaction or even death. The risk of polio vaccine causing serious harm is extremely small.

  10. Outbreak of measles in a highly vaccinated secondary school population.

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, P A; Rea, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with measles vaccine effectiveness and the effect of two doses of vaccine on measles susceptibility during an outbreak. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A secondary school in the City of Toronto. SUBJECTS: The entire school population (1135 students 14 to 21 years of age). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of measles during an outbreak associated with age at first measles vaccination, length of time since vaccination, vaccination before 1980 and whether date of vaccination was estimated; vaccine efficacy of one dose versus two doses. RESULTS: Eighty-seven laboratory-confirmed or clinically confirmed cases of measles were identified (for an attack rate of 7.7%). The measles vaccination rate was 94.2%, and 10% of the students had received two doses of measles vaccine before the outbreak. Among those who had received only one dose of vaccine, vaccination at less than 15 months of age was associated with vaccine failure (relative risk 3.62, 95% confidence interval 2.32 to 5.66). There was no increased risk of vaccine failure associated with length of time since vaccination once the relative risk was adjusted for age at vaccination in a stratified analysis. Vaccination before 1980 and an estimated date of vaccination were not associated with increased risk of vaccine failure. Administration of a second dose of vaccine during the outbreak was not protective. Two doses of vaccine given before the outbreak conferred significant protection, and the relative risk of failure after one dose versus two doses was 5.0 (95% confidence interval 1.25 to 20.15). Of the 87 cases, 76 (87%) could have been prevented had all the students received two doses of measles vaccine before the outbreak, with the first at 12 months of age or later. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed primary measles vaccination (at 15 months of age or later) significantly reduced measles risk at later ages. However, revising the timing of the current 12-month dose would leave

  11. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  12. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  13. Development of an HIV Vaccine Attitudes Scale to Predict HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Vulnerable Populations: L.A. VOICES

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Newman, Peter A.; Duan, Naihua; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Decade-long delays in successful implementation of Hepatitis B vaccines and ongoing obstacles in HPV vaccine roll-out suggest the importance of an implementation science approach to prepare for the effective translation of future HIV vaccines from clinical trials into routine practice. The objective of this study wasto test HIV vaccine attitude items to develop reliable scales and to examine their association with HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods HIV vaccine attitude items were assessed as part of the L.A. VOICES survey, a large-scale study conducted among underserved residents of Los Angeles, to identify factors that may influence HIV vaccine acceptability. Participants (n=1,225) were randomly selected from public STD clinics, needle exchange sites and Latino community clinics using three-stage, venue-based time space sampling. Results Exploratory factor analysis across 20 items revealed four distinct factors—mistrust, HIV vaccine social concerns, risk compensation, and altruistic vaccination—with acceptable reliability coefficients for each subscale (Cronbach’s α range 0.61 – 0.84). We found no significant differences in reliability by gender or by vaccine acceptability. Risk compensation (Odds Ratio (OR) =1.49; 95% CI=[1.18, 1.89]; p=0.001) and altruistic vaccination (OR=1.40; 95% CI=[1.14, 1.71]; p=0.001) were significantly and positively associated with HIV vaccine acceptability. Conclusions We identified four HIV vaccine attitude scales with sound internal reliability parameters. In the aftermath of the first candidate vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against HIV infection, these scales may be helpful in bridging expectable research-to-practice gaps in future HIV vaccine dissemination among populations at risk. As HIV vaccine trials progress in the United States and globally, these measures also may be useful as a tool to assess and facilitate effective responses to community concerns about HIV vaccine trials and to target interventions

  14. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations. PMID:25573106

  15. Story and science: how providers and parents can utilize storytelling to combat anti-vaccine misinformation.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Ashley; Ernst, Karen

    2013-08-01

    With little or no evidence-based information to back up claims of vaccine danger, anti-vaccine activists have relied on the power of storytelling to infect an entire generation of parents with fear of and doubt about vaccines. These parent accounts of perceived vaccine injury, coupled with Andrew Wakefield's fraudulent research study linking the MMR vaccine to autism, created a substantial amount of vaccine hesitancy in new parents, which manifests in both vaccine refusal and the adoption of delayed vaccine schedules. The tools used by the medical and public health communities to counteract the anti-vaccine movement include statistics, research, and other evidence-based information, often delivered verbally or in the form of the CDC's Vaccine Information Statements. This approach may not be effective enough on its own to convince vaccine-hesitant parents that vaccines are safe, effective, and crucial to their children's health. Utilizing some of the storytelling strategies used by the anti-vaccine movement, in addition to evidence-based vaccine information, could potentially offer providers, public health officials, and pro-vaccine parents an opportunity to mount a much stronger defense against anti-vaccine messaging. PMID:23811786

  16. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of Vaccine ... PRETEENS Vaccines You Need ...

  17. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  18. Vaccinations in children on immunosuppressive medications for renal disease.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sushmita; Dissanayake, Pathum Vindana; Abeyagunawardena, Asiri Samantha

    2016-09-01

    Renal diseases are often treated with immunosuppressive medications, placing patients at risk of infections, some of which are vaccine-preventable. However, in such patients vaccinations may be delayed or disregarded due to complications of the underlying disease process and challenges in its management. The decision to administer vaccines to immunosuppressed children is a risk-benefit balance as such children may have a qualitatively diminished immunological response or develop diseases caused by the vaccine pathogen. Vaccination may cause a flare-up of disease activity or provocation of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. Moreover, it cannot be assumed that a given antibody level provides the same protection in immunosupressed children as in healthy ones. We have evaluated the safety and efficacy of licensed vaccines in children on immunosuppressive therapy and in renal transplant recipients. The limited evidence available suggests that vaccines are most effective if given early, ideally before the requirement for immunosuppressive therapy, which may require administration of accelerated vaccine courses. Once treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is started, inactivated vaccines are usually considered to be safe when the disease is quiescent, but supplemental doses may be required. In the majority of cases, live vaccines are to be avoided. All vaccines are generally contraindicated within 3-6 months of a renal transplant. PMID:26450774

  19. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose

    2015-08-14

    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy. PMID:25896384

  20. Decision-making on childhood vaccination by highly educated parents.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Carolina Luísa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and particular aspects surrounding the three groups' decisions whether to vaccinate their children. The vaccinators' decision to vaccinate their children was spontaneous and raised no questions. Most late or selective vaccinators experienced a wide range of situations that were instrumental in the decision to delay or not apply certain vaccines. The nonvaccinator's decision-making process expressed a broader context of both criticism of hegemonic obstetric practices in Brazil and access to information transmitted via social networks and the internet. The data showed that the problematization of vaccines (culminating in the decision to not vaccinate their children) occurred in the context of humanized birth, was protagonized by women and was greatly influenced by health information from the internet. CONCLUSIONS Sociocultural aspects of the singular Brazilian context and the contemporary society were involved in the decision-making on children's vaccination. Understanding this process can provide a real basis for a deeper reflection on health and immunization practices in Brazil in light of the new contexts and challenges of the world today. PMID:25830870

  1. Delaying the International Spread of Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ben S; Pitman, Richard J; Edmunds, W. John; Gay, Nigel J

    2006-01-01

    Background The recent emergence of hypervirulent subtypes of avian influenza has underlined the potentially devastating effects of pandemic influenza. Were such a virus to acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, control would almost certainly be hampered by limited vaccine supplies unless global spread could be substantially delayed. Moreover, the large increases that have occurred in international air travel might be expected to lead to more rapid global dissemination than in previous pandemics. Methods and Findings To evaluate the potential of local control measures and travel restrictions to impede global dissemination, we developed stochastic models of the international spread of influenza based on extensions of coupled epidemic transmission models. These models have been shown to be capable of accurately forecasting local and global spread of epidemic and pandemic influenza. We show that under most scenarios restrictions on air travel are likely to be of surprisingly little value in delaying epidemics, unless almost all travel ceases very soon after epidemics are detected. Conclusions Interventions to reduce local transmission of influenza are likely to be more effective at reducing the rate of global spread and less vulnerable to implementation delays than air travel restrictions. Nevertheless, under the most plausible scenarios, achievable delays are small compared with the time needed to accumulate substantial vaccine stocks. PMID:16640458

  2. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  3. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  4. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Barcodes Related Link Vaccines & Immunizations Your Child's First Vaccines Format: Select one PDF [335 KB] RTF [260 ... child will get one or more of these vaccines today: DTaP Hib Hepatitis B Polio PCV13 Why ...

  5. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy, please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot) during Pregnancy ( http: / / mothertobaby. org/ fact- sheets/ seasonal- influenza- vaccine- flu- shot- pregnancy/ pdf/ ). Nasal spray flu vaccines ...

  6. Vaccinations and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...

  7. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccine called MMRV, which contains both chickenpox and MMR vaccines, may be given instead of the two individual ... like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  8. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HBV) during pregnancy Vaccination and Pregnancy Resources, journal articles, more sources, etc., from Immunization Action Coalition Video: "Vaccines and Your Baby" (26:41 min) Vaccine Education Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, November 2002 Also ...

  9. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

  10. Vaccine refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    McColloster, Patrick J; Martin-de-Nicolas, Andres

    2014-01-01

    This commentary reviews recent changes in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) vaccine storage guidelines that were developed in response to an investigative report by the Office of the Inspector General. The use of temperature data loggers with probes residing in glycol vials is advised along with storing vaccines in pharmaceutical refrigerators. These refrigerators provide good thermal distribution but can warm to 8 °C in less than one hour after the power is discontinued. Consequently, electric grid instability influences appropriate refrigerator selection and the need for power back-up. System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) values quantify this instability and can be used to formulate region-specific guidelines. A novel aftermarket refrigerator regulator with a battery back-up power supply and microprocessor control system is also described. PMID:24442209

  11. Rotavirus Vaccine -- Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... to these vaccines. The infant's immune response to influenza vaccine administered at the same time as rotavirus vaccine ... previously that an inactivated vaccine (e.g., inactivated influenza vaccine) may be administered either simultaneously or at any ...

  12. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  13. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

  14. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  15. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic immunotherapy reduces the size of melanoma tumors in phase 3 trial EV71 vaccine protects children against HFMD Influenza vaccination important for risk groups Bharat‘s rotavirus vaccine is safe and modestly efficacious Successfully avoiding the cold-chain for vaccines FDA approval for Stallergenes’ sublingual grass pollen allergy immunotherapy HPV vaccination campaign could change from three to two doses in the UK Valneva continues phase 2/3 trial of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine PMID:25290656

  16. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic

  17. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of first-ever Dengue vaccine candidate in Phase 3 Agenus‘ brain cancer vaccine doubles survival rate in GBM patients New study: Rotavirus vaccines dramatically cut hospitalization rates in US children Therapeutic vaccines – from heart disease to cancer Agenus‘ genital herpes vaccine significantly reduces viral burden in Phase 2 The latest on PaxVax‘ and Gotovax AB’s cholera vaccine candidates ACIP ponders recommendation for Prevnar use in seniors PMID:25424916

  18. Infant vaccination timing: Beyond traditional coverage metrics for maximizing impact of vaccine programs, an example from southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michelle M.; Katz, Joanne; Englund, Janet A.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Shrestha, Laxman; LeClerq, Steven C.; Steinhoff, Mark; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunization programs currently measure coverage by assessing the proportion of children 12–24 months who have been immunized but this does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. Data capturing the timing of vaccination in first 6 months, when severe disease is most likely to occur, are limited. Objective To estimate the time to Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) (recommended at birth), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-H, influenza b-hepatitis B (DTP-Hib-HepB), and oral polio vaccine (OPV) (recommended at 6, 10, and 14 weeks) vaccinations and risk factors for vaccination delay in infants <6 months of age in a district in southern Nepal where traditional coverage metrics are high. Design/methods Infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of maternal influenza vaccination were visited weekly at home from birth through age 6 months to ascertain if any vaccinations had been given in the prior week. Infant, maternal, and household characteristics were recorded. BCG, DTP-Hib-HepB, and OPV vaccination coverage at 4 and 6 months was estimated. Time to vaccination was estimated through Kaplan–Meier curves; Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for delay for the first vaccine. Results The median age of BCG, first OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB receipt was 22, 21, and 18 weeks, respectively. Almost half of infants received no BCG by age 6 months. Only 8% and 7% of infants had received three doses of OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB, respectively, by age 6 months. Conclusion A significant delay in receipt of infant vaccines was found in a prospective, population-based, cohort in southern Nepal despite traditional coverage metrics being high. Immunization programs should consider measuring time to receipt relative to the official schedule in order to maximize benefits for disease control and child health. PMID:26788880

  19. Practical approaches to vaccine hesitancy issues in the United States: 2013

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, Joseph B; Suryadevara, Manika

    2013-01-01

    The intention to delay or avoid vaccines that are recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices can be described as “vaccine hesitancy.” While outright refusal of all vaccines is uncommon, hesitancy is seen on a regular basis in most primary care offices, resulting in immunization delay and prolonged susceptibility to preventable disease. The consequences of vaccine hesitancy include the potential for resurgence of vaccine preventable infections. Open, honest, and frank discussions with hesitant patients and their families can assist in their understanding of the importance of vaccines. While many experienced providers are able to do so in an intuitive manner, others may benefit from developing a systemic framework for such discussions. An understanding of the history and rationale for vaccine hesitancy is a first step in regaining lost public confidence in our robust immunization programs. PMID:24126048

  20. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Vaccinated More Info Glossary Our Partners Related Websites AIDS.gov Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) CDC Vaccines Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program ...

  1. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the "Motors of Trust in Vaccination" (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies. PMID:26344114

  2. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  3. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  4. Effects of Three Types of Inactivation Agents on the Antibody Response and Immune Protection of Inactivated IHNV Vaccine in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lijie; Kang, Haiyan; Duan, Kexin; Guo, Mengting; Lian, Gaihong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yijing; Gao, Shuai; Jiang, Yanping; Yin, Jiyuan; Liu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infects salmonid fish, resulting in high mortality and serious economic losses to salmonid aquaculture. Therefore, an effective IHNV vaccine is urgently needed. To select an inactivation agent for the preparation of an effective IHNV vaccine, rainbow trout were immunized with mineral oil emulsions of IHNV vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde, binary ethylenimine (BEI), or β-propiolactone (BPL). The fish were challenged 8 weeks after vaccination, and their IgM antibody response and relative percent survival (RPS) were evaluated. The results show that formaldehyde, BEI, and BPL abolished IHNV HLJ-09 infectivity within 24, 48, and 24 h at final concentrations of 0.2%, 0.02%, and 0.01%, respectively. The mean levels of specific IgM, both in serum and mucus (collected from the skin surface and gills), for the three immunized groups (from high to low) ranked as follows: the BPL group, BEI group, and formaldehyde group. From weeks 5 to 9, the mean log2 serum titers of IgM in the BPL group were significantly higher compared with those of the other groups (p < 0.05) during the 9 weeks of observation after vaccination (immunized at weeks 0 and6). Mucus OD490 values of the BPL group were significantly higher compared with those of the other groups (p < 0.05) when reaching their peak at weeks 5 and 8, but the difference between the formaldehyde and BEI groups was not significant (p > 0.05). The BPL-inactivated whole-virus vaccine had the greatest protective effect on the rainbow trout after challenge by an intraperitoneal injection of live IHNV, with an RPS rate of 91.67%, which was significantly higher compared with the BEI (83.33%) and formaldehyde (79.17%) groups. These results indicate that the BPL-inactivated IHNV oil-adjuvant vaccine was more effective than the formaldehyde- or BEI-inactivated vaccines. The results of this study provide an important foundation for further studies on inactivated IHNV vaccines

  5. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  6. Developmental and reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The majority of new preventative and therapeutic vaccines are now assessed for developmental toxicity according to guidelines issued by the FDA in 2006. Despite the absence of confirmed effects in humans, vaccines are frequently suspected of having adverse side-effects on the development of children. Such suspicions are perhaps unavoidable considering the extremely widespread use of vaccines. The preclinical developmental toxicology studies are designed to assess possible influences of each component of the vaccine formulation-and the induced antibodies-on the development of the conceptus, neonate and suckling organism. Immune modulation by a vaccine or an adjuvant could, for instance, affect the outcome of pregnancy by interfering with the natural shift in immune balance of the mother during gestation. Maternal immunoglobulins are transferred from the mother to the offspring in order to confer passive immunity during early life. This maternal antibody transport is prenatal in humans and monkeys, but tends to be delayed until after birth in other species. Therefore, a suitable model species needs to be chosen for preclinical studies in order to ensure exposure of the foetus to the induced maternal antibodies following vaccination. Rabbits are the best laboratory model for prenatal immunoglobulin transfer, but rodents are more practical for the necessary postnatal investigations. Non-human primates are the only appropriate models for the testing of vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species. It is advisable to test new adjuvants separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guidelines. Preclinical paediatric investigations are not currently required for vaccines, even though most vaccines are given to children. Other areas of regulatory concern include developmental immunotoxicity and effects on the preimplantation embryo. Because of the limitations of the available animal models for developmental toxicity testing, pharmacovigilance is essential. PMID:22233769

  7. Decision-making on childhood vaccination by highly educated parents

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Carolina Luísa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and particular aspects surrounding the three groups’ decisions whether to vaccinate their children. The vaccinators’ decision to vaccinate their children was spontaneous and raised no questions. Most late or selective vaccinators experienced a wide range of situations that were instrumental in the decision to delay or not apply certain vaccines. The nonvaccinator’s decision-making process expressed a broader context of both criticism of hegemonic obstetric practices in Brazil and access to information transmitted via social networks and the internet. The data showed that the problematization of vaccines (culminating in the decision to not vaccinate their children) occurred in the context of humanized birth, was protagonized by women and was greatly influenced by health information from the internet. CONCLUSIONS Sociocultural aspects of the singular Brazilian context and the contemporary society were involved in the decision-making on children’s vaccination. Understanding this process can provide a real basis for a deeper reflection on health and immunization practices in Brazil in light of the new contexts and challenges of the world today. PMID:25830870

  8. Negotiating vaccine acceptance in an era of reluctance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J

    2013-08-01

    Studies to better understand the determinants of vaccine acceptance have expanded to include more investigation into dynamics of individual decision-making as well as the influences of peers and social networks. Vaccine acceptance is determined by a range of factors, from structural issues of supply, costs and access to services, as well as the more demand-side determinants. The term vaccine hesitancy is increasingly used in the investigation of demand-side determinants, moving away from the more polarized framing of pro- and anti-vaccine groups to recognizing the importance of understanding and engaging those who are delaying vaccination, accepting only some vaccines, or who are yet undecided, but reluctant. As hesitancy is a state of indecision, it is difficult to measure, but the stage of indecision is a critical time to engage and support the decision-making process. This article suggests modes of investigating the determinants of vaccine confidence and levers of vaccine acceptance toward better engagement and dialogue early in the process of decision-making. Pressure to vaccinate can be counter-productive. Listening and dialog can support individual decision-making and more effectively inform the public health community of the issues and concerns influencing vaccine hesitancy. PMID:23896582

  9. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... The hepatitis B vaccination is a non-infectious, vaccine prepared from recombinant yeast cultures, rather than human blood or plasma. There is no risk of contamination from other bloodborne pathogens nor is there any ... from the vaccine. The vaccine must be administered according to the ...

  11. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. PMID:26439762

  12. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  13. Delay Discounting and Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

  14. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  15. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  16. Fatal SIR diseases and rational exemption to vaccination.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Salinelli, Ernesto

    2008-12-01

    A challenge to disease control in modern societies is the spread of rational exemption to vaccination as a consequence of the rational comparison between the steadily declining risk of infection and the risk of side effects from the vaccine. Here, we consider rational exemption in an susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model with information-dependent vaccination where individuals use information on the disease's mortality as their information set. Using suitable assumptions on the dynamics of the population, we show the dynamic implications of the interaction between rational exemption, current and delayed information and the risk of death by the disease. In particular, we illustrate the onset of the long cycles caused by rational exemption when vaccination decisions are based on delayed informations. PMID:18840601

  17. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in the development of immunotherapeutic mAbs for cancer New vaccine reduces malaria infection by 72% Bavarian Nordic's cancer immunotherapy shows promise in colorectal cancer Chinese HFMD vaccine shows high efficacy in Phase 3 Two-dose regimen of Merck's Gardasil looks effective Accelerating influenza vaccine development using synthetic biology A key role for gut microbes in vaccination Understanding of and attitudes towards vaccines: a study in teenagers. PMID:23863285

  18. Existing antiviral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Creed, Rosella; Mendoza, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The innovation of vaccines has allowed for one of the greatest advancements in the history of public health. The first of the vaccines have been the antiviral vaccines, in particular the smallpox vaccine that was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796. This article will review vaccination for the following viral diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, rotavirus, rabies, monkeypox, smallpox, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever. PMID:19335723

  19. Countering Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M; Hackell, Jesse M

    2016-09-01

    Immunizations have led to a significant decrease in rates of vaccine-preventable diseases and have made a significant impact on the health of children. However, some parents express concerns about vaccine safety and the necessity of vaccines. The concerns of parents range from hesitancy about some immunizations to refusal of all vaccines. This clinical report provides information about addressing parental concerns about vaccination. PMID:27573088

  20. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs), in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004) or 2005 (cohort 2005) in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004) to 51% (cohort 2005) in the studied regions (p < 0.001). More than half of the vaccinated children of cohort 2004 and two third of cohort 2005 were immunised at the recommended age 11 to 14 months. The level of vaccination coverage of cohort 2004 was significantly associated with the delay in introduction of cost coverage since the recommendation of varicella vaccination (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from

  1. Optimal Vaccine Allocation for the Early Mitigation of Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Matrajt, Laura; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2013-01-01

    With new cases of avian influenza H5N1 (H5N1AV) arising frequently, the threat of a new influenza pandemic remains a challenge for public health. Several vaccines have been developed specifically targeting H5N1AV, but their production is limited and only a few million doses are readily available. Because there is an important time lag between the emergence of new pandemic strain and the development and distribution of a vaccine, shortage of vaccine is very likely at the beginning of a pandemic. We coupled a mathematical model with a genetic algorithm to optimally and dynamically distribute vaccine in a network of cities, connected by the airline transportation network. By minimizing the illness attack rate (i.e., the percentage of people in the population who become infected and ill), we focus on optimizing vaccine allocation in a network of 16 cities in Southeast Asia when only a few million doses are available. In our base case, we assume the vaccine is well-matched and vaccination occurs 5 to 10 days after the beginning of the epidemic. The effectiveness of all the vaccination strategies drops off as the timing is delayed or the vaccine is less well-matched. Under the best assumptions, optimal vaccination strategies substantially reduced the illness attack rate, with a maximal reduction in the attack rate of 85%. Furthermore, our results suggest that cooperative strategies where the resources are optimally distributed among the cities perform much better than the strategies where the vaccine is equally distributed among the network, yielding an illness attack rate 17% lower. We show that it is possible to significantly mitigate a more global epidemic with limited quantities of vaccine, provided that the vaccination campaign is extremely fast and it occurs within the first weeks of transmission. PMID:23555207

  2. Optimal vaccine allocation for the early mitigation of pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Matrajt, Laura; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2013-01-01

    With new cases of avian influenza H5N1 (H5N1AV) arising frequently, the threat of a new influenza pandemic remains a challenge for public health. Several vaccines have been developed specifically targeting H5N1AV, but their production is limited and only a few million doses are readily available. Because there is an important time lag between the emergence of new pandemic strain and the development and distribution of a vaccine, shortage of vaccine is very likely at the beginning of a pandemic. We coupled a mathematical model with a genetic algorithm to optimally and dynamically distribute vaccine in a network of cities, connected by the airline transportation network. By minimizing the illness attack rate (i.e., the percentage of people in the population who become infected and ill), we focus on optimizing vaccine allocation in a network of 16 cities in Southeast Asia when only a few million doses are available. In our base case, we assume the vaccine is well-matched and vaccination occurs 5 to 10 days after the beginning of the epidemic. The effectiveness of all the vaccination strategies drops off as the timing is delayed or the vaccine is less well-matched. Under the best assumptions, optimal vaccination strategies substantially reduced the illness attack rate, with a maximal reduction in the attack rate of 85%. Furthermore, our results suggest that cooperative strategies where the resources are optimally distributed among the cities perform much better than the strategies where the vaccine is equally distributed among the network, yielding an illness attack rate 17% lower. We show that it is possible to significantly mitigate a more global epidemic with limited quantities of vaccine, provided that the vaccination campaign is extremely fast and it occurs within the first weeks of transmission. PMID:23555207

  3. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  4. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  5. Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive traet

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Sun, Tie-Mie; Yao, Wen-Qing; Chen, Li-Li; Jin, Yu; Li, Chun-Ling; Meng, Fan-Juan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To treat patients with stage I-IV malignant tumors of digestive tract using autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV (Newcastle disease virus) vaccine, and observe the survival period and curative effect. METHODS: 335 patients with malignant tumors of digestive tract were treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine. The autologous tumor cell vaccine received were assigned for long-term survival observation. While these failed to obtain the autologous tumor tissue were given with NDV vaccine for a received short-term observation on curative effect. RESULTS: The colorectal cancer patients treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine were divided into two groups: the controlled group (subjected to resection alone) (n = 257), the vaccine group (subjected to both resection and immunotherapy) (n = 310). 25 patients treated with NDV immunotherapy were all at stage IV without having resection. In postoperation adjuvant therapy patients, the 5, 6 and 7-year survival rates were 66.51%, 60.52%, 56.50% respectively; whereas in patients with resection alone, only 45.57%, 44.76% and 43.42% respectively. The average survival period was 5.13 years (resection alone group 4.15 years), the median survival period was over 7 years (resection alone group 4.46 years). There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients treated with resection plus vaccine were measured delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions after vaccination, (indurative scope > 5 mm). The magnitude of DTH was related to the prognosis. The 5-year survival rate was 80% for those with indurations greater than 5 mm, compared with 30% for those with indurations less than 5 mm. The 1-year survival rate was 96% for 25 patients treated with NDV immunotherapy. The total effective rate (CR+PR) was 24.00% in NDV immunotherapy; complete remission (CR) in 1 case (4.00%), partial remission (PR) in 5 cases (20.00%), stabilizedin in 16 cases (64.00%), progression (PD) in 1 case (4.00%). After

  6. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

  7. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  8. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    PubMed

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:21496469

  9. Novel Viral Vectored Vaccines for the Prevention of Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Lambe, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Influenza represents a substantial global healthcare burden, with annual epidemics resulting in 3–5 million cases of severe illness with a significant associated mortality. In addition, the risk of a virulent and lethal influenza pandemic has generated widespread and warranted concern. Currently licensed influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to induce efficacious and long-lasting herd immunity. In addition, and as evidenced by the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, there can be a significant delay between the emergence of a pandemic influenza and an effective, antibody-inducing vaccine. There is, therefore, a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection—obviating the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Development of such a vaccine would yield enormous health benefits to society and also greatly reduce the associated global healthcare burden. There are a number of alternative influenza vaccine technologies being assessed both preclinically and clinically. In this review we discuss viral vectored vaccines, either recombinant live-attenuated or replication-deficient viruses, which are current lead candidates for inducing efficacious and long-lasting immunity toward influenza viruses. These alternate influenza vaccines offer real promise to deliver viable alternatives to currently deployed vaccines and more importantly may confer long-lasting and universal protection against influenza viral infection. PMID:22735755

  10. Mumps - Vaccine Q and A

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing vaccine, given as combination measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, separated by at least 28 days, are routinely ... been vaccinated should also receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine, but adults who work in healthcare, a school/ ...

  11. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  12. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  13. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  16. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  17. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  18. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  19. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  20. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  1. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  2. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... season, 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine is being incorporated into the seasonal vaccine formulation... vaccine provides some protection. The 2010-2011 vaccine provides protection against H1N1 (pandemic.... People who got the 2009 H1N1 vaccine still need to get vaccinated with the 2010-2011 influenza...

  3. The Pediatrician's Dilemma: Refusing the Refusers of Infant Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Block, Stan L

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with the continuously increasing rates of families wanting to either significantly delay or completely postpone their infant's vaccines has created an alarmingly untenable dilemma for the general pediatricians dealing with these families on a daily basis. Pediatricians must decide whether to continue to provide substandard care by foregoing many or most of the infant's highly recommended protective vaccines, or whether to dismiss from the practice the family who refuses vaccines. Much has been written about why they should retain these families, but this paper will discuss some reasonable rationales as to why nearly 40% of pediatricians choose dismissal of these families. PMID:26479573

  4. Exploring the Reasons Behind Parental Refusal of Vaccines.

    PubMed

    McKee, Chephra; Bohannon, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Parental refusal of vaccines is a growing a concern for the increased occurrence of vaccine preventable diseases in children. A number of studies have looked into the reasons that parents refuse, delay, or are hesitant to vaccinate their child(ren). These reasons vary widely between parents, but they can be encompassed in 4 overarching categories. The 4 categories are religious reasons, personal beliefs or philosophical reasons, safety concerns, and a desire for more information from healthcare providers. Parental concerns about vaccines in each category lead to a wide spectrum of decisions varying from parents completely refusing all vaccinations to only delaying vaccinations so that they are more spread out. A large subset of parents admits to having concerns and questions about childhood vaccinations. For this reason, it can be helpful for pharmacists and other healthcare providers to understand the cited reasons for hesitancy so they are better prepared to educate their patients' families. Education is a key player in equipping parents with the necessary information so that they can make responsible immunization decisions for their children. PMID:27199617

  5. Exploring the Reasons Behind Parental Refusal of Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Parental refusal of vaccines is a growing a concern for the increased occurrence of vaccine preventable diseases in children. A number of studies have looked into the reasons that parents refuse, delay, or are hesitant to vaccinate their child(ren). These reasons vary widely between parents, but they can be encompassed in 4 overarching categories. The 4 categories are religious reasons, personal beliefs or philosophical reasons, safety concerns, and a desire for more information from healthcare providers. Parental concerns about vaccines in each category lead to a wide spectrum of decisions varying from parents completely refusing all vaccinations to only delaying vaccinations so that they are more spread out. A large subset of parents admits to having concerns and questions about childhood vaccinations. For this reason, it can be helpful for pharmacists and other healthcare providers to understand the cited reasons for hesitancy so they are better prepared to educate their patients' families. Education is a key player in equipping parents with the necessary information so that they can make responsible immunization decisions for their children. PMID:27199617

  6. Vaccination coverage of patients with inborn errors of metabolism and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Marta; De Lonlay, Pascale; Menni, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-11-27

    To evaluate vaccination coverage of children and adolescents with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccination, the vaccination status of 128 patients with IEM and 128 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was established by consulting the official vaccination chart. In children with IEMs, compared with healthy controls, low vaccination rates and/or delays in administration were observed for pneumococcal conjugate, meningococcus C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and influenza vaccines. Among the parents of IEM patients, vaccine schedule compliance was primarily driven by the doctors at the hospital's reference centres; among the parents of the healthy controls, compliance was driven by the primary care paediatricians. These results show that IEM patients demonstrate sub-optimal vaccination coverage. Further studies of the different vaccines in each IEM disorder and educational programmes aimed at physicians and parents to increase immunization coverage in these patients are urgently needed. PMID:26514424

  7. Preventing Cervical Cancer in the United States: Barriers and Resolutions for HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Anna Louise; Levinson, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates for preadolescent and adolescent girls in the United States are far behind those of other developed nations. These rates differ substantially by region and state, socioeconomic status, and insurance status. In parents and young women, a lack of awareness and a misperception of the risk of this vaccine drive low vaccination rates. In physicians, lack of comfort with discussion of sexuality and the perception that the vaccine should be delayed to a later age contribute to low vaccination rates. Patient- and physician-targeted educational campaigns, systems-based interventions, and school-based vaccine clinics offer a variety of ways to address the barriers to HPV vaccination. A diverse and culturally appropriate approach to promoting vaccine uptake has the potential to significantly improve vaccination rates in order to reach the Healthy People 2020 goal of over 80% vaccination in adolescent girls. This article reviews the disparities in HPV vaccination rates in girls in the United States, the influences of patients’, physicians’, and parents’ attitudes on vaccine uptake, and the proposed interventions that may help the United States reach its goal for vaccine coverage. PMID:26870696

  8. Preventing Cervical Cancer in the United States: Barriers and Resolutions for HPV Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Beavis, Anna Louise; Levinson, Kimberly L

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates for preadolescent and adolescent girls in the United States are far behind those of other developed nations. These rates differ substantially by region and state, socioeconomic status, and insurance status. In parents and young women, a lack of awareness and a misperception of the risk of this vaccine drive low vaccination rates. In physicians, lack of comfort with discussion of sexuality and the perception that the vaccine should be delayed to a later age contribute to low vaccination rates. Patient- and physician-targeted educational campaigns, systems-based interventions, and school-based vaccine clinics offer a variety of ways to address the barriers to HPV vaccination. A diverse and culturally appropriate approach to promoting vaccine uptake has the potential to significantly improve vaccination rates in order to reach the Healthy People 2020 goal of over 80% vaccination in adolescent girls. This article reviews the disparities in HPV vaccination rates in girls in the United States, the influences of patients', physicians', and parents' attitudes on vaccine uptake, and the proposed interventions that may help the United States reach its goal for vaccine coverage. PMID:26870696

  9. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  10. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gari, Getachew; Abie, Getnet; Gizaw, Daniel; Wubete, Alehegn; Kidane, Membere; Asgedom, Hagos; Bayissa, Berecha; Ayelet, Gelagay; Oura, Christopher A L; Roger, Francois; Tuppurainen, Eeva S M

    2015-06-22

    The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated animals in the field. The three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (Ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) Neethling and Kenyan sheep and goat pox (KSGP) O-180 strain vaccines) and a Gorgan goat pox (GTP) vaccine manufactured by Jordan Bio-Industries Centre (JOVAC). The latter vaccine was evaluated for the first time in cattle against LSDV. The Ethiopian Neethling and KSGPO-180 vaccines failed to provide protection in cattle against LSDV, whereas the Gorgan GTP vaccine protected all the vaccinated calves from clinical signs of LSD. There was no significant difference in protective efficacy detected between two dosage levels (P=0.2, P=0.25, and P=0.1 for KSGP, Neethling and Gorgan vaccines, respectively). Additionally, the Gorgan GTP vaccinated cattle showed stronger levels of cellular immune responses measured using Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions at the vaccination site indicating higher levels of immunogenicity produced by the GTPV vaccine in cattle, as opposed to the other two vaccines. This study indicated, for the first time, that the Gorgan GTP vaccine can effectively protect cattle against LSDV and that the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine were not protective. The results emphasise the need for molecular characterization of the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine seed viruses used for vaccine production in Ethiopia. In addition, the potency and efficacy testing process of the Ethiopian LSD Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccines should be re-evaluated. PMID:26056063

  11. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Research : Vaccines Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Vaccines What Are Vaccines and What Do They Do? A vaccine—also ... immune response against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine ...

  12. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  13. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gunjan L; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A; Ponce, Doris M; Young, James W; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N

    2015-12-01

    Because cord blood (CB) lacks memory T and B cells and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine-eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five patients (63%; engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8; range, 2 to 7/8) received protein conjugated vaccines, and 63 patients (median age, 34 years; range, .9 to 64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range, 7 to 45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19F, 23F) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, P = .555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86% to 100%) and adults (53% to 89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4(+)CD45RA(+) and CD19(+) cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side effects were identified, and all vaccinated patients survived (median follow-up, 57 months). Although GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients. PMID:26271191

  14. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  15. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  16. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  17. [Biotechnology and vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Peret, R

    1990-12-01

    Current biotechnologies used in the manufacture of new vaccines are of three kinds: Genetic recombinations leading to either vaccinal sub-units or living vaccines represented by recombinant vectors; Chemical synthesis techniques; Use of the spatial configuration of an anti-antibody similar to the initial antigen. These are the anti-idiotype vaccines. Genetic engineering is the basis of a new generation of vaccines, sought with the aim of attempting to eradicate a number of diseases throughout the world. However, there is presently an inadequacy in resources, most often linked to financial considerations, which limits widespread systematic vaccination. In the future, vaccines against dental caries will probably be obtained from purified proteins of hydrolase fractions common to cariogenic bacteria and resulting from genetic recombinations in the form of vaccinal sub-units. PMID:2077866

  18. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications from the vaccinia virus can be severe. Benefit of Vaccine Following Exposure Vaccination within 3 days ... Policies About CDC.gov Link to Us All Languages Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  19. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  20. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) ... Related Pages Diphtheria Pertussis Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Also Known As & Abbreviations Tetanus = Lockjaw DTaP = ...

  1. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... are at increased risk of developing meningococcal disease. Immunization Schedule Vaccination with MCV4 is recommended: when kids ...

  2. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  3. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  4. Vaccine Reaction Images

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Materials Q fever Info & Guidance for Clinicians Salmonella Shigella Smallpox Smallpox Basics Vaccine Basics Clinicians Vaccination ... Metals Nerve Agents Pulmonary Agents Riot Control Agents Toxic Alcohols Vesicants Chemical-Specific Fact Sheets Toxicology FAQs ...

  5. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Cancer.gov

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  6. Clinical vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical experience. However, there remain a number of hurdles to overcome. Continuous efforts are focused on increasing the efficacy and reducing the risks related to vaccine use. Cutting-edge knowledge about immunology and microbiology is being rapidly translated to vaccine development. Thus, physicians and others involved in the clinical development of vaccines should have sufficient understanding of the recent developmental trends in vaccination and the diseases of interest. PMID:25648742

  7. Your child's first vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... these vaccines today: [ ] DTaP [ ] Hib [ ] Hepatitis B [ ] Polio [ ] PCV13 (Provider: Check appropriate boxes) 1. Why get vaccinated? ... the 6-month dose is not needed. Pneumococcal (PCV13) 4 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 12- ...

  8. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals. PMID:17633300

  9. A Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  10. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  11. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

  12. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  13. Vaccines in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mitali M; Shah, Aishani C; Mahajan, Rashmi S; Bilimoria, Freny E

    2015-01-01

    A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We’ve come a long way since. Today's vaccines are among the 21st century's most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases. PMID:26120155

  14. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  15. Importance of vaccination habit and vaccine choice on influenza vaccination among healthy working adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-11-10

    This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. PMID:20638452

  16. Fowlpox-based survivin vaccination for malignant mesothelioma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bertino, Pietro; Panigada, Maddalena; Soprana, Elisa; Bianchi, Valentina; Bertilaccio, Sabrina; Sanvito, Francesca; Rose, Aaron H.; Yang, Haining; Gaudino, Giovanni; Hoffmann, Peter R.; Siccardi, Antonio; Carbone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Survivin protein is an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy since it is abundantly expressed in most common human cancers and mostly absent in normal adult tissues. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a deadly cancer associated with asbestos or erionite exposure for which no successful therapies are currently available. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel survivin-based vaccine by subcutaneous or intraperitoneum injection of BALB/c mice with murine fiber-induced MM tumor cells followed by vaccination with recombinant Fowlpox virus replicons encoding survivin. Vaccination generated significant immune responses in both models, leading to delayed tumor growth and improved animal survival. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of tumors from vaccinated mice showed CD8+ T cell infiltration, and real-time PCR demonstrated increased mRNA and protein levels of immunostimulatory cytokines. Analyses of survivin peptide-pulsed spleen and lymph node cells from vaccinated mice using ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed antigen-specific, interferon-γ-producing CD8+ T cell responses. In addition pentamer-based flow cytometry showed that vaccination generated survivin-specific CD8+ T cells. Importantly, vaccination did not affect fertility or induce autoimmune abnormalities in mice. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant Fowlpox expressing survivin improves T cell responses against aggressive MM tumors and may form the basis for promising clinical applications. PMID:23335100

  17. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle. PMID:27044148

  18. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, Paul; Bansal, Anju

    2014-12-01

    Although some success was achieved in recent years in HIV prevention, an effective vaccine remains the means with the most potential of curtailing HIV-1 infections worldwide. Despite multiple failed attempts, a recent HIV vaccine regimen demonstrated modest protection from infection. Although the protective efficacy in this trial was not sufficient to warrant licensure, it spurred renewed optimism in the field and has provided valuable insights for improving future vaccine designs. This review summarizes the pertinent details of vaccine development and discusses ways the field is moving forward to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV infection and disease progression. PMID:25287587

  20. Vaccine-Associated Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2016-01-01

    All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491

  1. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongqun; Rappuoli, Rino; De Groot, Anne S.; Chen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning. PMID:21772787

  2. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  3. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  4. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  5. Vaccines for allergy.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  6. Immunology of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Beverley, P C L

    2002-01-01

    An ideal vaccine is relatively easy to define, but few real vaccines approach the ideal and no vaccines exist for many organisms, for which a vaccine is the only realistic protective strategy in the foreseeable future. Many difficulties account for the failure to produce these vaccines. All micro-organisms deploy evasion mechanisms that interfere with effective immune responses and, for many organisms, it is not clear which immune responses provide effective protection. However, recent advances in methods for studying immune response to pathogens have provided a better understanding of immune mechanisms, including immunological memory, and led to the realisation that the initiation of immune responses is a key event requiring triggering through 'danger' signals. Based on these findings, the development of novel adjuvants, vectors and vaccine formulations allowing stimulation of optimal and prolonged protective immunity should lead to the introduction of vaccines for previously resistant organisms. PMID:12176847

  7. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  8. [Vaccinations for the travellers].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2004-03-15

    Immunisations for the traveller include, before specific vaccine, a correct immunisation schedule according to national recommendations with appropriate boosters and hepatitis B immunisation. The yellow fever vaccine is required to entry in countries of endemic area and quadrivalent ACYW135 meningococcal vaccine for entry in Saudi Arabia. Hepatitis A immunisation could be performed at 1 year of age and is recommended for travellers in tropical areas and children vaccination control the disease both in the patient and in the contacts. Meningococcal A+C vaccines are required for travellers in meningitis-prone areas of tropical Africa during the dry season (December to June), and quadrivalent ACYW135 is useful only in Burkina-Faso and Niger. Typhoid and rabies vaccines are required for ambulatory travellers in endemic areas, as Japanese encephalitis in south-west Asia. In central Europe, tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is recommended for patients travelling in forest areas during spring and summer. PMID:15176511

  9. Modeling control of rabies outbreaks in red fox populations to evaluate culling, vaccination, and vaccination combined with fertility control.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C; Wilkinson, D

    2003-04-01

    A predictive model of spread and control of rabies in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) populations was used to evaluate efficacy of culling, oral vaccination, and oral vaccination and fertility control (V + FC) as rabies control strategies. In addition, effects of season, fox population density, and a delay in starting control were modeled. At fox densities of 0.5 fox families/km2 or greater, a single oral vaccination campaign with bait uptake rates of less than 50% resulted in ineffective rabies control. An uptake rate of at least 80% was required to give a better than 80% chance of eliminating rabies. Vaccination was least effective at controlling rabies if applied 1 or 2 mo before the foxes gave birth. Seasonal timing of poison or V + FC had little effect on efficacy, which was always more successful than the oral vaccination alone. The longer the delay between the simulated start of the rabies infection and the application of a single vaccination campaign, the less successful was the control, particularly at the higher fox densities tested. At a fox density of 0.25 families/km2, all the strategies were equally successful at eliminating rabies. At higher fox densities V + FC was slightly less successful than culling, whereas vaccination-only was considerably less successful. The sole use of vaccination is not considered a viable control method for areas with high fox densities. The model suggests that an area of culling centered on the disease focus, plus an outer ring of vaccine or V + FC, could be the best strategy to control a point-source wildlife rabies outbreak. PMID:12910754

  10. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568