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Sample records for oito anos iniciais

  1. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  2. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  3. Expression of calcium-activated chloride channels Ano1 and Ano2 in mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, Alexander P; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tarasov, Michail V; Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2016-02-01

    Specialized Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels ubiquitously couple intracellular Ca(2+) signals to a change in cell polarization. The existing physiological evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are functional in taste cells. Because Ano1 and Ano2 encode channel proteins that form CaCCs in a variety of cells, we analyzed their expression in mouse taste cells. Transcripts for Ano1 and Ano2 were detected in circumvallate (CV) papillae, and their expression in taste cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. When dialyzed with CsCl, taste cells of the type III exhibited no ion currents dependent on cytosolic Ca(2+). Large Ca(2+)-gated currents mediated by TRPM5 were elicited in type II cells by Ca(2+) uncaging. When TRPM5 was inhibited by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), ionomycin stimulated a small but resolvable inward current that was eliminated by anion channel blockers, including T16Ainh-A01 (T16), a specific Ano1 antagonist. This suggests that CaCCs, including Ano1-like channels, are functional in type II cells. In type I cells, CaCCs were prominently active, blockable with the CaCC antagonist CaCCinh-A01 but insensitive to T16. By profiling Ano1 and Ano2 expressions in individual taste cells, we revealed Ano1 transcripts in type II cells only, while Ano2 transcripts were detected in both type I and type II cells. P2Y agonists stimulated Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents in type I cells. Thus, CaCCs, possibly formed by Ano2, serve as effectors downstream of P2Y receptors in type I cells. While the role for TRPM5 in taste transduction is well established, the physiological significance of expression of CaCCs in type II cells remains to be elucidated. PMID:26530828

  4. Small Molecule-facilitated Degradation of ANO1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Hall, Michelle Lynn; Borawski, Jason; Hodgson, Catherine; Jenkins, Jeremy; Piechon, Philippe; Popa, Oana; Rothwell, Christopher; Tranter, Pamela; Tria, Scott; Wagner, Trixie; Whitehead, Lewis; Gaither, L. Alex

    2014-01-01

    ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, is highly expressed and amplified in human cancers and is a critical survival factor in these cancers. The ANO1 inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 decreases proliferation of ANO1-amplified cell lines; however, the mechanism of action remains elusive. We explored the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of CaCCinh-A01 on cell proliferation using a combined experimental and in silico approach. We show that inhibition of ANO1 function is not sufficient to diminish proliferation of ANO1-dependent cancer cells. We report that CaCCinh-A01 reduces ANO1 protein levels by facilitating endoplasmic reticulum-associated, proteasomal turnover of ANO1. Washout of CaCCinh-A01 rescued ANO1 protein levels and resumed cell proliferation. Proliferation of newly derived CaCCinh-A01-resistant cell pools was not affected by CaCCinh-A01 as compared with the parental cells. Consistently, CaCCinh-A01 failed to reduce ANO1 protein levels in these cells, whereas ANO1 currents were still inhibited by CaCCinh-A01, indicating that CaCCinh-A01 inhibits cell proliferation by reducing ANO1 protein levels. Furthermore, we employed in silico methods to elucidate novel biological functions of ANO1 inhibitors. Specifically, we derived a pharmacophore model to describe inhibitors capable of promoting ANO1 degradation and report new inhibitors of ANO1-dependent cell proliferation. In summary, our data demonstrate that inhibition of the channel activity of ANO1 is not sufficient to inhibit ANO1-dependent cell proliferation, indicating that the role of ANO1 in cancer only partially depends on its function as a channel. Our results provide an impetus for gaining a deeper understanding of ANO1 modulation in cells and introduce a new targeting approach for antitumor therapy in ANO1-amplified cancers. PMID:24599954

  5. Outpatient treatment of fissure-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-12-01

    A review of 86 cases of fissure-in-ano as seen in Ife is presented. The method of management is described and compared with other conservative methods of treatment. The results show a complete healing of the condition within two weeks as compared with four to six weeks recorded in other series. Healing was confirmed by a complete resolution of symptoms together with re-epithelisation of the fissure on inspection at proctoscopy. It is suggested that the described surgical management is simple, fast, cost reducing and time saving in the treatment of fissure-in-ano. It is further envisaged that this procedure may also serve as a means of relief to our already congested hospitals. PMID:6528355

  6. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Ho K.; Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Jo, Minjae; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9), completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma. PMID:27219012

  7. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Ho K; Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-Kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Jo, Minjae; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9), completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma. PMID:27219012

  8. Altered expression of Ano1 variants in human diabetic gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Amelia; Bernard, Cheryl E; Strege, Peter R; Beyder, Arthur; Galietta, Luis J V; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Rae, James L; Parkman, Henry P; Linden, David R; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Ördög, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2011-04-15

    Diabetes affects many organs including the stomach. Altered number and function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the gastrointestinal pacemaker cells, underlie a number of gastrointestinal motility disorders, including diabetic gastroparesis. In the muscle layers, ICC selectively express Ano1, thought to underlie classical Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents. Mice homozygous for Ano1 knock-out exhibit abnormal ICC function and motility. Several transcripts for Ano1 are generated by alternative splicing of four exons. Here, we report expression levels of transcripts encoded by alternative splicing of Ano1 gene in gastric muscles of patients with diabetic gastroparesis and nondiabetic control tissues. Expression of mRNA from two alternatively transcribed exons are significantly different between patients and controls. Furthermore, patients with diabetic gastroparesis express mRNA for a previously unknown variant of Ano1. The 5' end of this novel variant lacks exons 1 and 2 and part of exon 3. Expression of this variant in HEK cells produces a decreased density of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents that exhibit slower kinetics compared with the full-length Ano1. These results identify important changes in expression and splicing of Ano1 in patients with diabetic gastroparesis that alter the electrophysiological properties of the channel. Changes in Ano1 expression in ICC may directly contribute to diabetic gastroparesis. PMID:21349842

  9. Role of LuxIR Homologue AnoIR in Acinetobacter nosocomialis and the Effect of Virstatin on the Expression of anoR Gene.

    PubMed

    Oh, Man Hwan; Choi, Chul Hee

    2015-08-01

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication in which bacteria produce autoinducers as signaling molecules to sense cell density and coordinate gene expression. In the present study, a LuxI-type synthase, AnoI, and a LuxR-type regulator, AnoR, were identified in Acinetobacter nosocomialis, an important nosocomial pathogen, by sequence analysis of the bacterial genome. We found that N-(3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OH-dDHL) is a quorum-sensing signal in A. nosocomialis. The anoI gene deletion was responsible for the impairment in the production of OH-dDHL. The expression of anoI was almost abolished in the anoR mutant. These results indicate that AnoI is essential for the production of OH-dDHL in A. nosocomialis, and its expression is positively regulated by AnoR. Moreover, the anoR mutant exhibited deficiency in biofilm formation. In particular, motility of the anoR mutant was consistently and significantly abolished compared with that of the wild type. The deficiency in the biofilm formation and motility of the anoR mutant was significantly restored by a functional anoR , indicating that AnoR plays important roles in the biofilm formation and motility. Furthermore, the present study showed that virstatin exerts its effects on the reduction of biofilm formation and motility by inhibiting the expression of anoR . Consequently, the combined results suggest that AnoIR is a quorum-sensing system that plays important roles in the biofilm formation and motility of A. nosocomialis, and virstatin is an inhibitor of the expression of anoR. PMID:25975610

  10. Functions of Discourse Markers "Ano and Sono" in Written Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Yasuko

    Through examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese, this paper explores how these linguistic devices function differently in conversation. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions through which a speaker attempts to achieve an interpersonal rapport with a listener. In particular, the question addresses…

  11. Is modern management of fistula-in-ano acceptable?

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Frances; Gilbert, Timothy; Skaife, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Fistula-in-ano has been managed by a number of techniques and there remains no consensus on the most appropriate management for all patients. The mainstay of any treatment balances the need to control sepsis vs the risk of potential incontinence post-intervention. Management should focus on the primary source of sepsis. PMID:27388377

  12. Identification and characterization of ANO9 in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunxiang; Cai, Sanjun; Wang, Xishan; Jiang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The precise role and potential underlying mechanisms of anoctamin 9 (ANO9) remain largely unknown. This study aims to characterize the role and oncogenic mechanisms of ANO9 in stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: We examined the expression of ANO9 in colorectal cancerous tissues and cells using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Multiple cellular and molecular approaches such as gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and invasion assay were also performed to explore its oncogenic mechanisms. Furthermore, the clinical significance of ANO9 in clinical CRC specimens was assessed by clinical correlation and survival analyses. Results: Lower expression of ANO9 messenger RNA (mRNA) was frequently detected both in CRC tissues with recurrence and metastasis-derived cell lines. Compared with matched nontumorous tissues, lower expression of ANO9 protein was observed in tumors, which was significantly correlated with tumorigenesis (p < 0.05). In vitro functional studies showed that ANO9 contributed to tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Moreover, investigation of clinical CRC specimens showed that ANO9 were markedly overexpressed in metastatic tissue compared with primary tissue. Decreased expression of ANO9 was correlated with poor prognostic outcomes. Conclusions: This study highlighted the role of ANO9 in progression and metastasis of stage II and III CRC. These findings suggested that up-regulation of ANO9, as a metastasis-related gene, could be a novel approach for inhibiting CRC progression. PMID:26317553

  13. An Allegory of Addiction Recovery: Exploring the Performance of "Eumenides" by Aeschylus, as Adapted by 18 ANO Theatre Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zontou, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the "Eumenides," as adapted and performed by 18 ANO theatre group. 18 ANO is the theatre group of the Drug dependence treatment unit 18 ANO of Attica's Psychiatric Hospital, which is based in Athens, Greece. Each year 18 ANO organises performances in the wider community with the aim of promoting…

  14. ANOs 3–7 in the anoctamin/Tmem16 Cl− channel family are intracellular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Charity; Qu, Zhiqiang; Osunkoya, Adeboye O.; Cui, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) participate in numerous physiological functions such as neuronal excitability, sensory transduction, and transepithelial fluid transport. Recently, it was shown that heterologously expressed anoctamins ANO1 and ANO2 generate currents that resemble native CaCCs. The anoctamin family (also called Tmem16) consists of 10 members, but it is not known whether all members of the family are CaCCs. Expression of ANOs 3–7 in HEK293 cells did not generate Cl− currents activated by intracellular Ca2+, as determined by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. With the use of confocal imaging, only ANO1 and ANO2 traffic to the plasma membrane when expressed heterologously. Furthermore, endogenously expressed ANO7 in the human prostate is predominantly intracellular. We took a chimeric approach to identify regions critical for channel trafficking and function. However, none of the chimeras of ANO1 and ANO5/7 that we made trafficked to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that intracellular anoctamins may be endoplasmic reticulum proteins, although it remains unknown whether these family members are CaCCs. Determining the role of anoctamin family members in ion transport will be critical to understanding their functions in physiology and disease. PMID:22075693

  15. A novel exon in the human Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 imparts greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca2.

    PubMed

    Strege, Peter R; Bernard, Cheryl E; Mazzone, Amelia; Linden, David R; Beyder, Arthur; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-11-01

    Anoctamin 1 (Ano1; TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal. The mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates Ano1 are incompletely understood. In the gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is required for normal slow wave activity and is involved in regulating cell proliferation. Splice variants of Ano1 have varying electrophysiological properties and altered expression in disease states. Recently, we identified a transcript for human Ano1 containing a novel exon-"exon 0" upstream of and in frame with exon 1. The electrophysiological properties of this longer Ano1 isoform are unknown. Our aim was to determine the functional contribution of the newly identified exon to the Ca(2+) sensitivity and electrophysiological properties of Ano1. Constructs with [Ano1(+0)] or without [Ano1(-0)] the newly identified exon were transfected into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to determine voltage- and time-dependent parameters of whole cell Cl(-) currents between isoforms with varying concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular anions, or Cl(-) channel inhibitors. We found that exon 0 did not change voltage sensitivity and had no impact on the relative permeability of Ano1 to most anions. Ano1(+0) exhibited greater changes in current density but lesser changes in kinetics than Ano1(-0) in response to varying intracellular Ca(2+). The CACC inhibitor niflumic acid inhibited current with greater efficacy and higher potency against Ano1(+0) compared with Ano1(-0). Likewise, the Ano1 inhibitor T16Ainh-A01 reduced Ano1(+0) more than Ano1(-0). In conclusion, human Ano1 containing exon 0 imparts its Cl(-) current with greater sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+) and CACC inhibitors. PMID:26359375

  16. Surface expression of the Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) channel is suppressed by protein-protein interactions with β-COP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Bae, Yeonju; Park, Nammi; Yoo, Jae Cheal; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-06-24

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) is a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that plays important physiological roles in normal and cancerous tissues. However, the plasma membrane trafficking mechanisms of ANO1 remain poorly characterized. In yeast two-hybrid screening experiments, we observed direct interactions of ANO1 with β-COP, which is a subunit of Coat Protein Complex I (COPI). This interaction was then confirmed using several in vitro and in vivo binding assays. Moreover, the cotransfection of β-COP with ANO1 into HEK293T cells led to decreased the surface expression and the channel activity of ANO1. Accordingly, endogenous ANO1 was associated with β-COP in U251 glioblastoma cells, and silencing of β-COP enhanced surface expression and whole-cell currents of ANO1 in these cells. Taken together, these data suggest that β-COP negatively regulates ANO1 surface expression. PMID:27207835

  17. AB095. Increased expression of TMEM16A/Ano1 chloride channel associated with diabetic erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Yajun; Chen, Yingwei; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weimin; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the presence, location and functional role of TMEM16A/anotamin-1 (Ano1) calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) in the penile of rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction. Methods Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administrated streptozotocin (diabetic) or citrate buffer (control) randomly. Erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 12th week after diabetes was induced. The effect of Ano1 specific inhibitor—T16Ainh-A01 on intracavernous pressure (ICP) was evaluated. Then the penile tissues were harvested for molecular exploration. Real-time PCR and Western Blotting were used to assess the expression of Ano1 in penile tissues. Immunofluorescent labelling of penile tissue allowed localization of Ano1. Cavernous smooth muscle cell (CSMC) was cultured in high glucose medium. The change of Ano1 was measured using Western Blotting. The proliferation of CSMC was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Results Erectile function was impaired in diabetic rats. The expression of Ano1 was increased in rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction at mRNA and protein levels. Immunofluorescent labelling revealed the presence of Ano1 mainly in cavernous smooth muscle cells. The inhibition of Ano1 increased the ICP of DED rats. High glucose in vitro enhanced the proliferation of CSMC and the expression level of Ano1. Conclusions Ano1 is expressed in rat penile tissue and is increased with diabetes mellitus. The inhibition of Ano1 increased the ICP of DED rats. The alerted Ano1 may be associated with diabetic erectile dysfunction. It is a potential therapy target for ED in the future.

  18. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minseo; Lee, Ho K.; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Namkung, Wan

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26196390

  19. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel Ano1 controls microvilli length and membrane surface area in the oocyte.

    PubMed

    Courjaret, Raphael; Hodeify, Rawad; Hubrack, Satanay; Ibrahim, Awab; Dib, Maya; Daas, Sahar; Machaca, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) play important physiological functions in epithelia and other tissues. In frog oocytes the CaCC Ano1 regulates resting membrane potential and the block to polyspermy. Here, we show that Ano1 expression increases the oocyte surface, revealing a novel function for Ano1 in regulating cell morphology. Confocal imaging shows that Ano1 increases microvilli length, which requires ERM-protein-dependent linkage to the cytoskeleton. A dominant-negative form of the ERM protein moesin precludes the Ano1-dependent increase in membrane area. Furthermore, both full-length and the truncated dominant-negative forms of moesin co-localize with Ano1 to the microvilli, and the two proteins co-immunoprecipitate. The Ano1-moesin interaction limits Ano1 lateral membrane mobility and contributes to microvilli scaffolding, therefore stabilizing larger membrane structures. Collectively, these results reveal a newly identified role for Ano1 in shaping the plasma membrane during oogenesis, with broad implications for the regulation of microvilli in epithelia. PMID:27173493

  20. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl− channels and phospholipid scram-blases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl− currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca2+ signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection. PMID:25730773

  1. Next generation sequencing on patients with LGMD and nonspecific myopathies: Findings associated with ANO5 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Savarese, Marco; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Tasca, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Lucia; Janssens, Sandra; De Bleecker, Jan; Delpech, Marc; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Sacconi, Sabrina; Santoro, Lucio; Ricci, Enzo; Claes, Kathleen; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We studied 786 undiagnosed patients with LGMD or nonspecific myopathic features to investigate the role of ANO5 mutations in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and in nonspecific myopathies using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In 160 LGMD patients, we first sequenced hotspot exons 5 and 20 and then sequenced the remaining part of the coding region. Another 626 patients, recruited using broader inclusion criteria, were directly analyzed by targeted NGS. By combining NGS and Sanger sequencing, we identified 33/786 (4%) patients carrying putative pathogenic changes in both alleles and 23 ANO5 heterozygotes (3%). The phenotypic spectrum is broader than expected, from hyperCKemia to myopathies, with lack of genotype/phenotype correlations. In particular, this is currently the largest screening of the ANO5 gene. The large number of heterozygotes for damaging mutations suggests that anoctaminopathies should be frequent and often nonpenetrant. We propose the multiple genetic testing by targeted NGS as a first step to analyze patients with nonspecific myopathic presentations. This represents a straightforward approach to overcome the difficulties of clinical heterogeneity of ANO5 patients, and to test, at the same time, many other genes involved in neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25891276

  2. Next generation sequencing on patients with LGMD and nonspecific myopathies: Findings associated with ANO5 mutations.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Marco; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Tasca, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Lucia; Janssens, Sandra; De Bleecker, Jan; Delpech, Marc; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio; Angelini, Corrado; Sacconi, Sabrina; Santoro, Lucio; Ricci, Enzo; Claes, Kathleen; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    We studied 786 undiagnosed patients with LGMD or nonspecific myopathic features to investigate the role of ANO5 mutations in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and in nonspecific myopathies using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In 160 LGMD patients, we first sequenced hotspot exons 5 and 20 and then sequenced the remaining part of the coding region. Another 626 patients, recruited using broader inclusion criteria, were directly analyzed by targeted NGS. By combining NGS and Sanger sequencing, we identified 33/786 (4%) patients carrying putative pathogenic changes in both alleles and 23 ANO5 heterozygotes (3%). The phenotypic spectrum is broader than expected, from hyperCKemia to myopathies, with lack of genotype/phenotype correlations. In particular, this is currently the largest screening of the ANO5 gene. The large number of heterozygotes for damaging mutations suggests that anoctaminopathies should be frequent and often nonpenetrant. We propose the multiple genetic testing by targeted NGS as a first step to analyze patients with nonspecific myopathic presentations. This represents a straightforward approach to overcome the difficulties of clinical heterogeneity of ANO5 patients, and to test, at the same time, many other genes involved in neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25891276

  3. Comparing clinical data and muscle imaging of DYSF and ANO5 related muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Ten Dam, Leroy; van der Kooi, Anneke J; Rövekamp, Fleur; Linssen, Wim H J P; de Visser, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    In this retrospective cross-sectional study clinical and muscle imaging data of patients with Miyoshi distal myopathy phenotype (MMD1 and MMD3) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2L (LGMD2L) were described. MMD1 and MMD3 are genetically heterogenous diseases based on DYSF and ANO5 gene defects. MMD3 and LGMD2L are clinically different diseases caused by an ANO5 gene defect. All groups showed predominant fatty degeneration of the gluteus minimus muscle and of the posterior segments of the thigh and calf muscles with sparing of the gracilis muscle. Muscle atrophy, hypertrophy and asymmetric muscle involvement on muscle imaging did not differ between groups. The pattern of fatty degeneration of muscles and of muscle weakness shows only minor differences between MMD1 (n=6) and MMD3 (n=8) patients with more frequently fatty degeneration of the rectus femoris, anterior tibial, and extensor digitorum muscles and more frequently muscle weakness in the anterior tibial, peroneal and calf muscle in MMD1. In the ANO5 related phenotypes the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle was less frequently involved in LGMD2L (n=13) and no differences in the incidence of muscle weakness was found. Therefore, MMD3 and LGMD2L should be considered as part of one spectrum of ANO5 related muscle disease. PMID:25176504

  4. The Phenotypic Spectrum of DYT24 Due to ANO3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Charlesworth, Gavin; Cordivari, Carla; Schneider, Susanne A; Kägi, Georg; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Batla, Amit; Houlden, Henry; Wood, Nicholas W; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2014-01-01

    Genes causing primary dystonia are rare. Recently, pathogenic mutations in the anoctamin 3 gene (ANO3) have been identified to cause autosomal dominant craniocervical dystonia and have been assigned to the dystonia locus dystonia-24 (DYT24). Here, we expand on the phenotypic spectrum of DYT24 and provide demonstrative videos. Moreover, tremor recordings were performed, and back-averaged electroencephalography, sensory evoked potentials, and C-reflex studies were carried out in two individuals who carried two different mutations in ANO3. Ten patients from three families are described. The age at onset ranged from early childhood to the forties. Cervical dystonia was the most common site of onset followed by laryngeal dystonia. The characteristic feature in all affected individuals was the presence of tremor, which contrasts DYT24 from the typical DYT6 phenotype. Tremor was the sole initial manifestation in some individuals with ANO3 mutations, leading to misdiagnosis as essential tremor. Electrophysiology in two patients with two different mutations showed co-contraction of antagonist muscles, confirming dystonia, and a 6-Hz arm tremor at rest, which increased in amplitude during action. In one of the studied patients, clinically superimposed myoclonus was observed. The duration of the myoclonus was in the range of 250 msec at about 3 Hz, which is more consistent with subcortical myoclonus. In summary, ANO3 causes a varied phenotype of young-onset or adult-onset craniocervical dystonia with tremor and/or myoclonic jerks. Patients with familial cervical dystonia who also have myoclonus-dystonia as well as patients with prominent tremor and mild dystonia should be tested for ANO3 mutations. © 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:24442708

  5. Suppression of 14-3-3γ-mediated surface expression of ANO1 inhibits cancer progression of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Jae Kwang; Bae, Yeonju; Lee, Bok-Soon; Kim, Eunju; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Yoo, Jiyun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gwan-Su; Lee, Seok-Geun; Lee, C. Justin; Kang, Sang Soo; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) acts as a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel in various normal tissues, and its expression is increased in several different types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation of ANO1 surface expression is important for determining its physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, the trafficking mechanism of ANO1 remains elusive. Here, we report that segment a (N-terminal 116 amino acids) of ANO1 is crucial for its surface expression, and we identified 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for anterograde trafficking using yeast two-hybrid screening. The surface expression of ANO1 was enhanced by 14-3-3γ, and the Thr9 residue of ANO1 was critical for its interaction with 14-3-3γ. Gene silencing of 14-3-3γ and/or ANO1 demonstrated that suppression of ANO1 surface expression inhibited migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. These findings provide novel therapeutic implications for glioblastomas, which are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27212225

  6. Suppression of 14-3-3γ-mediated surface expression of ANO1 inhibits cancer progression of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Jae Kwang; Bae, Yeonju; Lee, Bok-Soon; Kim, Eunju; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Yoo, Jiyun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gwan-Su; Lee, Seok-Geun; Lee, C Justin; Kang, Sang Soo; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) acts as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in various normal tissues, and its expression is increased in several different types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation of ANO1 surface expression is important for determining its physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, the trafficking mechanism of ANO1 remains elusive. Here, we report that segment a (N-terminal 116 amino acids) of ANO1 is crucial for its surface expression, and we identified 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for anterograde trafficking using yeast two-hybrid screening. The surface expression of ANO1 was enhanced by 14-3-3γ, and the Thr9 residue of ANO1 was critical for its interaction with 14-3-3γ. Gene silencing of 14-3-3γ and/or ANO1 demonstrated that suppression of ANO1 surface expression inhibited migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. These findings provide novel therapeutic implications for glioblastomas, which are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27212225

  7. ANO5 mutations in the Dutch limb girdle muscular dystrophy population.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Anneke J; Ten Dam, Leroy; Frankhuizen, Wendy S; Straathof, Chiara S M; van Doorn, Pieter A; de Visser, Marianne; Ginjaar, Ieke B

    2013-06-01

    A Dutch cohort of 105 limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) patients were subject to subsequent genetic investigations. In half the families a causative mutation was found. Recently mutations were identified in ANO5 causing LGMD2L and Miyoshi-like myopathy (MMD3), but could also be found in patients with hyperCKemia only. Therefore, we analysed the index cases of the remaining 31 as yet undiagnosed families from our previously described cohort of LGMD patients for the presence of ANO5 mutations. Detailed history and neurological examination were available for all patients. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, skeletal muscle computed tomography (CT) and cardiological investigations were performed. Mutations in ANO5 were found in 16% of the families: 11 index patients and two sibs, eight males and five females. The founder mutation c.191dupA was present in 8 out of 13 patients. Ten different pathogenic mutations were identified of which seven were novel: five missense and two splice site mutations. The age of these patients ranged from 26 to 69 years and the age of onset varied from 21 to 57 years. Symptoms at onset were related to proximal leg weakness. The weakness was slowly progressive. Calf hypertrophy was present in three patients. Males were more severely affected than females. Serum CK activity was highly elevated in the early stage of disease and moderately increased in later stages. Muscle biopsy showed predominantly dystrophic changes. One patient had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, two others had intraventricular septum thickening. PMID:23607914

  8. ANO10 mutations cause ataxia and coenzyme Q₁₀ deficiency.

    PubMed

    Balreira, Andrea; Boczonadi, Veronika; Barca, Emanuele; Pyle, Angela; Bansagi, Boglarka; Appleton, Marie; Graham, Claire; Hargreaves, Iain P; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Lochmüller, Hanns; Griffin, Helen; Taylor, Robert W; Naini, Ali; Chinnery, Patrick F; Hirano, Michio; Quinzii, Catarina M; Horvath, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Inherited ataxias are heterogeneous disorders affecting both children and adults, with over 40 different causative genes, making molecular genetic diagnosis challenging. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing have significantly improved mutation detection, few treatments exist for patients with inherited ataxia. In two patients with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency in muscle, whole exome sequencing revealed mutations in ANO10, which encodes anoctamin 10, a member of a family of putative calcium-activated chloride channels, and the causative gene for autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-10 (SCAR10). Both patients presented with slowly progressive ataxia and dysarthria leading to severe disability in the sixth decade. Epilepsy and learning difficulties were also present in one patient, while retinal degeneration and cataract were present in the other. The detection of mutations in ANO10 in our patients indicate that ANO10 defects cause secondary low CoQ10 and SCAR10 patients may benefit from CoQ10 supplementation. PMID:25182700

  9. Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M. Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T.; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A.; Auld, Douglas S.; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Gaither, L. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  10. A novel missense mutation in ANO5/TMEM16E is causative for gnathodiaphyseal dyplasia in a large Italian pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Caterina; Brunamonti Binello, Paolo; Badiali, Giovanni; Caci, Emanuela; Cusano, Roberto; Garibaldi, Joseph; Pippucci, Tommaso; Merlini, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio; Rhoden, Kerry J; Galietta, Luis J V; Lalatta, Faustina; Balbi, Paolo; Seri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by frequent bone fractures at a young age, bowing of tubular bones and cemento-osseus lesions of the jawbones. Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) belongs to the anoctamin protein family that includes calcium-activated chloride channels. However, recent data together with our own experiments reported here add weight to the hypothesis that ANO5 may not function as calcium-activated chloride channel. By sequencing the entire ANO5 gene coding region and untranslated regions in a large Italian GDD family, we found a novel missense mutation causing the p.Thr513Ile substitution. The mutation segregates with the disease in the family and has never been described in any database as a polymorphism. To date, only two mutations on the same cysteine residue at position 356 of ANO5 amino-acid sequence have been described in GDD families. As ANO5 has also been found to be mutated in two different forms of muscular dystrophy, the finding of this third mutation in GDD adds clues to the role of ANO5 in these disorders. PMID:23047743

  11. [Ano-rectal injuries in civilian practice in Cameroon. 10 case reports].

    PubMed

    Yao, J G; Masso-Misse, P; Malonga, E

    1994-01-01

    At the Central Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, 10 ano-rectal injuries were treated over a period of 5 years. There were the same number of men and women and all patients were young (range: 7 to 35 years). The cause was illegal abortion in 2 cases and impalement following a fall from a tree in 3. The time lapse between injury and treatment was longer than 24 hours in 5 patients. In 2 cases the lesions were minor and simple debridement was possible. In the remaining 8 cases, construction of a colostomy was required using either the Hartmann terminal-type technique (n = 5) or the exclusion technique (n = 3). Three patients died: one from traumatic shock and two from septic shock. Complications were observed in 4 patients: 2 infections and 2 mechanical complications. Two patients presented permanent sequels including one with partial fecal incontinence. This study confirms the difficulty in management of ano-rectal injuries with limited facilities and reveals the variety of situations that can lead to these injuries especially in children in Africa. PMID:7934784

  12. Mutations in ANO3 Cause Dominant Craniocervical Dystonia: Ion Channel Implicated in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Gavin; Plagnol, Vincent; Holmström, Kira M.; Bras, Jose; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Preza, Elisavet; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Ryten, Mina; Schneider, Susanne A.; Stamelou, Maria; Trabzuni, Daniah; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we combined linkage analysis with whole-exome sequencing of two individuals to identify candidate causal variants in a moderately-sized UK kindred exhibiting autosomal-dominant inheritance of craniocervical dystonia. Subsequent screening of these candidate causal variants in a large number of familial and sporadic cases of cervical dystonia led to the identification of a total of six putatively pathogenic mutations in ANO3, a gene encoding a predicted Ca2+-gated chloride channel that we show to be highly expressed in the striatum. Functional studies using Ca2+ imaging in case and control fibroblasts demonstrated clear abnormalities in endoplasmic-reticulum-dependent Ca2+ signaling. We conclude that mutations in ANO3 are a cause of autosomal-dominant craniocervical dystonia. The locus DYT23 has been reserved as a synonym for this gene. The implication of an ion channel in the pathogenesis of dystonia provides insights into an alternative mechanism that opens fresh avenues for further research. PMID:23200863

  13. The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel ANO1/TMEM16A regulates primary ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruppersburg, Chelsey Chandler; Hartzell, H Criss

    2014-06-01

    Many cells possess a single, nonmotile, primary cilium highly enriched in receptors and sensory transduction machinery that plays crucial roles in cellular morphogenesis. Although sensory transduction requires ion channels, relatively little is known about ion channels in the primary cilium (with the exception of TRPP2). Here we show that the Ca(2+)-activated Cl ((-)) channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A) is located in the primary cilium and that blocking its channel function pharmacologically or knocking it down with short hairpin RNA interferes with ciliogenesis. Before ciliogenesis, the channel becomes organized into a torus-shaped structure ("the nimbus") enriched in proteins required for ciliogenesis, including the small GTPases Cdc42 and Arl13b and the exocyst complex component Sec6. The nimbus excludes F-actin and coincides with a ring of acetylated microtubules. The nimbus appears to form before, or independent of, apical docking of the mother centriole. Our data support a model in which the nimbus provides a scaffold for staging of ciliary components for assembly very early in ciliogenesis and chloride transport by ANO1/TMEM16A is required for the genesis or maintenance of primary cilia. PMID:24694595

  14. Mechanism of non-specific-fistula-in-ano: Hormonal aspects-Review.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, A M

    2012-02-01

    Abscesses could occur anywhere, but quite few that could proceed forward and develop fistulae. Crypto glandular abscess formation concept has been forming the basis for almost all designed strategies for management of cases of idiopathic fistula-in-ano for ages. Yet, this hypothesis failed to explain the reason(s) for the recorded lower incidences of idiopathic anal fistula in females than in males. Gram negative bacteria are largely the causative agents for these anal glands' abscesses that processed further and developed fistulae. Lipopolysaccharide component (LPS) of the bacterial cell wall could significantly attenuate the expression of mRNA of the oestrogen receptors and accordingly reduces the down signalling pathway. Yet, this kind of action could be inhibited in the presence of oestrogen. In addition, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a key proinflammatory cytokine that induces the secretion of other cytokines and enzymes in various cells and tissues. And LPS could activate pro-inflammatory cytokine by activating plasma membrane proteins (e.g. the toll like receptor 4 [TLR4] and CD14 that leads to the production of TNFα and other pro-inflammatory cytokines). This activation could be enhanced by testosterone but inhibited by oestrogen. These are likely the reasons for the higher prevalence of idiopathic fistula-in-ano in males than in females. PMID:21840183

  15. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  16. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  17. Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia: report of a family with a novel mutation of the ANO5 gene.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hannah A; Le, Karen T; Soulema, Albert L; Yueh, Ronald H; Scheuner, Maren T; Holick, Michael F; Christensen, Russell; Tajima, Tracey L; Leung, Angela M; Mallya, Sanjay M

    2016-05-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by florid osseous dysplasia of the jaws, bone fragility, and diaphyseal cortical thickening and bowing of long bones. We present a family with previously undiagnosed GDD. The disorder was identified by the characteristic gnathic and skeletal manifestations in the father. Clinical and radiologic examination of the patient's son also revealed the characteristic features of GDD. Gene sequencing revealed a novel mutation (c. 1067 G>A, p. Cys356 Tyr) in the ANO5 gene, which is causative for GDD. This mutation was predicted to be detrimental by computational analyses and by structural modeling of the protein. The implications for recognition and management of this disease are discussed. PMID:27068316

  18. Comparative study of Ksharasutra suturing and Lord's anal dilatation in the management of Parikartika (chronic fissure-in-ano)

    PubMed Central

    Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parikartika resembles fissure-in-ano which is very common among all ano-rectal disorders. In Ayurvedic texts, Parikartika is described as a complication of Vamana and Virechana as well as complication of Atisara. Ksharasutra was proved successful in the management of fistula-in-ano, piles, and there is a need to try its efficacy in fissure-in-ano. Aim: To evaluate the role of Ksharasutra suturing (KSS) in fissure bed in chronic fissure-in-ano. Materials and Methods: Total 100 patients of chronic fissure-in-ano were selected and randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group). In group-A, patients were undergone by KSS; while in patients of Group-B Lord's anal dilatation followed by KSS was done under spinal anesthesia. The KSS was done once and after slough out of Ksharasutra, the wound was treated for 4 weeks and assessment of the result was done on the basis of gradation adopted. Results: The pain relief on 14th day in Group-A was 86% while in Group-B 100% was observed. As on 7th day in Group-A, oozing was stopped in 68% patients, while in Group-B, oozing was stopped in 82% patients. On 21st day, Group-B showed more healing (85%) as compared to Group-A (69%). In this study 68% of patients were cured. Conclusion: In Group-B (KSS with Lord's anal dilatation) patients were cured early as compared to patients of Group-A (KSS alone). PMID:25558158

  19. The proposed use of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of fistula-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kenneth M; Smart, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Fistula in ano is a very common presentation to colorectal clinic. Embarrassment due to the symptoms makes accurate estimations of incidence difficult. It is estimated that up to 40% of peri-anal abscess will be accompanied by or preceded by a fistula. Fistulae can be classified into simple fistulae that involve no or minimal sphincter muscle and complex, which involve significant amounts of the anal sphincter muscle, possibly with multiple tracts. For complex fistulae a seton suture is usually placed through the tract and out through the anus to form a loop allowing pockets of sepsis to drain internally and externally and a mature tract of fibrous tissue to develop. Following this period definitive fistula treatment is considered. This can involve a number of procedures that have tremendously varied success rates in the literature. The first stage of surgical treatment is often a core fistulectomy, which entails surgical removal of the tract. This may be followed by insertion of fibrin glue, a collagen plug or formation of a rotation skin flap from surrounding tissue in order to close the resultant tissue defect. All current treatments have a significant failure rate. If this wound breaks down the surgery can leave a large painful peri-anal wound that can lead to ongoing fistulation. Should this occur resiting of the seton will be required with the patient only getting back to square one after months of healing around the seton. In addition removing cores of fibrous tissue passing through the sphincter can threaten the sphincter function resulting in impaired continence. Having seen radiofrequency ablation used to close varicose veins the authors propose that one could use similar techniques to close a fibrous tract matured with a seton in order to close a fistula. The authors propose that a short length radiofrequency catheter could be used to treat fistula in ano. This would in theory be less painful with less tissue destruction. In addition there would be no

  20. Física e Arte nas Estações do Ano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; da Conceição Barbosa Lima, Maria; Navarro Vasconcellos das Mercês, Maria

    2004-12-01

    The paper deals with the subject of the Four Seasons, exploring elements of Science and the Art in order to motivate students or public of museums of science and technology to understand it from their current cultural experiences and of old times. Physics joins to Astronomy to explain the phenomenon, while the use of Music and Painting make possible the immersion in the subject in way to many trips to the imagination capable to awake emotions.A proposal didactic is presented and justified for some consensus of the research in the area of teaching-learning of science, since that related to the persistent alternative conceptions concerning the causes of the changes observed at the different times of the year until the qualitative modelling of phenomena that appeals three-dimensional pedagogical models. Such proposal was developed in the activity named " Hiper interesting Talk: The Four Seasons, Science and Art" in the first Sunday of August/2003 in the Museum of Astronomy, MAST. O artigo trata do tema das Estações do Ano, explorando elementos da Ciência e da Arte como forma de motivar estudantes ou público de museus de ciência e tecnologia a compreendê-lo a partir de vivências culturais atuais e de outras épocas. A Física se junta à Astronomia para explicar o fenômeno, enquanto a Música e a Pintura possibilitam a imersão no tema em meio a muitas viagens à imaginação capazes de despertar emoções.Uma proposta didática é apresentada e justificada por consensos das muitas pesquisas na área de ensino-aprendizagem de ciências, desde os que se referem às persistentes concepções alternativas acerca das causas das mudanças observadas nas diferentes épocas do ano até à modelagem qualitativa de fenômenos que recorre a modelos pedagógicos tridimensionais. Tal proposta foi desenvolvida na atividade "Bate papo Hiperinteressante: As Quatro Estações, Ciência e Arte" realizada no primeiro domingo do mês de agosto de 2003 no Museu de Astronomia.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources. PMID:21975302

  2. Development of Educational Resources to Include the Teaching of Astronomy in the First Years of the Basic Education. (Spanish Title: Desarrollo de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Incluir la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en los Primeros Años de la Educación Básica.) Desenvolvimento de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Inserir o Ensino de Astronomia nas Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Morett, Samara; de Oliveira Souza, Marcelo

    2010-07-01

    ía y la vida cotidiana de los estudiantes. La inclusión de la astronomía en la escuela primaria es una manera de demostrar a los estudiantes cómo este campo está presente de forma activa en su vida cotidiana. Las clases que participan en el proyecto participaron en un estudio con el objetivo de proporcionar información a los conocimientos previos que tenían sobre los temas de la astronomía que se examinaron durante el proyecto. Con los experimentos realizados, y la ayuda de las nuevas tecnologías, conceptos astronómicos fueron presentados a los estudiantes de 4to y 5to año de la educación básica de una escuela municipal de Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). Después de las presentaciones nuevos datos fueran colectados y se han llevado a cabo con el fin de verificar el nivel de aprendizaje alcanzado y se observó que el método utilizado fue una herramienta importante para ayudar al proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. El proyecto logró resultados satisfactorios. Neste trabalho será apresentado o desenvolvimento de recursos pedagógicos para a apresentação de conceitos de astronomia nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. Este material é composto por apresentações realizadas com o uso de novos recursos tecnológicos, pela fabricação de experimentos e a discussão de curiosidades relativas a esta área de conhecimento. Os experimentos foram construídos com material de baixo custo com o objetivo de permitir que os alunos envolvidos pudessem refazê-los em outras ocasiões. O material apresentado busca enfatizar a relação entre a astronomia e o cotidiano dos alunos. A inclusão da astronomia no ensino fundamental e uma forma de demonstrar aoestudante como esta área está presente de forma ativa em seu cotidiano. As turmas envolvidas no projeto participaram de uma pesquisa com o objetivo de obter dados relativos ao conhecimento prévio que possuíam sobre os tópicos de astronomia que foram considerados no decorrer do projeto. Com os experimentos

  3. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  5. H/V ratio in Athens and the strong motion at the Ano Liosia site during the 1999 Athens earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, A.; Tselentis, G.-A.; Zahradnik, J.

    2003-04-01

    The damaging 1999 Athens earthquake of Mw=5.9 occurred at about 20km from the city center. The intensity distribution in the capital, ranging from V to IX, was quite irregular due to combination of the source, path and site effects. The 30-stations temporary network of the University of Patras, installed in the area of Attica for 50 days, recorded a significant part of the aftershock sequence. The aftershocks not only delineated the mainshock fault plane, but they also provided important site classification. The Horizontal-to-Vertical spectral ratio method was applied, and the most significant amplification (H/V exceeding 4 in the frequency range 1-4Hz) was found at the Ano Liosia site, belonging to the most heavily damaged zones with intensity IX. The site is situated in a shallow basin, whose surface extent is about 4x4 km, and the maximum depth is of about 150 m. Based on geological and geophysical data (Vp, Vs, Q) measured at the site, the numerical modeling of the seismic site response was carried out. The finite-differences technique was used for a 2D modeling, and significant edge effects were revealed, e.g. the amplification by a factor of 3, with respect to the outcropping bedrock. The 1D effects of the sediment layering, modeled by the matrix technique, would produce much weaker amplification, and simpler time history of the response. No recording of the mainshock is available from Ano Liosia. Nevertheless, based on the finite-extent source model validated by the existing strong motion records in Athens, we assume that the bedrock motion in Ano Liosia had its PGA ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 g, resulting from the relatively small epicentral distance (~ 10 km) and the forward source directivity (Serpetsidaki et al., session SM10). When combined with the above discussed site effect, the PGA values in Ano Liosia might locally exceed 0.6g.

  6. PERFACT procedure to treat supralevator fistula-in-ano: A novel single stage sphincter sparing procedure

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively perform the PERFACT procedure in supralevator anal fistula/abscess. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively in all the patients. Proximal cauterization around the internal opening, emptying regularly of fistula tracts and curettage of tracts (PERFACT) was done in all patients with supralevator fistula or abscess. All types of anal fistula and/or abscess with supralevator extension, whether intersphincteric or transsphincteric, were included in the study. The internal opening along with the adjacent mucosa was electrocauterized. The resulting wound was left open to heal by secondary intention so as to heal (close) the internal opening by granulation tissue. The supralevator tract/abscess was drained and thoroughly curetted. It was regularly cleaned and kept empty in the postoperative period. The primary outcome parameter was complete fistula healing. The secondary outcome parameters were return to work and change in incontinence scores (Vaizey objective scoring system) assessed preoperatively and at 3 mo after surgery. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were prospectively enrolled and followed for a median of 13 mo (range 5-21 mo). Mean age was 41.1 ± 13.4 years, M:F - 15:2. Fourteen (82.4%) had a recurrent fistula, 8 (47.1%) had an associated abscess, 14 (82.4%) had multiple tracts and 5 (29.4%) had horseshoe fistulae. Infralevator part of fistula was intersphincteric in 4 and transsphincteric in 13 patients. Two patients were excluded. Eleven out of fifteen (73.3%) were cured and 26.7% (4/15) had a recurrence. Two patients with recurrence were reoperated on with the same procedure and one was cured. Thus, the overall healing rate was 80% (12/15). All the patients could resume normal work within 48 h of surgery. There was no deterioration in incontinence scores (Vaizey objective scoring system). This is the largest series of supralevator fistula-in-ano (SLF) published to date. CONCLUSION: PERFACT procedure is an effective single

  7. Covalency hinders AnO2(H2O)(+)→ AnO(OH)2(+) isomerisation (An = Pa-Pu).

    PubMed

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-02-21

    The enthalpies of the reactions AnO2(+)→ AnO(+) + O and AnO2(+) + H2O → AnO2(H2O)(+), and those of the isomerisation of the latter to AnO(OH)2(+), have been calculated for An = Pa-Pu. The data match previous experimental and computational values very closely, and the computed enthalpy for the isomerisation of PaO2(H2O)(+) to PaO(OH)2(+), requested by the authors of Inorg. Chem., 2015, 54, 7474, is found to be 0.8 kJ mol(-1). The NPA, NBO and QTAIM approaches are used to probe covalency in the An-Oyl bond of AnO2(H2O)(+), and all metrics agree that these bonds become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed, providing rationalisation for the increasingly endothermic isomerisation reactions. QTAIM analysis indicates that the An=O and An-OH bonds in the oxide hydroxide isomers also become increasingly covalent as the 5f series is crossed. PMID:26781751

  8. Analysing the primacy of distance in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South district, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Buor, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Although the distance factor has been identified as key in the utilization of health services in rural areas of developing countries, it has been analysed without recourse to related factors of travel time and transport cost. Also, the influence of distance on vulnerable groups in utilization has not been an object of survey by researchers. This paper addresses the impact of distance on utilization, and how distance compares with travel time and transport cost that are related to it in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South (rural) district in Ghana. The study, a cross-sectional survey, also identifies the position of distance among other important factors of utilization. A sample of 400, drawn through systematic random technique, was used for the survey. Data were analysed using the regression model and some graphic techniques. The main instruments used in data collection were formal (face-by-face) interview and a questionnaire. The survey finds that distance is the most important factor that influences the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South district. Other key factors are income, service cost and education. The effect of travel time on utilization reflects that of distance and utilization. Recommendations to reduce distance coverage, improve formal education and reduce poverty have been made. PMID:14727709

  9. Functional disorders of the ano-rectal compartment of the pelvic floor: clinical and diagnostic value of dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Francesca

    2013-10-01

    The obstructed defecation syndrome is the main functional disorder of the posterior or ano-rectal pelvic floor compartment. Different mechanical and functional rectal disorders may cause this syndrome, including rectocele, rectal invagination, rectal prolapse, and pubo-rectalis muscle dyskinesia. Since pelvic floor muscles and fasciae act as a unique functional entity, dysfunctions of the posterior compartment are usually associated to variable dysfunctions of the anterior and middle urogenital compartments as well. Over 50% of postmenopause women are affected by severe symptoms due to pelvic floor disorders, with frequent need of surgical invasive treatments. Both diagnosis of the specific ano-rectal dysfunction and identification of all possible associated disorders are mandatory for an effective surgical or conservative treatment. Currently, dynamic MRI provides an excellent morphological and functional display of the pelvic floor like no other imaging modality. Pros and cons of posterior pelvic floor MRI, different evaluation techniques, reference lines and grading systems together with the main imaging findings will be discussed and illustrated. PMID:23090206

  10. Inhibition of cell proliferation by a selective inhibitor of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel, Ano1

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzone, Amelia; Eisenman, Seth T.; Strege, Peter R.; Yao, Zhen; Ordog, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 blocked Ano1 currents in HEK cells expressing Ano1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation in ICC primary cultures and CFPAC-1 cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T16A{sub inh}-A01 reduced proliferation of ICC in intact smooth muscle strips. -- Abstract: Background: Ion channels play important roles in regulation of cellular proliferation. Ano1 (TMEM16A) is a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} channel expressed in several tumors and cell types. In the muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract Ano1 is selectively expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and appears to be required for normal gastrointestinal slow wave electrical activity. However, Ano1 is expressed in all classes of ICC, including those that do not generate slow waves suggesting that Ano1 may have other functions. Indeed, a role for Ano1 in regulating proliferation of tumors and ICC has been recently suggested. Recently, a high-throughput screen identified a small molecule, T16A{sub inh}-A01 as a specific inhibitor of Ano1. Aim: To investigate the effect of the T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibitor on proliferation in ICC and in the Ano1-expressing human pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. Methods: Inhibition of Ano1 was demonstrated by whole cell voltage clamp recordings of currents in cells transfected with full-length human Ano1. The effect of T16A{sub inh}-A01 on ICC proliferation was examined in situ in organotypic cultures of intact mouse small intestinal smooth muscle strips and in primary cell cultures prepared from these tissues. ICC were identified by Kit immunoreactivity. Proliferating ICC and CFPAC-1 cells were identified by immunoreactivity for the nuclear antigen Ki67 or EdU incorporation, respectively. Results: T16A{sub inh}-A01 inhibited Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup -} currents by 60% at 10 {mu}M in a voltage-independent fashion. Proliferation of ICC was significantly reduced in primary cultures

  11. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; Ravindra, D R; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified

  12. Meta-Analyses of Microarray Datasets Identifies ANO1 and FADD as Prognostic Markers of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Bhat, Anupama Rajan; James, Bonney Lee; Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Mathew, Rohit; DR, Ravindra; Hedne, Naveen; Illiayaraja, Jeyaram; Kekatpure, Vikram; Khora, Samanta S.; Hicks, Wesley; Tata, Pramila; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Suresh, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified

  13. Theoretical studies on the AnO2(n+) (An = U, Np; n = 1, 2) complexes with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wu, Qun-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Nie, Chang-Ming; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2015-02-21

    Actinide separation in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is essential for the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Organophosphorus reagents have been found to exhibit strong affinities for actinides in experiments. In this work, the extraction complexes of AnO2(n+) (An = U, Np; n = 1, 2) with the traditional organophosphorus ligand HDEHP (di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid) have been investigated using density functional theory together with scalar-relativistic effective core potentials (ECPs) for actinide elements. According to our calculations, the HDEHP dimer prefers to act as a bidentate ligand in most of the studied complexes. HDEHP ligands show a higher extraction ability for An(vi) over An(v), and the formation of Np(vi) complexes is slightly more favorable than those of U(vi) analogues, which is mainly attributed to the stronger donor-acceptor interaction in Np(vi) complexes. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds play a significant role in the stability of the 1 : 1 type complexes AnO2(HL)2(NO3)2 (L = DEHP(-)). Moreover, AnO2(HL)2(NO3)2 are the most stable species in nitrate-rich acid solutions, while at low nitric acid concentrations, the complexing reaction of AnO2(H2O)5(2+) + 2(HL)2 → AnO2(HL2)2 + 2H(+) + 5H2O is probably the dominant reaction in the extraction process. Our results can help to understand the speciation of actinyl complexes in real solvent extraction of actinides with HDEHP at the molecular level. PMID:25598207

  14. Revisiting an ancient treatment for transphincteric fistula-in-ano ‘There is nothing new under the sun’ Ecclesiastes 1v9

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, G; Hargest, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The history of treatments for fistula-in-ano can be traced back to ancient times. Current treatment of transphincteric fistulae is controversial, with many options available. We reviewed the history of treatment using cutting setons and present our series of transphincteric fistulae in the light of the series in the literature. Design Literature review and case series. Setting Hospital based coloproctology service Participants 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula-in-ano were included. Main Outcome Measures The literature pertaining to treatment of transphincteric fistula was reviewed, along with the outcome of various treatment methods for this condition. Data were collected for 140 consecutive patients presenting with fistula- in-ano were assessed for fistula healing, recurrence and complications. Results A total of 140 consecutive patients with fistula-in-ano were identified, of which 111 were cryptoglandular (79.3%). Eighty-one of these 111 were transphincteric (73.0%). At a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 2–83 months), 70 transphincteric fistulae had healed (86.4%), 10 were still undergoing treatment (12.3%) and one patient was lost to follow-up prior to treatment (1.2%). Two patients in this group required a stoma (2.5%), six patients developed recurrence (7.4%); three ‘true’ recurrences (3.7%). One (1.2%) developed a chronic fissure. There were no reported cases of incontinence. Conclusions The management of transphincteric fistula-in-ano is complex and controversial, for which no clear surgical procedure has gained acceptance as the gold standard. This study demonstrates that transphincteric fistulae can be successfully treated using cutting setons. A high healing rate (86.4%), low recurrence rate (7.4%) and a low complication rate (3.7%) are shown, which compares favourably with published rates over a long follow-up. PMID:26152674

  15. A comparative clinical study of Snuhi Ksheera Sutra, Tilanala Kshara Sutra and Apamarga Kshara Sutra in Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano)

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Supreeth Joyal; Bhuyan, C.; Gupta, S. K.; Dudhamal, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano) at modern parlance is a common anorectal condition prevalent in the populations worldwide and its prevalence is second highest after Arsha (hemorrhoids). Kshara Sutra (K.S.) is one of the chief modality in the treatment of Bhagandara in Ayurvedic science. Exploration of the new plants for the preparation of Kshara as a better substitute to Apamarga Kshara is the need of the hour. To find out an effective alternative to Apamarga K.S. in view of easy processing, a Snuhi Ksheera Sutra without any Kshara and the Tilanala K.S. were opted for their clinical evaluation. Total 33 cases of Bhagandara were divided randomly into 3 groups, having 11 patients in each group. In Group A, Snuhi Ksheera Sutra; in Group B, Tilanala K.S. and in Group C, Apamarga K.S. were used. Assessment was done on objective (Unit Cutting Time - UCT) and subjective parameters. Statistically insignificant difference was observed in the efficacy of treatment by subjective parameters like pain, discharge, etc. between the three groups. It was found that Tilanala K.S. showed higher UCT (9.76 days) while lower in Snuhi Ksheera Sutra (7.42 days) as compared to Apamarga K.S. (8.82 days). Thus Tilanala K.S. can be used as a substitute for Apamarga K.S. and Snuhi Ksheera Sutra can be employed in the recurrent fibrosed cases of Bhagandara. PMID:23049190

  16. A comparative clinical study of Snuhi Ksheera Sutra, Tilanala Kshara Sutra and Apamarga Kshara Sutra in Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano).

    PubMed

    Lobo, Supreeth Joyal; Bhuyan, C; Gupta, S K; Dudhamal, T S

    2012-01-01

    Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano) at modern parlance is a common anorectal condition prevalent in the populations worldwide and its prevalence is second highest after Arsha (hemorrhoids). Kshara Sutra (K.S.) is one of the chief modality in the treatment of Bhagandara in Ayurvedic science. Exploration of the new plants for the preparation of Kshara as a better substitute to Apamarga Kshara is the need of the hour. To find out an effective alternative to Apamarga K.S. in view of easy processing, a Snuhi Ksheera Sutra without any Kshara and the Tilanala K.S. were opted for their clinical evaluation. Total 33 cases of Bhagandara were divided randomly into 3 groups, having 11 patients in each group. In Group A, Snuhi Ksheera Sutra; in Group B, Tilanala K.S. and in Group C, Apamarga K.S. were used. Assessment was done on objective (Unit Cutting Time - UCT) and subjective parameters. Statistically insignificant difference was observed in the efficacy of treatment by subjective parameters like pain, discharge, etc. between the three groups. It was found that Tilanala K.S. showed higher UCT (9.76 days) while lower in Snuhi Ksheera Sutra (7.42 days) as compared to Apamarga K.S. (8.82 days). Thus Tilanala K.S. can be used as a substitute for Apamarga K.S. and Snuhi Ksheera Sutra can be employed in the recurrent fibrosed cases of Bhagandara. PMID:23049190

  17. Why do we have to review our experience in managing cases with idiopathic fistula-in-ano regularly?

    PubMed Central

    Fucini, Claudio; Giani, Iacopo

    2011-01-01

    “Why do we have to review our experience in managing idiopathic fistula-in-ano regularly?” In order to answer this apparently simple question, we reviewed our clinical and surgical cases and most important relevant literature to find a rational and scientific answer. It would appear that whatever method you adopt in fistula management, there is a price to pay regarding either rate of recurrence (higher with conservative methods) or impairment of continence (higher with traditional surgery). Since, at the moment, reliable data to identify a treatment as a gold standard in the management of anal fistulas are lacking, the correct approach to this condition must consider all the anatomic and clinicopathological aspects of the disease; this knowledge joined to an eclectic attitude of the surgeon, who should be familiar with different types of treatment, is the only guarantee for a satisfactory treatment. As a conclusion, it is worthwhile to remember that adequate initial treatment significantly reduces recurrence, which, when it occurs, is usually due to failure to recognise the tract and primary opening at the initial operation. PMID:21876617

  18. Innovative approach in the management of horse-shoe fistula-in-ano with Kṣārasūtra

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Amruta A.; Dongargaon, Tajahmed N.; Shilpa, M. P.; Toshikhane, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is a common surgical problem. Horse-shoe fistulas usually have an internal opening in the posterior midline and extend anteriorly and laterally to one or both ischiorectal spaces by way of the deep potential space. The “Śambukāvarta Bhagandara” described by Suśruta can be correlated with the horse-shoe type of fistula. In this condition, neither fistulotomy nor “Kṣārasūtra” treatment alone, are useful hence there is a need for newer innovative surgical techniques to tackle this challenging disease. An integral approach of incision and drainage of both the abscess on the arms of the horse-shoe fistula with Kṣārasūtra ligation at 6 o’ clock position proves to be successful. We have tried the same technique with good results. No recurrence was found in the patients during the follow-up period of 6 months. A 45-year-old female with a known case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension approached with both right and left ischiorectal fossa inflammatory swelling. An innovative approach was used to manage horse-shoe fistula by making an additional opening below the anus at 6 o’clock position. Apāmārga Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread made using apāmārga) was ligated through the additional opening to the internal opening at 6 o’clock position for draining through both the cavities. Kṣārasūtra was changed weekly and the fistula healed completely by 3 months. PMID:26120231

  19. X-ray sterilization of the An. arabiensis genetic sexing strain 'ANO IPCL1' at pupal and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Ndo, C; Yamada, H; Damiens, D D; N'do, S; Seballos, G; Gilles, J R L

    2014-03-01

    With a view to area wide integrated pest management programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, the effects of X-ray exposure of males of the genetic sexing strain (GSS) of An. arabiensis, "ANO IPCL1" have been tested. The suitability of X-ray was assessed in comparison to gamma-ray for mosquito sterilization in operational settings where the acquisition of gamma ray irradiators may be problematic. Pupae and adult males were sterilized using X-ray irradiation at 5 increasing doses and effects were observed in terms of fecundity and fertility. Irradiated pupae and adults were further observed for effects on longevity. The adult stage appeared to be more sensitive to radiation exposure than the pupal stage, with a residual fertility of 1% in adults irradiated at 75Gy and 0% at 105Gy, compared to 8%at 75Gy and 4% at 105Gy in adults irradiated at the pupal stage. All treatment groups except those irradiated at 60Gy were statistically different from the control groups in terms of adult longevity post treatment, however overall survival was not highly compromised in the 75Gy treatment group which showed 96% of induced sterility. To ensure the fine balance between the induced sterility and the fitness of the insect produced is achieved, irradiation of adults at this dose may be a good compromise for the SIT as applied for this species, especially in specific cases such as sterilization after female elimination by spiking blood meals. Investigation into the combined effects of blood spiking and irradiation at the adult stage and additional competitiveness studies both in laboratory and field cages will provide more insight into the radiation dose and mosquito stage to be used in the frame of future SIT programs targeting this important malaria vector. PMID:24361725

  20. ANO5 gene analysis in a large cohort of patients with anoctaminopathy: confirmation of male prevalence and high occurrence of the common exon 5 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Anna; Hicks, Debbie; Hudson, Judith; Laval, Steve H; Barresi, Rita; Hilton-Jones, David; Deschauer, Marcus; Harris, Elizabeth; Rufibach, Laura; Hwang, Esther; Bashir, Rumaisa; Walter, Maggie C; Krause, Sabine; van den Bergh, Peter; Illa, Isabel; Pénisson-Besnier, Isabelle; De Waele, Liesbeth; Turnbull, Doug; Guglieri, Michela; Schrank, Bertold; Schoser, Benedikt; Seeger, Jürgen; Schreiber, Herbert; Gläser, Dieter; Eagle, Michelle; Bailey, Geraldine; Walters, Richard; Longman, Cheryl; Norwood, Fiona; Winer, John; Muntoni, Francesco; Hanna, Michael; Roberts, Mark; Bindoff, Laurence A; Brierley, Charlotte; Cooper, Robert G; Cottrell, David A; Davies, Nick P; Gibson, Andrew; Gorman, Gráinne S; Hammans, Simon; Jackson, Andrew P; Khan, Aijaz; Lane, Russell; McConville, John; McEntagart, Meriel; Al-Memar, Ali; Nixon, John; Panicker, Jay; Parton, Matt; Petty, Richard; Price, Christopher J; Rakowicz, Wojtek; Ray, Partha; Schapira, Anthony H; Swingler, Robert; Turner, Chris; Wagner, Kathryn R; Maddison, Paul; Shaw, Pamela J; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2013-08-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L or anoctaminopathy is a condition mainly characterized by adult onset proximal lower limb muscular weakness and raised CK values, due to recessive ANO5 gene mutations. An exon 5 founder mutation (c.191dupA) has been identified in most of the British and German LGMD2L patients so far reported. We aimed to further investigate the prevalence and spectrum of ANO5 gene mutations and related clinical phenotypes, by screening 205 undiagnosed patients referred to our molecular service with a clinical suspicion of anoctaminopathy. A total of 42 unrelated patients had two ANO5 mutations (21%), whereas 14 carried a single change. We identified 34 pathogenic changes, 15 of which are novel. The c.191dupA mutation represents 61% of mutated alleles and appears to be less prevalent in non-Northern European populations. Retrospective clinical analysis corroborates the prevalently proximal lower limb phenotype, the male predominance and absence of major cardiac or respiratory involvement. Identification of cases with isolated hyperCKaemia and very late symptomatic male and female subjects confirms the extension of the phenotypic spectrum of the disease. Anoctaminopathy appears to be one of the most common adult muscular dystrophies in Northern Europe, with a prevalence of about 20%-25% in unselected undiagnosed cases. PMID:23606453

  1. Microscopic theory of the insulating electronic ground states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.-T.; Magnani, N.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    The electronic states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (with An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are investigated employing first-principles calculations within the framework of the local density approximation +U (LDA+U) approach, implemented in a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave scheme. A systematic analysis of the An-5f states is performed which provides intuitive connections between the electronic structures and the local crystalline fields of the f states in the AnO2 series. Particularly the mechanisms leading to the experimentally observed insulating ground states are investigated. These are found to be caused by the strong spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions of the 5f orbitals; however, as a result of the different configurations, this mechanism works in distinctly different ways for each of the AnO2 compounds. In agreement with experimental observations, the nonmagnetic states of plutonium and curium dioxide are computed to be insulating, whereas those of uranium, neptunium, and americium dioxides require additional symmetry breaking to reproduce the insulator ground states, a condition which is met with magnetic phase transitions. We show that the occupancy of the An-f orbitals is closely connected to each of the appearing insulating mechanisms. We furthermore investigate the detailed constitution of the noncollinear multipolar moments for transverse 3q magnetic ordered states in UO2 and longitudinal 3q high-rank multipolar ordered states in NpO2 and AmO2.

  2. Ion channel and lipid scramblase activity associated with expression of TMEM16F/ANO6 isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Scudieri, Paolo; Caci, Emanuela; Venturini, Arianna; Sondo, Elvira; Pianigiani, Giulia; Marchetti, Carla; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Pagani, Franco; Galietta, Luis J V

    2015-01-01

    Abstract TMEM16F, also known as ANO6, is a membrane protein that has been associated with phospholipid scramblase and ion channel activity. However, the characteristics of TMEM16F-dependent channels, particularly the ion selectivity, are a matter of debate. Furthermore, the direct involvement of TMEM16F in phospholipid scrambling has been questioned. We studied the properties of different TMEM16F variants generated by alternative splicing. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that V1, V2 and V5 variants generated membrane currents activated by very high (micromolar) intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and positive membrane potentials. These variants showed different degrees of Ca2+ sensitivity and kinetics of activation but similar ion permeability, characterized by a slight selectivity for Cl− over Na+. A fourth variant (V3) showing a unique carboxy-terminus was devoid of activity, in agreement with its intracellular localization. We also measured scramblase activity using the binding of annexin V to detect phosphatidylserine on the cell surface. V1, V2 and V5 variants were associated with calcium-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization. Interestingly, introduction of an activating mutation, D409G, produced a marked increase in the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of TMEM16F-dependent channels. In parallel, this mutation also enhanced the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization that occurred even under resting conditions. These results support the conclusion that TMEM16F proteins are directly involved in dual activity, as a phospholipid scramblase and as an ion channel. Key points TMEM16F is a membrane protein with possible dual function as an ion channel and a phospholipid scramblase. The properties of ion channels associated with TMEM16F and the link between ion channel and scramblase activity are a matter of debate. We studied the properties of four isoforms of TMEM16F generated by alternative splicing. Upregulation of three TMEM16F isoforms or

  3. Potassium and ANO1/TMEM16A chloride channel profiles distinguish atypical and typical smooth muscle cells from interstitial cells in the mouse renal pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javed; Tonta, Mary A; Mitsui, Retsu; Li, Qun; Kett, Michelle; Li, Jinhua; Parkington, Helena C; Hashitani, Hikaru; Lang, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although atypical smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the proximal renal pelvis are thought to generate the pacemaker signals that drive pyeloureteric peristalsis, their location and electrical properties remain obscure. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Standard patch clamp, intracellular microelectrode and immunohistochemistry techniques were used. To unequivocally identify SMCs, transgenic mice with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) expressed in cells containing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were sometimes used. KEY RESULTS Atypical SMCs were distinguished from typical SMCs by the absence of both a transient 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K+ current (IKA) and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) upon the opening of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels. Many typical SMCs displayed a slowly activating, slowly decaying Cl- current blocked by niflumic acid (NFA). Immunostaining for KV4.3 and ANO1/ TMEM16A Cl- channel subunits co-localized with α-SMA immunoreactive product predominately in the distal renal pelvis. Atypical SMCs fired spontaneous inward currents that were either selective for Cl- and blocked by NFA, or cation-selective and blocked by La3+. α-SMA- interstitial cells (ICs) were distinguished by the presence of a Xe991-sensitive KV7 current, BK channel STOCs and Cl- selective, NFA-sensitive spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs). Intense ANO1/ TMEM16A and KV7.5 immunostaining was present in Kit-α-SMA- ICs in the suburothelial and adventitial regions of the renal pelvis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We conclude that KV4.3+α-SMA+ SMCs are typical SMCs that facilitate muscle wall contraction, that ANO1/ TMEM16A and KV7.5 immunoreactivity may be selective markers of Kit- ICs and that atypical SMCs which discharge spontaneous inward currents are the pelviureteric pacemakers. PMID:22014103

  4. Whole exome sequencing links dental tumor to an autosomal-dominant mutation in ANO5 gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and muscle dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, T. V.; Tyazhelova, T. V.; Rykalina, V. N.; Gusev, F. E.; Goltsov, A. Yu.; Zolotareva, O. I.; Aliseichik, M. P.; Borodina, T. A.; Grigorenko, A. P.; Reshetov, D. A.; Ginter, E. K.; Amelina, S. S.; Zinchenko, R. A.; Rogaev, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the jaws may represent different human disorders and frequently associate with pathologic bone fractures. In this report, we analyzed two affected siblings from a family of Russian origin, with a history of dental tumors of the jaws, in correspondence to original clinical diagnosis of cementoma consistent with gigantiform cementoma (GC, OMIM: 137575). Whole exome sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1067G > A (p.Cys356Tyr) in ANO5 gene in these patients. To date, autosomal-dominant mutations have been described in the ANO5 gene for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD, OMIM: 166260), and multiple recessive mutations have been described in the gene for muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 613319, 611307); the same amino acid (Cys) at the position 356 is mutated in GDD. These genetic data and similar clinical phenotypes demonstrate that the GC and GDD likely represent the same type of bone pathology. Our data illustrate the significance of mutations in single amino-acid position for particular bone tissue pathology. Modifying role of genetic variations in another gene on the severity of the monogenic trait pathology is also suggested. Finally, we propose the model explaining the tissue-specific manifestation of clinically distant bone and muscle diseases linked to mutations in one gene. PMID:27216912

  5. Whole exome sequencing links dental tumor to an autosomal-dominant mutation in ANO5 gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and muscle dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, T V; Tyazhelova, T V; Rykalina, V N; Gusev, F E; Goltsov, A Yu; Zolotareva, O I; Aliseichik, M P; Borodina, T A; Grigorenko, A P; Reshetov, D A; Ginter, E K; Amelina, S S; Zinchenko, R A; Rogaev, E I

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the jaws may represent different human disorders and frequently associate with pathologic bone fractures. In this report, we analyzed two affected siblings from a family of Russian origin, with a history of dental tumors of the jaws, in correspondence to original clinical diagnosis of cementoma consistent with gigantiform cementoma (GC, OMIM: 137575). Whole exome sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1067G > A (p.Cys356Tyr) in ANO5 gene in these patients. To date, autosomal-dominant mutations have been described in the ANO5 gene for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD, OMIM: 166260), and multiple recessive mutations have been described in the gene for muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 613319, 611307); the same amino acid (Cys) at the position 356 is mutated in GDD. These genetic data and similar clinical phenotypes demonstrate that the GC and GDD likely represent the same type of bone pathology. Our data illustrate the significance of mutations in single amino-acid position for particular bone tissue pathology. Modifying role of genetic variations in another gene on the severity of the monogenic trait pathology is also suggested. Finally, we propose the model explaining the tissue-specific manifestation of clinically distant bone and muscle diseases linked to mutations in one gene. PMID:27216912

  6. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  7. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gy—a dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrin—a highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended. PMID:25438257

  8. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing of a 12.5 Mb Homozygous Region Reveals ANO10 Mutations in Patients with Autosomal-Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, Sascha; Hoischen, Alexander; Meijer, Rowdy P.P.; Gilissen, Christian; Neveling, Kornelia; Wieskamp, Nienke; de Brouwer, Arjan; Koenig, Michel; Anheim, Mathieu; Assoum, Mirna; Drouot, Nathalie; Todorovic, Slobodanka; Milic-Rasic, Vedrana; Lochmüller, Hanns; Stevanin, Giovanni; Goizet, Cyril; David, Albert; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Kremer, Berry; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.C.; Schijvenaars, Mascha M.V.A.P.; Heister, Angelien; Kwint, Michael; Arts, Peer; van der Wijst, Jenny; Veltman, Joris; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; Knoers, Nine

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to their dominant counterparts, unraveling the molecular background of these ataxias has proven to be more complicated and the currently known mutations provide incomplete coverage for genotyping of patients. By combining SNP array-based linkage analysis and targeted resequencing of relevant sequences in the linkage interval with the use of next-generation sequencing technology, we identified a mutation in a gene and have shown its association with autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia. In a Dutch consanguineous family with three affected siblings a homozygous 12.5 Mb region on chromosome 3 was targeted by array-based sequence capture. Prioritization of all detected sequence variants led to four candidate genes, one of which contained a variant with a high base pair conservation score (phyloP score: 5.26). This variant was a leucine-to-arginine substitution in the DUF 590 domain of a 16K transmembrane protein, a putative calcium-activated chloride channel encoded by anoctamin 10 (ANO10). The analysis of ANO10 by Sanger sequencing revealed three additional mutations: a homozygous mutation (c.1150_1151del [p.Leu384fs]) in a Serbian family and a compound-heterozygous splice-site mutation (c.1476+1G>T) and a frameshift mutation (c.1604del [p.Leu535X]) in a French family. This illustrates the power of using initial homozygosity mapping with next-generation sequencing technology to identify genes involved in autosomal-recessive diseases. Moreover, identifying a putative calcium-dependent chloride channel involved in cerebellar ataxia adds another pathway to the list of pathophysiological mechanisms that may cause cerebellar ataxia. PMID:21092923

  9. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An5+/6+ and AnO2+/2+ (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An5+/6+ and AnO2+/2+) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (˜5 a.u.3) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (αzz) of the polarizability for the lowest Ω levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.3) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO2+ and UO22+, respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO2+ and NpO22+, respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO2+ ion.

  10. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano

    PubMed Central

    Gond, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashok; Rajeshwari, PN; Choudhary, PC; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra. Method: The present study was clinical, randomised, single blind trial. In the present research work Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra has been taken for comparative study wth snuhi apamarga ksharsutra. Thirty patients cases of fistulainano were selected from OPD/IPD of Shalya Tantra department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Total patients were divided into two equal groups. The patients of group A were treated with Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra and the patients of group B were treated with Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra. Result: In the study the effect of Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra was found better in pain, itching, pus discharge, tenderness and burning sensation and the rate of Unit Cutting Time was slightly higher as Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra. Conclusion: Though U.C.T of Guggulu Chitrak Kshara Sutra is slightly higher than Snuhi Apamarga Kshar Sutra, but in assessment parameter Guggulu Chitrak Kshar Sutra has been shown significant result. With guggulu chitrak ksharsutra post ligation complications like hypertrophied scar etc are not seen and this is easily available and cost effective.

  11. Synthesis and X-ray Crystallography of [Mg(H2O)6][AnO2(C2H5COO)3]2 (An = U, Np, or Pu).

    PubMed

    Serezhkin, Viktor N; Grigoriev, Mikhail S; Abdulmyanov, Aleksey R; Fedoseev, Aleksandr M; Savchenkov, Anton V; Serezhkina, Larisa B

    2016-08-01

    Synthesis and X-ray crystallography of single crystals of [Mg(H2O)6][AnO2(C2H5COO)3]2, where An = U (I), Np (II), or Pu (III), are reported. Compounds I-III are isostructural and crystallize in the trigonal crystal system. The structures of I-III are built of hydrated magnesium cations [Mg(H2O)6](2+) and mononuclear [AnO2(C2H5COO)3](-) complexes, which belong to the AB(01)3 crystallochemical group of uranyl complexes (A = AnO2(2+), B(01) = C2H5COO(-)). Peculiarities of intermolecular interactions in the structures of [Mg(H2O)6][UO2(L)3]2 complexes depending on the carboxylate ion L (acetate, propionate, or n-butyrate) are investigated using the method of molecular Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra. Actinide contraction in the series of U(VI)-Np(VI)-Pu(VI) in compounds I-III is reflected in a decrease in the mean An═O bond lengths and in the volume and sphericity degree of Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra of An atoms. PMID:27404584

  12. Development of Educational Resources to Include the Teaching of Astronomy in the First Years of the Basic Education. (Spanish Title: Desarrollo de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Incluir la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en los Primeros Años de la Educación Básica.) Desenvolvimento de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Inserir o Ensino de Astronomia nas Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Morett, Samara; de Oliveira Souza, Marcelo

    2010-07-01

    ía y la vida cotidiana de los estudiantes. La inclusión de la astronomía en la escuela primaria es una manera de demostrar a los estudiantes cómo este campo está presente de forma activa en su vida cotidiana. Las clases que participan en el proyecto participaron en un estudio con el objetivo de proporcionar información a los conocimientos previos que tenían sobre los temas de la astronomía que se examinaron durante el proyecto. Con los experimentos realizados, y la ayuda de las nuevas tecnologías, conceptos astronómicos fueron presentados a los estudiantes de 4to y 5to año de la educación básica de una escuela municipal de Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). Después de las presentaciones nuevos datos fueran colectados y se han llevado a cabo con el fin de verificar el nivel de aprendizaje alcanzado y se observó que el método utilizado fue una herramienta importante para ayudar al proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. El proyecto logró resultados satisfactorios. Neste trabalho será apresentado o desenvolvimento de recursos pedagógicos para a apresentação de conceitos de astronomia nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. Este material é composto por apresentações realizadas com o uso de novos recursos tecnológicos, pela fabricação de experimentos e a discussão de curiosidades relativas a esta área de conhecimento. Os experimentos foram construídos com material de baixo custo com o objetivo de permitir que os alunos envolvidos pudessem refazê-los em outras ocasiões. O material apresentado busca enfatizar a relação entre a astronomia e o cotidiano dos alunos. A inclusão da astronomia no ensino fundamental e uma forma de demonstrar aoestudante como esta área está presente de forma ativa em seu cotidiano. As turmas envolvidas no projeto participaram de uma pesquisa com o objetivo de obter dados relativos ao conhecimento prévio que possuíam sobre os tópicos de astronomia que foram considerados no decorrer do projeto. Com os experimentos

  13. Effect of spin-orbit coupling on the actinide dioxides AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am): A screened hybrid density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Martin, Richard L.; Roy, Lindsay E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; McCleskey, Thomas M.; Scott, Brian L.; Bauer, Eve; Joyce, John J.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic comparison of the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps of actinide dioxides, AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am) predicted by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid density functional (HSE) with the self-consistent inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The computed HSE lattice constants and band gaps of AnO2 are in consistently good agreement with the available experimental data across the series, and differ little from earlier HSE results without SOC. ThO2 is a simple band insulator (f 0), while PaO2, UO2, and NpO2 are predicted to be Mott insulators. The remainders (PuO2 and AmO2) show considerable O2p/An5f mixing and are classified as charge-transfer insulators. We also compare our results for UO2, NpO2, and PuO2 with the PBE+U, self interaction correction (SIC), and dynamic mean-field theory (DMFT) many-body approximations.

  14. Assessment of the Olfactory Function in Italian Patients with Type 3 von Willebrand Disease Caused by a Homozygous 253 Kb Deletion Involving VWF and TMEM16B/ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Morgan, Anna; Marino, Renato; Ettorre, Cosimo Pietro; Margaglione, Maurizio; Gasparini, Paolo; Menini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Type 3 Von Willebrand disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the virtual absence of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). A rare 253 kb gene deletion on chromosome 12, identified only in Italian and German families, involves both the VWF gene and the N-terminus of the neighbouring TMEM16B/ANO2 gene, a member of the family named transmembrane 16 (TMEM16) or anoctamin (ANO). TMEM16B is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed in the olfactory epithelium. As a patient homozygous for the 253 kb deletion has been reported to have an olfactory impairment possibly related to the partial deletion of TMEM16B, we assessed the olfactory function in other patients using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The average UPSIT score of 4 homozygous patients was significantly lower than that of 5 healthy subjects with similar sex, age and education. However, 4 other members of the same family, 3 heterozygous for the deletion and 1 wild type, had a slightly reduced olfactory function indicating that socio-cultural or other factors were likely to be responsible for the observed difference. These results show that the ability to identify odorants of the homozygous patients for the deletion was not significantly different from that of the other members of the family, showing that the 253 kb deletion does not affect the olfactory performance. As other genes may compensate for the lack of TMEM16B, we identified some predicted functional partners from in silico studies of the protein-protein network of TMEM16B. Calculation of diversity for the corresponding genes for individuals of the 1000 Genomes Project showed that TMEM16B has the highest level of diversity among all genes of the network, indicating that TMEM16B may not be under purifying selection and suggesting that other genes in the network could compensate for its function for olfactory ability. PMID:25635880

  15. The mechanism of the reduction of [AnO2]2+ (An = U, Np, Pu) in aqueous solution, and by Fe(II) containing proteins and mineral surfaces, probed by DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Mahesh; Assary, Rajeev S; Hillier, Ian H; Vaughan, David J

    2011-11-14

    The fate of actinyl species in the environment is closely linked to oxidation state, since the reduction of An(VI) to An(IV) greatly decreases their mobility due to the precipitation of the relatively insoluble An(IV) species. Here we study the mechanism of the reduction of [AnO(2)](2+) (An = U, Np, Pu) both in aqueous solution and by Fe(II) containing proteins and mineral surfaces, using density functional theory calculations. We find a disproportionation mechanism involving a An(V)-An(V) cation-cation complex, and we have investigated how these complexes are formed in the different environments. We find that the behaviour of U and Pu complexes are similar, but the reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) would seems to be more difficult, in line with the experimental finding that Np(V) is generally more stable than U(V) or Pu(V). Although the models we have used are somewhat idealised, our calculations suggest that there are strong similarities between the biotic and abiotic reduction pathways. PMID:21837318

  16. Estudios Sociales Para ninos de cinco anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Sara S.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that kindergarten teachers should once a week bring to class a news photograph which they can discuss with the children. Such an exercise can be used to create among the children a wider awareness of the world and to counter their tendency to focus exclusively on the self. (Author/RH)

  17. Calculated Thermodynamic Functions for Gas Phase Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, and Americium Oxides (AnO3), Oxyhydroxides (AnO2(OH)2), Oxychlorides (AnO2Cl2), and Oxyfluorides (AnO2F2)

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B

    2002-10-31

    Based on known and estimated molecular constants, the thermodynamic functions, C{sub p}, S{sup o}, H{sup o}-H{sup o}(298), and -(G{sup o} - H{sup o}(298))/T, have been calculated and tabulated for actinide vapors species of the formulas AnO{sub 3}(g), AnO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), AnO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(g), and AnO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(g) where An = U, Np, Pu, and Am. A method to calculate the thermodynamic functions for the mixed species, AnO{sub 2}ClOH(g), AnO{sub 2}FOH(g), and AnO{sub 2}FCl(g), is also given.

  18. [Statement about diagnosis assessment ano non pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Manrique E, Mónica; de la Maza, María Pía; Carrasco, Fernando; Moreno, Manuel; Albala, Cecilia; García, Jaime; Díaz, Jaime; Liberman, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    The risk of complications of obesity is proportional to body mass index and is higher in severe or morbid obesities and when abdominal or visceral fat is predominant. In Chile the prevalence of obesity is increasing. According to the World Health Organization, obese subjects must reduce at least a 5% of their weight to reduce the risk of complications. Although this amount of reduction is seldom achieved with non pharmacological treatments, better results are obtained with multidisciplinary/ approaches that include a medical, psychosocial and laboratory assessment, to determine obesity level and different factors involved and the associated complications. In a second stage, goals of treatment are set and a personalized treatment is designed including dietary changes and physical activity. The aim is to obtain perdurable lifestyles modifications. PMID:19802427

  19. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  20. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  1. 450 Years of Chicano History in Pictures/450 Anos del Pueblo Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Communications Center, Albuquerque, NM.

    For use with junior and senior high school students, this book presents more than 250 drawings and pictures, with an introduction and brief texts in English and Spanish, depicting 450 years of Chicano history. The book covers: Mexico before the Spanish Conquests, Spain's colonization of the Southwest, the United States war on Mexico, events in the…

  2. Ano Nuevo to Santa Cruz, California : a photographic tour of the coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chezar, Henry; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    This interactive CD ROM contains over 500 overlapping photographic images of the California coastline from A?o Nuevo to Santa Cruz. The images were taken from the R/V David Johnston to illustrate the coastal geology adjacent to part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The introductory home page starts a series of links to a regional map, more detailed area maps, and finally the individual photographic images.

  3. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  4. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 1, No. 2 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 1, No. 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  5. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano III, No. 6 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume III, No. 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  6. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 2, No. 3. (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 2, No. 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  7. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano III, No. 7 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume III, No. 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  8. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 3, No. 5 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 3, No. 5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  9. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano IV, No. 8 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume IV, No. 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  10. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano 2, No. 4 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume 2, No. 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  11. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano V, No. 9 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume V, No. 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  12. Reading: Birth to Age 5 = La Lectura: Desde El Nacimiento Hasta Los 5 Anos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Besides a change in the expectations of parents, other shifts are occurring in society that impact the youngest children (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2000): (1) More women are in the workforce than ever before, which means more children are in child care or preschool; (2) There is increasing evidence of, and conviction from educators, that preschool…

  13. Sexing blennies using genital papilla morphology or ano-genital distance.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A; Vieira, N M; Monteiro, N M

    2010-10-01

    Information on the genital morphology of male and female Lipophrys pholis is provided, as well as for two other sympatric blenniid species, Coryphoblennius galerita and Lipophrys trigloides. The use of non-invasive sex determination procedures described may be extremely useful not only for ecological studies but also as a proxy for the detection of environmental exposure to endocrine disruptive chemicals, given that blennies have been proposed as potential sentinel species for chemical contamination. PMID:21039514

  14. [Application of anocutaneous flap in surgical treatment of complex fistulas-in-ano].

    PubMed

    Pomazkin, V I

    2011-01-01

    The author makes an assessment of results of treatment of recurrent pararectal fistulas of extrasphincteric pararectal fistulas with liquidation of internal opening of the fistula using a combination of bringing down the mucous-muscular coat of the rectum and transfer of the anocutaneous island flap on the feeding pedicle from the subcutaneous fat. After operation the superficial inflammation of the wound of the perianal area was noted in 9 patients, primary wound healing at the place of connection of the cutaneous and mucous-muscular flap was observed in 28 patients. Recurrent fistula was noted in 2 patients, one of them having Crohn's disease. The holding function of the rectum sphincter apparatus after operation was saved. PMID:22191266

  15. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  16. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  17. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  18. Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

  19. Mechanism of allosteric activation of TMEM16A/ANO1 channels by a commonly used chloride channel blocker

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Chau M; Adomaviciene, Aiste; Rorsman, Nils J G; Garnett, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Calcium‐activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play varied physiological roles and constitute potential therapeutic targets for conditions such as asthma and hypertension. TMEM16A encodes a CaCC. CaCC pharmacology is restricted to compounds with relatively low potency and poorly defined selectivity. Anthracene‐9‐carboxylic acid (A9C), an inhibitor of various chloride channel types, exhibits complex effects on native CaCCs and cloned TMEM16A channels providing both activation and inhibition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully defined. Experimental Approach Patch‐clamp electrophysiology in conjunction with concentration jump experiments was employed to define the mode of interaction of A9C with TMEM16A channels. Key Results In the presence of high intracellular Ca2+, A9C inhibited TMEM16A currents in a voltage‐dependent manner by entering the channel from the outside. A9C activation, revealed in the presence of submaximal intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, was also voltage‐dependent. The electric distance of A9C inhibiting and activating binding site was ~0.6 in each case. Inhibition occurred according to an open‐channel block mechanism. Activation was due to a dramatic leftward shift in the steady‐state activation curve and slowed deactivation kinetics. Extracellular A9C competed with extracellular Cl−, suggesting that A9C binds deep in the channel's pore to exert both inhibiting and activating effects. Conclusions and Implications A9C is an open TMEM16A channel blocker and gating modifier. These effects require A9C to bind to a region within the pore that is accessible from the extracellular side of the membrane. These data will aid the future drug design of compounds that selectively activate or inhibit TMEM16A channels. PMID:26562072

  20. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10…

  1. El curriculo creativo para ninos de cero a tres anos (The Creative Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.; Dodge, Diane Trister

    Stemming from the core idea that infant and toddler care should be based on building relationships, this curriculum in Spanish-language version provides a foundation for staff development. Section 1, "Why a Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers?" examines key quality indicators, discusses curriculum components, describes how to use the curriculum to…

  2. Soy Tu Hijo: Los Primeros Anos Marcan Para Siempre (I Am Your Child: The First Years Last Forever). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner Foundation, Washington, DC.

    New research in brain development reveals the vital importance of the relationship between caregiver and child in the critical first years of life. This Spanish-language video explores the role of parents in stimulating early childhood development. The 28-minute video discusses: (1) attachment and the role of touch in creating a bond between…

  3. Informacion Bibliografica: Ano 3, Num. 9, Enero-Febrero, 1972 (Bibliographic Information: Volume 3, Number 9, January-February 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Martinez, Antonio L., Ed.

    This bulletin contains several articles on various topics concerning information science. The first article is a report on the November 1971 Seminar on Documentation and Pedagogical Information in Latin America held in Panama. The second article, entitled "Informatica," provides a discussion of information science by three Soviet writers;…

  4. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano VI, No. 10/11 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume VI, No. 10/11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  5. Guia para la ensenanza de la Lengua Nacional (segundo ano) (A Guide to the Teaching of the National Language (second year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) of a guide based on the results of experiments conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia in its pilot school and other schools in Mexico, D. F. The foreword points out that there are two aspects of language teaching in elementary schools--the first year class to read…

  6. Near-infrared photoluminescence and ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopies of AnO2Cl42-(An:u, NP, Pu)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne P; Berg, John M; Clark, David L; Conradson, Steven D; Hobart, David E; Kozimor, Stosh A; Scott, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    We have used photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate electronic structures and metal-ligand bonding of a series of An02CI/ ' (An = U, Np, Pu) compounds. Specifically, we will discuss time-resolved near-infrared emission spectra of crystalline Cs2U(An)02C14 (An = Np and Pu) both at 23 K and 75 K, as well as chlorine Kedge X-ray absorption spectra ofCs2An02CI4 (An = U, Np).

  7. La Educacion Especial para Ninos con Impedimentos Desde Recien Nacidos Hasta Cinco Anos de Edad = Special Education for Handicapped Children Birth to Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…

  8. Literacy Learning Parties for 3-5 Year Olds. Activity Book = Fiestas de aprendizaje de alfabetismo para ninos de 3-5 anos. Libro de actividades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Ellen R.

    Noting that family members are a child's first teachers and set the course for future success, this activity book of "literacy learning parties" presents 10 activities that can be used at home to practice the skills and ideas learned at parent literacy workshops. Presented in English and Spanish versions, the activity book discusses the importance…

  9. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  10. Indice Bibliografico Ciencias de la Educacion. Ano 1988. Volume II No. 1. (Bibliographic Index of the Education Sciences. 1988. Volume II No.1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro de Investigacion, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Documentacion.

    Published quarterly, this annotated bibliography indexes articles from scholarly Spanish journals, as well as significant foreign journals, considered important in the field of education. References are organized alphabetically according to subject and within each subject by number, author, and content. A users' information description is provided…

  11. Co-operativity among defect sites in AnO2+ and An4O9 (An = U, Np or Pu)

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders David; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Uberuaga, Blas P; Conradson, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Actinide dioxides derived from the AnO{sub 2} fluorite lattice are of high technological relevance due to their application in nuclear reactor fuels. Oxidation of AnO{sub 2} compounds emerges as a central theme in fuel fabrication, reactor operation, long-term storage forms for both spent fuels and surplus weapons materials, and environmental actinide migration. In this paper, we use density functional theory calculations to study the oxidation of uranium, neptunium and plutonium dioxides, AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np or Pu), in O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environments. We pay particular attention to the formation of oxygen clusters (co-operativity) in AnO{sub 2+x} and how this phenomenon govern oxidation thermodynamics and the development of ordered An{sub 4}O{sub 9} compounds. The so-called split di-interstitial, which is composed of two nearest neighbor octahedral oxygen interstitials that are distorted in such a way that they dislocate one regular fluorite lattice oxygen ion to form a cluster of triangular geometry, is predicted to be the fundamental building block of the most stable cluster configurations. We also identify how the formation of oxygen defect clusters and the degree of oxidation in AnO{sub 2+x} are both governed by the characer of the An-5f to excess O-2p charger transfer, i.e. the charge transfer to the O-2p orbitals of the interstitial-like (+x) ions, and the ability of the excess O-2p orbitals to hybridize with regular fluorite lattice ions.

  12. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the…

  13. "Cien Anos de Soledad" y el concepto de la "Caida Afortunada" ("One Hundred Years of Solitude" and the Concept of the "Fortunate Fall")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dario Carrillo, German; Stults, Barry

    1972-01-01

    Shows the influence of R.W.B. Lewis' work about the fall of Adam on the Marquez novel. Marquez' view coincides with Lewis' that Adam's fall should be considered not as a lapse from divine favor, but as an actual rise to the normal human level. (DS)

  14. Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason J; Fairley, Christopher K; Carroll, Susan; Walker, Sandra; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Grulich, Andrew; Bradshaw, Catriona; Kaldor, John; Clarke, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate. Conclusions Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented. PMID:26942721

  15. [CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICORESISTANCE OF MICROFLORA IN A COMBAT (THE GUN-SHOT ANO THE MINE-EXPLOSION) WOUNDS OF THE EXTREMITIES].

    PubMed

    Kondratyuk, V M

    2016-04-01

    Abstract Results of bacteriological investigations of a gun-shot and a mine-explosion woundings of the extremities were analyzed in Military-Medical Clinical Centres (MMCC) of Kyiv, Lviv and Vinnytsya. Spectrum of the allotted microorganisms and profile of their antibioticoresistance were disclosed. The patterns of resistance were determined in accordance to offering of international experts of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Dominating microflora in a Chief MMCC (Kyiv) and MMCC of a Western Region (Lviv) were various species of the Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa families, while in MMCC of a Central Region (Vinnytsya)--a gramm-negative non-fermentative bacilli of the Acinetobacter genus and Pseudomonas genus. The majority (79.5%) of isolates were characterized by polyresistance for antibiotics. Maximal quantity of strains with a widened spectrum of resistance was revealed in 2 - 3 weeks after a wounding--in 71.4 and 96.9% accordingly. PMID:27434956

  16. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  17. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  18. Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura. Trinta Anos de Organizacao e Situacao Atual (Ministry of Education and Culture [Brazil]. Thirty Years Ago and Now). Volumes I and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Norma Carneiro Monteiro

    The economic rather than the educational aspect of Brazil's Ministry of Education and Culture is presented in this historical summary. The study was done as part of Brazil's national program of educational reform. Brazil is currently re-evaluating its school system with the view of adopting a nationally-administered system similar to that in…

  19. 1990: Ano Internacional de la alfabetizacion: Acciones sugeridas para America Latina y el Caribe = 1990 International Literacy Year: Suggested Actions for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Michoacan (Mexico). Regional Office for Educ. in Latin America & Caribbean.

    This booklet discusses the needs for literacy education in Latin America and the Caribbean during International Literacy Year. Particular focus is on the objectives of International Literacy Year and suggested actions are provided in the four following areas: (1) operative strategies for the realization of the International Literacy Year,…

  20. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  1. Me escuchas? Como conversar con ninos de cuatro a doce anos (Are You Listening to Me? Communicating with Children from Four to Twelve Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfos, Martine F.

    Although talking to children is a daily activity for almost everyone at some stage in one's life and an essential activity for professionals who work with children, there is little research on activity. This Spanish-language book describes communication with children between the ages of 4 and 12 years, focusing on open question-and-answer sessions…

  2. Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente

  3. On Ensino da Astronomia no Ensino Médio sob Diferentes Abordagens Metodológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Albrecht, Evonir

    2011-12-01

    O presente trabalho, sobre a intervenção de metodologias de ensino, foi desenvolvido na Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, na cidade de Caraguatatuba - SP, em três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, perfazendo um total de 119 educandos, entre 16 e 19 anos. Antes de iniciar-se a intervenção, um questionário de vinte perguntas objetivas e dissertativas foi desenvolvido, aplicado pelo professor da classe, que ministrou as aulas correspondentes. Este questionário foi o mesmo em todas as três classes com o objetivo de diagnosticar o conhecimento prévio dos alunos sobre Astronomia. Começando a intervenção nas turmas, o professor envolvido usou três diferentes metodologias de ensino: (A) em forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos alunos, nos quais o professor fazia apenas as intervenções necessárias, (B) na forma tradicional, com a ajuda de multimídia para o desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) a tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. No final do trabalho os alunos responderam o mesmo questionário novamente, de modo que os três métodos utilizados puderam ser comparados. Os resultados apresentados após a intervenção foram melhores que os resultados iniciais indicando a ocorrência de uma aprendizagem significativa. Quando os estudantes foram inicialmente questionados sobre quantos planetas existem no nosso sistema solar, a classe A obteve 39% de respostas certas, a classe B 48% e a classe C 46%, mas após o desenvolvimento das atividades, as classes obtiveram respectivamente 94%, 97 % e 90% de aproveitamento. No término do bimestre, foi sugerido aos educandos que elaborassem uma história em quadrinhos, a qual serviu para averiguar se os conceitos inicialmente observados foram alterados e se novos foram agregados. A análise das histórias foi dividida em três partes: Criatividade; Temas abordados; Emprego correto dos conceitos estudados. Ao final quatorze histórias foram confeccionadas. O aprendizado

  4. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  5. Ensino de Astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto a Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos, 40 na turma A, 40 na turma B e 39 na turma C. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar uma interferência nas classes envolvidas utilizando metodologias diferentes sendo elas: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho as mesmas turmas da fase inicial orientadas pelo mesmo professor responderam novamente ao questionário proposto para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores resultados, sendo os iniciais comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%,turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando claramente uma absorção de conhecimentos. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas você acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente.Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, foi a mais significativa.

  6. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  7. Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela, con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos (Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers…

  8. Como ayudar a su hijo a ser un buen lector: Con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 anos (Helping Your Child Become a Reader: With Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran; Osborn, Jean

    When parents and other family members read with their children, help them with homework, talk with their teachers, and participate in school or other learning activities, they give their children a tremendous advantage. The foundation for learning to read is in place long before children enter school and begin formal reading instruction. Families…

  9. Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on the Actinide Dioxides AnO2 (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am): A Screened Hybrid Density Functional Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiaodong; Martin, Richard L.; Roy, Lindsay E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; McCleskey, Thomas M.; Scott, Brian L.; Bauer, Eve; Joyce, John J.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2012-10-21

    We present a systematic comparison of the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps of actinide dioxides, AnO₂ (An=Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am) predicted by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid density functional (HSE) with the self-consistent inclusion of spin-orbit coupling(SOC). The computed HSE lattice constants and band gaps of AnO₂ are in consistently good agreement with the available experimental data across the series, and differ little from earlier HSE results without SOC. ThO₂ is a simple band insulator (f⁰), while PaO₂, UO₂, and NpO₂ are predicted to be Mott insulators. The remainders (PuO₂ and AmO₂) show considerable O2p/An5f mixing and are classified as charge-transfer insulators. We also compare our results for UO₂, NpO₂, and PuO₂with the PBE+U, self interaction correction (SIC), and dynamic mean-field theory (DMFT) many-body approximations.

  10. National Migrant Education Program: Early Childhood Development Skills--Birth Through 5 Years (Desarrollo de Destrezas en la Temprana Infancia--Desde el Nacimiento Hasta los Cinco Anos de Edad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Compiled to ensure cooperation between states and to provide continuity of reporting on developmental skills for the migrant child from birth through five years of age, this booklet lists the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills which are reported through the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS). Published in both English and…

  11. International Symposium on Visually Handicapped Infants and Young Children: Birth to Seven (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "The First Steps." Proceedings = Simpasio Internacional sobre Ninos Visualmente Deficientes de Nacimiento hasta Siete Anos (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "Los Primeros Pasos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lillian, Ed.; And Others

    This symposium focused on the special needs of visually handicapped infants and young children. Texts of 48 papers are presented, including keynote addresses by W. Aubrey Webson ("The First Steps") and Heather Hewitt ("First Steps--Parenting, Prevention and Programming"). Regional reports are provided for Japan, Bangladesh, the Middle East, the…

  12. População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2003-08-01

    A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribui

  13. 75 FR 61226 - Exemption; Entergy Operations, Inc.; Arkansas Nuclear One, Units 1 and 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Exemption; Entergy Operations, Inc.; Arkansas Nuclear One, Units 1 and 2 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorize operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One, Units 1 and 2 (ANO-1 and ANO-2), respectively... the ANO-1 TS conversion, the submittal date for ANO-1 became May 1. The licensee continued to send...

  14. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  15. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  16. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  17. Despacio y constantemente, preparenme: El Libro de Instrucciones que Crece con su Nino(a). Un Manual para los Padres y las Madres para Ninos desde el Nacimento hasta la Edad de 5 Anos (Slow and Steady, Get Me Ready: The How-To-Book that Grows with the Child. A Parents' Handbook for Children from Birth to Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, June R.

    This Spanish-language handbook, which was written by a retired kindergarten teacher with over 25 years of experience, is intended to help parents and caregivers prepare their child for formal schooling. It describes 260 learning activities, each based on a different developmental concept, and most requiring materials usually found in the home. An…

  18. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  19. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your Kindergartner Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Jardin Infantil (Kindergarten) Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  20. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  1. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  2. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  3. El juego entre el nacimiento y los 7 anos: Un manual para ludotecarias. Investigacion-accion sobre la Familia y la Primera Infancia. UNESCO Sector de Educacion Monografia (Play between Birth and 7 Years: A Manual for Preschool Teachers. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Carolina

    The purpose of this Spanish-language manual is to help preschool teachers better understand theoretical concepts related to children's play. Following a preface that discusses UNESCO's activities related to early childhood education, the two main sections of the manual discuss children's play between 0-2 years and 2-7 years. Each section includes…

  4. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)…

  5. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  6. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  7. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  8. Algunas Premisas Metodologicas y Conceptuales sobre el Desarrollo de los Movimientos en el Primer Ano de Vida (0-12 Meses) (Some Methodological and Conceptual Premises about the Development of Movement in the First Year of Life (0-12 Months)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequer Diaz, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    Examined the emergence of principal and secondary movements in Cuban children in their first year of life. Based on 35 examples of observed movements, an integrated program of activity is developed to assist in the development of physical skills which are essential to the development of a well-rounded personality. (AS)

  9. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  10. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  11. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  12. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  13. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  14. 78 FR 42527 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... baculovirus production (allowing high- throughput production with limited screening) Higher efficiency cloning...--Combinatorial Cloning Platform. Licensing Contact: Susan Ano, Ph.D.; 301-435-5515; anos@mail.nih.gov ....

  15. Sequences of 12 monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl spin-label antibodies for NMR studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leahy, D.J.; Rule, G.S.; Whittaker, M.M.; McConnell, H.M. )

    1988-06-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies specific for a spin-labeled dinitrophenyl hapten (DNP-SL) have been produces for use in NMR studies. They have been named AN01 and ANO3-AN12. The stability constants for the association of these antibodies with DNP-SL and related haptens were measured by fluorescence quenching. cDNA clones coding for the heavy and light chains of each antibody and of an additional anti-DNP-SL monoclonal antibody, ANO2, have been isolated. The nucleic acid sequence of the 5{prime} end of each clone has been determined, and the amino acid sequence of the variable regions of each antibody has been deduced from the cDNA sequence. The sequences are relatively heterogeneous, but both the heavy and the light chains of ANO1 and ANO3 are derived from the same variable-region gene families as those of the ANO2 antibody. ANO7 has a heavy chain that is related to that of ANO2, and ANO9 has a related light chain. ANO5 and ANO6 are unrelated to ANO2 but share virtually identical heavy and light chains. Preliminary NMR difference spectra comparing related antibodies show that sequence-specific assignment of resonances is possible. Such spectra also provide a measure of structural relatedness.

  16. Surface Characterization and Osteoconductivity Evaluation of Micro/Nano Surface Formed on Titanium Using Anodic Oxidation Combined with H2O2 Etching and Hydrothermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Song, Yo-Han; Hwang, Moon-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, surface characteristics and osteoconductivity were investigated for the micro/nanostructured oxide layers fabricated on titanium using anodic oxidation (ANO), chemical etching (Et), and hydrothermal treatment (HT). Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) disks were anodic-oxidized using DC-type power supply in 1 M phosphoric acid electrolyte (P-ANO group). These specimens were further chemically etched using 30% H2O2 solution at 60 °C for 10 min (P-ANO-Et group). The P-ANO-Et-HT group was fabricated by hydrothermally treating the P-ANO-Et specimens in phosphorus-containing alkaline solution at 190 °C for 8 hrs. The P-ANO group showed a porous surface that was evenly covered with micro- and sub-micro pores. The size of these pores was decreased in the P-ANO-Et group. The P-ANO-Et-HT group showed a porous surface that was covered with nano-sized crystallites. Anatase TiO2 structure was observed in P-ANO-Et-HT group. The results of XPS demonstrated that the P-ANO-Et-HT group had a well-crystallized TiC2 structure, while the P-ANO and P-ANO-Et groups had an amorphous and phosphate-containing structure. Hydrophilicity of the P-ANO-Et-HT group was the highest. After MG63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the specimens for 3 hrs, SEM images of the cells cultured on P-ANO-Et-HT group specimens showed low initial adhesion. However, the osteoconductivity of these specimens increased more rapidly compared to that of the micro-structured surfaces. These results could be applied to fabricate titanium implants with an optimum micro/nano-surface for enhancing their osteoconductivity. PMID:26369213

  17. Galbahe C1 y C2 Tests de Lengua (Castellano. Escalas 1 y 2). Medida del nivel de Castellano para ninos de 7-8 y 10-11 anos. Manual de Aplicacion. Glotodidaktika-Lanak 27. (Galbahe Language Tests C1 and C2--Spanish, Scales 1 and 2. Measure of Level of Spanish for Children 7-8 and 10-11 years. Test administration Manual. Glotodidaktika-Lanak Series Number 27).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu; Olaziregi, Ibon

    The Galbahe Language Tests C1 and C2 measure the Spanish language proficiency of children aged 7 to 8 years (C1) and those aged 10 to 11 years (C2). Equivalent tests E1 and E2 measure the Basque language achievement of the same age groups, respectively. Both tests were designed as part of a study of teaching of the Basque language in parts of…

  18. Modulation of water efflux through functional interaction between TRPV4 and TMEM16A/anoctamin 1.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yasunori; Shibasaki, Koji; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tominaga, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a calcium-permeable channel, is highly expressed in the apical membrane of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) in the brain. The function of TRPV4 is unknown. Here, we show physical and functional interaction between TRPV4 and anoctamin 1 (ANO1) in HEK293T cells and CPECs. Chloride currents induced by a TRPV4 activator (GSK1016790A) were markedly increased in an extracellular calcium-dependent manner in HEK293T cells expressing TRPV4 with ANO1, but not with ANO4, ANO6, or ANO10, the mRNAs of which were expressed in the choroid plexus. We also found physical interaction between TRPV4 and ANO1 in both HEK293T cells and choroid plexus. We observed that ANO1 was activated at a warm temperature (37°C) in HEK293T cells and that the heat-evoked chloride currents were markedly enhanced after GSK1016790A application in CPECs. Simultaneous stimulation by warmth and hyposmosis induced chloride current activation in wild-type, but not in TRPV4-deficient, CPECs. Cell volume changes were induced by ANO1-mediated chloride currents in parallel with membrane potential changes, and the cell volume was significantly decreased at negative membrane potentials by TRPV4-induced ANO1 activation. Thus, physical and functional interactions between TRPV4 and ANO1 can modulate water transport in the choroid plexus. PMID:24509911

  19. On the performance of atomic natural orbital basis sets: A full configuration interaction study

    SciTech Connect

    Illas, F. Departament de Quimica Fisica, Grup de Quimica Quantica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, C Ricart, J.M. ); Rubio, J. ); Bagus, P.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The performance of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets has been studied by comparing self-consistant field (SCF) and full configuration interaction (CI) results obtained for the first row atoms and hydrides. The ANO results have been compared with those obtained using a segmented basis set containing the same number of contracted basis functions. The total energies obtained with the ANO basis sets are always lower than the one obtained by using the segmented one. However, for the hydrides, differential electronic correlation energy obtained with the ANO basis set may be smaller than the one recovered with the segmented set. We relate this poorer differential correlation energy for the ANO basis set to the fact that only one contracted {ital d} function is used for the ANO and segmented basis sets.

  20. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca2+/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca2+ range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca2+ signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca2+ regulation in anoctamin Cl− channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types. PMID:24081981

  1. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Schmelzeisen, Steffen; Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  2. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  3. Survival protein anoctamin-6 controls multiple platelet responses including phospholipid scrambling, swelling, and protein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Mattheij, Nadine J A; Braun, Attila; van Kruchten, Roger; Castoldi, Elisabetta; Pircher, Joachim; Baaten, Constance C F M J; Wülling, Manuela; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Köhler, Ralf; Poole, Alastair W; Schreiber, Rainer; Vortkamp, Andrea; Collins, Peter W; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kunzelmann, Karl; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2016-02-01

    Scott syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder, characterized by altered Ca(2+)-dependent platelet signaling with defective phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and microparticle formation, and is linked to mutations in the ANO6 gene, encoding anoctamin (Ano)6. We investigated how the complex platelet phenotype of this syndrome is linked to defective expression of Anos or other ion channels. Mice were generated with heterozygous of homozygous deficiency in Ano6, Ano1, or Ca(2+)-dependent KCa3.1 Gardos channel. Platelets from these mice were extensively analyzed on molecular functions and compared with platelets from a patient with Scott syndrome. Deficiency in Ano1 or Gardos channel did not reduce platelet responses compared with control mice (P > 0.1). In 2 mouse strains, deficiency in Ano6 resulted in reduced viability with increased bleeding time to 28.6 min (control 6.4 min, P < 0.05). Platelets from the surviving Ano6-deficient mice resembled platelets from patients with Scott syndrome in: 1) normal collagen-induced aggregate formation (P > 0.05) with reduced PS exposure (-65 to 90%); 2) lowered Ca(2+)-dependent swelling (-80%) and membrane blebbing (-90%); 3) reduced calpain-dependent protein cleavage (-60%); and 4) moderately affected apoptosis-dependent PS exposure. In conclusion, mouse deficiency of Ano6 but not of other channels affects viability and phenocopies the complex changes in platelets from hemostatically impaired patients with Scott syndrome. PMID:26481309

  4. Co-expression of anoctamins in cilia of olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Bastian; Drose, Daniela R; Ackels, Tobias; Oberland, Sonja; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M

    2015-02-01

    Vertebrates can sense and identify a vast array of chemical cues. The molecular machinery involved in chemodetection and transduction is expressed within the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. Currently, there is only limited information available on the distribution and density of individual signaling components within the ciliary compartment. Using super-resolution microscopy, we show here that cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin family are localized to discrete microdomains in the ciliary membrane. In addition to ANO2, a second anoctamin, ANO6, also localizes to ciliary microdomains. This observation, together with the fact that ANO6 and ANO2 co-localize, indicates a role for ANO6 in olfactory signaling. We show that both ANO2 and ANO6 can form heteromultimers and that this heteromerization alters the recombinant channels' physiological properties. Thus, we provide evidence for interaction of ANO2 and ANO6 in olfactory cilia, with possible physiological relevance for olfactory signaling. PMID:25500808

  5. Cell adhesion and in vivo osseointegration of sandblasted/acid etched/anodized dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mu-Hyon; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a new type of titanium (Ti) implant as a Modi-anodized (ANO) Ti implant, the surface of which was treated by sandblasting, acid etching (SLA), and anodized techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adhesion of MG-63 cells to Modi-ANO surface treated Ti in vitro and to investigate its osseointegration characteristics in vivo. Four different types of Ti implants were examined, that is, machined Ti (control), SLA, anodized, and Modi-ANO Ti. In the cell adhesion study, Modi-ANO Ti showed higher initial MG-63 cell adhesion and induced greater filopodia growth than other groups. In vivo study in a beagle model revealed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of Modi-ANO Ti (74.20%±10.89%) was much greater than those of machined (33.58%±8.63%), SLA (58.47%±12.89), or ANO Ti (59.62%±18.30%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Modi-ANO Ti implants produced by sandblasting, acid etching, and anodizing improve cell adhesion and bone ongrowth as compared with machined, SLA, or ANO Ti implants. These findings suggest that the application of Modi-ANO surface treatment could improve the osseointegration of dental implant. PMID:25955650

  6. Cell Adhesion and in Vivo Osseointegration of Sandblasted/Acid Etched/Anodized Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mu-Hyon; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a new type of titanium (Ti) implant as a Modi-anodized (ANO) Ti implant, the surface of which was treated by sandblasting, acid etching (SLA), and anodized techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adhesion of MG-63 cells to Modi-ANO surface treated Ti in vitro and to investigate its osseointegration characteristics in vivo. Four different types of Ti implants were examined, that is, machined Ti (control), SLA, anodized, and Modi-ANO Ti. In the cell adhesion study, Modi-ANO Ti showed higher initial MG-63 cell adhesion and induced greater filopodia growth than other groups. In vivo study in a beagle model revealed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of Modi-ANO Ti (74.20% ± 10.89%) was much greater than those of machined (33.58% ± 8.63%), SLA (58.47% ± 12.89), or ANO Ti (59.62% ± 18.30%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Modi-ANO Ti implants produced by sandblasting, acid etching, and anodizing improve cell adhesion and bone ongrowth as compared with machined, SLA, or ANO Ti implants. These findings suggest that the application of Modi-ANO surface treatment could improve the osseointegration of dental implant. PMID:25955650

  7. Anoctamin 1 (Tmem16A) Ca2+-activated chloride channel stoichiometrically interacts with an ezrin–radixin–moesin network

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Gokhale, Avanti; Duran, Charity; Cui, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Qinghuan; Hartzell, H. Criss; Faundez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The newly discovered Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CaCC), Anoctamin 1 (Ano1 or TMEM16A), has been implicated in vital physiological functions including epithelial fluid secretion, gut motility, and smooth muscle tone. Overexpression of Ano1 in HEK cells or Xenopus oocytes is sufficient to generate Ca2+-activated Cl− currents, but the details of channel composition and the regulatory factors that control channel biology are incompletely understood. We used a highly sensitive quantitative SILAC proteomics approach to obtain insights into stoichiometric protein networks associated with the Ano1 channel. These studies provide a comprehensive footprint of putative Ano1 regulatory networks. We find that Ano1 associates with the signaling/scaffolding proteins ezrin, radixin, moesin, and RhoA, which link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton with very high stoichiometry. Ano1, ezrin, and moesin/radixin colocalize apically in salivary gland epithelial cells, and overexpression of moesin and Ano1 in HEK cells alters the subcellular localization of both proteins. Moreover, interfering RNA for moesin modifies Ano1 current without affecting its surface expression level. Another network associated with Ano1 includes the SNARE and SM proteins VAMP3, syntaxins 2 and -4, and syntaxin-binding proteins munc18b and munc18c, which are integral to translocation of vesicles to the plasma membrane. A number of other regulatory proteins, including GTPases, Ca2+-binding proteins, kinases, and lipid-interacting proteins are enriched in the Ano1 complex. These data provide stoichiometrically prioritized information about mechanisms regulating Ano1 function and trafficking to polarized domains of the plasma membrane. PMID:22685202

  8. Characterization of Cardiac Anoctamin1 Ca²⁺-Activated Chloride Channels and Functional Role in Ischemia-Induced Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Wu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Chao; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Song, Bin-Lin; Yu, Kuai; Hartzell, H Criss; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2015-02-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca(2+)-activated chloride (Cl(-)) channel (CaCC) in variety tissues of many species. Whether ANO1 expresses and functions as a CaCC in cardiomyocytes remain unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the molecular and functional expression of ANO1 in cardiac myocytes and the role of ANO1-encoded CaCCs in ischemia-induced arrhythmias in the heart. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining assays, and immunohistochemistry identified the molecular expression, location, and distribution of ANO1 in mouse ventricular myocytes (mVMs). Patch-clamp recordings combined with pharmacological analyses found that ANO1 was responsible for a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (I(Cl.Ca)) in cardiomyocytes. Myocardial ischemia led to a significant increase in the current density of I(Cl.Ca), which was inhibited by a specific ANO1 inhibitor, T16A(inh)-A01, and an antibody targeting at the pore area of ANO1. Moreover, cardiomyocytes isolated from mice with ischemia-induced arrhythmias had an accelerated early phase 1 repolarization of action potentials (APs) and a deeper "spike and dome" compared to control cardiomyocytes from non-ischemia mice. Application of the antibody targeting at ANO1 pore prevented the ischemia-induced early phase 1 repolarization acceleration and caused a much shallower "spike and dome". We conclude that ANO1 encodes CaCC and plays a significant role in the phase 1 repolarization of APs in mVMs. The ischemia-induced increase in ANO1 expression may be responsible for the increased density of I(Cl.Ca) in the ischemic heart and may contribute, at least in part, to ischemia-induced arrhythmias. PMID:24962810

  9. Anoctamin 1 (Tmem16A) Ca2+-activated chloride channel stoichiometrically interacts with an ezrin-radixin-moesin network.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Gokhale, Avanti; Duran, Charity; Cui, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Qinghuan; Hartzell, H Criss; Faundez, Victor

    2012-06-26

    The newly discovered Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC), Anoctamin 1 (Ano1 or TMEM16A), has been implicated in vital physiological functions including epithelial fluid secretion, gut motility, and smooth muscle tone. Overexpression of Ano1 in HEK cells or Xenopus oocytes is sufficient to generate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents, but the details of channel composition and the regulatory factors that control channel biology are incompletely understood. We used a highly sensitive quantitative SILAC proteomics approach to obtain insights into stoichiometric protein networks associated with the Ano1 channel. These studies provide a comprehensive footprint of putative Ano1 regulatory networks. We find that Ano1 associates with the signaling/scaffolding proteins ezrin, radixin, moesin, and RhoA, which link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton with very high stoichiometry. Ano1, ezrin, and moesin/radixin colocalize apically in salivary gland epithelial cells, and overexpression of moesin and Ano1 in HEK cells alters the subcellular localization of both proteins. Moreover, interfering RNA for moesin modifies Ano1 current without affecting its surface expression level. Another network associated with Ano1 includes the SNARE and SM proteins VAMP3, syntaxins 2 and -4, and syntaxin-binding proteins munc18b and munc18c, which are integral to translocation of vesicles to the plasma membrane. A number of other regulatory proteins, including GTPases, Ca(2+)-binding proteins, kinases, and lipid-interacting proteins are enriched in the Ano1 complex. These data provide stoichiometrically prioritized information about mechanisms regulating Ano1 function and trafficking to polarized domains of the plasma membrane. PMID:22685202

  10. Clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene at 11q13 in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Juan P.; Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Álvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; Villaronga, M. Ángeles; Alonso-Durán, Laura; Vallina, Aitana; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Suárez, Carlos; María García-Pedrero, Juana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene mapping at 11q13 amplicon in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). ANO1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 372 surgically treated HNSCC patients and also in 35 laryngeal precancerous lesions. ANO1 gene amplification was determined by real-time PCR in all the laryngeal premalignancies and 60 of the HNSCCs, and molecular data correlated with clinical outcome. ANO1 gene amplification was frequently detected in both premalignant lesions (63%) and HNSCC tumours (58%), whereas concomitant ANO1 expression occurred at a much lower frequency (20 and 22%). Interestingly, laryngeal dysplasias harbouring ANO1 gene amplification showed a higher risk of malignant transformation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 0.79–16.57; P = 0.097; Cox regression). ANO1 expression and gene amplification showed no significant associations with clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. However, remarkably ANO1 expression differentially influenced patient survival depending on the tumour site. Collectively, this study provides original evidence demonstrating the distinctive impact of ANO1 expression on HNSCC prognosis depending on the tumour site. PMID:26498851

  11. Anoctamin 1 Mediates Thermal Pain as a Heat Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hawon; Oh, Uhtaek

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates can sense and avoid noxious heat that evokes pain. Many thermoTRP channels are associated with temperature sensation. TRPV1 is a representative ion channel that is activated by noxious heat. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is a Cl- channel activated by calcium that is highly expressed in small sensory neurons, colocalized with markers for nociceptors, and most surprisingly, activated by noxious heat over 44oC. Although ANO1 is a Cl- channel, opening of this channel leads to depolarization of sensory neurons, suggesting a role in nociception. Indeed, the functional deletion of ANO1 in sensory neurons triggers the reduction in thermal pain sensation. Thus, it seems clear that ANO1 is a heat sensor in a nociceptive pathway. Since ANO1 modulators are developed for the purpose of treating chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, this finding is likely to predict unwanted effects and provide a guide for better developmental strategy PMID:24396339

  12. A novel finding of anoctamin 5 expression in the rodent gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-Yan; Tian, Yue-Min; Zhang, Yi-Min; Zhou, Li; Lian, Hui; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2014-08-22

    Anoctamin 5 (Ano5) belongs to the anoctamin gene family and acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). A mutation in the Ano5 gene causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2L, the third most common LGMD in Northern and Central Europe. Defective sarcolemmal membrane repair has been reported in patients carrying this Ano5 mutant. It has also been noted that LGMD patients often suffer from nonspecific pharyngoesophageal motility disorders. One study reported that 8/19 patients carrying Ano5 nutations suffered from dysphagia, including the feeling that solid food items become lodged in the upper portion of the esophagus. Ano5 is widely distributed in bone, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, brain, heart, kidney and lung tissue, but no report has examined its expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of Ano5 in the GI tracts of mice via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. The results indicated that Ano5 mRNA and protein are widely expressed in the esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the colon and the rectum but that Ano5 immunoreactivity was only detected in the mucosal layer, except for the muscular layer of the upper esophagus, which consists of skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our present results demonstrate for the first time the expression of Ano5 in the GI epithelium and in skeletal muscle in the esophagus. This novel finding facilitates clinical differential diagnosis and treatment. However, further investigation of the role of Ano5 in GI function is required. PMID:25094048

  13. Anoctamin 2 identified as an autoimmune target in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayoglu, Burcu; Mitsios, Nicholas; Kockum, Ingrid; Khademi, Mohsen; Zandian, Arash; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Bredenberg, Johan; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Holmgren, Erik; Grönlund, Hans; Guerreiro-Cacais, André Ortlieb; Abdelmagid, Nada; Uhlén, Mathias; Waterboer, Tim; Alfredsson, Lars; Mulder, Jan; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Olsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and also is regarded as an autoimmune condition. However, the antigenic targets of the autoimmune response in MS have not yet been deciphered. In an effort to mine the autoantibody repertoire within MS, we profiled 2,169 plasma samples from MS cases and population-based controls using bead arrays built with 384 human protein fragments selected from an initial screening with 11,520 antigens. Our data revealed prominently increased autoantibody reactivity against the chloride-channel protein anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS cases compared with controls. This finding was corroborated in independent assays with alternative protein constructs and by epitope mapping with peptides covering the identified region of ANO2. Additionally, we found a strong interaction between the presence of ANO2 autoantibodies and the HLA complex MS-associated DRB1*15 allele, reinforcing a potential role for ANO2 autoreactivity in MS etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis in human MS brain tissue showed ANO2 expression as small cellular aggregates near and inside MS lesions. Thus this study represents one of the largest efforts to characterize the autoantibody repertoire within MS. The findings presented here demonstrate that an ANO2 autoimmune subphenotype may exist in MS and lay the groundwork for further studies focusing on the pathogenic role of ANO2 autoantibodies in MS. PMID:26862169

  14. Anoctamin 2 identified as an autoimmune target in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ayoglu, Burcu; Mitsios, Nicholas; Kockum, Ingrid; Khademi, Mohsen; Zandian, Arash; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Bredenberg, Johan; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Holmgren, Erik; Grönlund, Hans; Guerreiro-Cacais, André Ortlieb; Abdelmagid, Nada; Uhlén, Mathias; Waterboer, Tim; Alfredsson, Lars; Mulder, Jan; Schwenk, Jochen M; Olsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-02-23

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and also is regarded as an autoimmune condition. However, the antigenic targets of the autoimmune response in MS have not yet been deciphered. In an effort to mine the autoantibody repertoire within MS, we profiled 2,169 plasma samples from MS cases and population-based controls using bead arrays built with 384 human protein fragments selected from an initial screening with 11,520 antigens. Our data revealed prominently increased autoantibody reactivity against the chloride-channel protein anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS cases compared with controls. This finding was corroborated in independent assays with alternative protein constructs and by epitope mapping with peptides covering the identified region of ANO2. Additionally, we found a strong interaction between the presence of ANO2 autoantibodies and the HLA complex MS-associated DRB1*15 allele, reinforcing a potential role for ANO2 autoreactivity in MS etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis in human MS brain tissue showed ANO2 expression as small cellular aggregates near and inside MS lesions. Thus this study represents one of the largest efforts to characterize the autoantibody repertoire within MS. The findings presented here demonstrate that an ANO2 autoimmune subphenotype may exist in MS and lay the groundwork for further studies focusing on the pathogenic role of ANO2 autoantibodies in MS. PMID:26862169

  15. Anoctamin 1 dysregulation alters bronchial epithelial repair in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Manon; Voland, Mélanie; Marie, Solenne; Bonora, Monique; Blanchard, Elise; Blouquit-Laye, Sabine; Naline, Emmanuel; Puyo, Philippe; Le Rouzic, Philippe; Guillot, Loic; Corvol, Harriet; Clement, Annick; Tabary, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium is constantly subjected to injury events due to chronic infection and inflammation. Moreover, abnormalities in CF airway epithelium repair have been described and contribute to the lung function decline seen in CF patients. In the last past years, it has been proposed that anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, might offset the CFTR deficiency but this protein has not been characterized in CF airways. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates a role for ANO1 in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Our aims were to study non-CF and CF bronchial epithelial repair and to determine whether ANO1 is involved in airway epithelial repair. Here, we showed, with human bronchial epithelial cell lines and primary cells, that both cell proliferation and migration during epithelial repair are delayed in CF compared to non-CF cells. We then demonstrated that ANO1 Cl(-) channel activity was significantly decreased in CF versus non-CF cells. To explain this decreased Cl(-) channel activity in CF context, we compared ANO1 expression in non-CF vs. CF bronchial epithelial cell lines and primary cells, in lung explants from wild-type vs. F508del mice and non-CF vs. CF patients. In all these models, ANO1 expression was markedly lower in CF compared to non-CF. Finally, we established that ANO1 inhibition or overexpression was associated respectively with decreases and increases in cell proliferation and migration. In summary, our study demonstrates involvement of ANO1 decreased activity and expression in abnormal CF airway epithelial repair and suggests that ANO1 correction may improve this process. PMID:24080196

  16. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L presenting as necrotizing myopathy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ilka; Stoltenburg, Gisela; Deschauer, Marcus; Winterholler, Martin; Hanisch, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Recessive mutations in the ANO5 gene, encoding anoctamin 5, cause proximal limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L), Miyoshi-type distal myopathy (MM3) and asymptomatic hyper- CKemia. We report a woman with exertion-induced myalgia and weakness in the hip girdle manifesting at the age of 40. Creatine kinase (CK) was increased 20-fold. Histologically the dominating feature was necrotizing myopathy, but long-term immunosuppressive therapy did not change CK level or myopathic symptoms. Molecular genetic investigation led to the finding of the homozygous ANO5 c.191dupA mutation. This is a report of a muscular dystrophy due to ANO5 mutation presenting histologically as necrotizing myopathy. For this reason our finding extends the histological spectrum of myopathies due to ANO5 mutations as well as the possible differential diagnoses for necrotizing myopathy. PMID:24843231

  17. PubMed Central

    SCHNEIDER, ILKA; STOLTENBURG, GISELA; DESCHAUER, MARCUS; WINTERHOLLER, MARTIN; HANISCH, FRANK

    2014-01-01

    Recessive mutations in the ANO5 gene, encoding anoctamin 5, cause proximal limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L), Miyoshi-type distal myopathy (MM3) and asymptomatic hyper- CKemia. We report a woman with exertion-induced myalgia and weakness in the hip girdle manifesting at the age of 40. Creatine kinase (CK) was increased 20-fold. Histologically the dominating feature was necrotizing myopathy, but long-term immunosuppressive therapy did not change CK level or myopathic symptoms. Molecular genetic investigation led to the finding of the homozygous ANO5 c.191dupA mutation. This is a report of a muscular dystrophy due to ANO5 mutation presenting histologically as necrotizing myopathy. For this reason our finding extends the histological spectrum of myopathies due to ANO5 mutations as well as the possible differential diagnoses for necrotizing myopathy. PMID:24843231

  18. A Putative ABC Transporter Permease Is Necessary for Resistance to Acidified Nitrite and EDTA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Aerobic and Anaerobic Planktonic and Biofilm Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Cameron; Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Lau, Gee W.; Browne, Tristan; Cox, Kevin; Paul, Andrew T.; Ko, Seung-Hyun B.; Mortensen, Joel E.; Lam, Joseph S.; Muruve, Daniel A.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an important airway pathogen of cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive disease patients. Multiply drug resistant PA is becoming increasing prevalent and new strategies are needed to combat such insidious organisms. We have previously shown that a mucoid, mucA22 mutant PA is exquisitely sensitive to acidified nitrite (A-NO2−, pH 6.5) at concentrations that are well tolerated in humans. Here, we used a transposon mutagenesis approach to identify PA mutants that are hypersensitive to A-NO2−. Among greater than 10,000 mutants screened, we focused on PA4455, in which the transposon was found to disrupt the production of a putative cytoplasmic membrane-spanning ABC transporter permease. The PA4455 mutant was not only highly sensitive to A-NO2−, but also the membrane perturbing agent, EDTA and the antibiotics doxycycline, tigecycline, colistin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Treatment of bacteria with A-NO2− plus EDTA, however, had the most dramatic and synergistic effect, with virtually all bacteria killed by 10 mM A-NO2−, and EDTA (1 mM, aerobic, anaerobic). Most importantly, the PA4455 mutant was also sensitive to A-NO2− in biofilms. A-NO2− sensitivity and an anaerobic growth defect was also noted in two mutants (rmlC and wbpM) that are defective in B-band LPS synthesis, potentially indicating a membrane defect in the PA4455 mutant. Finally, this study describes a gene, PA4455, that when mutated, allows for dramatic sensitivity to the potential therapeutic agent, A-NO2− as well as EDTA. Furthermore, the synergy between the two compounds could offer future benefits against antibiotic resistant PA strains. PMID:27064218

  19. Sodium Nitrite-Mediated Killing of the Major Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Burkholderia cepacia under Anaerobic Planktonic and Biofilm Conditions▿

    PubMed Central

    Major, Tiffany A.; Panmanee, Warunya; Mortensen, Joel E.; Gray, Larry D.; Hoglen, Niel; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of airways in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly refractory, chronic infections by several opportunistic bacterial pathogens. A recent study demonstrated that acidified sodium nitrite (A-NO2−) killed the highly refractory mucoid form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a pathogen that significantly compromises lung function in CF patients (S. S. Yoon et al., J. Clin. Invest. 116:436-446, 2006). Therefore, the microbicidal activity of A-NO2− (pH 6.5) against the following three major CF pathogens was assessed: P. aeruginosa (a mucoid, mucA22 mutant and a sequenced nonmucoid strain, PAO1), Staphylococcus aureus USA300 (methicillin resistant), and Burkholderia cepacia, a notoriously antibiotic-resistant organism. Under planktonic, anaerobic conditions, growth of all strains except for P. aeruginosa PAO1 was inhibited by 7.24 mM (512 μg ml−1 NO2−). B. cepacia was particularly sensitive to low concentrations of A-NO2− (1.81 mM) under planktonic conditions. In antibiotic-resistant communities known as biofilms, which are reminiscent of end-stage CF airway disease, A-NO2− killed mucoid P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. cepacia; 1 to 2 logs of cells were killed after a 2-day incubation with a single dose of ∼15 mM A-NO2−. Animal toxicology and phase I human trials indicate that these bactericidal levels of A-NO2− can be easily attained by aerosolization. Thus, in summary, we demonstrate that A-NO2− is very effective at killing these important CF pathogens and could be effective in other infectious settings, particularly under anaerobic conditions where bacterial defenses against the reduction product of A-NO2−, nitric oxide (NO), are dramatically reduced. PMID:20696868

  20. A simple model explaining super-resolution in absolute optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar; Kogan, Alex; Tyc, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    We develop a simple, one-dimensional model for super-resolution in absolute optical instruments that is able to describe the interplay between sources and detectors. Our model explains the subwavelength sensitivity of a point detector to a point source reported in previous computer simulations and experiments (Miñano 2011 New J. Phys.13 125009; Miñano 2014 New J. Phys.16 033015).

  1. MONNA, a potent and selective blocker for transmembrane protein with unknown function 16/anoctamin-1.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo-Jin; Hwang, Seok Jin; Jung, Jonghoon; Yu, Kuai; Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jung Yoon; Hartzell, H Criss; Roh, Eun Joo; Lee, C Justin

    2013-11-01

    Transmembrane protein with unknown function 16/anoctamin-1 (ANO1) is a protein widely expressed in mammalian tissues, and it has the properties of the classic calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). This protein has been implicated in numerous major physiological functions. However, the lack of effective and selective blockers has hindered a detailed study of the physiological functions of this channel. In this study, we have developed a potent and selective blocker for endogenous ANO1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes (xANO1) using a drug screening method we previously established (Oh et al., 2008). We have synthesized a number of anthranilic acid derivatives and have determined the correlation between biological activity and the nature and position of substituents in these derived compounds. A structure-activity relationship revealed novel chemical classes of xANO1 blockers. The derivatives contain a --NO₂ group on position 5 of a naphthyl group-substituted anthranilic acid, and they fully blocked xANO1 chloride currents with an IC₅₀ < 10 μM. The most potent blocker, N-((4-methoxy)-2-naphthyl)-5-nitroanthranilic acid (MONNA), had an IC₅₀ of 0.08 μM for xANO1. Selectivity tests revealed that other chloride channels such as bestrophin-1, chloride channel protein 2, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator were not appreciably blocked by 10∼30 μM MONNA. The potent and selective blockers for ANO1 identified here should permit pharmacological dissection of ANO1/CaCC function and serve as potential candidates for drug therapy of related diseases such as hypertension, cystic fibrosis, bronchitis, asthma, and hyperalgesia. PMID:23997117

  2. MONNA, a Potent and Selective Blocker for Transmembrane Protein with Unknown Function 16/Anoctamin-1

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo-Jin; Hwang, Seok Jin; Jung, Jonghoon; Yu, Kuai; Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jung Yoon; Hartzell, H. Criss

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane protein with unknown function 16/anoctamin-1 (ANO1) is a protein widely expressed in mammalian tissues, and it has the properties of the classic calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). This protein has been implicated in numerous major physiological functions. However, the lack of effective and selective blockers has hindered a detailed study of the physiological functions of this channel. In this study, we have developed a potent and selective blocker for endogenous ANO1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes (xANO1) using a drug screening method we previously established (Oh et al., 2008). We have synthesized a number of anthranilic acid derivatives and have determined the correlation between biological activity and the nature and position of substituents in these derived compounds. A structure-activity relationship revealed novel chemical classes of xANO1 blockers. The derivatives contain a −NO2 group on position 5 of a naphthyl group-substituted anthranilic acid, and they fully blocked xANO1 chloride currents with an IC50 < 10 μM. The most potent blocker, N-((4-methoxy)-2-naphthyl)-5-nitroanthranilic acid (MONNA), had an IC50 of 0.08 μM for xANO1. Selectivity tests revealed that other chloride channels such as bestrophin-1, chloride channel protein 2, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator were not appreciably blocked by 10∼30 μM MONNA. The potent and selective blockers for ANO1 identified here should permit pharmacological dissection of ANO1/CaCC function and serve as potential candidates for drug therapy of related diseases such as hypertension, cystic fibrosis, bronchitis, asthma, and hyperalgesia. PMID:23997117

  3. Anoctamin 6 is localized in the primary cilium of renal tubular cells and is involved in apoptosis-dependent cyst lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Forschbach, V; Goppelt-Struebe, M; Kunzelmann, K; Schreiber, R; Piedagnel, R; Kraus, A; Eckardt, K-U; Buchholz, B

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are antenna-like structures projected from the apical surface of various mammalian cells including renal tubular cells. Functional or structural defects of the cilium lead to systemic disorders comprising polycystic kidneys as a key feature. Here we show that anoctamin 6 (ANO6), a member of the anoctamin chloride channel family, is localized in the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. ANO6 was not essential for cilia formation and had no effect on in vitro cyst expansion. However, knockdown of ANO6 impaired cyst lumen formation of MDCK cells in three-dimensional culture. In the absence of ANO6, apoptosis was reduced and epithelial cells were incompletely removed from the center of cell aggregates, which form in the early phase of cystogenesis. In line with these data, we show that ANO6 is highly expressed in apoptotic cyst epithelial cells of human polycystic kidneys. These data identify ANO6 as a cilium-associated protein and suggest its functional relevance in cyst formation. PMID:26448322

  4. Acidic amino acids in the first intracellular loop contribute to voltage- and calcium- dependent gating of anoctamin1/TMEM16A.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qinghuan; Cui, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (Ano1, or TMEM16A) is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel that is gated by both voltage and Ca2+. We have previously identified that the first intracellular loop that contains a high density of acidic residues mediates voltage- and calcium-dependent gating of Ano1. Mutation of the four consecutive glutamates (444EEEE447) inhibits the voltage-dependent activation of Ano1, whereas deletion of these residues decreases apparent Ca2+ sensitivity. In the present study, we further found that deletion of 444EEEEEAVKD452 produced a more than 40-fold decrease in the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity with altered activation kinetics. We then systematically mutated each acidic residue into alanine, and analyzed the voltage- and calcium dependent activation of each mutation. Activation kinetics of wild type Ano1 consisted of a fast component (τfast) that represented voltage-dependent mode, and a slow component (τslow) that reflected the Ca2+-dependent modal gating. E444A, E445A, E446A, E447A, E448A, and E457A mutations showed a decrease in the τfast, significantly inhibited voltage-dependent activation of Ano1 in the absence of Ca2+, and greatly shifted the G-V curve to the right, suggesting that these glutamates are involved in voltage-gating of Ano1. Furthermore, D452A, E464A, E470A, and E475A mutations that did not alter voltage-dependent activation of the channel, significantly decreased Ca2+ dependence of G-V curve, exhibited an increase in the τslow, and produced a 2-3 fold decrease in the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity, suggesting that these acidic residues are involved in Ca2+-dependent gating of the channel. Our data show that acidic residues in the first intracellular loop are the important structural determinant that couples the voltage and calcium dependent gating of Ano1. PMID:24901998

  5. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Nyland, Jennifer F.; Silva, Ines A.; Ventura, Ana Maria; Souza, Jose Maria de; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of autoantibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (anti-nuclear autoantibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (anti-nucleolar autoantibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well-controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socioeconomic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold-miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. PMID:20176347

  6. Anoikis in the cardiovascular system: known and unknown extracellular mediators.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2003-12-01

    Anoïkis is defined as programmed cell death induced by the loss of cell/matrix interactions. Adhesion to structural glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix is necessary for survival of the differentiated adherent cells in the cardiovascular system, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and cardiac myocytes. Adhesion is also a key factor for the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, fibronectin is considered a factor of survival and differentiation for many adherent cells. Adhesion generates cell tensional integrity (tensegrity) and repression of apoptotic signals, whereas detachment has the opposite effect. Anoïkis plays a physiological role by regulating cell homeostasis in tissues. However, anoïkis can also be involved in pathological processes, as illustrated by the resistance to anoïkis in cancer and its enhancement in degenerative tissue remodeling. Extracellular mediators of anoïkis include matrix retraction, leading to loss of tensegrity in fibroblasts, pharmacological disengagement of integrins by RGD-like peptides and fragments of fibronectin, and focal adhesion disassembly by fragments of thrombospondin, plasminogen activator-1, and high-molecular-weight kininogen. In addition to binding of the RGD peptide by integrins, the engagement of the heparin binding sites of adhesive glycoproteins with glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface is also involved in the prevention of cell detachment-induced apoptosis. Proteases able to degrade adhesive glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, induce anoïkis of vascular adherent cells. Active proteases can either be secreted directly by inflammatory cells, as elastase and cathepsin G by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, chymase and tryptase by mast cells, and granzymes by lymphocytes, or generated from circulating zymogens by activation in close contact with the cells. This is the case for the pericellular conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, which degrades fibronectin and

  7. Anoctamin 6 mediates effects essential for innate immunity downstream of P2X7 receptors in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Kmit, Arthur; Romao, Ana M.; Jantarajit, Walailak; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-02-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) are fundamental to innate immune response. In macrophages, transient stimulation of P2X7R activates several transport mechanisms and induces the scrambling of phospholipids with subsequent membrane blebbing and apoptosis. These processes support phagocytosis and subsequent killing of phagocytosed bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the stimulation of P2X7 receptors activates anoctamin 6 (ANO6, TMEM16F), a protein that functions as Ca2+ dependent phospholipid scramblase and Ca2+-activated Cl- channel. Inhibition or knockdown of ANO6 attenuates ATP-induced cell shrinkage, cell migration and phospholipid scrambling. In mouse macrophages, Ano6 produces large ion currents by stimulation of P2X7 receptors and contributes to ATP-induced membrane blebbing and apoptosis, which is largely reduced in macrophages from Ano6-/- mice. ANO6 supports bacterial phagocytosis and killing by mouse and human THP-1 macrophages. Our data demonstrate that anoctamin 6 is an essential component of the immune defense by macrophages.

  8. Improved Molecular Technique for the Differentiation of Neotropical Anopheline Species

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Ryan; Rios, Carlos Tong; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Gilman, Robert H.; Florin, David; Sifuentes, Victor Lopez; Greffa, Roldan Cardenas; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Fernandez, Roberto; Portocarrero, Daniel Velasquez; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Kosek, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a PCR-RFLP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) to distinguish species of Anopheles commonly reported in the Amazon and validated this method using reared F1 offspring. The following species of Anopheles were used for molecular analysis: An. (Nys.) benarrochi, An. (Nys.) darlingi, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, An. (Nys.) konderi, An. (Nys.) rangeli, and An. (Nys.) triannulatus sensu lato (s.l.). In addition, three species of the subgenus Anopheles, An. (Ano.) forattini, An. (Ano.) mattogrossensis, and An. (Ano.) peryassui were included for testing. Each of the nine species tested yielded diagnostic banding patterns. The PCR-RFLP method was successful in identifying all life stages including exuviae with small fractions of the sample. The assay is rapid and can be applied as an unbiased confirmatory method for identification of morphologic variants, disputed samples, imperfectly preserved specimens, and life stages from which taxonomic keys do not allow for definitive species determination. PMID:18337348

  9. [Anal suppurations].

    PubMed

    Senéjoux, A

    2001-01-15

    Anal suppurations can be classified according to their origin: from the anal canal, from above the anal canal, or independent from the ano-rectum. Wherever suppuration comes from, an abscess can be present at the acute phase. Anal fistulas represent about 70% of anal suppurations. They always begin by cryptoglandular infection, which can spread to the intersphincteric space and then pass through the anal sphincter. Treatment of anal fistula is a double challenge: healing the suppuration, and preserving anal continence. Among suppurations independent from the ano-rectum pilonidal disease is the most frequent (15% of the suppurations). Other causes of ano-perineal suppurations are infected fissure, Verneuil's disease, and gland, recto-vaginal fistulas and Crohn's disease. PMID:11234090

  10. Superconducting vortices in semilocal models.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Péter; Reuillon, Sébastien; Volkov, Mikhail S

    2006-02-01

    It is shown that the SU(2) semilocal model--the Abelian Higgs model with two complex scalars--admits a new class of stationary, straight string solutions carrying a persistent current and having finite energy per unit length. In the plane orthogonal to their direction they correspond to a nontrivial deformation of the embedded Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices by the current flowing through them. The new solutions bifurcate with the ANO vortices in the limit of vanishing current. They can be either static or stationary. In the stationary case, the relative phase of the two scalars rotates at constant velocity, giving rise to an electric field and angular momentum, while the energy remains finite. The new static vortex solutions have lower energy than the ANO vortices and could be of considerable importance in various physical systems (from condensed matter to cosmic strings). PMID:16486806

  11. A founder mutation in Anoctamin 5 is a major cause of limb girdle muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Muelas, Nuria; Köehler, Katrin; Huebner, Angela; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Barresi, Rita; Eagle, Michelle; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Bailey, Geraldine; Miller, James; Radunovic, Aleksander; Hughes, Paul J.; Roberts, Richard; Krause, Sabine; Walter, Maggie C.; Laval, Steven H.; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Bushby, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of disorders with wide genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Recently, mutations in the ANO5 gene, which encodes a putative calcium-activated chloride channel belonging to the Anoctamin family of proteins, were identified in five families with one of two previously identified disorders, LGMD2L and non-dysferlin Miyoshi muscular dystrophy (MMD3). We screened a candidate group of 64 patients from 59 British and German kindreds and found the truncating mutation, c.191dupA in exon 5 of ANO5 in 20 patients, homozygously in 15 and in compound heterozygosity with other ANO5 variants in the rest. An intragenic SNP and an extragenic microsatellite marker are in linkage disequilibrium with the mutation, suggesting a founder effect in the Northern European population. We have further defined the clinical phenotype of ANO5-associated muscular dystrophy. Patients show adult onset proximal lower limb weakness with highly raised creatinine kinase (CK) values (average 4500 IU/l) and frequent muscle atrophy and asymmetry of muscle involvement. Onset varies from the early 20s to 50s and the weakness is generally slowly progressive, with most patients remaining ambulant for several decades. Distal presentation is much less common but a milder degree of distal lower limb weakness is often observed. Upper limb strength is only mildly affected and cardiac and respiratory function is normal. Females appear less frequently affected. In the North of England population we have identified eight patients with ANO5 mutations, suggesting a minimum prevalence of 0.27/100 000, twice as common as dysferlinopathy. We suggest that mutations in ANO5 represent a relatively common cause of adult onset muscular dystrophy with high CK and that mutation screening, particularly of the common mutation c.191dupA, should be an early step in the diagnostic algorithm of adult LGMD patients. PMID:21186264

  12. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+)-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+), and discovered that Mg(2+) competes with Ca(2+) in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1. PMID:24489780

  13. Investigating the effects of L- to D-amino acid substitution and deamidation on the activity and membrane interactions of antimicrobial peptide anoplin.

    PubMed

    Won, Amy; Khan, Mourin; Gustin, Sorin; Akpawu, Akuvi; Seebun, Deeptee; Avis, Tyler J; Leung, Bonnie O; Hitchcock, Adam P; Ianoul, Anatoli

    2011-06-01

    Isolated from the venom sac of solitary spider wasp, Anoplius samariensis, anoplin is the smallest linear α-helical antimicrobial peptide found naturally with broad spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and little hemolytic activity toward human erythrocytes. Deamidation was found to decrease the peptide's antibacterial properties. In the present work, interactions of amidated (Ano-NH2) and deamidated (Ano-OH) forms of anoplin as well as Ano-NH2 composed of all D-amino acids (D-Ano-NH2) with model cell membranes were investigated by means of Langmuir Blodgett (LB) technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) and carboxyfluorescein leakage assay in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of these peptide modifications on membrane binding and lytic properties. According to LB, all three peptides form stable monolayers at the air/water interface with Ano-NH2 occupying a slightly greater area per molecule than Ano-OH. All three forms of the peptide interact preferentially with anionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DPPG), rather than zwitterionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid monolayer. Peptides form nanoscale clusters in zwitterionic but not in anionic monolayers. Finally, membrane lytic activity of all derivatives was found to depend strongly on membrane composition and lipid/peptide ratio. The results suggest that amidated forms of peptides are likely to possess higher membrane binding affinity due to the increased charge. PMID:21078293

  14. Index to Bibliographies and Resource Materials--Project MEDIA, Summer 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, Minneapolis, Minn.

    Information presented in this index includes citations ano descriptions of print and nonprint media by, for, or about Native Americans and represents some of the resource materials to be included in the functioning computer-housed data base now being constructed by Project MEDIA. As the precursor of a print catalogue to be published as more data…

  15. Sphingosine and FTY720 Modulate Pacemaking Activity in Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Mouse Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Byung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemakers of the gastrointestinal tract, and transient receptor potential melastatin type 7 (TRPM7) and Ca2+ activated Cl− channels (ANO1) are candidate the generators of pacemaker potentials in ICCs. The effects of D-erythro-sphingosine (SPH) and structural analogues of SPH, that is, N,N-dimethyl-Derythro-sphingosine (N,N-DMS), FTY720, and FTY720-P on the pacemaking activities of ICCs were examined using the whole cell patch clamp technique. SPH, N,N-DMS, and FTY720 decreased the amplitudes of pacemaker potentials in ICC clusters, but resting membrane potentials displayed little change. Also, perfusing SPH, N,N-DMS, or FTY720 in the bath reduced both inward and outward TRPM7-like currents in single ICCs, and inhibited ANO1 currents. The another structural analogue of SPH, FTY720-P was ineffective at the pacemaker potentials in ICC clusters and the TRPM7-like currents in single ICCs. Furthermore, FTY720- P had no effect on ANO1. These results suggest that SPH, N,N-DMS, and FTY720 modulate the pacemaker activities of ICCs, and that TRPM7 and ANO1 channels affect intestinal motility. PMID:23912597

  16. Functions of Discourse Markers in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Through an examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese (commonly characterized as demonstrative adjectives but which cannot be used interchangeably in a context), this paper explores how these linguistic devices function in conversation found in Japanese writings. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions…

  17. Physiological roles and diseases of tmem16/anoctamin proteins: are they all chloride channels?

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Charity; Hartzell, H Criss

    2011-01-01

    The Tmem16 gene family was first identified by bioinformatic analysis in 2004. In 2008, it was shown independently by 3 laboratories that the first two members (Tmem16A and Tmem16B) of this 10-gene family are Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. Because these proteins are thought to have 8 transmembrane domains and be anion-selective channels, the alternative name, Anoctamin (anion and octa=8), has been proposed. However, it remains unclear whether all members of this family are, in fact, anion channels or have the same 8-transmembrane domain topology. Since 2008, there have been nearly 100 papers published on this gene family. The excitement about Tmem16 proteins has been enhanced by the finding that Ano1 has been linked to cancer, mutations in Ano5 are linked to several forms of muscular dystrophy (LGMDL2 and MMD-3), mutations in Ano10 are linked to autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia, and mutations in Ano6 are linked to Scott syndrome, a rare bleeding disorder. Here we review some of the recent developments in understanding the physiology and structure-function of the Tmem16 gene family. PMID:21642943

  18. Farmworkers in Rural America, 1971-1972: Part 2, Who Owns the Land? Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92nd Congress, 1st and 2d Sessions, November 5,1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    On November 5, 1971, the subcommittee heard testimony on the: (1) history of land ownership in rural America, (2) extent of corporate and conglomerate involvement in rural America and the resulting economic consequences, and (3) impact of the large vertically ano horizontally integrated corporations and conglomerates on the well-being of rural…

  19. Syntax of Demonstrative Adjectives in Japanese: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Minoru

    1996-01-01

    The interactions among demonstrative adjectives in certain genitive phrases and WH-words in Japanese are investigated in this report on a work in progress. It is argued that certain demonstrative adjectives in Japanese, such as "ano" ("that"), occupy the highest Spec position in DP and that they block A-bar movement out of DP; genitive phrases,…

  20. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la información sobre la salinidad superficial de los océanos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer año de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  1. PERCEPTION OF ODOR AND NASAL PUNGENCY FROM HOMOLOGOUS SERIES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of tests of nasal detection thresholds for airborne chemicals in a group of anosmics (i.e., subjects lacking a functional sense of smell) and in a group of age-, gender-, and smoking-status-matched normosmics (i.e., subjects with normal olfaction). Ano...

  2. Seafloor Rocks and Sediments of the Continental Shelf From Monterey Bay to Point Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, Stephen L.; Anima, Roberto J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic swath mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. This publication portrays the seafloor components in a 36- by 48-inch map sheet at 1:100,000 scale.

  3. Which density functional should be used to study actinyl complexes?

    PubMed

    Austin, Jonathan P; Burton, Neil A; Hillier, Ian H; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Vincent, Mark A

    2009-02-28

    The new M06 functional of Truhlar and co-workers is found to be competitive with high level ab initio methods in the study of the water exchange mechanism of the [UO(2)(OH(2))(5)](2+) ion, and of the redox potentials of the aqua complexes of [AnO(2)](2+) (An = U, Np and Pu). PMID:19209355

  4. Orportunidades de Mejoramiento de la Ganaderia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Es muy comun escuchar la frase de que untoro contribuye en la produccion de becerros del ano, sin embargo es conceniente darles un mayor credito de valor en su contribucion en el conjunto de la retabilidad y productividad de un hato de cria. Ha sido estimado que la fertilidad es 10 veces mas import...

  5. 78 FR 56980 - Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... alternatives include Alternative A--No Action; Alternative B--Conservation; Alternative C--Commercial, Retail... requirement that it be used only for a mixture of commercial, retail and residential uses. Other uses (e.g..., self-storage buildings, health care institutes, retail shopping, community centers,...

  6. COVER CROP SYSTEMS AFFECT WEED COMMUNITIES IN A CALIFORNIA VINEYARD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under four dormant season cover crop systems representative of those used in the north-coastal grape-growing region of California: no-till annuals (rose clover, soft brome, zorro fescue; ANoT), no-till perennials (blue wildrye, California brome, meadow barley,...

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy in Child Sexual Abuse Medical Evaluation: Role of Experience, Training, and Expert Case Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joyce A.; Starling, Suzanne P.; Frasier, Lori D.; Palusci, Vincent J.; Shapiro, Robert Allan; Finkel, Martin A.; Botash, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of clinicians who examine children for suspected sexual abuse to recognize and interpret normal and abnormal ano-genital findings in magnified photographs using an online survey format. (2) Determine which factors in education, clinical practice, and case review correlate with…

  8. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Bipolar and unipolar resistive switching in Zn0.98Cu0.02O films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingyu; Wen, Zheng; Wu, Di

    2011-08-01

    We report the coexistence of bipolar and unipolar resistive switching (BRS and URS) in a Ag/Zn0.98Cu0.02O/ITO structure. The resistance ratio between the high-resistance state (HRS) and the low-resistance state (LRS) is about 106 for the BRS. The URS is observed with a positive bias applied on the ITO electrode, which is more stable than the BRS. The resistance ratio between the HRS and LRS of the URS is about 104. The Schottky barrier at the Zn0.98Cu0.02O/Ag interface plays an important role in both the BRS and URS processes.

  10. Synthesis of Mn0.04Cu0.05Zn0.91O nanorod and its application in optoelectronic switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layek, Animesh; Middya, Somnath

    2016-05-01

    The optical absorption of ZnO nanorod had been reduced by introducing Mn as doping element. In this present study the optical absorption of ZnO nanorod has been improved by simultaneous doping of the element Mn and Cu. The hydrothermal reaction was adopted for the synthesis. The electrical conductivity and the optical band gap of the Mn0.04Cu0.05Zn0.91O were measured as 1.16 × 10-3Scm-1 and 3.07eV respectively, assigned the semiconductor behavior. The light induced rectification in time dependent current response characteristic of Al/ Mn0.04Cu0.05Zn0.91O/ITO was investigated to check the performance of the composite in opto-electronic switching device.

  11. Recessive mutations in the putative calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 5 cause proximal LGMD2L and distal MMD3 muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Véronique; Marlow, Gareth; Boycott, Kym M; Saleki, Khalil; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kroon, Johan; Itakura, Mitsuo; Robitaille, Yves; Parent, Lucie; Baas, Frank; Mizuta, Kuniko; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Richard, Isabelle; Linssen, Wim H J P; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; de Visser, Marianne; Bashir, Rumaisa; Brais, Bernard

    2010-02-12

    The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies. PMID:20096397

  12. Recessive Mutations in the Putative Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 5 Cause Proximal LGMD2L and Distal MMD3 Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Véronique; Marlow, Gareth; Boycott, Kym M.; Saleki, Khalil; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kroon, Johan; Itakura, Mitsuo; Robitaille, Yves; Parent, Lucie; Baas, Frank; Mizuta, Kuniko; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Richard, Isabelle; Linssen, Wim H.J.P.; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; de Visser, Marianne; Bashir, Rumaisa; Brais, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies. PMID:20096397

  13. [Muscular dystrophy due to mutations in anoctamin 5: clinical and molecular genetic findings].

    PubMed

    Deschauer, M; Joshi, P R; Gläser, D; Hanisch, F; Stoltenburg, G; Zierz, S

    2011-12-01

    Recessive mutations in the anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene have been recently identified in families with limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) and distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy. Anoctamin 5 is supposed to be a putative calcium-activated chloride channel. We report five German patients (four index patients) with muscle dystrophy due to mutations in the ANO5 gene. Sequencing of the ANO5 exons 5, 13 and 20 was performed to screen for a common c.191dupA mutation and two other reported mutations (c.1295C>G and p.R758C). The whole coding region of the ANO5 gene was sequenced to identify new mutations. Phenotypically, three patients showed LGMD and one patient Miyoshi type distal myopathy. One sibling had asymptomatic hyperCKemia. The age at onset was 64, 38 and 40 years in patients with LGMD and 23 years in the patient with distal myopathy. The four symptomatic patients showed remarkable asymmetric muscle involvement. There was marked CK elevation (11 to 30 times). Electron microscopy showed multifocal gaps in the sarcolemmal membrane. All patients harboured the common c.191dupA mutation in at least one allele. Two patients with LGMD were homozygous and the third patient and his asymptomatic sister were compound heterozygous for the c.191dupA mutation and a novel p.T548I mutation. The patient with distal myopathy harboured the p.R758C mutation in the second allele. Mutations in the ANO5 gene seem to be a relatively common cause of muscular dystrophy in Germany. Cases with late onset or asymptomatic hyperCKemia can occur. Clinically, asymmetric manifestation is typical. PMID:21739273

  14. Pain-enhancing mechanism through interaction between TRPV1 and anoctamin 1 in sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Yasunori; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is activated by various noxious stimuli, and the stimuli are converted into electrical signals in primary sensory neurons. It is believed that cation influx through TRPV1 causes depolarization, leading to the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels, followed by the generation of action potential. Here we report that the capsaicin-evoked action potential could be induced by two components: a cation influx-mediated depolarization caused by TRPV1 activation and a subsequent anion efflux-mediated depolarization via activation of anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a calcium-activated chloride channel, resulting from the entry of calcium through TRPV1. The interaction between TRPV1 and ANO1 is based on their physical binding. Capsaicin activated the chloride currents in an extracellular calcium-dependent manner in HEK293T cells expressing TRPV1 and ANO1. Similarly, in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, capsaicin-activated inward currents were inhibited significantly by a specific ANO1 antagonist, T16Ainh-A01 (A01), in the presence of a high concentration of EGTA but not in the presence of BAPTA [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid]. The generation of a capsaicin-evoked action potential also was inhibited by A01. Furthermore, pain-related behaviors in mice treated with capsaicin, but not with αβ-methylene ATP, were reduced significantly by the concomitant administration of A01. These results indicate that TRPV1–ANO1 interaction is a significant pain-enhancing mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:25848051

  15. Is the Dark Side of the Moon Ever Illuminated by the Sun? (Breton Title: O Lado Escuro da Lua Nunca Apanha Sol?) El Lado Oscuro de la Luna Nunca Toma Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Odilon; Pellenz, Daiana; Catelli, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the elaboration of an answer to the question "Is the dark side of the moon ever illuminated by the sun?", in which issues related to the students' conceptions, how they arise, and the core elements that constitute a "good answer" are considered. These issues are initially elaborated from a literature review of the research in the field; then, and also based on this review, a didactic model that involves the relative motions of the Earth - Moon - Sun system is proposed. A description of the application of this model in a learning environment within middle school students is described. This work confirms the students' initial concepts described in the literature; on the other hand, the questions asked by students during the activity provide evidence that meaningful learning, at least to some degree, has occurred. Este trabalho apresenta a elaboração de uma resposta à pergunta "O lado escuro da Lua nunca apanha sol?" na qual são consideradas questões relacionadas às concepções iniciais dos alunos, de onde elas surgem e os elementos centrais que constituem uma "boa resposta". Essas questões são tratadas, inicialmente, a partir de uma revisão da literatura sobre pesquisas na área e, em seguida, também com base nessa revisão, um objeto modelo didático que envolve os movimentos relativos do sistema Terra - Lua - Sol é proposto. Uma descrição detalhada da aplicação deste modelo em um ambiente de aprendizagem com alunos do ensino fundamental é relatada. As concepções iniciais apresentadas na literatura se confirmam e os questionamentos feitos pelos estudantes por ocasião da aplicação do modelo fornecem indícios de que uma aprendizagem significativa, pelo menos em algum grau, ocorreu. El artículo se presenta el desarrollo de una respuesta a la pregunta "¿El lado oscuro de la luna nunca toma sol?", en la que se consideran algunas cuestiones vinculadas que se refieren a las concepciones iniciales de los estudiantes, dónde surgen

  16. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  17. Photocurrent enhancement of perovskite heterojunction by plasmonic nanoparticles and ferroelectric polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, J. Chen, S. W.; Fang, C. Y.; Chen, C. H.

    2014-02-17

    Perovskite oxides—Pb{sub 0.86}La{sub 0.14}TiO{sub 3} (PLT), AgNbO{sub 3} (ANO), and SrTiO{sub 3} (STO)—were deposited consecutively on ITO/glass substrates to form layered composite photoelectrodes. These materials were chosen for their specific electronic band structures to form efficient photocatalytic heterojunctions and similar crystalline structures to minimize interface defects. Two additional methods were adopted to increase the photocurrent density of the composites: (1) plasmonic gold nanoparticles were introduced at the PLT/ITO interface to enhance light scattering and absorption while not becoming electron trapping centers and (2) the ferroelectric PLT layer was electrically poled toward the ANO layer to create a favorable band bending for electron transfer.

  18. A comprehensive strategy to identify stoichiometric membrane protein interactomes

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Avanti; Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Duran, Charity; Hartzell, H. Criss; Faundez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous experimental approaches to identify the interaction networks of soluble proteins, but strategies for the identification of membrane protein interactomes remain limited. We discuss in detail the logic of an experimental design that led us to identify the interactome of a membrane protein of complex membrane topology, the calcium activated chloride channel Anoctamin 1/Tmem16a (Ano1). We used covalent chemical stabilizers of protein-protein interactions combined with magnetic bead immuno-affinity chromatography, quantitative SILAC mass-spectrometry and in silico network construction. This strategy led us to define a putative Ano1 interactome from which we selected key components for functional testing. We propose a combination of procedures to narrow down candidate proteins interacting with a membrane protein of interest for further functional studies. PMID:23676845

  19. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S; Titov, Anatoly V; Kiselev, Yuri M

    2013-07-21

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable. PMID:23883027

  20. Genital injuries in adults.

    PubMed

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these. PMID:23219384

  1. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  2. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  3. Gas-phase uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl: hydration and oxidation studied by experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniel; Michelini, Maria C; Lucena, Ana F; Marçalo, Joaquim; Bray, Travis H; Gibson, John K

    2012-06-18

    The following monopositive actinyl ions were produced by electrospray ionization of aqueous solutions of An(VI)O(2)(ClO(4))(2) (An = U, Np, Pu): U(V)O(2)(+), Np(V)O(2)(+), Pu(V)O(2)(+), U(VI)O(2)(OH)(+), and Pu(VI)O(2)(OH)(+); abundances of the actinyl ions reflect the relative stabilities of the An(VI) and An(V) oxidation states. Gas-phase reactions with water in an ion trap revealed that water addition terminates at AnO(2)(+)·(H(2)O)(4) (An = U, Np, Pu) and AnO(2)(OH)(+)·(H(2)O)(3) (An = U, Pu), each with four equatorial ligands. These terminal hydrates evidently correspond to the maximum inner-sphere water coordination in the gas phase, as substantiated by density functional theory (DFT) computations of the hydrate structures and energetics. Measured hydration rates for the AnO(2)(OH)(+) were substantially faster than for the AnO(2)(+), reflecting additional vibrational degrees of freedom in the hydroxide ions for stabilization of hot adducts. Dioxygen addition resulted in UO(2)(+)(O(2))(H(2)O)(n) (n = 2, 3), whereas O(2) addition was not observed for NpO(2)(+) or PuO(2)(+) hydrates. DFT suggests that two-electron three-centered bonds form between UO(2)(+) and O(2), but not between NpO(2)(+) and O(2). As formation of the UO(2)(+)-O(2) bonds formally corresponds to the oxidation of U(V) to U(VI), the absence of this bonding with NpO(2)(+) can be considered a manifestation of the lower relative stability of Np(VI). PMID:22656318

  4. Clinical and genetic features of anoctaminopathy in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bohlega, Saeed; Monies, Dorothy M.; Abulaban, Ahmad A.; Murad, Hatem N.; Alhindi, Hindi N.; Meyer, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Characterization of the phenotypic, pathological, radiological, and genetic findings in 2 Saudi Arabian families with anoctaminopathies, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L). Methods: Over a 2-year period from December 2010 to January 2013, the clinical presentations were analyzed and all genes responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) were screened in families seen at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of 66 families with LGMD, we identified 2 families (3.1%) with anoctaminopathy, ANO5 muscular dystrophy. Results: In the first case, a man presented with asymmetrical calves’ muscles weakness and atrophy, which was first noted at age 39. The creatinine kinase (CK) level was >20x normal, muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myopathic changes, and an MRI of the legs showed fatty-tissue replacement to muscle tissue with volume loss involving the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in an asymmetrical fashion. Minimal disease progression was noted over 18 years of follow up. Exercise induced recurrent rhabdomyolysis was noted over the last 2 years. A novel ANO5 gene mutation (Arg58Trp) was found. In the second family, a male presented at the age of 41 with asymptomatic hyperCkemia and intermittent dyspnea. Over 10 years follow up, he became disabled with muscle cramps, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinurea, and difficulty ambulating. Muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myopathy and perivascular and interstitial amyloid deposit in skeletal muscle. A homozygous deletion of 11.9 Kb encompassing exon 13 to exon 17 was found in the ANO5 gene. Full cardiac investigations were normal in both patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of LGMD2L is approximately 3.1% in a Saudi Arabian native LGMD cohort. Slowly progressive, late onset, and asymmetrical weakness was the salient features in these 2 families. The genetic findings were novel and will add to the spectrum of ANO5 known mutations

  5. Experimental and Computational Evidence for the Reduction Mechanisms of Aromatic N-oxides by Aqueous Fe(II)-Tiron Complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiling; Dong, Hao; Zhang, Huichun

    2016-01-01

    A combined experimental-theoretical approach was taken to elucidate the reduction mechanisms of five representative aromatic N-oxides (ANOs) by Fe(II)-tiron complex and to identify the rate-limiting step. Based on the possible types of complexes formed with the reductant, three groups of ANOs were studied: type I refers to those forming 5-membered ring complexes through the N and O atoms on the side chain; type II refers to those forming 6-membered ring complexes through the N-oxide O atom and the O atom on the side chain; and type III refers to complexation through the N-oxide O atom only. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the elementary reactions, including protonation, N-O bond cleavage, and the second electron transfer processes, are barrierless, indicating that the first electron transfer is rate-limiting. Consistent with the theoretical results, the experimental solvent isotope effect, KIEH, for the reduction of quinoline N-oxide (a type III ANO) was obtained to be 1.072 ± 0.025, suggesting protonation was not involved in the rate-limiting step. The measured nitrogen kinetic isotope effect, KIEN, for the reduction of pyridine N-oxide (a type III ANO) (1.022 ± 0.006) is in good agreement with the calculated KIEN for its first electron transfer (1.011-1.028), confirming that the first electron transfer is rate-limiting. Electrochemical cell experiments demonstrated that the electron transfer process can be facilitated significantly by type I complexation with FeL2(6-) (1:2 Fe(II)-tiron complex), to some extent by type II complexation with free Fe(II), but not by weak type III complexation. PMID:26636617

  6. Cryptanalysis of the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka Anonymous Attribute Authentication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Haeryong

    Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka proposed a perfectly ano-nymous attribute authentication scheme that realizes unidentifiable and untraceable authentication with offline revocation checking. The Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme uses a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly. Thus, the certificate is modified for each authentication and the authentication scheme has the unidentifiable property and the untraceable property. However, in this letter, we show that the Kiyomoto-Fukushima-Tanaka scheme is insecure against the impersonation attack.

  7. 78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    .... EPA proposed the STP site to the National Priorities List (NPL) on October 15, 1984 (49 FR 40320), and added it to the final list on August 30, 1990 (55 FR 35502). In 1985, Kerr-McGee entered into an....O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p....

  8. Role of anions and reaction conditions in the preparation of uranium(VI), neptunium(VI), and plutonium(VI) borates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Villa, Eric M; Diwu, Juan; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    U(VI), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) borates with the formula AnO(2)[B(8)O(11)(OH)(4)] (An = U, Np, Pu) have been prepared via the reactions of U(VI) nitrate, Np(VI) perchlorate, or Pu(IV) or Pu(VI) nitrate with molten boric acid. These compounds are all isotypic and consist of a linear actinyl(VI) cation, AnO(2)(2+), surrounded by BO(3) triangles and BO(4) tetrahedra to create an AnO(8) hexagonal bipyramidal environment. The actinyl bond lengths are consistent with actinide contraction across this series. The borate anions bridge between actinyl units to create sheets. Additional BO(3) triangles and BO(4) tetrahedra extend from the polyborate layers and connect these sheets together to form a three-dimensional chiral framework structure. UV-vis-NIR absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the hexavalent oxidation state in all three compounds. Bond-valence parameters are developed for Np(VI). PMID:21291194

  9. Frequency and characterisation of anoctamin 5 mutations in a cohort of Italian limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Francesca; Bo, Roberto Del; D’Angelo, Maria Grazia; Sciacco, Monica; Gandossini, Sandra; Govoni, Alessandra; Napoli, Laura; Ciscato, Patrizia; Fortunato, Francesco; Brighina, Erika; Bonato, Sara; Bordoni, Andreina; Lucchini, Valeria; Corti, Stefania; Moggio, Maurizio; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2L, caused by mutations in the anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene, is the third most common LGMD in Northern and Central Europe, where the c.191dupA mutation causes the majority of cases. We evaluated data from 228 Italian LGMD patients to determine the prevalence of LGMD2L and the c.191dupA mutation, and to describe the clinical, muscle biopsy, and magnetic resonance imaging findings in these patients. Forty-three patients who lacked molecular diagnosis were studied for ANO5 mutations, and four novel mutations were found in three probands. Only one proband carried the c.191dupA mutation, which was compound heterozygous with c.2516T>G. Two probands were homozygous for the c.1627dupA and c.397A>T mutations, respectively, while a fourth proband had a compound heterozygous status (c.220C>T and c.1609T>C). Therefore occurrence and molecular epidemiology of LGMD2L in this Italian cohort differed from those observed in other European countries. ANO5 mutations accounted for ∼2% of our sample. Affected patients exhibited benign progression with variable onset and an absence of cardiac and respiratory impairment; muscle biopsy generally showed mild signs, except when performed on the quadriceps muscles; MRI showed predominant involvement of the posterior thigh. Overall these common clinical, morphological and imaging findings could be useful in differential diagnosis. PMID:22742934

  10. Frequency and characterisation of anoctamin 5 mutations in a cohort of Italian limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Magri, Francesca; Del Bo, Roberto; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Sciacco, Monica; Gandossini, Sandra; Govoni, Alessandra; Napoli, Laura; Ciscato, Patrizia; Fortunato, Francesco; Brighina, Erika; Bonato, Sara; Bordoni, Andreina; Lucchini, Valeria; Corti, Stefania; Moggio, Maurizio; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo Pietro

    2012-11-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2L, caused by mutations in the anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene, is the third most common LGMD in Northern and Central Europe, where the c.191dupA mutation causes the majority of cases. We evaluated data from 228 Italian LGMD patients to determine the prevalence of LGMD2L and the c.191dupA mutation, and to describe the clinical, muscle biopsy, and magnetic resonance imaging findings in these patients. Forty-three patients who lacked molecular diagnosis were studied for ANO5 mutations, and four novel mutations were found in three probands. Only one proband carried the c.191dupA mutation, which was compound heterozygous with c.2516T>G. Two probands were homozygous for the c.1627dupA and c.397A>T mutations, respectively, while a fourth proband had a compound heterozygous status (c.220C>T and c.1609T>C). Therefore occurrence and molecular epidemiology of LGMD2L in this Italian cohort differed from those observed in other European countries. ANO5 mutations accounted for ∼2% of our sample. Affected patients exhibited benign progression with variable onset and an absence of cardiac and respiratory impairment; muscle biopsy generally showed mild signs, except when performed on the quadriceps muscles; MRI showed predominant involvement of the posterior thigh. Overall these common clinical, morphological and imaging findings could be useful in differential diagnosis. PMID:22742934

  11. Ab Initio Simulation of the Photoelectron Spectrum for Methoxy Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lan; Weichman, Marissa L.; Kim, Jongjin B.; Ichino, Takatoshi; Neumark, Daniel; Stanton, John F.

    2015-06-01

    A theoretical simulation of the photoelectron spectrum for the ground state of methoxy radical is reported based on the quasidiabatic model Hamiltonian originally proposed by Köppel, Domcke, and Cederbaum. The parameters in the model Hamiltonian have been obtained from ab initio coupled-cluster calculations. The linear and quadratic force constants have been calculated using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster ionization potential method with the singles, doubles, and triples (EOMIP-CCSDT) truncation scheme together with atomic natural orbital basis sets of triple-zeta quality (ANO1). The cubic and quartic force constants have been obtained from EOMIP-CCSD calculations with ANO basis sets of double-zeta quality (ANO0), and the spin-orbit coupling constant has been computed at the EOMIP-CCSD/pCVTZ level. The nuclear Schroedinger equation has been solved using the Lanzcos algorithm to obtain vibronic energy levels as well as the corresponding intensities. The simulated spectrum compares favorably with the recent high-resolution slow electron velocity-map imaging experiment for vibronic levels up to 2000 cm-1.

  12. Synthesis and Coordination Properties of Trifluoromethyl Decorated Derivatives of 2,6-Bis[(diphenylphosphinoyl)methyl]pyridine N-Oxide Ligands with Lanthanide Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pailloux, Sylvie; Shirima, Cornel Edicome; Ray, Alicia D.; Duesler, Eileen N.; Paine, Robert T.; Klaehn, John D.; McIlwain, Michael E; Hay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Phosphinoyl Grignard-based substitutions on 2,6-bis(chloromethyl)pyridine followed by N-oxidation of the intermediate 2,6-bis(phosphinoyl)methyl pyridine compounds with mCPBA give the target trifunctional ligands 2,6-bis[bis-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2a) and 2,6-bis[bis-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2b) in high yields. The ligands have been spectroscopically characterized, the molecular structures confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods and the coordination chemistry surveyed with lanthanide nitrates. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses are described for the coordination complexes Nd(2a)(NO3)3, Nd(2a)(NO3)3 (CH3CN)0.5, Eu(2a)(NO3)3 and Nd(2b)(NO3)3 (H2O)1.25; in each case the ligand binds in a tridentate mode to the Ln(III) cation. These structures are compared with the structures found for lanthanide coordination complexes of the parent NOPOPO ligand, [Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3NO.

  13. [Thermosensitive TRP channels and brain function].

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and wasabi receptor TRPA1 are expressed in the unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors and activated by various nociceptive stimuli causing pain in our body. Their involvement in nociception was proven with behavior studies using mice lacking TRPV1 and TRPA1. TRPV1 was found to interact with a calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin1 (ANO1), and calcium ions entering the primary sensory neurons activated ANO1, leading to chloride efflux which resulted in further depolarization. This is a novel pain-enhancing mechanism. A splicing variant of mouse TRPA1 (TRPA1b) was identified, and TRPA1b was found to bind to the full length TRPA1 (TRPA1a) and enhance the translocation of TRPA1a to the plasma membrane, leading to the increase in TRPA1 activity. The increase in TRPA1b transcript in the inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions suggests the involvement of TRPA1b in the increased pain sensation under pathological conditions. Regulation of TRPV1/ANO1 complex formation or TRPA1b production could be a promising way to develop novel analgesic agents. PMID:27333657

  14. Coupled-cluster based basis sets for valence correlation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudino, Daniel; Gargano, Ricardo; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    Novel basis sets are generated that target the description of valence correlation in atoms H through Ar. The new contraction coefficients are obtained according to the Atomic Natural Orbital (ANO) procedure from CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction) density matrices starting from the primitive functions of Dunning et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1007 (1989); ibid. 98, 1358 (1993); ibid. 100, 2975 (1993)] (correlation consistent polarized valence X-tuple zeta, cc-pVXZ). The exponents of the primitive Gaussian functions are subject to uniform scaling in order to ensure satisfaction of the virial theorem for the corresponding atoms. These new sets, named ANO-VT-XZ (Atomic Natural Orbital Virial Theorem X-tuple Zeta), have the same number of contracted functions as their cc-pVXZ counterparts in each subshell. The performance of these basis sets is assessed by the evaluation of the contraction errors in four distinct computations: correlation energies in atoms, probing the density in different regions of space via (-3 ≤ n ≤ 3) in atoms, correlation energies in diatomic molecules, and the quality of fitting potential energy curves as measured by spectroscopic constants. All energy calculations with ANO-VT-QZ have contraction errors within "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol, which is not true for cc-pVQZ, suggesting some improvement compared to the correlation consistent series of Dunning and co-workers.

  15. Coupled-cluster based basis sets for valence correlation calculations.

    PubMed

    Claudino, Daniel; Gargano, Ricardo; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-03-14

    Novel basis sets are generated that target the description of valence correlation in atoms H through Ar. The new contraction coefficients are obtained according to the Atomic Natural Orbital (ANO) procedure from CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction) density matrices starting from the primitive functions of Dunning et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1007 (1989); ibid. 98, 1358 (1993); ibid. 100, 2975 (1993)] (correlation consistent polarized valence X-tuple zeta, cc-pVXZ). The exponents of the primitive Gaussian functions are subject to uniform scaling in order to ensure satisfaction of the virial theorem for the corresponding atoms. These new sets, named ANO-VT-XZ (Atomic Natural Orbital Virial Theorem X-tuple Zeta), have the same number of contracted functions as their cc-pVXZ counterparts in each subshell. The performance of these basis sets is assessed by the evaluation of the contraction errors in four distinct computations: correlation energies in atoms, probing the density in different regions of space via ⟨r(n)⟩ (-3 ≤ n ≤ 3) in atoms, correlation energies in diatomic molecules, and the quality of fitting potential energy curves as measured by spectroscopic constants. All energy calculations with ANO-VT-QZ have contraction errors within "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol, which is not true for cc-pVQZ, suggesting some improvement compared to the correlation consistent series of Dunning and co-workers. PMID:26979680

  16. SUMOylation regulates ciliary localization of olfactory signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Joiner, Ariell M.; Zhang, Lian; Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jorge; Martens, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles found on many mammalian cell types, including neuronal populations. Although neuronal cilia, including those on olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are often delineated by localization of adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3, also known as ADCY3), the mechanisms responsible for targeting integral membrane proteins are largely unknown. Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins plays an important role in protein localization processes such as nuclear–cytosolic transport. Here, we identified through bioinformatic analysis that adenylyl cyclases harbor conserved SUMOylation motifs, and show that AC3 is a substrate for SUMO modification. Functionally, overexpression of the SUMO protease SENP2 prevented ciliary localization of AC3, without affecting ciliation or cilia maintenance. Furthermore, AC3-SUMO mutants did not localize to cilia. To test whether SUMOylation is sufficient for cilia entry, we compared localization of ANO2, which possesses a SUMO motif, and ANO1, which lacks SUMOylation sites and does not localize to cilia. Introduction of SUMOylation sites into ANO1 was not sufficient for ciliary entry. These data suggest that SUMOylation is necessary but not sufficient for ciliary trafficking of select constituents, further establishing the link between ciliary and nuclear import. PMID:25908845

  17. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  18. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  19. Controle orbital de satélites artificiais com propulsão e uso de gravidade lunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. S.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.

    2003-08-01

    A redução do custo de combustível de uma manobra é atualmente a grande prioridade de todos os programas espaciais existentes no mundo. As manobras assistidas pela gravidade são uma ótima forma de se contornar o problema pois proporcionam economias com vasto impacto no custo final da missão. Neste trabalho é feito um estudo particular do controle orbital de um satélite artificial da Terra usando a gravidade da Lua. O objetivo é estudar uma técnica econômica para uma mudança de plano de um satélite que está em órbita em volta da Terra. A idéia principal desta abordagem é enviar primeiramente o veículo espacial em direção à Lua usando uma manobra mono-impulsiva para que assim o campo gravitacional da Lua possa fazer a mudança de plano desejada (sem custo de combustível) e só então retornar o veículo aos valores iniciais de semi-eixo e excentricidade usando uma manobra bi-impulsiva tipo Hohmann. Para tanto, é assumido que a espaçonave inicia em uma órbita circular coplanar à órbita da lua em torno da Terra e a meta é colocá-la em uma órbita similar que difere da órbita inicial somente pela inclinação. São usadas equações analíticas baseadas na abordagem Patched Conics para se calcular a variação na velocidade, momento angular, energia e inclinação do veículo espacial que realiza esta manobra. Várias simulações são feitas para se avaliar as economias de combustível envolvidas.

  20. Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  1. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  2. Elucidating Protactinium Hydrolysis: The Relative Stabilities of PaO2(H2O)(+) and PaO(OH)2(+).

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Wilson, Richard E; Gibson, John K

    2015-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series. PMID:26203499

  3. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  4. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    PubMed

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200 bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In dogs we found significant (P<0.05, AnoSim) difference between the Giardia-positive and -negative groups when evaluating bacterial genera. No such difference was demonstrated between Ancylostoma-positive and -negative dogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans. PMID:25934152

  5. Actinide sulfides in the gas phase: experimental and theoretical studies of the thermochemistry of AnS (An = Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia C L; Marsden, Colin J; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K

    2011-07-28

    The gas-phase thermochemistry of actinide monosulfides, AnS, was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the reactivity of An(+) and AnO(+) (An = Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm) with CS(2) and COS, as well as the reactivity of the produced AnS(+) with oxidants (COS, CO(2), CH(2)O and NO). From these experiments, An(+)-S bond dissociation energies could be bracketed. Density functional theory studies of the energetics of neutral and monocationic AnS (An = Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm) provided values for bond dissociation energies and ionization energies; the computed energetics of neutral and monocationic AnO were also obtained for comparison. The theoretical data, together with comparisons with known An(+)-O bond dissociation energies and M(+)-S and M(+)-O dissociation energies for the early transition metals, allowed for the refining of the An(+)-S bond dissociation energy ranges obtained from experiment. Examination of the reactivity of AnS(+) with dienes, coupled to comparisons with reactivities of the AnO(+) analogues, systematic considerations and the theoretical results, allowed for the estimation of the ionization energies of the AnS; the bond dissociation energies of neutral AnS were consequently derived. Estimates for the case of AcS were also made, based on correlations of the data for the other An and the electronic energetics of neutral and ionic An. The nature of the bonding in the elementary molecular actinide chalcogenides (oxides and sulfides) is discussed, based on both the experimental data and the computed electronic structures. DFT calculations of ionization energies for the actinide atoms and the diatomic sulfides and oxides are relatively reliable, but the calculation of bond dissociation energies is not uniformly satisfactory, either with DFT or CCSD(T). A key conclusion from both the experimental and theoretical results is that the 5f electrons do not

  6. Theoretical study of the A prime 5Sigma(+)g and C double prime 5Pi u states of N2 - Implications for the N2 afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Schwenke, David W.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical spectroscopic constants are reported for the A prime 5Sigma(+)g and C double prime 5Pi u states of N2 based on CASSCF/MRCI calculations using large ANO Gaussian basis sets. The calculated A prime Sigma(+)g potential differs qualitatively from previous calculations in that the inner well is significantly deeper (De = 3450/cm). This deeper well provides considerable support for the suggestion of Berkowitz et al. (1956) that A prime 5Sigma(+)g is the primary precursor state involved in the yellow Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow of N2.

  7. Other limb-girdle muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Amato, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    The secondary α-dystroglycanopathies usually present in infancy as congenital muscular dystrophies but may manifest later in childhood or adult life (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2I, LGMD2K, LGMD2M, LGMD2N, and LGMD2O). Patients with telethoninopathy (LGMD2B) may present with mainly proximal or distal lower extremity weakness, and notably the muscle biopsies may demonstrate rimmed vacuoles. LGMD2L is caused by newly described mutations in ANO5 and can sometimes present with distal weakness resembling Miyoshi myopathy. PMID:21496628

  8. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos

  9. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    PubMed

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed. PMID:26367770

  10. Application of EPRI risk-based inservice inspection procedure to combustion engineering design of nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, B.T.; Fourgerousse, R.

    1996-12-01

    The EPRI developed risk-based inservice inspection procedure is used to select the elements for inservice inspection on a section of the high pressure safety injection system of the Entergy Operations ANO2 nuclear plant. This plant is the pilot plant in a six utility-eleven plant EPRI tailored collaboration program to apply the general EPRI procedures to Combustion Engineering NSSS designs. The procedure results in a reduction of candidate inspection locations from 14, based on current ASME Section XI rules for B-J welds to 3, based on the risk-based selection criteria.