Foote, Eric M.; Gieraltowski, Laura; Ayers, Tracy; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Silk, Benjamin J.; Cohen, Adam L.; Were, Vincent; Hughes, James M.; Quick, Robert E.
Household air pollution is a risk factor for pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children < 5 years of age. From 2008 to 2010, a Kenyan organization sold ∼2,500 ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) that produce less visible household smoke than 3-stone firepits. During a year-long observational study, we made 25 biweekly visits to 200 homes to determine stove use and observe signs of acute respiratory infection in children < 3 years of age. Reported stove use included 3-stone firepit only (81.8%), upesi jiko only (15.7%), and both (2.3%). Lower, but not statistically significant, percentages of children in upesi jiko-using households than 3-stone firepit-using households had observed cough (1.3% versus 2.9%, rate ratio [RR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22–1.03), pneumonia (0.9% versus 1.7%, RR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.24–1.48), and severe pneumonia (0.3% versus 0.6%, RR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.17–2.62). Upesi jiko use did not result in significantly lower pneumonia rates. Further research on the health impact of improved cookstoves is warranted. PMID:23243108
Background Exposure to household air pollutants released during cooking has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes among residents of rural areas in low-income countries. Improved cookstoves are one of few available interventions, but achieving equity in cookstove access has been challenging. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed. To evaluate a project designed to motivate adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) in an impoverished, rural African population, we assessed the perceived benefits of the cookstoves (in monetary and time-savings terms), the rate of cookstove adoption, and the equity of adoption. Methods The project was conducted in 60 rural Kenyan villages in 2008 and 2009. Baseline (n = 1250) and follow-up (n = 293) surveys and a stove-tracking database were analyzed. Results At baseline, nearly all respondents used wood (95%) and firepits (99%) for cooking; 98% desired smoke reductions. Households with upesi jiko subsequently spent <100 Kenyan Shillings/week on firewood more often (40%) than households without upesi jiko (20%) (p = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in the presence of children <2 years of age in households using upesi jiko (48%) or three-stone stoves (49%) (p = 0.88); children 2–5 years of age were less common in households using upesi jiko versus three-stone stoves (46% and 69%, respectively) (p = 0.0001). Vendors installed 1,124 upesi jiko in 757 multi-family households in 18 months; 68% of these transactions involved incentives for vendors and purchasers. Relatively few (<10%) upesi jiko were installed in households of women in the youngest age quartile (<22 years) or among households in the poorest quintile. Conclusions Our strategy of training of local vendors, appropriate incentives, and product integration effectively accelerated cookstove adoption into a large number of households. The strategy also created opportunities to reinforce health messages
This study focuses on wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farm households in central Kenya. The specific objective were: (1) to determine how households had responded to specific wood-energy policies; (2) to identify factors associated with household adoption or non-adoption of the strategies. Different programs aimed at addressing wood-energy shortages in Kenya were initiated or strengthened during the 1980s: fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting; development and dissemination of improved stoves and fireplaces; promotion of increased accessibility to wood-energy substitutes. Household adoption levels for policy-supported strategies have remained low despite promotion. Survey data from two villages in Nyeri district were collected to determine the factors associated with adoption of the Kenya Ceramic Jiko, the [open quotes]Kuni Mbili[close quotes] stove/fireplace, kerosene stoves, electric cookers, and fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting. Adoption rates varied from as low as 1 percent for electricity to 43 percent for the Kenya Ceramic Jiko. Important policy variables included extension visits per year, income levels, years of formal education received by head of household, access to different fuels, area of farm-land owned, household size, and locational characteristics of the villages. Policy recommendations included: use of research results to direct policy; improvement of information flows between policy makers, extension agents, and technology-users; increased support of agroforestry; and better program coordination. Recommendations for further research included: examining more areas where efficiency gains in energy production and consumption can be made, extending the study to cover the drier parts of central Kenya, and conducting regular case studies in order to better understand the adoption process over time.