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Sample records for okinawa trough mineralogy

  1. Tectonic evolution and volcanism of Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Marsset, B.; Davagnier, M.; Foucher, J.P.; Bougault, H.; Dosso, L.; Maury, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin formed by extension of the east China continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench system. The age of marine deposits drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough indicates a Miocene age for the splitting of the volcanic arc and the first tensional movements. The POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean-Charcot (September-October 1984) provided new evidence concerning the two main periods of extension as recognized by Kimura (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1985). Tilted fault blocks in the northern Okinawa Trough trend north 40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/ and belong to the early Pleistocene phase (2-0.5 Ma). The present-day phase is characterized over the entire basin by normal faults oriented 80/sup 0/N in the north and 90/sup 0/N in the south. In the southern Okinawa Trough, most of the deformation occurs along linear, subparallel, en echelon depressions intruded by volcanic ridges associated with positive magnetic anomalies. The system of volcanic ridges ends northeast of Okinawa Island in a series of parallel volcanic ridges named the VAMP (Volcanic arc-rift migration processes) area, which merges into an active volcanic chain extending north to Japan. Chemical analyses of the vesicular basalts dredged on the back-arc basin display flat to enriched rare-earth patterns. The niobium-tantalum negative anomalies reflect a subduction signature. A good positive correlation between strontium isotopic compositions and concentrations suggests a contamination effect.

  2. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital

  3. Gravity Inversion with Geological Modeling Constraint and Its Application in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2014-12-01

    The satellite altimetry gravity data is used to recover the 3D distribution of oceanic lithosphere density in the Okinawa Trough and its neighbor region. It's difficult to use only gravity data to invert complex geological structure and density distribution by 3D gravity Inversion method. In order to improve the vertical resolution of the density inversion result, 3D geological modeling method is used to build structural model for the inversion, prior constraint conditions can be applied to solve the non-unique problem. In the Okinawa Trough, it is proved by earthquake data that the Philippine plate dives beneath the Okinawa Trough, which result in the upwelling of mantel material and decrease of the crust thickness. The Benioff zone clearly shows the plate's subduction parameter, such as direction, dip, transformation. Therefore, a structural subduction model is created by geological modeling method and works as the initial model and as constraint condition in gravity inversion. The 3D gravity inversion result and seismology CMT data are both used to explain the oceanic lithosphere structure in the Okinawa Trough. The inversion result illustrates high density anomaly under the Okinawa Trough. Affected by small scale mantle convections, the continental lithosphere is separated, which result in the spreading of back-arc basin and the formation of the Okinawa Trough.

  4. Precipitation of authigenic uranium in suboxic continental margin sediments from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2006-02-01

    Concentrations of U and Th isotopes in Okinawa Trough and East China Sea sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of redox sensitive uranium in suboxic hemipelagic sediments and determine their significance in oceanic uranium balance. 238U concentrations and 238U/ 232Th activity ratios in the East China Sea sediments showed no remarkable variation with depth. However, 238U and 238U/ 232Th ratios in the Okinawa Trough sediments were low in the surface oxidizing layer but increased where the suboxic condition was encountered. The distribution profiles of 230Th and 232Th concentrations were relatively constant with depth in both the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea sediment cores. These results suggested that there has been post-depositional precipitation of authigenic uranium within the suboxic Okinawa Trough sediment column. The post-depositional precipitation rates of authigenic uranium were estimated to be 47 ± 5 to >62 ± 8 ng cm -2 yr -1; these rates were comparable to those previously reported for several anoxic sediments. A mechanism controlling precipitation of uranium may be the downward diffusion of uranium U(VI), reduction to U(IV) and finally precipitation onto the solid phase. The accumulation rate of uranium for the Okinawa Trough sediments was approximately eight times higher than the world average rate reported for suboxic sediments. This removal of uranium in the oceanic budget increases the importance of the suboxic sediment sink.

  5. Microearthquakes and Crustal Structures in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Sibuet, J.; Lee, C.; Hsu, S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Auffret, Y.; Pelleau, P.; Crozon, J.

    2004-12-01

    Located east of Taiwan, the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) is a portion of a young continental backarc basin, which is still in the rifting stage. Based on seismicity data, a slab tear was identified along 123.3°E. In order to better understand the nature and role of tectonic features in this region, a passive seismic Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) experiment was conducted from November 19 to December 1, 2003. 15 OBSs were deployed in a 130 x 90 km area including the Ryukyu slab tear and the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail (CBVT). OBSs with three 4.5 Hz component geophones and an hydrophone recorded about 4000 microearthquakes. Most of them (about 94%) are crustal earthquakes (0-20 km) which occured in the SOT central graben. Just a few earthquakes were recorded from the upper slope of the northern SOT and from the Ryukyu forearc. Most of the earthquake local magnitudes (ML) range from 1 to 2, even if the whole range of magnitudes spans from 0.9 to 4. Three clusters of high microearthquake activity are observed in : (1) the CBVT area (24.7-25°N; 122.5-123°E); (2) the southern central graben area (24.65-24.85°N;123-123.3°E); and (3) the northern central graben area (24.9-25.2°N ;123.2-123.65°E). The southern central graben cluster is also identified by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquakes determined by the JMA in the northern central graben present larger magnitudes than ours, but are globally located 10-km south of our cluster. The CBVT cluster is not recorded in JMA data probably because the shallow (O-5 km) volcanic activity only involved small earthquakes which are too far from the JMA's network. Based on swath bathymetric and seismic data, most of the epicenters lie along already identified normal faults. Thus, except the volcanic activity, which occurs in the CBVT area, the main factor controlling the SOT tectonic activity is normal faulting. On the northern and southern slopes of the central graben, hypocenters occur along normal fauls

  6. Melting features along the Ryukyu slab tear, beneath the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Sibuet, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-01

    The present-day active volcanic front associated with the Ryukyu subduction zone extends from Japan to the Ilan plain (northern Taiwan) and is located within the Okinawa Trough, 80-100 km above the Ryukyu slab. An abnormal amount of arc volcanism, which consists of basalt, andesite and rhyolite occurs within the southwestern Okinawa Trough, above a slab tear of the Ryukyu subduction zone (CBVT). The power spectrum analysis of magnetic data shows the occurrence of a thin crust above the slab tear and a thick crust beneath this volcanic area. We suggest that an excess of H2O-rich fluid might occur at the slab tear and might increase the melt flux. Both are conveyed obliquely to the uppermost mantle and lower crust CBVT magmas. After interactions, basaltic magmas would rise up, accounting for the contrast of magnetization between this volcanic body and the adjacent OT crust.

  7. Deepwater redox changes in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yanguang; Yang, Shouye; Li, Chao; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Jihua; Bi, Lei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, rare earth element (REE) was treated as a paleo-redox proxy to investigate the changes of depositional environment in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum. The acid-leachable fraction (leachate) of the sediments recovered from the ODP Site 1202B is dominated by biogenic and authigenic components while detrital contamination is minor. The significant enrichment of middle REE suggests a large contribution from authigenic Mn oxyhydroxides and cerium (Ce) anomaly can indicate deepwater redox change. The REE parameters including Ce anomaly in the leachate exhibit remarkable and abrupt changes in the early Holocene (∼9.5 ka) and during LGM (∼20 ka). An increase of Ce anomaly at 28-22 ka implies the suboxic deepwater condition probably caused by increased primary productivity. Weak positive Ce anomalies during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation suggest an oxic depositional environment responding to the enhanced deepwater ventilation with the advection of the North Pacific Intermediate Water and/or South China Sea Intermediate Water into the trough. A decrease of Ce anomaly in the early Holocene might be caused by the intrusion and strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the trough that enhanced the water stratification and induced a gradual development of suboxic depositional condition. Furthermore, an abrupt change of chemical composition at ca. 4 ka probably indicates a decrease of dissolved oxygen in deepwater and a weakening of ventilation in the Okinawa Trough. This study suggests that REE proxy can provide new insights into the linkage among surface current, deepwater circulation and sediment record in the continental margin where terrigenous input dominates.

  8. Spatial variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes in the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-Y.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, C.-S.; Hsu, S.-K.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2007-04-01

    The relations between the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of earthquakes are established in the southern Okinawa Trough for 2823 relocated earthquakes recorded during a passive ocean bottom seismometer experiment. Three high b-values areas are identified: (1) for an area offshore of the Ilan Plain, south of the andesitic Kueishantao Island from a depth of 50 km to the surface, thereby confirming the subduction component of the island andesites; (2) for a body lying along the 123.3°E meridian at depths ranging from 0 to 50 km that may reflect the high temperature inflow rising up from a slab tear; (3) for a third cylindrical body about 15 km in diameter beneath the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, at depths ranging from 0 to 15 km. This anomaly might be related to the presence of a magma chamber at the base of the crust already evidenced by tomographic and geochemical results. The high b-values are generally linked to magmatic and geothermal activities, although most of the seismicity is linked to normal faulting processes in the southern Okinawa Trough.

  9. Sea surface temperature variability in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2012-07-01

    Most of the temperature reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural variability during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air temperature in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.

  10. Sediment and crustal structures in the Okinawa trough constrained from seafloor compliance inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Cheng-Chien, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Seafloor compliance, the spectral ratio of vertical displacement over water pressure, measures how the seafloor deforms under the loading of ocean waves and thus reflects the elastic properties of the oceanic crust and mantle. Compliance functions have been constructed for 5 portable OBSs equipped with 120 s seismometers and differential pressure gauges (DPG) and one permanent, cabled OBS (station EOS1) equipped with a 360 s sensor and an absolute pressure gauge (APG) deployed offshore eastern Taiwan. The DPG and APG amplitude sensitivities were calibrated using the vertical acceleration and pressure data associated with Rayleigh waves. The compliance functions increase with frequency, implying the decreasing stiffness from mantle to sediment. We searched the best sediment/crustal model for each OBS by fitting the observed compliance function in a forward fashion. EOS1 is located on the Ryukyu arc 40 km offshore, and the portable OBSs S002 and S005 were deployed in the Okinawa trough 100 and 150 km away, respectively. The shear modulus of the sediment and shallow crust inverted from seafloor compliance at these sites may reflect effects of progressive rifting of the back-arc basin toward Taiwan or different source of sediment supply along the Okinawa trough.

  11. Geological Structures of the South Okinawa Trough based on Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Liu, C.; Teng, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) located offshore northeastern Taiwan is an extensional basin north of the Ryukyu Island Arc that opens toward Taiwan. In order to better understand the geological processes in the Southern Okinawa Trough, we collect all the available multi-channel seismic reflection data, reprocess some of them to improve the data quality, and interpret 22 seismic reflection profiles. A structural map, which shows the distribution of fault structures and submarine volcanoes in the study area, is compiled with the aid of seismic sequence analysis. We found that normal faults developed in both the northern and southern flanks of the SOT, and also in the axial area where volcanic extrusions are abundant, suggesting that the SOT is presently undergoing active extension. Some deeply rooted compressional structures are observed below the younger normal faults, which may indicate that the area offshore northern Taiwan was once in a convergent tectonic environment. We use seismic and bathymetry data to discuss the fault activities and related tectonic processes, also examine the volcanic activities and their geological environment.

  12. Origin of the southern Okinawa Trough volcanism from detailed seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, Chao-Shing; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Klingelhoefer, Frauke

    2007-08-01

    Magmatism associated with subducting plate edges or slab tears has been suggested in the southern Okinawa Trough. The cross back-arc volcanic trail, which consists of a cluster of about 70 seamounts, is located above a Ryukyu slab tear lying along the 123.3°E meridian. In November 2003, more than 3300 earthquakes recorded in this area by 15 ocean bottom seismometers and surrounding land stations during a period of 12 days were used to determine the three-dimensional Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A mantle inflow characterized by low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs passing through the slab tear is imaged. The fluid and/or melt component is rising obliquely from the slab tear in the directions of the cross back-arc volcanic trail, the northern slope of the southern Okinawa Trough and to north of Iriomote Island. The asthenospheric intake is also imaged by an inclined chip-like high Vp/Vs and low Vp and Vs body dipping northerly, which might be linked to the slab retreat. West of the slab tear, most of the earthquakes are located around low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs bodies, which suggests that the seismicity is related to magmatic and/or fluid activities. East of it, earthquakes are concentrated in an area characterized by high Vp and Vs velocities and low Vp/Vs, suggesting that the magma chamber is absent beneath the axial part of the trough and that normal faulting is the main factor controlling the seismicity.

  13. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex. PMID:26623914

  14. Carbonate system at Iheya North in Okinawa Trough~IODP drilling and post drilling environment~

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, T.; Hatta, M.; Sunamura, M.; Fukuba, T.; Suzue, T.; Kimoto, H.; Okamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field in middle Okinawa Trough is covered with thick hemipelagic and volcanic sediment. Geochemical characteristics of Okinawa Trough is to provide abundant of CO2, CH4, NH4, H2, and H2S which originated from magmatic gases, sedimentary organic matters. On this hydrothermal field, a scientific drilling by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was conducted to investigate metabolically diverse subseafloor microbial ecosystem and their physical and chemical settings. To clarify the spatial distribution of physical condition beneath seafloor around the hydrothermal filed, we focus on the carbonate species analysis to reconstruct in-situ pH, which regulate the diversities of microbial community and mineral composition. We developed the small sample volume dissolved total inorganic carbon (DIC) analyzer and conducted the onboard analysis for the interstitial water during IODP Exp.331. Total alkalinity, boron, phosphate, and ammonium also analyzed for thermodynamic calculation. In this presentation, we represent the spatial distribution of pH beneath the Iheya North hydrothermal field. In addition, we developed a 128 bottles multiple water sampler (ANEMONE) for post drilling environmental monitoring. ANEMONE sampler was deployed on the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 with other chemical sensors (CTD, turbidity, pH, ORP, and H2S), and collected the hydrothermal plume samples every 5 minutes during YK12-05 cruise by R/V Yokosuka (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, JAMSTEC). DIC concentration of plume samples collected by ANEMONE sampler were analyzed just after submersible retrieve, and nutrients, manganese, density, and total cell counts determination were conducted onshore analysis. Based on these results, we describe the spatial distribution of DIC and carbonate system on Iheya North hydrothermal field (interstitial water, hydrothermal fluid, and hydrothermal plume).

  15. High-resolution imaging of the Okinawa Trough deep-tow sonar WADATSUMI exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, K.; Tokuyama, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Sibuet, J. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution deep-tow side scan sonar data collected in the Okinawa Trough reveal details of the volcanic and tectonic features occurring along an active backarc rift zone, including an active hydrothermal vent site. Our new system, the deep-tow vector sidescan sonar WADATSUMI, is a 100 kHz system, which provides not only high-resolution backscattering images but also phase bathymetry. The system also includes a 3-6 kHz chirp sonar to investigate sub-bottom structure. The swath width for this survey is 1 km for a towing altitude of 100 to 350 m. The pixel size of the collected images is 50 cm. The towfish positioning is based on the ISBL (inverted short baseline) system, in which the signal transmitted from the ship is received at the towfish and all information is sent to the onboard control unit using co-axial cable. Four MAPRs (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder / provided by NOAA) were also equipped on the deep-tow system to detect hydrothermal activity using its thermometer and nephelometer. The Okinawa Trough, located between Japan and Taiwan, is an incipient backarc basin formed by extension within continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. The continuous formation of new oceanic crust has not yet occurred, however, crustal thinning and rifting is ongoing and many normal faults have developed. The southwestern part of the trough is most active and contains many interesting features, such as numerous volcanoes crossing the rift zone, high heat flow, and active hydrothermal site. The WADATSUMI images revealed the detailed volcanic and tectonic structure of the axial rift and a hydrothermal site. In the western area seafloor is dominated by volcanic construction, including hummocks, sheet flows, and blocky lava terrains. Small volcanic cones with crater pits are aligned along an E-W direction, which may constitute an elongated volcanic ridge within the graben. On the other hand, the eastern part of the survey area is a sedimented, deep

  16. Evaluation of nutrient sources for the sponges inhabited around seafloor hydrothermal fields in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashio, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yamagami, S.; Ise, Y.; Makita, H.

    2012-12-01

    Since discovery of seafloor hydrothermal vents, the dense and endemic animal communities inhabited around the hot vents have been the most impressive feature for many scientists. Such animals have been known as chemosynthesis-based species and studied many investigators. On the other hand, some benthic animals found on abyssal plain have been observed slightly high density at the adjacent area to active vent sites. It implies that those opportunistic benthoses may also rely on the chemosynthetic primary production and the hydrothermal chemosynthetic ecosystem may extend widely rather than previous expectation. In that case, it is an interesting issue how the dense sponge community is sustained around the hydrothermal fields. For clarifying the issue isotope geochemical study has been performed to evaluate food sources of the sponges and some other animals obtained from the deep seafloor in the Okinawa Trough. Stable isotope analysis for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur of the sample organisms obtained from the Izena Hole, where active hydrothermal emission has been observed, show significant low d13C and d34S values for the sponge samples. Those results suggest plausible contribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponges because such low d13C and d34S values are often observed for thioautotrophic chemosynthesis-based animals. The sulfur isotopic ratios of the sponges are almost comparable with the ratio reported hydrogen sulfide emitted from the vents, implying that the source of sulfur for sulfur oxidizing bacteria is magmatic and/or hydrothermal in origin. On the other hand, the sponge sample obtained from the Tarama Knoll ,where active hydrothermal emission were not found yet, shows similar isotopic characteristics observed for the sponges from the Izena Hole. It may also imply the importance of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponge at the Tarama Knoll. Turbid water was often observed during dive studies by the ROV around the

  17. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  18. Vapor-rich Hydrothermal Fluid Migration Within Pumiceous Sediment in the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Chiba, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Ijiri, A.; Nakagawa, S.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2007-12-01

    The newly developed ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) enabled pin-point piston core sampling from the active hydrothermal field. In the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the mid-Okinawa Trough (27°47.5'N, 126°53.8'E, depth = 1000m), animal colonies are observed not only around the central mound structure (named as NBC) which discharges vigrously high temperature (T=311°C) clear fluid, but also as Calyptogena colony at 200m east from the NBC mound and as tube-worm colony at 250m southeast from the NBC mound. During Leg 3 of KY05-14 cruise (R/V Kaiyo of JAMSTEC) in Jan. 2005, fourn piston cores were successfully recovered with length from 65cm to 250cm. Surface sediments from the Calyptogena colony and the tube-worm colony were revealed as mainly composed of pumiceous sediment. Pore fluids from the Calyptogena Field showed unusual chemistry characterized as very low salinity (Cl=420mM), low Mg concentration, significantly lower Na/Cl ratio than seawater and high methane concentration, which suggests contribution of a vapor-rich hydrothermal component migrating within the pumice layer from the activity center. Moreover, decrease of SO4 accompanied by increase of alkalinity is notable even less than one meter depth below the seafloor. In situ sulfate reduction in the surface sediment caused by entrainment of the hydrothermal component would be a source of hydrogen sulfide that supports Calyptogena colony.

  19. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS Exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Tara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The VCS survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by seismic sources. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program started by Japanese government. In 2010, we manufactured the autonomous VCS data acquisition systems. Through several experimental surveys, our VCS is successfully completed. In 2011 and 2013, we carried out the two VCS surveys using GI gun and high-voltage sparker respectively in the Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. Because seismic survey is not proven to be effective for SMS exploration, no seismic surveys have been conducted there so far. Our strategy for SMS exploration consists of two stages. In the first stage, we carried out VCS survey with the lower frequency GI gun (but higher compared to the convebtional oil/gas exploration) and explored deeper (up to 1,500m) structure to obtain the fault system of hydrothermal flow. Next, using a high frequency (about 1 kHz higher) and high-voltage sparker, we explored very shallow (up to 200m) part to delineate the very thin SMS deposits. These two VCS dataset have been processed with 3D Prestack Depth Migration. These results are consistent with geological information from the borehole drilled nearby and give useful information to SMS exploration.

  20. Unique chemistry of the hydrothermal solution in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Gamo, T.; Kim, E.S.; Shitashima, K.; Yanagisawa, F.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Sano, Y.; Wakita, H. ); Tanaka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Naganuma, T.; Mitsuzawa, K. )

    1990-11-01

    Submarine hydrothermal fluids from JADE and CLAM sites in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin are highly enriched in CO{sub 2}, K, Li, NH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4} and titration alkalinity compared to MOR fluids so far studied, while their H{sub 2}S and {sup 3}He contents are similar. The He and C isotropic ratios as well as these chemical features indicate that the hydrothermal systems are controlled by reaction between seawater and CO{sub 2}-rich intermediate to acid volcanic rocks of island-arc type, with strong influence of organic matter and are consistent with its initial stage of rifting on a continental plate margin. While the endmember JADE fluid is nearly devoid of Mg and SO{sub 4}, the CLAM fluid has definite concentrations of Mg (upper limit 22 {plus minus} 5 mM) and, most interestingly of {sup 34}S-enriched SO{sub 4} (upper limit 10 {plus minus} 2 mM, {delta}{sup 34}S = 27 to 39{per thousand}).

  1. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Mottl, M. J.; Nielsen, S. H. H.; IODP Expedition 331 Scientists, the

    2012-04-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platform with valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBC) mound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns with depth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10-30 m below seafloor (mbsf) where temperatures were relatively low, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.13.03.2011

  2. Faulting and hydration of the upper crust of the SW Okinawa Trough during continental rifting: Evidence from seafloor compliance inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Crawford, Wayne C.; Webb, Spahr C.; Lin, Ching-Ren; Yu, Tai-Chieh; Chen, Liwen

    2015-06-01

    The elastic response of seafloor to ocean gravity wave loading, or seafloor compliance, provides a constraint on the elastic properties of the crust. We measured seafloor compliance at three ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) sites around Taiwan—two in the southwestern (SW) Okinawa Trough and one on the Ryukyu arc—and performed inversion for crustal structures beneath them. Models best fitting the data demonstrate a decrease in upper crustal shear velocity and an increase in the compressional/shear velocity ratio from the arc site to the trough sites with increasing amount of back-arc extension. This variation suggests that the upper continental crust is highly faulted and hydrated during rifting of the Eurasian lithosphere.

  3. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi. Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. IMPORTANCE Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi. These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a

  4. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  5. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  6. Microbial diversity in the deep-sea sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the bacterial and archaeal diversities of the deep-sea sediments in Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough, using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq 2500 platform. Four samples (IN1, IN2, IR1 and IR2) were used in this study, of which IN1 and IN2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya North, while IR1 and IR2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya Ridge. The four samples were rich in different metal elements. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA gene obtained 170,363 taxon tags, including 122,920 bacterial tags and 47,433 archaeal tags, which cover 31 phyla, 50 classes, 59 orders, 87 families, and 138 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all samples were dominated by bacteria, in which Proteobacteria was the largest phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae, which together accounted for 64.6% of the total taxon tags. In contrast to the high bacterial diversities, the archaeal diversity was low and dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which accounted for 22.9% of the total taxon tags. Comparative analysis showed that (i) IN2 and IR2 exhibited more microbial richness than IN1 and IR1, (ii) IR1 and IR2 exhibited higher microbial diversities than IN1 and IN2, (iii) samples from Iheya Ridge and Iheya North fell into two groups based on principle component analysis. Furthermore, microbes potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen, and metal metabolism and cycling were detected in all samples. These results provide for the first time a comparative picture of the microbial diversities in the sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge and indicate that geological features and distance from active hydrothermal vents likely play important roles in the shaping of microbial community structure. PMID:26211965

  7. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  8. Intense winter cooling of the surface water in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kishizaki, Midori; Oba, Tadamichi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2013-06-01

    We generated a 42,000-year record of TEX86 (TEX86L and TEX86H) from core MD98-2195 to better understand changes in the hydrology of the East China Sea (ECS) in the last glacial period. The TEX86-derived temperature showed an intense cooling in the last glacial period, whereas U37K-derived spring sea surface temperature (SST) and foraminiferal Mg/Ca-derived summer SST showed a much smaller-scale cooling. The difference between the TEX86- and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures was around 14 °C from 19 to 16 ka and abruptly decreased to around 5 °C from 16 to 13 ka. This suggests a strong winter cooling of the surface water during the last glacial period. TEX86-, U37K'-, and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures were lowest at 18-17 ka, implying that the formation of cold water was maximized during that period. These results show that the cold water mass developed in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial and the Kuroshio branch did not fully enter the northern margin of the Okinawa Trough.

  9. Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) Survey for SMS exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu; Tara, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, the Japanese government started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), which includes 'New-generation Offshore Exploration Techniques' as an area of interest. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey technique for this program, especially for the exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS). VCS is a reflection seismic method that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by various acoustic sources. This method is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area below the seabed in the deep sea where conventional surface seismic is not effective. We have been developing an autonomous VCS system with the financial support of the Japanese government since 2009. We have carried out several VCS surveys and completed our VCS system. Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. There are two high potential areas, the north and south mound. We carried out the first VCS survey around the north mound in 2011 and the second survey around the south mound in 2013 respectively. The first VCS survey in Izena Cauldron was carried out using a GI gun in September, 2011, with the objective of surveying the large-scale and deeper structure of the hydrothermal system. The water depth was 1,500-1,600m. Four VCS systems were deployed. The shooting lines covered an area of 9 km x 9 km with a shooting interval of about 25m and line spacing of 200m to 400m. In the second survey, we used a high-voltage sparker. The objective is to explore very shallow parts to delineate very thin SMS deposits. The survey area was about 4 km x 4km with a 12.5 m shooting interval and 100m to 200m line spacing. Three VCS systems were deployed in this survey. The result of the first GI gun VCS survey was a 3D PSDM volume of the subsurface structure. It extends 2,000m horizontally and down to 1,500m in depth. Further, by re-processing the data with a

  10. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments. PMID:17733370

  11. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  12. Melting features along the western Ryukyu slab edge (northeast Taiwan) and Ryukyu slab tear (southernmost Okinawa Trough): Seismic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Hsu, S.; Sibuet, J.

    2003-12-01

    Behind the sedimentary Ryukyu arc lies the Okinawa Trough whose termination is located at the tip of the Ilan plain (northern Taiwan), just above the Ryukyu slab edge. The present-day active volcanic front, located 80-100 km above the Ryukyu slab, extends from Japan to Kueishantao Island, an islet situated 10-km offshore the Ilan plain. 3370 earthquakes recorded in northern Taiwan by 65 seismic land stations between December 1990 and May 1999 were used to determine the 3-D Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/Vs sausage like body, about 20 km in diameter, lies within the Eurasian mantle wedge, on top of the western Ryukyu slab extremity, from depths ranging between 20 km and 100 km. We suggest that the friction of the Ryukyu slab edge against the Eurasian lithosphere and/or the upwelling of the underlying Philippine Sea plate lithospheric mantle around the slab edge would cause an abnormal heating resulting in the formation of partial melt. Part of this melt feeds obliquely the Kueishantao andesitic Island. An abnormal amount of volcanism occurs within the Okinawa Trough, east of a slab tear located 140 km from the Ryukyu slab edge. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic data shows the presence of a thick crust located above the slab tear, suggesting that a similar pattern to the one identified above of the Ryukyu slab edge might exist in the slab tear region, feeding obliquely this area of abnormal volcanism.

  13. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro

    1999-10-01

    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  14. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed. PMID:26624398

  15. Marine Subsurface Microbial Communities Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; Hser Wah Saw, J.; Ettema, T.; House, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 meters below sea floor (mbsf). Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 mbsf. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data shows a shift over 15 mbsf from a heterogeneous community of cosmopolitan marine subsurface taxa toward an archaeal-dominated community in the deepest horizons of the predicted biosphere. Notably, the phylum Chloroflexi represents a substantial taxon through most horizons, where it appears to be replaced below 10 mbsf by punctuations of thermophilic and methanotrophic Archaea and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group abundances. DNA from the aforementioned transition horizons was further analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Preliminary taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic data agrees well with amplicon data in capturing the shift in relative abundance of Archaea increasing with depth. Additionally, reverse gyrase, a gene found exclusively in hyperthermophilic microorganisms, was recovered only in the metagenome of the deepest horizon. A BLAST search of this protein sequence against the GenBank non-redudnant protein database produced top hits with reverse gyrase from Thermococcus and Pyrococcus, which are

  16. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. PMID:26410427

  17. What is the constraint on formation of oil-starved hydrothermal systems in the sediment-rich Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Akashi, H.; Mitsunari, T.

    2012-12-01

    Petroleum generation associated with seafloor hydrothermal systems was first identified at the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California in 1978 (Simoneit et al., 1979). Since the first discovery, hydrothermal petroleums have been discovered at other seafloor hydrothermal fields, Escanaba Trough, Middle Valley, and the Red Sea, where thick sedimentary layer overlay the active spreading center. Simoneit (1990) suggested that hydrothermal petroleum can be occurred any hydrothermal systems as a result of interaction between hot hydrothermal fluid and organic mater in the sedimentary layer. In the middle Okinawa Trough, where typical sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems distribute, occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum has not been found. In 2010 IODP Exp. 331 had been performed, and then five sites were drilled at the Iheya North hydrothermal system. However, hydrothermal petroleum generation has not been reported even at that time. On the other hand, significant hydrothermal petroleum generation has been observed at a shallow-seafloor hydrothermal system in the Kagoshima Bay, north extension of Okinawa Trough (Yamanaka et al., 1999). It is an interesting subject why hydrothermal petroleum can not be found in the Okinawa Trough. So we considered what is the most critical constraint on occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum based on comparison with the well known hydrothermal fields occurred hydrothermal petroleum. Three major control factors for petroleum generation at seafloor hydrothermal systems are expected; (i) temperature, (ii) elapsed time, (iii) type of sediment. High temperature is essential for maturation of organic matter, but under extremely high temperature condition pyrolysis to gaseous hydrocarbon and other low-molecular weight product may be prevailed. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and methane concentrations may reflect the temperature condition, because methane generation may continue under extreme condition but DOM, especially low-molecular weight organic acid

  18. Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanic Rocks from the Southern Okinawa Trough and its Implications for Tectono-magmatic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, R.; Hokakubo, S.; Haraguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Woodhead, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a site of ongoing backarc rifting behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system. Recent intensive surveys, including submersible dives, at the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) have revealed details of bathymetric, geological, and geophysical features. Here, we present the petrological and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks collected during these cruises, and discuss its relation to the evolutionary stage of rifting. Based on bathymetirc and magmatic features, SOT can be divided into two (i.e., eastern and western) segments with non-transform offset at ˜ 123.5° E. The eastern segment represents a well-developed rift system with E-W-trending central graben and separated NE-SW-trending volcanic front; these two features merge at ˜ 125° E. In contrast, the western segment is in the incipient rifting stage; rift axis exists close to 100 km contour of the Wadati-Benioff zone. The most notable feature is the presence of 'abnormal' volcanic chain (Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, CBVT), which trends NE-SW and is obviously oblique to the axial trend. All rocks are subalkaline, but range from basalt to rhyolite; dacite-rhyolite are dominant in the eastern volcanic front and CBVT. Basalts from both segments are low-K tholeiites; they have high abundance of LILEs relative to HFSEs, negative Nb anomalies on MORB-normalized diagrams, and range of 143Nd/144Nd (0.5128-0.5129) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034-0.7048). Pb isotope systematics indicate 206Pb/204Pb=18.398-18.582, 207Pb/204Pb=15.594-15.652 and 208Pb/204Pb=38.570-38.912, clearly above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line. These elemental and isotopic variations are compatible with derivation from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with strong overprint of subduction components from the slab. There is clear difference among more felsic rocks between two segments. At similar silica contents, most of felsic rocks from the western segment, including CBVT rhyolites, have higher LILE contents, 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb/204Pb

  19. Isotopic composition and speciation of sedimentary nitrogen and carbon in the Okinawa Trough over the past 30 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Dawei; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Total organic carbon to total nitrogen ratios (C/N) and their isotopic compositions (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) are oft-applied proxies to discern terrigenous from marine-sourced organics and to unravel ancient environmental information. In high depositional Asian marginal seas, the inclusion of N-bearing minerals in the bulk sediment dilutes or masks signals sought after in δ15N and δ13C analyses, thus leading to incorrect and even contradictory interpretations. We used KOH-KOBr to separate operationally defined total organic matter into oxidizable (labile) and residual fractions for content and isotope measurements. In a sediment core in the Okinawa Trough, significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen existed in the residual phase, in which the C/N ratio was ~9, resembling most documented sedimentary bulk C/N ratios in the China marginal seas. The residual carbon, which was included in operationally defined total organic carbon (TOC), displayed a δ13C range (-22.7 to -18.9‰, mean -20.7‰) similar to the oft-used marine end-member. After removing the interference from the residual fraction, we found that the temporal pattern of δ13CLOC (LOC denotes labile organic carbon) was more variable. The residual nitrogen content was associated with illite, suggesting a terrestrial origin. Additionally, δ15N in the residual fraction likely reflected the climatic controls (e.g., precipitation) on lithogenic source materials. Further studies are required to explore the controlling factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopic speciation and to retrieve the information locked in the residual fraction.

  20. A comparison of sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution between the southern Okinawa Trough and a nearby river with high sediment discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Woei-Lih; Huh, Chih-An

    2006-01-01

    Twelve surface sediments from the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) and nine surface sediments from a nearby river, the Lanyang River (LR), with high sediment discharge were analyzed for comparison of their aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions. Performing cluster analysis on all hydrocarbon data of LR and OT sediments showed that the two areas had a similarity level of only 0.15, meaning that they were quite dissimilar. The average ratio of terrigenous to aquatic n-alkanes was 0.99 for LR sediments and 9.64 for OT sediments, indicating that the concentrations of n-alkanes in LR and OT sediments were quite different. Furthermore, the mean pristane/phytane ratios for LR and OT sediments were 1.01 and 2.57, respectively; the difference between them was significant (Student's t test, at the 99% significance level). The carbon preference index (CPI) of C 25-C 33n-alkanes averaged 3.26 (range 2.16-4.59) for LR sediments and 2.92 (range 2.35-5.24) for OT sediments; no significant difference was found between the two CPI averages (Student's t test, at the 99% confidence level). However, higher plant n-alkanes generally maximized at C 29 for LR sediments, but maximized at C 31 for all OT sediments, strongly indicating significant differences in the origins of the hydrocarbons in these two areas. All present results appear to suggest that LR sediments are not a major hydrocarbon source for OT sediments. In addition, there was no positive, linear correlation between diploptene (hop-22(29)-ene) and terrestrial higher plant n-alkanes for LR and OT sediments.

  1. A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The δ13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The δ56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of δ18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

  2. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  3. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Kao, Shuh Ji; Johnson, Cody

    2014-07-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  4. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Treude, Tina; Ohkubo, Satoru; Nakaseama, Miwako; Gena, Kaul; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Hisako; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Horikoshi, Koki; Boetius, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural CO2 reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO2 in such environments, are of great interest to science and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (>109 cm−3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (107 cm−3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes related to one-carbon assimilation and the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. Clearly, the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies. PMID:16959888

  5. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. It has also been known that subsurface waters that upwell onto the shelf are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical Water and the SCS Intermediate Water which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front has been found to separate the tropical and intermediate waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. Here historical hydrographic data between Mar. 1950 and Dec. 2011 in the Okinawa Trough and its neighborhood are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years across the World Ocean Circulation Repeated Lines PR 18 and 19 as well as at the PN cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. The front at the Smax level (sigma theta=24.6-24.9) shows large seasonal and interannual variations. In winter during normal and La Niña periods the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn during normal periods and in spring during La Nina periods. Yet during El Niño periods the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent in spring and it becomes the weakest in winter. As for intermediate waters (Smin at sigma theta= 26.7-26.9) the WPS Intermediate Water and SCS Intermediate Water show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although during normal periods in winter the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times. During El Niño periods the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest but in spring it is much strengthened. On the other hand, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest in spring, and the largest in winter during La Niña periods.

  6. Hg Isotopic Compositions of Chimneys and Pelagic Sediments at Active Submarine Hydrothermal Field in the Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Marumo, K.; Tomiyasu, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Komuro, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed and highly toxic pollutant in the environment. It is known that a submarine hydrothermal activity is one of the natural processes to emit Hg to marine environment. In order to estimate the degree to which the Hg found in the marine environment is from anthropogenic versus natural sources, it is important to characterize the Hg from the hydrothermal vents. Samples of chimneys and a ~20 cm sediment core, collected by a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle, from Iheya North hydrothermal field in Okinawa Trough, Japan, were analyzed for Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions. Total Hg concentrations of chimneys range between 8.2 and 16.9 mg/kg, whereas seafloor sediment total Hg concentrations are from 3.8 to 34.8 mg/kg. Approximately 0.4 to 1.1 μg/kg of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) was detected in the top 6 cm sediment cores. Hg isotopic compositions (δ202Hg) of chimneys are between -0.30 and -0.96 ‰, whereas δ202Hg values of sediment samples range from -0.85 to -1.60 ‰. Neither chimneys nor sediment samples exhibit the significant mass independent fractionations in Hg isotopes (Δ201Hg > ± 0.10). The chimney δ202Hg values are slightly higher than the δ202Hg values of sediments. This may indicate that the heavier Hg isotopes tend to be incorporated with mercury-bearing sulfides in chimneys, and the lighter isotopes tend to be remained in the hydrothermal fluid and distributed in the surrounding sediments. Also, the sediment samples from the upper portion of cores demonstrate approximately 0.4 - 0.5 ‰ lower δ202Hg values than those from the lower part. This isotopic fractionation may be resulted from a demethylated process of MMHg by microbes. Several studies have previously demonstrated the rapid demethylation of MMHg by microbes in Hg-contaminated aquatic sediments, and range of the isotopic fractionation is similar to that of the experimentally determined isotopic fractionation of MMHg by bacterial reduction

  7. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  8. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  9. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  10. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  11. Insights into life-history traits of Munidopsis spp. (Anomura: Munidopsidae) from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, in comparison with the existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masako; Chen, Chong; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Squat lobsters in the genus Munidopsis are commonly found at, and near, hydrothermal vents. However, the reproductive traits of most Munidopsis spp. are unknown. This study examined the reproductive features of two Munidopsis species sampled from hydrothermal vent fields in the southern Okinawa Trough in February 2014. Three ovigerous females were collected: two Munidopsis ryukyuensis at Irabu Knoll (1661-1675 m depth) and one M. longispinosa at Hatoma Knoll (1482 m depth). Carapace sizes and egg volumes were measured and compared with those of other Munidopsis species. The ovigerous M. ryukyuensis specimens had postorbital carapace lengths of 10.3 and 11.8 mm, without the rostrum, and carapace widths of 8.6 and 9.7 mm. Mean egg volumes of M. ryukyuensis and M. longispinosa were ~4 mm3. These results are consistent with early sexual maturity in M. ryukyuensis and lecithotrophic development in both species, as described in other species of the genus. These life-history traits may enable these vent species to maximize their reproductive and dispersive potential.

  12. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  13. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  14. Post-Drilling Changes in Seabed Landscape and Megabenthos in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System, the Iheya North Field, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, ‘artificially’ creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area

  15. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-04-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  16. Sea surface temperature variation during the last deglaciation in the southern Okinawa Trough: Modulation of high latitude teleconnections and the Kuroshio Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingtao; Li, Jun; Cai, Feng; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Wang, Libo; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Hongwei; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-11-01

    Three paleotemperature records (foraminiferal Mg/Ca, TEX86 and UK‧37) were generated for the past 17.3 ka in the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) using a sediment core (OKT-3) taken at a water depth of 1792 m. Temperature estimates based on the inorganic and organic indices for the OKT-3 core top sample approximated modern sea surface temperature (SST) and extended to the mixed layer (<50 m) in warmer seasons. Reconstructed SSTs from OKT-3 gradually increased towards the top of the core with lower values occurring during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These values coincided with the glacial-interglacial cycles established by the Globigerinoides ruber δ18O curve. Notably, SSTs decreased during the BØlling-AllerØd (B-A) but warming occurred before and after the B-A, from approximately 16 to 14 ka and 12.5 to 10 ka. The SST cooling during the B-A corresponded to the timing of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), which is thought to be connected with melt water pulse 1a (MWP1a). The cooling was also concurrent with the spread of millennial-scale cold signals to the OT during the HS1 and YD periods, when widespread melt and collapse of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets occurred along with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The last deglaciation, which began approximately 16-15 ka BP in the OT, might mark the time when the Kuroshio Current (KC) began to strengthen.

  17. Microearthquake activity around Kueishantao island, offshore northeastern Taiwan: Insights into the volcano-tectonic interactions at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, K. I.; Pan, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2013-05-01

    Kueishantao is a volcanic island located offshore the northeastern coast of Taiwan and lies at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough which is the back-arc basin of the Ryukyu subduction zone. Its last eruption occurred during the Holocene (~ 7 ka), hence Kueishantao can be considered as an active volcano. In an effort to better understand how magmatic processes may interact with the regional tectonics, a seismic network was installed in the area during early January 2008. This network consisted of 16 three-component seismometers located both on Kueishantao and the coast of northeastern Taiwan. One year of data was analyzed yielding 425 earthquakes whose P and S arrival times were manually picked and each event was located using a nonlinear probabilistic location method. In order to improve the location accuracy, the minimum 1-D velocity model for this dataset was derived and all earthquakes were relocated using this model. The results show a tight cluster of events near Kueishantao while the remaining earthquakes are scattered between the island and mainland Taiwan. The majority of hypocentral depths range between 2.5 and 10 km where the former depth coincides with the bottom of the shallow sedimentary layer and the latter with the ductile lower crust. Waveforms of the three largest events were also inverted for the determination of their deviatoric and full moment tensor. No statistically significant isotropic component was found, while two of the events can be explained by a double-couple source. The third event exhibited a low frequency content (< 10 Hz) and a large non-double-couple component suggesting fluid involvement at its source. A stress inversion of all available focal mechanisms in the area shows that fluid circulation in the upper crust generates a local stress field around Kueishantao facilitating the opening of cracks along the NW-SE direction of regional extension.

  18. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  19. Implication for horizontally-elongated fluid flow inferred from heat flow measurements in the Iheya-North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yuka; Kinoshita, Masataka; Kawada, Yoshifumi

    2010-05-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located in the southwestern part of Japan. It is considered to be in the initial stage of rifting of continental crust, and the activity generates volcanic edifices in this area, accompanied by hydrothermal circulation. The Iheya-North is one of the most active hydrothermal fields among them. As a proposed drilling site for the Integrated ocean Drilling Program, extensive geophysical surveys have been carried out including single-channel seismic imaging, and precise side-scan sonar imaging by using autonomous underwater vehicle 'Urashima' of Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology. In the recent few years, we have measured heat flow in and around the Iheya-North hydrothermal field to understand the spatial of hydrothermal circulation in detail. 78 measurements show that heat flow is higher than 10 W/m2 with in 0.5 km of the hydrothermal vent complex, that it gradually decrease eastward to < 1 W/m2, and that very low heat flow around 0.01 W/m2 is observed at 1.5 km east from the hydrothermal field. The average heat flow outside of Iheya-North is ~0.1 W/m2. The low heat flow to the east is most likely caused by an inward flow of seawater into the formation. Seismic and side-scan sonar images as well as piston core samples suggest an impermeable sediment layer to a few hundreds meters below the seafloor in this area. This sediment layer should work as a hydrological barrier to suppress flow through the seafloor, whereas seawater can penetrate into the formation at 1.5 km east of the hydrothermal field, where sidescan images suggest coars sediments on the seafloor. We infer that the hydrothermal circulation within the Iheya-North involves one with a horizontally-elongated scale (~1.5 km horizontal vs. ~a few hundreds meters vertical). We performed numerical calculations of fluid flow and heat transportation to give constraints on the depth of hydrothermal circulation, the magnitude of darcy velocity, and the permeability at

  20. Structural and functional diversity of microbial communities beneath the hydrothermal vent at the Iheya North field of the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagawa, K.; Nunoura, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Hirai, M.; Sunamura, M.; Breuker, A.; Brandt, L.; House, C. H.; McAllister, S. M.; Moyer, C. L.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Complex and diverse microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids are apparently different from those in ambient seawater, some of which are predicted to migrate along hydrothermal vein from "subvent biosphere". Subseafloor environment just beneath active hydrothermal vent has been expected to be one of the most conceivable habitats for metabolically active and diverse microbial community. We conducted the scientific ocean drilling (IODP Expedition 331) for the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough in Sept. 2010, and collected core samples from the subseafloor biosphere beneath the hydrothermal vent. IODP Site C0014 was located 450 m east off the main hydrothermal vent. Temperature exceeded the limit of life at the depth of approximately 40 m below the seafloor. Both microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses successfully detected microbial populations in the shallower zone above 15 mbsf. However, the cultivation attempts of (hyper-)thermophiles were unsuccessful all over the depth. Culture-independent molecular biological experiments showed that microbial community composition distinctly changed with depth, possibly because of physicochemical conditions such as methane, sulfate and temperature. Microbial activities of methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation were in accordance with the geochemical profiles of methane and sulfate. These results indicated the presence of functionally active subseafloor microbial communities but those were different from expected members in subvent biosphere. Site C0017 located 1.6 km east off the hydrothermal vent is a potential seawater recharge zone of the hydrothermal system, where seawater penetrates into the oceanic crust. The lithostratigraphy consists of characteristic coarse angular pumiceous gravel, lying above and below hemipelagic mud, in which high permeability may allow entrainment of seawater. As is the case with sedimentary subsurface environments, uncultivated archaeal groups were

  1. Structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system in volcanic sediment: distribution of hydrothermal clay minerals, at the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Ishibashi, J.; Faure, K.; Uehara, S.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed investigation of clay minerals in hydrothermal fields provides fundamental information for understanding the physical and geochemical conditions within a hydrothermal system. Moreover, stable isotope geochemistry of clay minerals provides constraints on formation temperature. We investigated the distribution of clay minerals by XRD and TEM-EDS in a seafloor hydrothermal field at Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, using cored sediment obtained from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331. The chemical composition and isotope values of the representative clay minerals were analyzed to obtain information on the hydrothermal system beneath the seafloor. Vertically, two different clay mineral facies are present. The boundary between the facies was identified at 6 mbsf (meters below the seafloor) at Site C0013 (100 m east of hydrothermal mound) and at 23 mbsf at Site C0014 (450 m east of the mound). In the lower facies (6 - 28 mbsf and 45 mbsf at Site C0013, 23 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014), Mg-chlorite and/or Mg-chlorite-smectite mixed layer minerals are dominant. They are associated with sericite in deeper parts (45 mbsf at Site C0013 and 38 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014). The δ18O values of the clays range from +1.5 to +4.7 ‰ (VSMOW) and the formation temperatures of the Mg-chlorite are estimated to be 230 - 300 °C, assuming a value from 0 to +1.5 ‰ for δ18Owater. The original sediment in the Iheya North Knoll is considered to have been volcanic of felsic chemical composition, so alteration to Mg-rich chlorite would require supply of substantial amount of Mg. Abundant formation of Mg-chlorite is attributed to mixing of hydrothermal fluid and seawater. In the upper facies at both sites, Al-rich clay minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite) dominate. The δ18O values of clays range between +9.6 and +13.3 ‰ and formation temperatures are estimated to range between 120 - 160 °C. As kaolinite formation is favorable under acidic

  2. The mechanism of formation of the seafloor massive sulfide ore body beneath the seafloor at HAKUREI Site in Izena Caldera, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The first seafloor hydrothermal activity in northwest Pacific was found at the northeastern rim of the Izena Caldera (Jade Site), Middle Okinawa Trough in 1988 (Halbach et al.,1989). The tectonic setting of the sulfide occurrence, even though small in amount, is similar to that of Kuroko deposits which are the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits found in volcano-sedimentary units in northern Japan. Later, large seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) ore bodies were discovered above and beneath the seafloor in the central part of the Izena Caldera (HAKUREI Site). The ore reserve is estimated to be 5million tons based on some 100 short (<20 meters), dense drillings (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), 2011), and is regarded as the biggest "proven" SMS deposit in the world. It is worthy to note that the HAKUREI ore deposit can be divided into Ore A (Upper ore bodies) and the Ore B (Lower ore bodies) which are separated by silt and pumice-rich sedimentary layer of a few meter in thickness. The Upper ore bodies are composed of sulfide "mounds" and "chimneys", which are commonly observed in hydrothermal areas. However, the nature of the Lower ore bodies remain uninvestigated. We conducted two research cruises at the HAKUREI site in 2011: TAIGA11 cruise of Exploration Vessel Hakurei-Maru NO.2 (JOGMEC) with Benthic Multicoreing System (BMS) and NT11-15 cruise of R/V Natshushima with ROV Hyper Dolphin (JAMSTEC). In the former cruise, a core (H-1) 5.4m in length was drilled to intersect both the Upper and Lower ore bodies which are separated by sediment using BMS. While, in latter cruise, volcanic rocks (aphyric rhyolite) and sulfide ores (Upper ore) were collected using Hyper Dolphin. The obtained sulfide ores were served for examination with the ore microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and heating stage for fluid inclusions in barite in ore. Sphalerite and galena dominate at upper part of the Lower ore, while chalcopyrite and covellite

  3. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  4. Structure and clay mineralogy: borehole images, log interpretation and sample analyses at Site C0002 Nankai Trough accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Schleicher, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Our research focused on the characterization of fracture and fault structures from the deep Nankai Trough accretionary prism in Japan. Logging Data and cuttings samples from the two most recent International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 338 and 348 of the NanTroSEIZE project were analyzed by Logging While Drilling (LWD) oriented images, geophysical logs and clay mineralogy. Both expeditions took place at Site C0002, but whereas Hole C0002F (Expedition 338) was drilled down to 2004.5 mbsf, Hole C0002N and C0002P (Expedition 348) reached a depth of 2325.5 mbsf and 3058.8 mbsf respectively. The structural interpretation of borehole imaging data illustrates the deformation within the fractured and faulted sections of the accretionary prism. All drill holes show distinct areas of intense fracturing and faulting within a very clay-dominated lithology. Here, smectite and illite are the most common clay minerals, but the properties and the role they may play in influencing the fractures, faults and folds in the accretionary prism is still not well understood. When comparing clay mineralogy and fracture/fault areas in hole C0002F (Expedition 338), a trend in the abundance of illite and smectite, and in particular the swelling behavior of smectite is recognizable. In general, the log data provided a good correlation with the actual mineralogy and the relative abundance of clay. Ongoing postcruise preliminary research on hole C0002 N and C0002P (Expedition 348) should confirm these results. The relationship between fracture and fault structures and the changes in clay mineralogy could be explained by the deformation of specific areas with different compaction features, fluid-rock interaction processes, but could also be related to beginning diagenetic processes related to depth. Our results show the integration of logging data and cutting sample analyses as a valuable tool for characterization of petrophysical and mineralogical changes of the structures of the

  5. Mineralogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veblen, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mineralogy has become increasingly linked to chemistry and physics during recent years. This relationship between chemistry, physics, and mineralogy, as indicated by the content of conference papers, research studies, and physical/chemical laboratory procedures used in mineralogy, is reviewed. Creative applications of established mineralogic…

  6. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  7. Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. Darby; Treiman, Allan; Beauchamp, Patricia; Blake, David; Blaney, Diana; Kim, Sun S.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Mehall, Greg; Morris, Richard; Ninkov, Zoran; Sprague, Ann; Zolensky, Michael; Pieters, Carle

    1996-01-01

    The power of mineralogical analysis as a descriptive or predictive technique stems from the fact that only a few thousand minerals are known to occur in nature as compared to several hundred thousand inorganic compounds. Further, all of the known minerals have specific stability ranges in pressure, temperature, an composition. A specific knowledge of the mineralogy of a planets surface or interior therefore allows one to characterize the present or past conditions under which the minerals were formed or have existed. For the purposes of this paper, a slightly broader definition of mineralogy was adopted by including not only crystalline materials found on planetary surfaces, but also ices and classes that can benefit from in situ types of analyses. Both visual examination and the various spectroscopies available for robotic probes to planetary surfaces are discussed.

  8. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  9. Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  10. Characterization of structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism from integrated analyses of LWD log response, resistivity images and clay mineralogy of cuttings: Expedition 338 Site C0002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Schleicher, Anja

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our research is a detailed characterization of structures on the basis of LWD oriented images and logs,and clay mineralogy of cuttings from Hole C0002F of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. Our results show an integrated interpretation of structures derived from borehole images, petrophysical characterization on LWD logs and cuttings mineralogy. The geometry of the structure intersected at Hole C0002F has been characterized by the interpretation of oriented borehole resistivity images acquired during IODP Expedition 338. The characterization of structural features, faults and fracture zones is based on a detailed post-cruise interpretation of bedding and fractures on borehole images and also on the analysis of Logging While Drilling (LWD) log response (gamma radioactivity, resistivity and sonic logs). The interpretation and complete characterization of structures (fractures, fracture zones, fault zones, folds) was achieved after detailed shorebased reprocessing of resistivity images, which allowed to enhance bedding and fracture's imaging for geometry and orientation interpretation. In order to characterize distinctive petrophysical properties based on LWD log response, it could be compared with compositional changes derived from cuttings analyses. Cuttings analyses were used to calibrate and to characterize log response and to verify interpretations in terms of changes in composition and texture at fractures and fault zones defined on borehole images. Cuttings were taken routinely every 5 m during Expedition 338, indicating a clay-dominated lithology of silty claystone with interbeds of weakly consolidated, fine sandstones. The main mineralogical components are clay minerals, quartz, feldspar and calcite. Selected cuttings were taken from areas of interest as defined on LWD logs and images. The clay mineralogy was investigated on the <2 micron clay-size fraction, with special focus on smectite and illite minerals. Based on X-ray diffraction

  11. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  12. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a sediment-hosted hydrothermal sulfide deposit from the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Lonsdale, Peter F.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Berndt, Michael E.; Howe, Stephen S.

    1985-07-01

    Samples dredged from a 15-m-high hydrothermal mound atop the flat turbidite pond in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin consist of pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide, barite, barite + calcite, talc, and opaline silica as well as substrate material composed of fossiliferous, clay-rich ooze. An 11-m-long sediment core taken near the dredge site shows increasing hydrothermal alteration with depth; anhydrite-filled fractures near the base of the core appear to be channels for hydrothermal discharge. Oxidation of the sulfide-rich samples to an assemblage of geothite, lepidocrocite, and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide is ubiquitous. Compared to other massive sulfide deposits on sediment-starved oceanic ridges, the hydrothermal deposit dredged in Guaymas Basin has a high pyrrhotite/pyrite ratio, a low Zn sulfide and combined ore metal (Cu + Zn + Pb + Ag + Cd) content, and a greater abundance of sulfate, carbonate, and silicate phases. Venting hydrothermal solutions are alkaline with moderately high pH; high Ca, Ba, and SiO2 content; low ƒS2 and ƒo2; and very low transition metal content. Disequilibrium assemblages of pyrrhotite and sulfate minerals form during rapid mixing of this evolved vent fluid with ambient bottom waters at the discharge site. Talc is formed at a temperature near 270°C by mixing or entrainment of Mg-rich bottom water or pore fluid with upwelling hydrothermal fluid that is saturated with silica. Calcite may precipitate from the alkaline, Ca-rich fluid during degassing of CO2. The minimum temperature range for sulfide and nonsulfide deposition is approximately 190°-326°C. The composition of hydrothermal deposits, vent solutions, and altered sediment requires that circulating fluids evolve during deep penetration into the basaltic basement complex, further interaction with the organic-and carbonate-rich sediment pile, and near-surface mixing with ambient seawater. Although the stable assemblage albite-epidote-clinochlore present at depth in the sediment

  14. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  15. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  16. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  17. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. PMID:21893946

  18. The 1768 and 1791 Okinawa tsunamis in the Ryukyu Trench region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Risk of the great earthquakes and tsunamis has been assumed to be low in the Ryukyu Trench because the interplate coupling is weak and great interplate earthquakes (> M8.0) had not been recorded historically for about 300 years. However, recent study revealed that the 1771 Yaeyama earthquake (M8.5 from tsunami heights distribution) at south Ryukyu Trench and the 1911 Kikaijima earthquake (M 8.0) at north-central Ryukyu Trench were the interplate earthquakes. We need re-examine the great historical earthquakes in the Ryukyu Trench. Two historical tsunamis which occurred on 1768 and 1791 in the Okinawa Island were documented in the old document 'Kyuyo' (formal chronicles of Ryukyu). I investigated the source fault model of two tsunami events using numerical simulations of tsunami and earthquake shaking, and showed that their events would be the interplate earthquakes. One earthquake occurred at noon of July 22th, 1768. The rock-walls of castle, grave of royal family were collapsed by the earthquake shaking around Naha, Okinawa Island. After the shaking, tsunami arrived Naha port and Zamami Island, which is west of Okinawa Island. Recorded tsunami heights were about 1 m at Naha port. Nine houses and rice fields were damaged by the inundation of the tsunami in the Zamami Island. Estimated tsunami heights were 4 and 5 m in the villages of the Zamami Island. The numerical modeling of tsunami and the estimation of earthquake shaking using empirical formula were employed, and the fault parameters of the 1768 earthquake were estimated. The faults were set to Okinawa Trough (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 reverse fault), and Ryukyu Trench (M8.0 thrust faults). The computed tsunami heights and intensities of the ground shaking of the M7.5 reverse fault near the Zamami Island and the M8.0 interplate earthquake models are consistent with to the recorded ones. Another tsunami was also recorded in the

  19. Rifting Process and Geomorphic Development of the Okinawa Tough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Matsumoto, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH11 (from 14 July to 15 August, 2011) and GH12 (from 20 to 30 July, 2012) were carried out around the Okinawa Trough. More than 3,600 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these cruises by the GI-gun (Generator 250 cu inch and Injector 105 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. As a result, two unconformities and three depositional sequence divided by the unconformities are recognized in the trough. The lower and the midlle sequence are tilted and blocked by many normal faults, on the other hand the upper one is not tilted and shows the pattern of onlap fill. From this result, the upper sequence started to deposit after start of the rifting. Additionally, internal reflection of the upper sequence shows the cyclic activities of the rifting. The position of the rifting axis was revealed based on dip of the normal faults. As a result, rifting axis shows echelon arrangement and the displacement of the faults are varied with the segment of the arrangement. The location of the segment boundaries is correlated with geometrical boundary of the adjacent slope. Steep slope with incised valley is distributed in southwestern part where the displacement of the normal fault is large, on the other hand, gentle slope without incised valley is distributed in northeastern part where the displacement is small. This difference of the displacement strongly controls the geometry of the adjacent slope.

  20. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O`Hern, T.J.; Grasser, T.W.

    1998-08-11

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects` surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 5 figs.

  1. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grasser, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects' surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  2. The light ion trough.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A distinct feature of the ion composition results from the OGO-2, 4 and 6 satellites is the light ion trough, wherein the mid-latitude concentrations of H+ and He+ decrease sharply with latitude. In contrast to the 'main trough' in electron density observed primarily as a nightside phenomenon, the light ion trough persists during both day and night. For daytime winter hemisphere conditions and for all seasons during night, the mid-latitude light ion concentration decrease is a pronounced feature. In the dayside summer and equinox hemispheres, the rate of light ion decrease with latitude is comparatively gradual, and the trough boundary is less well defined, particularly for quiet magnetic conditions. In response to magnetic storms, the light ion trough minimum moves equatorward, and deepens, consistent with earlier evidence of the contraction of the plasmasphere in response to storm time enhancements in magnetospheric plasma convection.

  3. Cerberus Fossae Troughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two of the Cerberus Fossae troughs, their dark-toned interiors, and dark wind streaks formed from material blowing out of the troughs. The wind streaks indicate winds that blew from the northeast (upper right) toward the southwest (lower left). The crust of Mars expanded and split to form the troughs. These features are located near 6.6oN, 187.2oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  4. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  5. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  6. Solar trough systems

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Trough systems predominate among today`s commercial solar power plants. All together, nine trough power plants, also called Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS), were built in the 1980s in the Mojave Desert near Barstow, California. These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) and today generate enough electricity to meet the needs of approximately 500,000 people. Trough systems convert the heat from the sun into electricity. Because of their parabolical shape, troughs can focus the sun at 30--60 times its normal intensity on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough. Synthetic oil captures this heat as the oil circulates through the pipe, reaching temperatures as high as 390 C (735 F). The hot oil is pumped to a generating station and routed through a heat exchanger to produce steam. Finally, electricity is produced in a conventional steam turbine. In addition to operating on solar energy the SEGS plants are configured as hybrids to operate on natural gas on cloudy days or after dark. Natural gas provides 25% of the output of the SEGS plants.

  7. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists. PMID:26552125

  8. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa. PMID:25749491

  9. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  10. The magnetospheric trough

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.; Elphic, R.C.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-03-04

    The authors review the history of the concepts of the magnetospheric cold-ion trough and hot-electron trough and conclude that the two regions are actually essentially the same. The magnetospheric trough may be viewed as a temporal state in the evolution of convecting flux tubes. These flux tubes are in contact with the earth`s upper atmosphere which acts both as a sink for precipitating hot plasma sheet electrons and as a source for the cold ionospheric plasma leading to progressive depletion of the plasma sheet and refilling with cold plasma. Geosynchronous plasma observations show that the rate of loss of plasma-sheet electron energy density is commensurate with the precipitating electron flux at the low-latitude edge of the diffuse aurora. The rate at which geosynchronous flux tubes fill with cold ionospheric plasma is found to be consistent with previous estimates of early-time refilling. Geosynchronous observations further indicate that both Coulomb collisions and wave-particle effects probably play a role in trapping ionospheric material in the magnetosphere.

  11. Investigating the effect of hydrothermal conditions on the subvent biosphere of the Okinawa backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.; Nunoura, T.; Yanagawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study an interesting subset of the ocean floor -- the subsurface environment surrounding an active hydrothermal vent. The subsurface sediments of the Iheya North Field within the mid-Okinawa trough are affected by high temperature fluids. In addition, the Okinawa backarc basin is situated on a continental margin. This particular environment has a unique set of conditions for investigating the vertical variability in microbial communities with depth as conditions become increasingly restrictive. IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014, located 450 m east of the active vent, has a surface temperature of 5°C and has no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m. Below a depth of ~10 mbsf, the sedimentary sequence is hydrothermally altered to a pale, gray clay with alteration products illite and montmorillonite. Thus, Site C0014 represents an ideal location to characterize whether 1) the microbial community structure shifts from non-hydrothermal margin microorganisms toward a more temperature-adapted group of microorganisms, or 2) repeating clades represented throughout the sediment column are seemingly adapting to the increasingly extreme conditions. DNA from sediments (0-44 mbsf) was extracted using a modified protocol from the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Primers were designed to amplify the V6-V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Select samples were sequenced with the Roche 454 FLX sequencer at The Pennsylvania State University. The amplicon data suggest that the subvent biosphere resides in the top 12-14 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The archaeal sequences abruptly disappear beyond the 14 mbsf horizon. The phylum Euryarchaeota, dominated by Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6) and ANME-1, are present throughout the top 14 meters. However, there is an increasingly stronger signal of non-Euryarchaeota clades Marine Crenarchaeotic

  12. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Shintani, Hideharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa. PMID:22969837

  13. The challenge to reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa: consensus of the first Okinawa breast oncology meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Gushimiyagi, Masanori; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Tengan, Hiromu; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Ishida, Takanori

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is gradually increasing in Okinawa. The 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was held on 6 July 2012 and discussions on how to curb the rising trend were focused on breast cancer screening, adjuvant treatment, socioeconomic and geographic issues, and the problem of complementary and alternative medicine. The consensus of the 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was that ultrasonography screening is an acceptable screening system for Okinawan women because of the geographic disadvantage of having many small islands and rural areas. Educational and economic support is needed for women in rural areas to get correct information, for access to urban areas and to be treated by evidence-based optimal therapy for breast cancer. In addition, new approaches are needed for Okinawan people to successfully educate patients to correctly interpret evidence-based information. PMID:23288933

  14. 16ch high-resolution seismic reflection surveys on the active fault of upper fore-arc slope off Okinawa Island, central Ryukyu Island Arc, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Sato, T.; Tuzino, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH08 (from 28th July to 29th August 2008) and GH09 (from 16th July to 17th August 2009) were carried out around Okinawa Island, which is located on the central Ryukyu Island Arc. More than 4,500 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these two cruises by the GI-gun (355cu. inch) or the Cluster-gun (30+30 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. Survey area in the southeast off Okinawa Island is located on the upper fore-arc slope. Seismic reflections of the upper fore-arc slope show a distinct reflector which may represent erosional unconformable surface. The distinct reflector had tilted southeastward and was overlain by the stratified sediments. No obvious deformation such as the fold and faults parallel to the Ryukyu Trench axis was found under the upper slope. In contrast, some active faults which were perpendicular to the Ryukyu Trench axis (NW-SE direction) were observed. The most conspicuous normal fault was found on north off Okinawa Island. The fault with 70-80°dipping toward northeast has been active since the early Pleistocene inferred from seismic stratigraphy and calcareous nannofossil biochronology. The maximum displacement reaches to 0.7 s two way travel time in depth. An average of maximum vertical displace component of the normal fault may reach up to ten cm/1000 years. Seismic profiles indicate that the tilting of Ryukyu Island Arc forward to the Ryukyu Trench plays the important role of formation of the fault in a NW-SE direction.

  15. Gullied Trough Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies emergent from beneath erosion-resistant rock layers in a trough south of Atlantis Chaos near 38.9oS, 176.3oW. Gullies such as these are fairly common in depressions at south middle latitudes. Tens of thousands of gullies have been identified in MGS MOC and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images. Whether they formed by running liquid water remains a controversial issue. Banked channels, like some shown here, are one form of evidence cited to indicate that a fluid with the properties of liquid water may have been involved. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  16. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  17. Structure of the Mekong trough

    SciTech Connect

    Van Khy, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Mekong trough occupies the shelf of southern Vietnam between the sea coast and the Condao-Cu Lao Tu line of islands and the adjacent area of the onshore Mekong delta. It extends for 400 km from southwest to northeast with a width of 100 km. The Mekong trough is situated on the upper Mesozoic volcanic belt of South Vietnam, which is part of the East Asian volcanogenic belt. It is bounded on the southeast by the Con Son high, on the southwest by the Corat-Ca Mau high, and on the northwest by the Dalat massif. The Mekong trough is considered to have major potential as a new petroleum province. Since 1969, numerous common depth point (CDP) seismic profiles have been run and seven deep wells have been drilled on the shelf in the Mekong trough. This paper is devoted to an analysis of the findings. 9 references, 4 figures.

  18. Neotectonics of the Manych Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshaev, R. R.; Svitoch, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional and local neotectonic features of the Manych Trough and regulating role of its tresholds in Caspian water overflows to the Black Sea are examined. Various evidence for neotectonic activity, with the maximums in Early and Late Khazarian epochs, of all the local tectonic rises in the Manych Trough, which were thresholds during the existence of the strait in the past, has been found. The Manych Trough is superimposed on the deep-laid faults of the Scythian Plate and in the sublatitudinal direction, it extends by more than 500 km. Throughout the Cenozoic, the system of narrow longitudinal and transverse structures continued to develop along the faults and some portions of these structures suffered differentiated motions in the Pleistocene as well. The general regional neotectonic Pleistocene character of the Manych Trough is confidently identified on the basis of coincidence with the large trough, which had been developing during Meso-Cenozoic; the non-altered character of modern relief; and the stable paleogeographic regime throughout the Pleistocene, when the Caspian straits repeatedly existed in the lowland parts of the trough. All these facts unambiguously indicate a general downward tectonic regime of the Manych Trough during the Pleistocene up to 100 m in amplitude. The amplitude of neotectonic motions of the trough over long time periods and within the Pleistocene in general were determined by comparative analysis of the modern and initial positions of reference horizons of the marine Pleistocene in the Manych Trough. The subsequent step-by-step comparison between the hypsometry of the bottom positions of the initial straits and the modern level of the corresponding strata allowed us to specify the value of tectonic deformation of the bottom for any concrete time period. The structural differentiation of the trough is clearly expressed in its modern relief and configuration of the river network; the former is en echelon sublatitudinal depressions joined

  19. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  20. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.

  1. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Alcanivorax sp. Strain KX64203 Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments of Iheya North, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Wang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Alcanivorax sp. strain KX64203, isolated from deep-sea sediment samples. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 4.76 Mb. The data will improve our understanding of the strain's function in alkane degradation. PMID:27563046

  3. Identification and characterization of the active hydrothermal deposits in Okinawa Trough, SW Japan: Estimates from logging-while-drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Hamada, Y.; Kumagai, H.; Nozaki, T.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A scientific drilling expedition was conducted at an active hydrothermal field on the Iheya-North Knoll by D/V Chikyu in 2014 (Expedition 907) as a part of "Next-generation Technology for Ocean Resources Survey" of the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program. During the expedition logging while drilling (LWD) was deployed to constrain the area of the fluid reservoir beneath seafloor followed by three coring holes down to 150 meter below the seafloor (mbsf). The LWD system is composed of arcVISION for resistivity and natural gamma ray measurement and TeleScope for real-time transmission of drilling parameters and arcVISION data. Five sites (C9011-15) at the Iheya-North Original Site and one site (C9016) at Aki Site were drilled with LWD. At C9012 and C9016, the arcVISION detected temperature anomaly up to 84℃ at 234 mbsf and up to 39℃ at 80 mbsf, respectively. The temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the existence of high-temperature heat source along borehole. Due to the continuous fluid circulation during drilling, the measured temperature does not indicate in-situ temperature, but it reflects the heat disturbed by the cold circulated water instead. High quality resistivity and natural gamma ray data were acquired at six sites. The log curves at Site C9016 show characteristic response; the natural gamma ray log exhibits extremely high radiation (>500 gAPI) at 7-13 and 23-31 mbsf (Zone A). In the underlying interval of 31-40 mbsf, the resistivity log exhibits extremely low value (<0.2 ohm-m) (Zone B). Then the resistivity log exhibits higher value (~10 ohm-m) and the natural gamma ray log shows very low radiation (<50 gAPI) at the interval of 41-48 mbsf (Zone C). The log characteristics in Zone A, B, and C can be interpreted as a series of K-rich alteration zone, sulfide zone, and low-K hard (silicified) sediments, respectively. The LWD-based lithological interpretation was confirmed by the following core description. Zones A and B can be correlated to altered clay zone and sulfide zone including sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. Our results show that LWD is a powerful tool for the identification and characterization of submarine hydrothermal deposits and LWD survey enhances the successful recovery of sulfide samples.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Alcanivorax sp. Strain KX64203 Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments of Iheya North, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Alcanivorax sp. strain KX64203, isolated from deep-sea sediment samples. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 4.76 Mb. The data will improve our understanding of the strain’s function in alkane degradation. PMID:27563046

  5. Hanford basalt flow mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    Mineralogy of the core samples from five core wells was examined in some detail. The primary mineralogy study included an optical examination of polished mounts, photomicrographs, chemical analyses of feldspars, pyroxenes, metallic oxides and microcrystalline groundmasses and determination from the chemical analyses of the varieties of feldspars, pyroxenes and metallic oxides. From the primary mineralogy data, a firm understanding of the average Hanford basalt flow primary mineralogy emerged. The average primary feldspar was a laboradorite, the average pyroxene was an augite and the average metallic oxide was a solid solution of ilmenite and magnetite. Secondary mineralization consisted of vug filling and joint coating, chiefly with a nontronite-beidellite clay, several zeolites, quartz, calcite, and opal. Specific flow units also were examined to determine the possibility of using the mineralogy to trace flows between core wells. These included units of the Pomona, the Umatilla and a high chromium flow just below the Huntzinger. In the Umatilla, or high barium flow, the compositional variation of the feldspars was unique in range. The pyroxenes in the Pomona were relatively highly zoned and accumulated chromium. The high chromium flow contained chromium spinels that graded in chromium content into simple magnetites very low in chromium content. A study of the statistical relationships of flow unit chemical constituents showed that flow unit constituents could be roughly correlated between wells. The probable cause of the correlation was on-going physical-chemical changes in the source magma.

  6. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E viruses from mongooses in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Ogura, Go; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Shou; Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mishiro, Shunji; Nakamura, Masaji

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has previously been reported in wild mongooses on Okinawa Island; to date however, only one HEV RNA sequence has been identified in a mongoose. Hence, this study was performed to detect HEV RNA in 209 wild mongooses on Okinawa Island. Six (2.9%) samples tested positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 6 HEV RNAs belonged to genotype 3 and were classified into groups A and B. In group B, mongoose-derived HEV sequences were very similar to mongoose HEV previously detected on Okinawa Island, as well as to those of a pig. This investigation emphasized the possibility that the mongoose is a reservoir animal for HEV on Okinawa Island. PMID:22850461

  7. Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

  8. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Taku; Fujii, Takuma; Kawamura, Iori; Mizuyama, Masaru; Montenegro, Javier; Shikiba, Haruka; Naruse, Tohru; McClelland, TY; Denis, Vianney; Reimer, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat) affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef. PMID:24032094

  9. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  10. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  11. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Schertz, William W.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  12. Mineralogy: A Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews changing concepts of the origins, properties, and classification of minerals. Emphasis is placed on developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during which time the interwoven advances of chemistry, physics, crystallography, and high-temperature, high-pressure studies transformed mineralogy from a qualitative to a…

  13. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  14. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-10-17

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its` related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed.

  15. Stable isotopes in mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Stable isotope fractionations between minerals are functions of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the minerals and therefore bear on several topics of mineralogical interest. Isotopic compositions of the elements H, C, O, Si, and S can now be determined routinely in almost any mineral. A summary has been made of both published and new results of laboratory investigations, analyses of natural materials, and theoretical considerations which bear on the importance of temperature, pressure, chemical composition and crystal structure to the isotopic properties of minerals. It is shown that stable isotope studies can sometimes provide evidence for elucidating details of crystal structure and can be a powerful tool for use in tracing the reaction paths of mineralogical reactions. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Sulfide Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilles, John

    2007-02-01

    Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, Volume 61 David J. Vaughan, Editor Geochemical Society and Mineralogical Society of America; ISBN 0-939950-73-1 xiii + 714 pp.; 2006; $40. Sulfide minerals as a class represent important minor rock-forming minerals, but they are generally known as the chief sources of many economic metallic ores. In the past two decades, sulfide research has been extended to include important roles in environmental geology of sulfide weathering and resultant acid mine drainage, as well as in geomicrobiology in which bacteria make use of sulfides for metabolic energy sources. In the latter respect, sulfides played an important role in early evolution of life on Earth and in geochemical cycling of elements in the Earth's crust and hydrosphere.

  17. Parabolic Trough VSHOT Optical Characterization in 2005-2006 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation regarding parabolic trough VSHOT optical characterization describes trough deployment and operation phases including: development, manufacture/installation, and maintenance/operation.

  18. Modal mineralogy of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Francois; Langevin, Yves; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-11-01

    The surface composition of Vesta is constrained using spectral data gathered by the visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer VIR onboard NASA/Dawn. To derive new constraints on the surface composition of this asteroid, we applied a scattering model to VIR reflectance spectra. This model was first successfully tested by properly reproducing the characteristics of several HED meteorites spectra. Abundance estimates of end-members in HEDs are accurate to within 15-25% for the analyzed samples, while the estimated particle sizes are within the intervals of actual sizes. The modeling technique was then applied to the VIR data to retrieve the modal mineralogy of selected terrains of Vesta. Major expected minerals (Low-Calcium Pyroxene, High-Calcium Pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine) can provide satisfactory fits with overall residuals ≤1%. The modal mineralogy of terrains exhibiting the strongest LCP signatures is well representative of those of diogenites. Modeling results demonstrate that coarse-grained olivine (a few hundred µm in size) is likely to be present in all major units of Vesta, with inferred abundance ranging from 10% to 20%. A bimodal distribution in grain size with relatively coarse grain for olivine and fine grains (typically smaller than 100 µm) for the other components is derived. This is similar to the lithologic size distribution of HEDs, in particular howardites containing olivine-bearing melt. In addition, there is a good agreement between the modal mineralogy of this type of HED and Vesta. The relatively uniform derived modal mineralogy of different units confirms that major homogenization occurred with time, possibly explaining the lack of specific olivine enrichment in Rheasilvia. This study provides strong support for the vestan origin of HEDs by clarifying the relationship between HEDs and the different geological units on Vesta. Howardites containing olivine-bearing melt, although rare in the HED collections, are the closest

  19. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  20. Vertical distribution of precipitation particles in Baiu frontal stratiform intense rainfall around Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oue, M.; Ohigashi, T.; Tsuboki, K.; Nakakita, E.

    2015-06-01

    The vertical distribution of precipitation particles in an intensely precipitating stratiform cloud associated with the Baiu front around Okinawa Island was observed. X-band polarimetric radar, disdrometer, and hydrometeor videosonde data were used to examine the precipitation processes. The cloud top was approximately 12 km above sea level, as convection was depressed while stratiform regions developed near Okinawa Island. In the rain region below 3 km, the mean median volume diameter of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) estimated from the radar variables was 1.55 mm, and the mean normalized intercept parameter was 104.12 mm-1 m-3 with a mean radar reflectivity of 40.5 dBZe. The DSD indicates that the stratiform precipitation was characterized by higher number concentrations of smaller drops than observed previously in convective cells in a Baiu frontal convective precipitation region around Okinawa Island. The DSD also suggests the presence of larger raindrops than in convective cells embedded in a Baiu frontal stratiform precipitation region around Okinawa Island. In the ice region at 5-6 km, just above the melting layer and 6 km below the cloud top, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase showed positive values, and videosonde measurements revealed that the number concentration of column-, plate-, and capped-column-like crystals (maximum dimensions of ≥0.1 mm) was 112 L-1. The high number concentration of these crystals contributed to the intense stratiform rainfall associated with the Baiu front.

  1. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  2. Elemental composition and Its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Akihide; Oshiro, Seiji; Azechi, Sotaro; Handa, Daishi; Arakaki, Takemitsu

    2010-05-01

    Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km south east of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutions in East Asia, because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. In the present study, elemental composition and its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago was investigated by a X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). From these results, chemical properties of aerosols transported to Okinawa archipelago and long-range transport of metal pollutions were discussed. We continuously collected bulk aerosols for 7 days at a time during 2008 - 2009. The samplings were performed by using the same type of high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS), respectively. XRF allows us to analyze bulk aerosols rapidly without any pretreatment. However, it is very difficult to determine trace metals in aerosol samples accurately. The concentration ratios to Al for 15-20 elements, whose accuracy was evaluated using standard reference materials (NIES No.28) and measuring by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid-digestion, were obtained by XRF. From seasonal variations obtained, the concentration rations to Al for Pb and As in aerosol particles were clearly higher in winter than in summer. These results suggest that North-west wind blown in winter would transport pollutant aerosols to Okinawa archipelago from East Asia.

  3. How do spiral troughs form on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2004-04-01

    A three-dimensional model for the coupled evolution of ice-surface temperature and elevation in the Martian polar ice caps is presented. The model includes (1) enhanced heat absorption on steep, dust-exposed scarps, (2) accumulation and ablation, and (3) lateral conduction of heat within the ice cap. The model equations are similar to classic equations for excitable media, including nerve fibers and chemical oscillators. In two dimensions, a small zone of initial melting in the model develops into a train of poleward-migrating troughs with widths similar to those observed on Mars. Starting from random initial conditions, the three-dimensional model reproduces spiral waves very similar to those in the north polar ice cap, including secondary features such as gull-wing shaped troughs, bifurcations, and terminations. These results suggest that eolian processes and ice flow may not control trough morphology.

  4. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  5. Cooling-Trough Condenser for Sublimation Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbraun, E. J.; Lucas, J. M.

    1995-11-01

    A wrap-around, trough condenser for use with large diameter (2.5") sublimation tubes is described. The design permits attachment of the condenser to the sublimation tube without removing the tube from the heater. It also permits the use of a variety of liquid (tap water, Dry Ice, and alcohol or acetone) or solid (ice or Dry Ice) coolants.

  6. Revisiting trough interactions and tropical cyclone intensity change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirano, C. M.; Corbosiero, K. L.; Tang, B. H.

    2016-05-01

    An updated climatology of Atlantic basin tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change in the presence of upper tropospheric trough forcing is presented. To control for changes in the background thermodynamic environment, a methodology that normalizes intensity change by the potential intensity of the TC is used to more narrowly focus on the effect of troughs compared to previous studies. Relative to the full sample of Atlantic TCs, troughs are a negative influence on intensification: trough interaction cases are 4% less likely to intensify and 5% more likely to weaken. Troughs are especially detrimental compared to TCs without trough forcing: trough interaction cases are 14% less likely to intensify and 13% more likely to weaken. Additionally, eddy flux convergence of angular momentum, previously shown to positively affect TC intensity change, is shown to be a weak predictor of intensity change compared to vertical wind shear, which is enhanced during a trough interaction.

  7. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  8. Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nose, Mine; Shiraishi, Susumu; Miyahara, Fumihiko; Ohira, Mineko; Matsunaga, Koji; Tobase, Masashi; Koyama, Takao; Yoshimoto, Kikuo

    2009-09-01

    Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island. PMID:22736814

  9. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  10. Mineralogy of Meteorite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 275 mineral species have been identified in meteorites, reflecting diverse redox environments, and, in some cases, unusual nebular formation conditions. Anhydrous ordinary, carbonaceous and R chondrites contain major olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase; major opaque phases include metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and chromite. Primitive achondrites are mineralogically similar. The highly reduced enstatite chondrites and achondrites contain major enstatite, plagioclase, free silica and kamacite as well as nitrides, a silicide and Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Na-, Cr-, K- and Ti-rich sulfides. Aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites contain major amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates, complex organic compounds, magnetite, various sulfates and sulfides, and carbonates. In addition to kamacite and taenite, iron meteorites contain carbides, elemental C, nitrides, phosphates, phosphides, chromite and sulfides. Silicate inclusions in IAB/IIICD and lIE iron meteorites consist of mafic silicates, plagioclase and various sulfides, oxides and phosphates. Eucrites, howardites and diogenites have basaltic to orthopyroxenitic compositions and consist of major pyroxene and calcic plagioclase and several accessory oxides. Ureilttes .are made up mainly of calcic, chromian olivine and low-Ca clinopyroxene embedded in a carbonaceous matrix; accessory phases include the C polymorphs graphite, diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite as well as metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and halides. Angrites are achondrites rich in fassaitic pyroxene (i.e. , AI-Ti diopside); minor olivine with included magnesian kirschsteinite is also present. Martian meteorites comprise basalts, Iherzolites, a dunite and an orthopyroxenite. Major phases include various pyroxenes and olivine; minor to accessory phases include various sulfides, magnetite, chromite and Ca-phosphates. Lunar meteorites comprise mare basalts with major augite and calcic plagioclase and anorthositic breccias with major calcic plagioclase. Several meteoritic

  11. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry). PMID:27110163

  12. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health. PMID:25481361

  13. Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Binh, Tran Thanh; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Helicobacter pylori cagA can be classified into mainly two types (East-Asian-type and Western-type cagA) according to the repeat regions located in the 3′ region. Recent studies showed that the Western-type cagA in strains from Okinawa, Japan formed a different cluster (J-Western-type cagA subtype). We also reported that J-Western-type cagA possess a 12-bp insertion located in the 5′ region of cagA sequence. Methods The prevalence of 12-bp insertion in cagA in Okinawa and the United States (U.S.) was examined by DNA sequencing. We then designed the primer pair which can detect the 12-bp insertion only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of strains with 12-bp insertion was examined in 336 strains isolated from Okinawa by PCR. Results In case of Western-type cagA/vacA s1m2 strains, the prevalence of 12-bp insertion was significantly higher in strains isolated from Okinawa than that from the U.S. (P = 0.002). Phylogenetic tree showed that strains with 12-bp insertion formed two individual clusters within J-Western-type cagA subtype; one is from Okinawa and another is from the U.S. Our designed primer set showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.8%) in Okinawa. The 12-bp insertion was found in 23.7%, 14.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% of strains with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastritis, gastric cancer (GC), and gastric ulcer (GU), respectively (P < 0.001 for DU vs. GU) in Okinawa. Conclusions Although the mechanisms are unknown, the presence of 12-bp insertion was associated with the presence of DU and might have a suppressive action on GU and GC. PMID:23190390

  14. Oceanic And Terrestrial Controls On Chlorophyll -a Abundance Around The Island Of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikema, T.; Bryant, R. G.; Bigg, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    This research aims to understand key factors affecting ocean surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) blooms at a range of scales (both regional and near the coastal zone) around the Island of Okinawa in the western Pacific. The study region is characterised by both the actions of the Kuroshio Current (which brings warm water) and the Asian Monsoon (which provides moist southwest winds in summer and dry northern winds in winter). Due to these influences, Okinawa has a subtropical climate, with a rainy season in the summer months (MJ), and prevailing northerly winds in winter (NDJ). In order to better understand factors which may influence the timing and magnitude of Chl-a blooms in the vicinity of Okinawa, we applied empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to a time series of AVHRR (monthly mean SST from 1985-2006) and SeaWIFS (monthly mean Chl-a from 1998 to 2006) data over two different spatial scales: domain 1 (D1) - a region of the ocean southeast of Kuroshio, and domain 2 (D2) - a sub-region near coastline focused on Okinawa itself. The first EOF mode of SST in regions D1 and D2 (which accounted for more than 90 % in each domain) showed a clear radiation-driven annual cycle: high SST in summer and low SST in winter. The first EOF mode of Chl-a in D1 (which accounted for 51 %) also demonstrated an annual cycle, but in this instance one that mirrored that of SST (i.e. low Chl-a in summer and high Chl-a in winter). The first mode Chl-a EOF in D2 (accounting for 63 % of the total variance) also has a similar annual cycle, displaying a significant correlation (r=0.75, p<0.001) with northerly wind magnitudes, lagged by 2 months, suggesting that the winter monsoon is a major control on the observed Chl-a bloom. However, extreme events such as typhoons can also cause a Chl-a bloom around the coast. As a result of further analysis of daily Chl-a data along the western coastline of Okinawa, it was found that some of the peaks of Chl-a were closely correlated with river

  15. Composition of massive sulfide deposits from the sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge: implications for depositional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Oscarson, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Massive sulfide deposits with two distinct compositions are spatially related to volcanic edifices that penetrate up to 500 m of turbiditic sediment in Escanaba Trough (ET), southern Gorda Ridge. The mineralogy, metal content, sulfur isotope composition, and hydrocarbon content of massive sulfides from ET reflect the extensive interaction between underlying turbiditic sediment and hydrothermal fluid. Pyrrhotite-rich sulfide mounds are inferred to have formed under gentle temperature and chemical gradients related to diffuse, low-velocity flow through disrupted sediment near the sediment-capped hills.

  16. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  17. Deformation and Seismicity Within the Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohman, R. B.; McGuire, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We examine ground deformation and seismicity within the Salton Trough of Southern California with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The Salton Trough is the landward extension of the spreading centers and transforms within the Gulf of California, and is associated with a higher heat flow than is found further north along the San Andreas system. The Salton Trough region is characterized by seismicity swarms similar to those that are characteristic of fault systems on the East Pacific Rise. Transient episodes of shallow and deep creep occur on the southern San Andreas, Imperial, and Superstition Hills faults, and pronounced afterslip and triggered slip are associated with local and regional earthquakes. Documentation of the temporal and spatial evolution of transient and triggered slip phenomena is vital to development of stress transfer and strain partitioning models explaining the dynamics of interactions within the North America-Pacific plate boundary. We determine the extent to which aseismic fault slip can be observed with SAR data, and perform specific investigations of the time periods surrounding several of the ~10 major earthquake swarms that have occurred within the Salton Trough since 1992. We seek to determine whether seismic swarm activity is associated with aseismic slip transients. Extensive agricultural activity in the region limits the utility of traditional InSAR, so we explore use of the persistent scatterer method to isolate roads, buildings and other features that retain interferometric coherence over time. Because a large number of SAR acquisitions are available (>30), and because of the large spatial and temporal variations in coherence between urban, agricultural, water-covered and desert landscapes within the scene, the Salton trough provides an interesting test scenario for the persistent scatterer method. We use spatially and temporally varying fault slip to model observed activity on the Superstition Hills fault. We explore

  18. Inflammation is associated with voriconazole trough concentrations.

    PubMed

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J P; Span, Lambert F R; Rodgers, Michael G G; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Uges, Donald R A; van der Werf, Tjip S; Kosterink, Jos G W; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2014-12-01

    Voriconazole concentrations display a large variability, which cannot completely be explained by known factors. Inflammation may be a contributing factor, as inflammatory stimuli can change the activities and expression levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. We explored the correlation between inflammation, reflected by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and voriconazole trough concentrations. A retrospective chart review of patients with at least one steady-state voriconazole trough concentration and a CRP concentration measured on the same day was performed. A total of 128 patients were included. A significantly (P < 0.001) higher voriconazole trough concentration was observed in patients with severe inflammation (6.2 mg/liter; interquartile range [IQR], 3.4 to 8.7 mg/liter; n = 20) than in patients with moderate inflammation (3.4 mg/liter; IQR, 1.6 to 5.4 mg/liter; n = 60) and in patients with no to mild inflammation (1.6 mg/liter; IQR, 0.8 to 3.0 mg/liter; n = 48). The patients in all three groups received similar voriconazole doses based on mg/kg body weight (P = 0.368). Linear regression analyses, both unadjusted and adjusted for covariates of gender, age, dose, route of administration, liver enzymes, and interacting coadministered medications, showed a significant association between voriconazole and CRP concentration (P < 0.001). For every 1-mg/liter increase in the CRP concentration, the voriconazole trough concentration increased by 0.015 mg/liter (unadjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.011 to 0.020 mg/liter; adjusted 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.019 mg/liter). Inflammation, reflected by the C-reactive protein concentration, is associated with voriconazole trough concentrations. Further research is necessary to assess if taking the inflammatory status of a patient into account is helpful in therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole to maintain concentrations in the therapeutic window, thereby possibly preventing suboptimal treatment or adverse events

  19. Compositional and isotopic properties of nitrogen in subseafloor hydrothermal environments at the Iheya North field in the mid-Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, M.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen is one of the essential elements as a substrate for energy metabolism and a building block of protein and nucleic acids. However, little is known about biogeodynamics of nitrogen in the subseafloor hydrothermal environments. Here, we report compositional and isotopic properties of nitrogen in pore water from 0 mbsf to 150 mbsf at the Iheya North hydrothermal field. At the site C0014 (450 meter east from the North Big Chimney), ammonia is the most abundant nitrogen compound, while nitrate is detected in a certain depth interval. In the depth interval around 10 mbsf, the ammonia concentration steeply increased from 0.3 mM to 1.5 mM downwards. In the same interval, potassium concentration profile showed the same trend as ammonia, while sulfate and magnesium concentration profiles showed the opposite trends. These profiles suggest binary mixing of shallower early diagenetic fluid and deeper hydrothermal fluid at the depth around 10 mbsf, where ammonia oxidation coupled with sulfate reduction can potentially occur. Further, Cl-depleted pore water at 40 mbsf was slightly enriched in ammonia relative to Cl-enriched pore water, probably originating from elemental fractionation during phase separation. By combining isotopic and compositional data, we will discuss the nitrogen biogeodynamics.

  20. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  1. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhelil, J.

    The intracontinental Benue Trough was initiated during the Lower Cretaceous in relation with the Atlantic Ocean opening. The first stage of its evolution started in the Aptian, forming isolated basins with continental sedimentation. In the Albian times, a great delta developed in the Upper Benue Trough, while the first marine transgression coming from the opening Gulf of Guinea occurred in the south and reached the Middle Benue. The widespread Turonian transgression made the Atlantic and Tethys waters communicate through the Sahara, Niger basins and the Benue Trough. The tectonic evolution of the Benue Trough was closely controlled by transcurrent faulting through an axial fault system, developing local compressional and tensional regimes and resulting in basins and basement horsts along releasing and restraining bends of the faults. Two major compressional phases occurred: in the Abakaliki area (southern Benue) during the Santonian; and at the end of the Cretaceous in the Upper Benue Trough. In Abakaliki, the sedimentary infilling was severely deformed through folding and flattening, and moderate folding and fracturing occurred in the northeast. The Cretaceous magmatism was restricted to main fault zones in most of the trough but was particularly active in the Abakaliki Trough, where it has alkaline affinities. From Albian to Santonian, the magmatism was accompanied in part of the Abakaliki Trough by a low-grade metamorphism. Geophysical data indicate a crustal thinning beneath the Benue Trough and, at a superficial level, an axial basement high flanked by two elongated deep basins including isolated sub-basins. The model of the tectonic evolution of the trough is based upon a general sinistral wrenching along the trough responsible for the structural arrangement and the geometry of the sub-basins. During the early stages of the Gulf of Guinea opening the Benue Trough was probably the expression on land of the Equatorial Fracture Zones.

  2. Revisiting the Ariel Trough Work for HF Telecommunication Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulunay, Y.; Stanisławska, I.; Rothkaehl, H.

    2003-07-01

    Muldrew [1] was the pioneer who reported the midlatitude electron density trough at the topside ionosphere. For about ten to fifteen years the trough, its morphology, dynamical behavior, relationship to the equatorial plasmapause, and physical and chemical processes which lead to the trough formation had been extensively investigated. Then, the work on the trough had been slowed down gradually. As the new space systems have become more vulnerable to space weather effects, a need for robust programs and a long track record in space environment sensing and modeling to produce new space environment models and products that would meet high-priority defense and commercial needs arises naturally. In this context, it is intended to go over the reported trough work dating back to the 1970s and some typical findings of later developments briefly. Most of the aspects of the trough studies have been repeated with new data for newer physical models. From this point of view, the Ariel 3 and Ariel 4 satellite trough results are chosen since the work on the Ariel trough had been very original and very extensive quantitatively and qualitatively in the 1970s. The results reviewed here are based on more than 1000 beautiful selected trough cases. Due to the good quality and quantity of the Ariel satellite data, equal coverage in space and time were maintained, which makes the trough results very important. This paper will end with some reference to the trough models, results that establish a link between the topside and the F2 region of the ionosphere. As one typical application, HF radiocommunication is chosen to be the point of interest. In practical applications of the HF radiocommunications any model that does not include the trough is not complete.

  3. Tetrodotoxin-Medicated Delay in Aconitine Toxicity: A Murder in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y

    2014-07-01

    Aconite (wolfsbane) plants, which belong to the genus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae family), contain highly toxic alkaloids, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and jesaconitine, in all of their parts. The relevance of this plant material is illustrated by the case of a Japanese female who died suddenly in 1986 and was autopsied in Okinawa by the author. The detection in 1987 of Aconitum alkaloids in her blood using gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring (GC/SIM), which was newly developed for this case, demonstrated that she had died from aconite poisoning. PMID:26227030

  4. A survey of junior high school students' sleep habit and lifestyle in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, M; Taira, K; Tanaka, H; Yamakawa, K; Toguchi, H; Kadekaru, H; Yamamoto, Y; Uezu, E; Shirakawa, S

    2001-06-01

    A survey was made of the sleep and lifestyle activity patterns of 3754 students from 14 different junior high schools on Okinawa Island. The survey showed that bedtimes became progressively and significantly later as students ascended to higher grades, resulting in adolescent sleep debt. The later adolescents retired to sleep, there appeared significantly greater numbers suffering from insufficient sleep, who found difficulty in waking up, who arose later in the mornings, and who failed to eat breakfast. The study indicated that along with later bedtimes, staying up late resulted in deterioration of sleep health, poor dietary habits and feeling ill, contributing to sleepiness during class. PMID:11422845

  5. Mineralogy of the Mercurian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Evans, Larry R.; Frank, Elizabeth A.; McCoy, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited Mercury for four years until April 2015, revealing its structure, chemical makeup, and compositional diversity. Data from the mission have confirmed that Mercury is a compositional end-member among the terrestrial planets. The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on board MESSENGER provided the first detailed geochemical analyses of Mercury's surface. These instruments have been used in conjunction with the Neutron Spectrometer and the Mercury Dual Imaging System to classify numerous geological and geochemical features on the surface of Mercury that were previously unknown. Furthermore, the data have revealed several surprising characteristics about Mercury's surface, including elevated S abundances (up to 4 wt%) and low Fe abundances (less than 2.5 wt%). The S and Fe abundances were used to quantify Mercury's highly reduced state, i.e., between 2.6 and 7.3 log10 units below the Iron-Wustite (IW) buffer. This fO2 is lower than any of the other terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System and has important consequences for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury, its surface mineralogy and geochemistry, and the petrogenesis of the planet's magmas. Although MESSENGER has revealed substantial geochemical diversity across the surface of Mercury, until now, there have been only limited efforts to understand the mineralogical and petrological diversity of the planet. Here we present a systematic and comprehensive study of the potential mineralogical and petrological diversity of Mercury.

  6. Ridges and Troughs in Sippar Sulcus, Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Embayment of ridges and troughs in a portion of the Sippar Sulcus area of Jupiter's moon Ganymede in this image from NASA's Galileo spacecraft is interpreted as evidence that the low-lying area was filled in by flooding with low-viscosity material, such as water or water-ice slush lavas. Bays of the material appeared to have formed in troughs (indicated by arrows) between the ridges.

    The smallest features visible are about 180 meters (590 feet) across. Analysis of such high-resolution images in combination with estimates of the features' relative elevations is helping scientists interpret the roles of volcanism and tectonics in creating the bright terrain on Ganymede.

    This image was prepared by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, and included in a report by Dr. Paul Schenk et al. in the March 1, 2001, edition of the journal Nature.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    Images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo .

  7. Eponym of Naso-Jugal Fold and Tear Trough.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the eponym of the naso-jugal fold and tear trough and to make a suggestion to standardize the terminology.In a PubMed search, the search terms (naso-jugal) and (fold OR groove); (tear trough) and (anatomy) were used, which resulted in 48 and 37 titles, respectively. Eliminating duplicated titles, 80 abstracts were reviewed. Among them, 18 full papers were reviewed. Two papers were excluded and 3 mined papers were added. Finally, 19 papers were reviewed.In a paper published by an ophthalmologist Dr David Miller, "tear trough" was first used for designating the circular trough carved into a scleral contact in 1969. In the remaining 18 papers including 1 conference presentation, 6 terms were used for the same structure; naso-jugal fold (4), naso-jugal groove (4), naso-jugal ditch (1), tear trough (5), tear trough deformity (6), and tear trough depression (1). Whitnall first used "naso-jugal" and 10 other papers stated "naso-jugal." Eight papers cited Whitnall (2), Duke-Elder (2), and Loeb (4) in the origin of the term "naso-jugal." Flowers adapted "tear trough" for the cheek groove and 12 other papers wrote "tear trough." Eleven papers cited Flowers (9), Le Louarn (1), Mendelson (1) when referring to the origin of the term "tear trough."The name of the structure should contain "naso-jugal" rather than "tear trough" because "naso-jugal" was coined earlier and expresses the location of the structure. The recommended term should be "the deepened naso-jugal groove" since it deepens with age. PMID:27315310

  8. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species. PMID:25649850

  9. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  10. Sedimentation and tectonics of the Sylhet trough, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Nur Alam, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Sylhet trough, a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin in northeastern Bangladesh, contains a thick fill (12 to 16 km) of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that record its tectonic evolution. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and petrographic data collected from outcrops, cores, well logs, and seismic lines are used to reconstruct the history of this trough. -from Authors

  11. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals are... animals. (b) Sheep, goats, and swine. Pens for these animals shall have feed troughs not less than...

  12. Modal Mineralogy of Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S. T.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Modal mineralogy of the lunar regolith is fundamentally important. It varies with the composition of underlying bedrock, extent of addition of materials excavated by impact both local and distant, and small-scale reworking by micrometeorite bombardment, so it contains information about local geological history. Determining modal mineralogy of soils provides vital ground truth to remote sensing studies. Mineralogy can be determined by a variety of techniques that provide complementary information: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), optical point counting, element mapping by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or electron microprobe (EMP), and normative calculation from a bulk chemical analysis. SEM and EMP element mapping can be converted into mineral modal abundances in a variety of ways, including defining compositional windows for specific minerals and using image processing techniques. XRD provides direct determination of the phases present, but gives little information about the chemical composition of those phases. We have launched a project to determine the modal mineralogy of over 100 lunar soils from all Apollo sites. The goal is to use this quantitative mineralogy and laboratory and remote reflectance spectra of the same soils to improve our ability to extract quantitative mineralogy from remote sensing data. Samples (< 1mm bulk soils) were dry-sieved and the <150 micron fractions analyzed in a Terra XRD instrument (InXitu, Inc.) using sample sizes of ~35 mg. We reduced the data using Reitveld refinement as implemented by the Jade program (Materials Data, Inc.). Glass abundances were determined by choosing a linear background and fitting a broad Gaussian to the scattering hump above background. Quantitative XRD is well established, but usually requires some calibration, in spite of the sophisticated Reitveld refinement and whole-pattern fitting. We calibrated the instrument by using mixtures of terrestrial minerals and results from the Lunar Sample Characterization

  13. Influence of climate on deep-water clastic sedimentation: application of a modern model, Peru-Chile Trough, to an ancient system, Ouachita Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity

  14. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  15. Modeling the mineralogy of atmospheric dust sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claquin, T.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y. J.

    1999-09-01

    The variability of atmospheric dust mineralogy influences the impact of desert dust on the Earth's radiative budget and biogeochemical cycles. Until now, atmospheric transport models have assumed that dust was a constant homogeneous mixture, hence neglecting this variability. The lack of mineralogical data in arid areas prevented a better description of the atmospheric dust composition, and we propose here a new formulation to estimate the mineral content of arid surfaces on a global scale. First, we collect a Database of Arid Soil Surface Mineralogy for eight major minerals: quartz, feldspar, calcite, gypsum, illite, kaolinite, smectite, and hematite, both for the clay and silt fraction. On the basis of this, we formulate a Mean Mineralogical Table that relates classical soil types to surface mineralogy. We use this table and the geographical distribution of soil types given in the Food and Agriculture Organization Soil Map of the World to obtain the mineralogy of arid surfaces globally. In order to validate these results, we present a compilation of measured mineralogical composition of dust samples with identified sources. The correlation between observed dust mineralogy and those inferred from soil types in corresponding areas is between 0.70 and 0.94. We then calculate the maps of the single scattering albedo and of the ratio of infrared extinction to visible extinction for the erodible fraction of arid areas. Mineralogical maps presented here will be used in future studies with an emission scheme in a global transport model.

  16. Reflectance spectroscopy and asteroid surface mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, Michael J.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    Information available from reflectance spectroscopy on the surface mineralogy of asteroids is discussed. Current spectral interpretive procedures used in the investigations of asteroid mineralogy are described. Present understanding of the nature and history of asteroids is discussed together with some still unresolved issues such as the source of ordinary chondrites.

  17. Effects of causeway construction on environment and biota of subtropical tidal flats in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Yang, Sung-Yin; White, Kristine N; Asami, Ryuji; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Hongo, Chuki; Ito, Shingo; Kawamura, Iori; Maeda, Isshu; Mizuyama, Masaru; Obuchi, Masami; Sakamaki, Takashi; Tachihara, Katsunori; Tamura, Maiko; Tanahara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Aika; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2015-05-15

    Okinawa, Japan is known for its high marine biodiversity, yet little work has been performed on examining impacts of numerous large-scale coastal development projects on its marine ecosystems. Here, we examine apparent impacts of the construction of the Kaichu-Doro causeway, which was built over 40 years ago. The causeway is a 4.75 km long embankment that divides a large tidal flat and has only two points of water exchange along its entire length. We employed quadrats, transects, sampling, visual surveys, and microbial community analyses combined with environmental, water quality data, and 1m cores, at five stations of two paired sites each (one on each side of Kaichu-Doro) to investigate how the environment and biota have changed since the Kaichu-Doro was built. Results indicate reduction in water flow, and site S1 was particularly heavily impacted by poor water quality, with low diversity and disturbed biotic communities. PMID:25865345

  18. Variations of short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.

    2013-12-01

    . Some of them accompany regular earthquakes with the maximum magnitude of ~5. A shallow Mw~6.4 SSE was detected east off southern Kyushu around January 27, 2010. VLFEs were coincidentally activated in a shallow adjacent region near the trench. Although a resolving power of SSEs along the Ryukyu arc is limited due to sparse GNSS stations, we found series of repeated SSEs near Kikaijima and Okinawa Islands in a depth of 10-30 km. A cumulative slip of the estimated SSEs over 16 years suggests along-trench variations of SSEs distribution. A band of large (> 10 cm) slip at a depth of 30-40 km stretches from Shikoku to northeast Kyushu which is ~50 km southwest of the western limit of the tremors. However, the cumulative slip in the Bungo channel and northeast Kyushu is one-third of that in western Shikoku. No shallow slip of SSEs was found from Shikoku to northeast Kyushu. Shallow separated patches of SSEs exist in a region southwest of southern Kyushu along the Ryukyu trench. The variation of SSEs may be related with that of large megathrust earthquakes, that is, repeated Mw>8 and few earthquakes along the Nankai Trough and the Ryukyu Trench, respectively.

  19. Cobbles in Troughs Between Meridiani Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues to traverse from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the rover navigates along exposures of bedrock between large, wind-blown ripples. Along the way, scientists have been studying fields of cobbles that sometimes appear on trough floors between ripples. They have also been studying the banding patterns seen in large ripples.

    This view, obtained by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 802nd Martian day (sol) of exploration (April 27, 2006), is a mosaic spanning about 30 degrees. It shows a field of cobbles nestled among wind-driven ripples that are about 20 centimeters (8 inches) high.

    The origin of cobble fields like this one is unknown. The cobbles may be a lag of coarser material left behind from one or more soil deposits whose finer particles have blown away. The cobbles may be eroded fragments of meteoritic material, secondary ejecta of Mars rock thrown here from craters elsewhere on the surface, weathering remnants of locally-derived bedrock, or a mixture of these. Scientists will use the panoramic camera's multiple filters to study the rock types, variability and origins of the cobbles.

    This is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters.

  20. Interior trough deposits on Mars: Subice volcanoes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread, several-kilometer-thick successions of layered deposits occur as mounds that partly fill the troughs or chasmata that compose the Valles Marineris on Mars. Like terrestrial subice volcanoes, the layered deposits occur in a volcano-tectonic setting within basins that may have held ponded water or ice. On the basis of their dimensions, morphologies, and associated catastrophic floods and other geologic events as shown in Viking and new Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets, we suggest that the interior deposits are volcanic in origin and possibly generated by subice eruptions. A tuya origin for the mounds can explain the lack of external sediment, mound heights that can rival the plateau, local flat-topped mesas, morphologically distinct mounds of different ages, horizontal to steep dips, fine-grained materials, indications of rare volcanic vents and lava flows, and spectral composition. The extremely diverse layering of west Candor Chasma and possible volcanic cones in Melas may have formed by related subaerial eruptions. Consistent with the suggestion that interior deposits are eroding out of the wall rock, some deposits could have been erupted from sites along the walls.

  1. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. Detail view of concrete trough and metal stanchions at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of concrete trough and metal stanchions at east side of middle level, with scale stick - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Cow Barn, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr Avenue SE, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  5. 6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  6. Troughs under threshold modeling of minimum flows in perennial streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önöz, B.; Bayazit, M.

    2002-02-01

    Troughs under threshold analysis has so far found little application in the modeling of minimum streamflows. In this study, all the troughs under a certain threshold level are considered in deriving the probability distribution of annual minima through the total probability theorem. For the occurrence of minima under the threshold, Poissonian, binomial or negative binomial processes are assumed. The magnitude of minima follows the generalized Pareto, exponential or power distribution. It is shown that asymptotic extreme value distributions for minima or the two-parameter Weibull distribution is obtained for the annual minima, depending on which models are assumed for the occurrence and magnitude of troughs under the threshold. Derived distributions can be used for modeling the minimum flows in streams which do not have zero flows. Expressions for the T-year annual minimum flow are obtained. An example illustrates the application of the troughs under threshold model to the minimum flows observed in a stream.

  7. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes. PMID:26201386

  8. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; et al

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers ofmore » the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.« less

  9. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  10. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-01-01

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ-15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  11. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miguel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Orgando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  12. Mineralogical characteristics of electric arc furnace dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagni, Ann M.; Hagni, Richard D.; Demars, Christelle

    1991-04-01

    Reflected light microscopy can contribute important information regarding the mineralogy, mineral abundance, internal textures, sizes and shapes of particles in electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis are useful to determine the chemical compositions of the specific mineral grains in the dust particles. Furthermore, the mineralogical reactions that have taken place during the pyro-metallurgical treatment of EAF dusts and the mineralogy and textural character of those treated dust samples can be directly observed by reflected light microscopy. Such studies are useful in monitoring the efficiency of experimental pyrometallurgical treatment of EAF dusts which are designed to render them nonhazardous.

  13. Radiocarbon Analysis of Elemental Carbon and Total Organic Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Handa, D.; Nakajima, H.; Kumata, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shibata, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2008-12-01

    A study was initiated to understand the sources and behaviors of carbon-containing compounds in the atmospheric aerosols in East Asian region. As an initial attempt, we collected airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter <10 micrometer (PM10) in Okinawa, Japan and analyzed 14C/12C ratio in EC and total organic carbon (TOC) to apportion source of biomass and fossil fuel combustion in PM10 aerosols. Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia. Aerosol particles were collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan. Each sample was collected for two weeks with a high-volume air sampler at a rate of 1000 L min-1 to collect aerosol particles on a quartz filter, which was pre-combusted before use to eliminate residual organic compounds. Radiocarbon is measured in AMS facility (NIES-TERRA) at National Institute for Environmental Studies after preparing graphite. The results showed that during Asian dust events in March and April, both APM and EC in PM10 aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan were much higher than those of non-Asian dust event. The percent modern carbon (pMC) of EC and TOC was much smaller for the PM10 aerosols collected during Asian dust events than those of non-dust event. When maritime air mass prevailed, biomass originated organic compounds were the major TOC in the aerosols. We will report data on 14C/12C ratio of EC and TOC in PM10 aerosols collected at CHAAMS during March to October, 2008

  14. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  15. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Nakaema, F.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2009-12-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. A computer simulation study showed that air pollutants emitted from Asian continent could spread quickly within northern hemisphere. We initiated a study to elucidate the special distribution and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols around Okinawa archipelago, Japan. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same types of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa Island), Kume Island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS) and Minami-daitou Island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We report and discuss spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species concentrations in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected during July, 2008 to July, 2009. We determine “background” concentration of chemical components in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume Island and Minami-daito Island to elucidate the influence of the long-range transport of chemical species from Asian continent.

  16. Vesta Mineralogy: VIR maps Vesta's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coradina, A.; DeSanctis, M.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, T.; Carraro, F.; Cartacci, M.; Filacchione, G.; Fonte, S.; Magni, G.; Noschese, R.; Tosi, F.; Barucci, A.; Federico, C.; Frigeri, A.; Fulchigoni, M.; Langevin, Y.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Turrini, D.; McCord, T.; McFadden, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    The Dawn mission will have completed Survey orbit around 4 Vesta by the end of August 2011. We present a preliminary analysis of data acquired by the Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (VIR) to map Vesta mineralogy. Thermal properties and mineralogical data are combined to provide constraints on Vesta's formation and thermal evolution. delivery of exogenic materials, space weathering processes, and origin of the howardite. eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  17. A mineralogical instrument for planetary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Vaniman, David T.; Bish, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The mineralogy of a planetary surface can be used to identify the provenance of soil or sediment and reveal the volcanic, metamorphic and/or sedimentological history of a particular region. We have discussed elsewhere the applications and the instrument design of possible X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) devices for the mineralogical characterization of planetary surfaces. In this abstract we evaluate some aspects of sample-detector geometry and sample collection strategies.

  18. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  19. Daytime F layer trough observed on a macroscopic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J.A. )

    1987-03-01

    This paper reports a new technique of observing the high-latitude ionospheric trough which defines its continuity in space and time on a macroscopic scale not previously possible. Vertical ionospheric soundings provide the observations in the midday to evening sector where the signature of the trough is found to be a bite-out' of a factor of 3-10 in the diurnal distribution of the solar produced electron density at the F layer maximum. The data base employed is that produced by the extensive array of ionospheric sounders operating at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere during the International Geophysical Year period of December 1958, hence at solar maximum. The worldwide extent, high density, simultaneity, and continuity of these measurements make possible the description of the trough for the first time as an integral, spatially continuous entity in its entire daytime extent and UT duration. The technique is demonstrated in studies of 4 days which span the range of activity for the month. On the most disturbed day the daytime trough is continuous in magnetic latitude, magnetic local time between (75{degree}, 1030) and (51{degree}, 1630) and remains nearly stationary in this frame of reference for a duration of 14.5 hours UT. A snapshot' constructed from multiple simultaneous observations on this day shows the trough to have a continuous length of 6 {times} 10{sup 3} km and an area of > 4 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. The trough, which is also stable for similar durations on the other 3 days, is found to rotate clockwise to earlier magnetic local time by 5.5. hours and to expand equatorward in magnetic latitude by 20{degree} as activity increases from quiet to disturbed. Activity dependence and morphology are consistent with other observations that the trough locates rapid westward convection within the dusk convection cell.

  20. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  1. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I

  2. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

    2007-12-01

    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  3. Geomorphological and mineralogical mapping of Hebes Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Gwinner, K.; Gendrin, A.; Fueten, F.; Stesky, R.; Pelkey, S.; Zegers, T.; Bibring, J. P.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    Despite more than three decades of analysis, the origin of the Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) in the Valles Marineris (VM) trough system is still unknown. The advance of new remote sensing data obtained by the recent planetary missions Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (MO), and Mars Express (MEX) allow investigation of the morphology and composition in unprecedented detail. This study focusses on Hebes Chasma in the central VM, which is unique because it contains a huge mesa of ILD in a completely closed depression. We used topographic data from the HRSC camera onboard MEX to analyze the geometry of layering in Hebes Mensa with the Orion structural analysis software. Strike and dip were measured in 50m/px gridded Digital Elevation Models and corresponding orthoimages. These data have a higher spatial resolution than those used in an earlier study. We find that the layers dip gently in the downslope direction. These results are in agreement with our earlier results in Hebes Chasma and with our similar ILD studies in western Candor and Ophir Chasmata, also based on HRSC topography. A mineralogic map indicating concentrations of polyhydrated sulfates, kieserite, and oxides was produced from OMEGA spectral data. It shows that these alteration minerals are only observed in low-lying areas, which are not covered by landslides. We consider a lacustrine origin of the ILD in Hebes Chasma as unlikely. The downslope dipping of ILD layers is in agreement with a draping process, e.g., pyroclastic fall deposits from a W-E trending volcanic vent, or a series of WNW-ESE trending vents in an en echelon alignment. Thin, finely layered deposits on top of the plateaus surrounding vm (e.g., west of Juventae or south of Ius ChasmaTA) could represent that portion of the pyroclastics which escaped the troughs and were distributed on the adjacent high plains. The occurrence of alteration minerals only in very deep portions of Hebes Chasma also argues against a deposition in a deep

  4. Errors in trough: peak ratio determinations induced by patient behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dutrey-Dupagne; Vaur; Genès; Mallion; Meredith; Elkik

    1996-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Trough: peak ratio is often used to evaluate the duration of antihypertensive action. Whatever the method of measurement chosen, trough effect has to be measured 24 h after the last drug intake for a once daily regimen. Peak effect is usually measured 4-6 h after drug intake. If patients' compliance to therapeutic instructions is perfect, then the 'intrinsic' trough: peak ratio of the drug is equal to the measured trough: peak ratio. Some patients do not follow these instructions, leading to biases in the evaluation of the ratio. For trough evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the last dose of the drug the day before blood pressure measurement. However, if some patients (n1) wrongly take the drug in the morning of the visit, they will be evaluated at peak (type A error). For peak evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the drug a few hours before blood pressure measurement. If some patients (n2) miss their morning dose, they will be evaluated at trough (type B error). METHODS: In the MACH 1 study, the use of an electronic pill count monitor allowed us to quantify n1/N and n2/N. A total of 452 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group 1 received written instructions to take their last dose during the morning of the day before the visit, whereas patients of group 2 had to take their last dose on the morning of the visit. RESULTS: Electronic pill-box recording revealed that 32.9%: of patients in group 1 committed type A error, whereas 27.7% of patients in group 2 committed type B error. The resulting 'pill-box corrected' trough: peak ratio was lower (87.5% for diastolic blood pressure and 93.1% for systolic blood pressure) than the uncorrected trough: peak ratio (95.2% for diastolic blood pressure and 96.0% for systolic blood pressure) of the population. CONCLUSION: The random behaviour of patients, with respect to treatment compliance, results in a systematic overestimation of the measured trough

  5. Characterization of Mineralogy Across Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Capaccioni, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    Dawn VIR spectra are characterized by pyroxene absorptions and no clear evidence for abundant other minerals are observed at the scale of the present measurements. Even though Vesta spectra are dominated by pyroxenes, spectral variation at regional and local scales are evident and distinct color units are identified. Although almost all of the surface materials exhibit spectra like those of howardites, some large units can be interpreted to be material richer in diogenite (based on pyroxenes band depths and band centers) and some others like eucrite-rich howardite units. VIR data strongly indicate that the south polar region (Rheasilvia) has its own spectral characteristics, indicating the presence of Mg-pyroxene-rich terrains (diogenite-like), while the equatorial areas have swallower band depths and average band centers at slightly longer wavelengths, consistent with more eucrite rich materials. Vesta surface shows considerable diversity at smaller scales (tens of km), in terms of spectral reflectance and emission, band depths and slopes. Many bright and dark spots are present on Vesta. Dark spots have low reflectance at visible wavelengths and are spectrally characterized by shallower 1 and 2 micron bands with respect the surrounding terrains. Bright materials have high reflectance and are often spectrally characterized by deep pyroxenes absorption bands. Vesta presents complex geology/topography and the mineral distribution is often correlated with geological and topographical structures. Ejecta from large craters have distinct spectral behaviors, and materials exposed in the craters show distinct spectra on floors and rims. VIR reveals the mineralogical variation of Vesta s crustal stratigraphy on local and global scales. Maps of spectral parameters show surface and subsurface unit compositions in their stratigraphic context. The hypothesis that Vesta is the HED parent body is consistent with, and strengthened by, the geologic and spectral context for pyroxene

  6. Tear trough deformity: review of anatomy and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Stutman, Ross L; Codner, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    The lower eyelid can be a challenging area in facial rejuvenation. While lower eyelid bags are commonly the reason that patients present for lower eyelid rejuvenation, a separate entity known as a tear trough deformity may occur in conjunction with lower eyelid bags or alone. In this article, the authors outline the current understanding of the tear trough anatomy; describe multiple classification systems, which provide an objective means of evaluating the deformity and aid the surgeon in choosing appropriate treatment options; and review surgical and nonsurgical techniques for correcting the tear trough deformity. Treatment options include hyaluronic acid filler, fat grafting, skeletal implants, and fat transposition. Each procedure is associated with advantages and disadvantages, and each should be considered more complex than traditional lower blepharoplasty alone. While lower blepharoplasty removes excess fat and may tighten the anterior lamella, tear trough procedures require the addition of volume to the underlying depression. These procedures requiring release of the ligamentous structures and orbicularis (of which the tear trough is composed), as well as fat transposition or fat grafting, are associated with additional complications, which are also reviewed. PMID:22523096

  7. Aeolian Sediment Transport Pathways and Aerodynamics at Troughs on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Mary C.; Bullard, Joanna E.; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier S.

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between wind regimes and topography can give rise to complex suites of aeolian landforms. This paper considers aeolian sediment associated wit11 troughs on Mars and identifies a wider range of deposit types than has previously been documented. These include wind streaks, falling dunes, "lateral" dunes, barchan dunes, linear dunes, transverse ridges, sand ramps, climbing dunes, sand streamers, and sand patches. The sediment incorporated into these deposits is supplied by wind streaks and ambient Planitia sources as well as originating within the trough itself, notably from the trough walls and floor. There is also transmission of sediment between dneTsh. e flow dynamics which account for the distribution of aeolian sediment have been modeled using two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. The model predicts flow separation on the upwind side of the trough followed by reattachment and acceleration at the downwind margin. The inferred patterns of sediment transport compare well with the distribution of aeolian forms. Model data indicate an increase of wind velocity by approx. 30 % at the downwind trough margin. This suggests that the threshold wind speed necessary for sand mobilization on Mars will be more freqentmlye t in these inclined locations.

  8. Tear trough deformity: different types of anatomy and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jindou; Wang, Xuekun; Chen, Rongrong; Xia, Xueying; Sun, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the efficacy of tear trough deformity treatment with the use of hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat for soft tissue augmentation and fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. Material and methods Seventy-eight patients with the tear trough were divided into three groups. Class I has tear trough without bulging orbital fat or excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class II is associated with mild to moderate orbital fat bulging, without excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class III is associated with severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class I or II was treated using hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat injections. Class III was treated with fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. The patients with a deep nasojugal groove of class III were treated with injecting autologous fat into the tear trough during fat repositioning lower blepharoplasty as a way of supplementing the volume added by the repositioned fat. Results Seventy-eight patients with tear trough deformity were confirmed from photographs taken before and after surgery. There were some complications, but all had complete resolution. Conclusions Patients with mild to moderate peri-orbital volume loss without severe orbital fat bulging may be good candidates for hyaluronic acid filler or fat grafting alone. However, patients with more pronounced deformities, severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin are often better served by fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release and fat grafting. PMID:27605904

  9. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 μM. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 μM, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 μM, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  10. Interspecific interactions among species of the coral genus Porites from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, B; Sakai, K

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of field established xenogeneic interactions among five Porites species from Sesoko Island, Okinawa, revealed a transitive type of hierarchy as: P. rus >P. cylindrica >P. lobata >P. australiensis>P. lutea. Out of the 111 interspecific encounters studied, in only 5.4% reciprocal interactions were recorded, and in a single case, the opposite directionality of hierarchy was documented. Allogeneic encounters were also observed. A single major effector mechanism, an overgrowth (together with secondary outcomes such as the formation of small points of rejection, bleaching and pink color formation along a narrow peripheral belt of contacting tissues), was the only response in all 10 xenogeneic and 5 allogeneic combinations. In some massive colonies, a long contacting line of up to 50 cm was established. No sign for allelopathy, stand-off or rejection from a distance (i.e., by sweeper tentacles, sweeper polyps) was observed. Results are discussed with the accumulated data on Porites species from different reefs, worldwide, confirming that this genus is commonly lower in the hierarchy of xenogeneic interactions. PMID:16351822

  11. Multiple copies of SRY on the large Y chromosome of the Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki.

    PubMed

    Murata, Chie; Yamada, Fumio; Kawauchi, Norihiro; Matsuda, Yoichi; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2010-09-01

    The Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki, is the only species with a Y chromosome in the genus Tokudaia. Its phylogenic relationship with two XO/XO species, Tokudaia osimensis and Tokudaia tokunoshimensis, lacking a Y chromosome and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY, is unknown. Furthermore, there has been little cytogenetic analysis of the sex chromosomes in T. muenninki. Therefore, we constructed molecular phylogenetic trees with nucleotide sequences of cyt b, RAG1, and IRBP. All trees strongly supported that T. muenninki was the first to diverge from the Tokudaia ancestor, indicating that loss of the Y chromosome and SRY occurred in the common ancestor of the two XO/XO species after T. muenninki diverged. We found that the X and Y chromosomes of T. muenninki consisted of large euchromatic and heterochromatic regions by conducting G- and C-banding analyses. PCR, Southern blotting, and FISH revealed that T. muenninki males had multiple SRY copies on the long arm of the Y chromosome. At least three of 24 SRY sequences contained a complete open reading frame (ORF). A species-specific substitution from alanine to serine was found in all copies at the DNA-binding surface within the HMG-box, suggesting that it occurred in an original SRY. PMID:20574822

  12. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  13. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  14. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  15. Tectonic evolution of the Tobago Trough forearc basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R.; Torrini, R., Jr.; Smith, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    The histories of configurational changes and sedimentation in the Tobago Trough, which is a modern bathymetric forearc basin of the Lesser Antilles island arc, were investigated using marine seismic data from the Tobago Trough. Special attention is given to two tectonic problems. The first is the evolution of the southeastern corner of the Caribbean as related to the finding that the early forearc basins had substantially different configurations from that of the modern forearc basin. The second is the interaction between the forearc basin and the accretionary prism within the Lesser Antilles system. It is pointed out that Miocene and younger features of the Tobago Trough might reflect a superposition of tectonism associated with the development of the Neogene Lesser Antilles arc on an older arc system.

  16. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  17. Ancient buried submarine trough, northwest Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berryhill, H.L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large buried submarine trough crosses the seaward margin of the continental shelf off the southwest coast of Louisiana. Original length was about 90 km, and width at the shelf edge was 16 km. Maximum eroded depth may have been as much as 305 m. Seismic characteristics of the prograded fill indicate cyclically repeated sequences of retrogressive deltaic and partly slumped sediments overlain by well-layered transgressive deposits. Slumping was increasingly prevalent toward the shelf edge. The cyclic sequences indicate that the trough was a passageway for large volumes of sediment onto the continental slope during several stages of lowered sea level. ?? 1981 A.M. Dowden, Inc.

  18. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap: A Pathway for Sustained Commercial Development and Deployment of Parabolic-Trough Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.

    1999-01-31

    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop.

  19. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  20. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, I. D. R.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of current investigations on the mineralogy of chondritic micrometeorites obtained from the lower stratosphere using flat-plate collection surfaces attached to high-flying aircraft. A compilation of detailed mineralogical analyses for 30 documented chondritic interplanetary dust particles indicates a wide variety of minerals present in assemblages which, as yet, are poorly defined. Two possible assemblages are: (1) carbonaceous phases and layer silicates and (2) carbonaceous and chain silicates or nesosilicates. Particles with both types of silicate assemblages are also observed.

  1. High-resolution MIRU-VNTRs typing reveals the unique nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage is highly prevalent in Japan. The aim of the present study was to describe the population structure of the Beijing lineage in this country based on 12-, 15-, and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping schemes. The MIRU-VNTR patterns of Beijing strains from Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands were compared to those recently published from the Osaka-Kobe megalopolis of the main island of Japan, Honshu (Wada et al., 2009). We also compared proportions of "modern/typical" vs. "ancient/atypical" Beijing strains as defined by structure of the NTF locus. Contrarily to the 12-loci Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), the 15- and 21-loci trees allowed the distinction of two groups of strains in Okinawa. A 12-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern (223325173533) corresponding to MIRU international type MIT17 was identified as the most prevalent Beijing genotype in Japan. In the SITVIT2 database, this pattern was found to be disseminated worldwide and corresponded to the most widely distributed Beijing profile in East Asia and former USSR countries. A comparison of 15- and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR patterns showed that two loci (QUB-4156 and Mtub21) were most polymorphic in our study, and could be potential candidates to distinguish between NTF locus based subclassification of Beijing strains. High-resolution VNTR typing using 15- and 21-loci underlined an evolutionarily distinct "ancient/atypical" subpopulation of the Beijing genotype in Okinawa as well as a subgroup of strains closely related to "modern/typical" Beijing strains observed in Osaka/Kobe. PMID:21723420

  2. Deep-water hydrocarbon potential of Georges Bank Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Levie, D.S. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Characterization of the petroleum potential for Georges Bank Trough has been based primarily on limited organic geochemical data that indicate the area of recent drilling activity behind the paleoshelf edge to be poor in organic carbon and C/sub 15/ + extract values, with predominantly terrestrial kerogen types. Maturation data also suggest an inadequate thermal history for hydrocarbon generation in the area. It is possible that the effects of heat flow from the New England Seamount Chain may contribute to hydrocarbon generation in the Georges Bank Trough - a relationship that may also exist between the Newfoundland Seamount Chain and the Hibernia area of the Grand Banks. Also, comparisons can be drawn between the Atlantic Fracture Zone bordering the Georges Bank Trough and the Romanche-St. Paul Fracture Zone off the Ivory Coast. In the latter region, restricted anoxic environments with sediments rich in marine kerogen types have been identified, as have both structural and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms. Within this rhombochasm configuration, reservoir lithologies of sandstone and carbonate turbidites, fractured deep-water chalks, and reefal limestones should occur. The relationships of seamount to fracture zone, as applied to the rhombochasm model for the Georges Bank Trough, should enhance the hydrocarbon potential of the lower Mesozoic sediments seaward of the paleoshelf edge and thus classify this area as a future major hydrocarbon province.

  3. Electrodynamic structure of the morning high-latitude trough region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A.; Voiculescu, M.; Juusola, L.; Nygrén, T.; Kuula, R.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the electrodynamics of a postmidnight, high-latitude ionospheric trough, observed with the European Incoherent Scatter radar in northern Scandinavia on 24-25 June 2003 around 22:00-02:30 UT during quiet conditions. The UHF radar made meridian scans with a 30 min cadence resulting in nine cross sections of ionospheric parameters. The F region electric field was also determined with the tristatic system. Ionospheric equivalent currents, calculated from ground magnetometer data, mostly show an electrojet-like current that is reasonably uniform in the longitudinal direction. Combined analysis of the conductances and equivalent current with a local Kamide-Richmond-Matsushita (KRM) method yields the ionospheric electric field and field-aligned current (FAC) in a 2-D (latitude-longitude) area around the radar. We conclude that the most likely scenario is one where the trough is initially created poleward of the auroral oval by downward FAC that evacuates the F region, but as the trough moves to lower latitudes during the early morning hours, it becomes colocated with the westward electrojet. There the electron density further decreases due to increased recombination caused by enhanced ion temperature, which in turn is brought about by a larger convection speed. Later in the morning the convection speed decreases and the trough is filled by increasing photoionization.

  4. Identification of Risk Factors for Elevated Neonatal Gentamicin Trough Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, John; Noyes, Elizabeth; Corriveau, Michele; Mercier, Charles

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify neonatal and maternal characteristics that may be associated with elevated neonatal gentamicin trough concentrations despite application of a previously published gentamicin dosage strategy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all neonates admitted to University of Vermont Medical Center (562-bed academic teaching hospital, Burlington, VT) receiving gentamicin between June 1, 2009, and August 31, 2013. A total of 205 neonates were included, with 41 cases and 164 controls. RESULTS: Postmenstrual age (PMA, gestational age plus chronological age) and small-for–gestational age (SGA) status were independently associated with elevated neonatal gentamicin trough concentrations. No maternal risk factor evaluated remained significantly associated in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of an elevated gentamicin trough concentration increases with lower PMA and is further accentuated in neonates with SGA status. In contrast, the presence of maternal risk factors did not increase the likelihood of elevated gentamicin trough concentrations. Neonates with lower PMA and SGA status may require an individualized dosage and monitoring strategy. PMID:27199620

  5. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  6. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  7. Solar Thermal Power Plants with Parabolic-Trough Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L.; León, J.

    2004-12-01

    Parabolic-trough collectors (PTC) are solar concentrating devices suitable to work in the 150°C- 400°C temperature range. Power plants based on this type of solar collectors are a very efficient way to produce electricity with solar energy. At present, there are eight commercial solar plants (called SEGS-II, III,.. IX) producing electricity with parabolic-trough collectors and their total output power is 340 MW. Though all SEGS plants currently in operation use thermal oil as a heat transfer fluid between the solar field and the power block, direct steam generation (DSG) in the receiver tubes is a promising option to reduce the cost of electricity produced with parabolic- trough power plants. Most of technical uncertainties associated to the DSG technology were studied and solved in the DISS project and it is expected that this new technology will be commercially available in a short term. In Spain, the Royal Decree No. 436/204 (March 12th , 2004) has defined a premium of 0,18€/kWh for the electricity produced by solar thermal power plants, thus promoting the installation of solar thermal power plants up to a limit of 200 MW. Due to the current legal and financial framework defined in Spain, several projects to install commercial solar power plants with parabolic-trough collectors are currently underway.

  8. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  9. 3. WOODLINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WOOD-LINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN POSITION, LOOKING NORTH. TRANSVERSE GIRDERS HAVE BEEN ADDED TO HELP STABILIZE THE AQUEDUCT. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Tinker's Creek Aqueduct, Canal Road, South Tinkers Creek Road, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. Parabolic trough solar power for competitive U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-07-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 190. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a results of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive US power market.

  11. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  12. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  13. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)). PMID:27262360

  14. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substantially contributes to particulate organic matter affecting the regional and global air quality and the climate. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected in October 2009 to February 2012 on a weekly basis at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian aerosols and precursors. The TSP samples were analyzed for SOA tracers derived from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Total isoprene-SOA tracers showed a maximum in summer (2.12 ± 2.02 ng m-3) and minimum in winter (1.16 ± 0.92 ng m-3). This seasonality is mainly controlled by isoprene emission from the local subtropical forest, followed by regional scale emission of isoprene from the surrounding seas and long-range transported air masses. Total monoterpene-SOA tracers peaked in March (3.38 ± 2.03 ng m-3) followed by October (2.95 ± 1.62 ng m-3). In contrast, sesquiterpene-SOA tracer, β-caryophyllinic acid, showed winter maximum (1.63 ± 1.18 ng m-3) and summer minimum (0.20 ± 0.46 ng m-3). The variations of the monoterpene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are likely related to the continental outflow of oxidation products of BVOC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the total biogenic SOC of 0.25-157 ng m-3 (mean 35.8 ng m-3) that accounts for 0.01-9.8% (mean 2.7%) of aerosol organic carbon. Our study suggests that SOA formation in the western North Pacific Rim is involved with not only local but also regional emissions followed by long-range atmospheric transport.

  15. Moessbauer mineralogy of calcined Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Hiroi, T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    The three Antarctic meteorites B7904, Y82162, and Y86720 are unusual because they have characteristics in common with both CI and CM groups and because they apparently underwent thermal alteration after hydrous alteration on their parent body. They are also spectrally similar (visible and near-IR) to C, G, B, and F asteroids, which may imply that the surface materials on those asteroids may have undergone thermal alteration. Based on the reflectance spectra of samples of Murchison (CM2 carbonaceous chondrite) that were thermally altered in the laboratory (cryopumped and initial 10(exp -5) atm H2), Hiroi et al. concluded that putative thermal alteration occurred at temperatures of 600 to 1000 C. Similar experiments have been done on Murchison and reported mineralogical changes based on data from transmission electron diffraction microscopy, electron diffraction, and analytical electron microscopy. We report here the Mossbauer mineralogy of the same samples of thermally-altered Murchison. Mossbauer mineralogy gives the molar distribution of Fe among its oxidation states and iron-bearing mineralogies.

  16. Mineralogy of artificially heated carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Hiroi, T.

    1994-01-01

    We have examined suites of heated Murchison (CM2) and Allende (CV3) samples heated in the range 400-1200 C, in a H2 atmosphere with a pressure of 10(exp 5) bar for periods of 1 to 4 weeks. We used a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe and TEM analyses to determine the mineralogy of these samples.

  17. Biogenic carbonate mineralogies through the Phanerozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Constantz, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence is rapidly becoming available which indicates that global ocean chemistry has fluctuated with respect to carbonate solubility through Phanerozoic time; the mineralogy of inorganically precipitated carbonate cements appears to have changed as a result. Reported here are new scanning and transmission electron microscopic and ultrastructural evidence together with theoretical calculations that suggest such changes in global ocean chemistry also mediated mineralogic changes in the carbonate skeletons or some organisms. Many groups of organisms are thought to mediate the entire skeletal crystal growth process by actively directing ions into a potentially charged organic matrix, always constructing a specific mineral. A host of other groups of organisms only initiate skeletal crystal growth so that the majority of their skeletal mineral growth is physicochemical, akin to the precipitation of marine cements; inorganic skeletal crystal growth is usually followed by readsorption of these inorganically precipitating crystals by the organism, halting crystal growth and forming skeletons of finished adaptive design. The author propose that physicochemical dominated skeletonizers had heterogeneous primary mineralogies through Phanerozoic time; he further suggests that organisms most susceptible to mineralogic inversion with changing ocean chemistry are those that, by new definition (presented here), are organisms which are the dominant reef builders of any given ancient carbonate system.

  18. Mineralogical Controls on Cold Desert Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, E. D.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Wright, I. P.; Grady, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Textural and chemical alteration of silicates is studied in L6 chondrites with relation to local mineral reactions and distance from the rim of the samples. Alteration is seen to be complex and more related to adjacent mineralogy than rim distance.

  19. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Fendrich, K. V.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yen, A. S.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Craig, P. I.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Gellert, R.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  20. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  1. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  2. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  3. Development of sheet-metal parabolic-trough reflector panels

    SciTech Connect

    Biester, A.W.

    1982-06-01

    Efforts to develop accurate, durable, and mass producible sheet metal parabolic trough solar collectors and the associated support for the collectors are described. The design considered is similar to an automobile hood, a two-piece sheet metal structure consisting of a formed steel frame or stiffening panel and a smooth contoured skin. The two pieces may be bonded or welded to form a rigid structure, and a reflective surface applied such as a film, glass mirror, or any of the presently utilized materials. The work encompassed material selection, adhesive selection and testing, tool design and fabrication, prototype panel production, and design and development of torque tube assemblies on which the trough is inclined. Appended are results of adhesive bonding studies. It is found that high volume technology can be used to produce accurate and structurally sound reflector panels, and one configuration has been selected for fabrication in suitable quantities for performance testing. (LEW)

  4. Investigation of anthropogenic-origin-metals in the atmospheric aerosols collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.; Azechi, S.; Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Kasaba, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are important to atmospheric chemistry, and affect our lives. Aerosols include fine particles, which consist of inorganic compounds, organic substances, heavy metals, etc. Aerosols can be roughly separated into natural and anthropogenic origins. For example, natural origins include wind-blown sea-salt, Asian dust (called Kosa in Japan), etc. Anthropogenic origins include burning of fossil fuel and agricultural biomass, automobiles, industrial activities, etc. In Japan, Kosa is the most well-known aerosol. This study investigated anthropogenic-origin-metals present in the aerosols. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa Island, Japan with a high volume air sampler. Samples analyzed for this study were collected between January 2008 and August 2014. A 1/8 of aerosol filter was digested by the mixture of acids and oxidant (nitric acid/hydrogen fluoride/hydrogen peroxide). The sample was filtered by 0.45 μm membrane filter before analyses. Metal ion concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Na, Mg, K) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb). Air mass movement was analyzed by NOAA's HYSPRIT model. Results showed that concentrations of heavy metals were high during winter and spring, and the lowest in summer. V/Mn ratios were used as an indicator for heavy oil burning. High V/Mn ratios were observed during maritime air mass periods. On the other hand, Pb/Zn ratio was used as an indicator for leaded gasoline usage, which was high when air mass was coming from Asian continent during winter and spring. Average Pb/Zn ratio was 0.65. Non-sea-salt K (nss-K) was used as an indicator for biomass burning, and showed good correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. However, nss-K and crustal-origin-metals also showed good correlation. Thus, we have to be careful when considering whether nss-K is from

  5. The Rome trough and evolution of the Iapetean margin

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.; Hamilton-Smith, T.; Drahovzal, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent structural mapping of the Rome trough suggests a complex structure very different from the symmetrical and laterally continuous graben commonly depicted. Early and Middle Cambrian extension in the Rome trough of eastern Kentucky and adjacent areas resulted in a series of alternately facing half-grabens with variable displacement. These half-grabens are bounded by southwest-northeast-trending normal faults (e.g., Kentucky River and Warfield faults), which are laterally continuous only on the order to tens of kilometers. The Rome trough is laterally segmented by north-south-trending faults (e.g., Lexington fault) commonly expressed as flexures in younger rocks (e.g., Burning Springs anticline and Floyd County channel). Many of these north-south-trending faults have significant left-lateral displacement, and probably represent reactivated thrust faults of the Grenville tectonic front. The Rome trough and the associated Mississippi Valley, Rough Creek, and Birmingham fault systems were initiated during an Early Cambrian shift in sea-floor spreading from the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift to the Ouachita rift along the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault. These fault systems have been proposed as having originated from extensional stress propagated northward from the Ouachita rift across the transform fault. In the alternate model proposed here, faulting was brittle, extensional failure resulting form subsidence and flexure of the continental margin to the east. Following initiation of sea-floor spreading at the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift in the latest Proterozoic, margin subsidence in the presence of the Alabama-Oklahoma transform boundary and the inherited Grenville tectonic front resulted in this interior cratonic fault system.

  6. Detecting Strain Transients in the Salton Trough (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. J.; Segall, P.; Herring, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Salton Trough region routinely experiences fault creep transients with time-scales of days to weeks, and previous studies have documented a temporal relationship between these aseimsic transients and earthquake swarms. The Plate Boundary Observatory has greatly increased the density of continuous geodetic data available in the Salton Trough, and we are analyzing this dataset to detect time periods when aseismic transients occurred in the Salton Trough. We are searching the daily GPS solutions for the time period from 2005-2009 for transients using Kalman Filter based detection algorithm called the Network Strain Filter [Ohtani, McGuire, and Segall, 2009]. The NSF solves for estimates of the secular velocity field and a time-vary transient displacement field that are expanded in basis functions. We utilize two dimensional wavelets as the basis functions. Spatial smoothing of the transient and secular velocity field are achieved by weighting the prior covariance matrix elements based on the scale of the individual wavelet basis. Site specific colored noise (seasonal terms, etc) is estimated as an random walk for each component. The vast majority of the Salton Trough GPS records are well explained by a combination of secular velocity and seasonal terms. However, we do find two spatially coherent transient episodes visible at multiple stations in the GPS data. The largest occurs near the southern extension of the Superstition Hills fault (Weinert Fault) during the second half of 2007. About 1 cm of extra motion to the northwest is observed at station P494, P496, and P497. The time scale of this transient is a few months. A second, smaller more abrupt transient is observed at stations P500 and P744 at the time of the February 2008 earthquake swarm at Cerro Prieto. We are investigating whether these two transients can be explained by slip on the Superstition Hills and Imperial faults respectively.

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Concept of Methane Hydrate System in the eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakubo, S.; Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Kawasaki, T.

    2008-12-01

    By the study of the Phase 1 (FY2001-2008) of the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium), MH21 Research Consortium showed that methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediments had a potential to develop in the future. It is important to clarify the accumulation mechanism and processes of methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediment because it would contribute to explore new methane hydrate field to develop other than the eastern Nankai Trough in the future. Therefore Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), as a member of MH21 Research Consortium, has been constructing a concept of Methane Hydrate System (methane generation and migration, MH formation and dissociation) with methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediment. We extracted critical elements and executed processes to summarize Methane Hydrate System in the eastern Nankai Trough by reviewing past geochemical analysis, well logs and core analyses, seismic interpretations, and laboratory studies for the eastern Nankai Trough. We also conducted case studies using 1D and 2D numerical simulators developed for the clarification of methane hydrate accumulation mechanism. It was determined that there are still many unsolved issues as listed below though we try to construct a concept of Methane Hydrate System in the eastern Nankai Trough. 1.Methane source and migration -methane-dominant generation depth -methane generation rate. -driving forces of methane migration 2.Occurrences and distribution -occurrences and distribution of methane hydrates other than methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediment. -methane-bearing fluid condition (properties, distribution) below methane hydrate bearing zones. 3.Relation between seafloor phenomena and methane hydrate occurences. 4.Impact of geohistory and sea level (water depth) change to methane hydrate accumulation. New investigation surveys (drilling and geological/geochemical surveys on seafloor) are required to

  9. Grounding zone wedges, Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebesco, Michele; Urgeles, Roger; Özmaral, Asli; Hanebuth, Till; Caburlotto, Andrea; Hörner, Tanja; Lantzsch, Hendrik; LLopart, Juame; Lucchi, Renata; Skøtt Nicolaisen, Line; Giacomo, Osti; Sabbatini, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Swath bathymetry within Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) shows a seafloor characterized by E-W trending megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs) overprinted by transverse Grounding Zone Wedges (GZWs), which give the trough a stair profile (Rebesco et al., 2011). GZWs are formed by deposition of subglacial till at temporarily stable ice-stream fronts in between successive episodic retreats (Rüther et al., 2012; Bjarnadóttir et al., 2012). Sub-bottom data show that present-day morphology is largely inherited from palaeo-seafloor topography of GZWs, which is draped by a deglacial to early Holocene glaciomarine sediments (about 15 m thick). The ice stream that produced such subglacial morphology was flowing from East to West inside Kveithola Trough during Last Glacial Maximum. Its rapid retreat was likely associated with progressive lift-offs, and successive rapid melting of the grounded ice, induced by the eustatic sea-level rise (Lucchi et al., 2013). References: Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Rüther, D.C., Winsborrow, M.C.M., Andreassen, K., 2012. Grounding-line dynamics during the last deglaciation of Kveithola, W Barents Sea, as revealed by seabed geomorphology and shallow seismic stratigraphy. Boreas, 42, 84-107. Lucchi R.G., et al. 2013. Postglacial sedimentary processes on the Storfjorden and Kveithola TMFs: impact of extreme glacimarine sedimentation. Global and Planetary Change, 111, 309-326. Rebesco, M., et al. 2011. Deglaciation of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet - a swath bathymetric and subbottom seismic study from the Kveitehola Trough. Marine Geology, 279, 141-14. Rüther, D.C., Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Junttila, J., Husum, K., Rasmussen, T.L., Lucchi, R.G., Andreassen, K., 2012. Pattern and timing of the north-western Barents Sea Ice Sheet deglaciation and indications of episodic Holocene deposition. Boreas 41, 494-512.

  10. Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2007-11-15

    For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

  11. Development effort of sheet molding compound (SMC) parabolic trough panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, P.A.; Champion, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the development effort are to: investigate the problems of molding parabolic trough solar reflector panels of sheet molding compound (SMC); develop molding techniques and processes by which silvered glass reflector sheets can be integrally molded into SMC trough panels; provide representative prototype panels for evaluation; and provide information regarding the technical feasibility of molding SMC panels in high volume production. The approach taken to meet the objectives was to design the parabolic panel, fabricate a prototype die, choose an SMC formulation and mold the glass and SMC together into a vertex to rim mirrored panel. The main thrust of the program was to successfully co-mold a mirrored glass sheet with the SMC. Results indicate that mirrored glass sheets, if properly strengthened to withstand the temperature and pressure of the molding process, can be successfully molded with SMC in a single press stroke using standard compression molding techniques. The finalized design of the trough panel is given. The SMC formulation chosen is a low shrink, low profile SMC using 40% by weight one inch chopped glass fibers in a uv stabilized polyester resin matrix. A program to test for the adhesion between mirrored glass sheets and the SMC is discussed briefly. (LEW)

  12. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  13. Microbial Community in the Hydrothermal System at Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Itahashi, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Utsumi, M.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.; Yamagishi, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is unique ecosystem around deep-sea hydrothermal area. Living organisms are supported by chemical free energy provided by the hydrothermal water. The ecosystem is expected to be similar to those in early stage of life history on the earth, when photosynthetic organisms have not emerged. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial diversity in the hydrothermal area at southern Mariana trough. In the "Archaean Park Project" supported by special Coordination Fund, four holes were bored and cased by titanium pipes near hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana trough in 2004. Hydrothermal fluids were collected from these cased holes and natural vents in this area. Microbial cells were collected by filtering the hydrothermal fluid in situ or in the mother sip. Filters were stored at -80C and used for DNA extraction. Chimneys at this area was also collected and stored at -80C. The filters and chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted. DNA samples were used for amplification of 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using archaea specific primers and universal primers. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. These PCR clones of different samples will be compared. We will extend our knowledge about microbiological diversity at Southern Mariana trough to compare the results obtained at other area.

  14. Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in Solar Parabolic Trough Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Blake, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    Solar parabolic trough systems for electricity production are receiving renewed attention, and new solar plants are under construction to help meet the growing demands of the power market in the Western United States. The growing solar trough industry will rely on operating experience it has gained over the last two decades. Recently, researchers found that trough plants that use organic heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as Therminol VP-1 are experiencing significant heat losses in the receiver tubes. The cause has been traced back to the accumulation of excess hydrogen gas in the vacuum annulus that surrounds the steel receiver tube, thus compromising the thermal insulation of the receiver. The hydrogen gas is formed during the thermal decomposition of the organic HTF that circulates inside the receiver loop, and the installation of hydrogen getters inside the annulus has proven to be insufficient for controlling the hydrogen build-up over the lifetime of the receivers. This paper will provide an overview of the chemical literature dealing with the thermal decomposition of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl, the two constituents of Therminol VP-1.

  15. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  16. Authigenesis of magnetic minerals in gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kars, Myriam; Kodama, Kazuto

    2015-03-01

    Gas hydrate occurrence is one of the possible mechanisms invoked for iron sulfide formation. A high-resolution rock magnetic study was conducted in IODP Expedition 316 Hole C0008C located in the Megasplay Fault Zone of the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. In this particular zone, no bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), indicating the base of the gas hydrate stability field, have been identified. Two hundred and eighteen Pleistocene samples were collected from 70 to 110 m CSF in order to document the changes in the concentration, grain size, and rock magnetic parameters of magnetic minerals, through the gas hydrate-bearing horizons. Two different populations of magnetic grains are recognized in the pseudosingle domain range. Three types of magnetic mineral assemblages are identified: iron oxides (magnetite), ferrimagnetic iron sulfides (greigite and pyrrhotite), and their mixture. Greigite and pyrrhotite are authigenic and constitute six layers, called IS1-IS6. IS1, IS3, IS4, and IS6 are associated with pore water anomalies, suggesting the occurrence of gas hydrates and anoxic conditions. IS2 and IS5 are probable gas hydrates horizons, although there is no independent data to confirm it. The remaining intervals are mainly composed of detrital iron oxides and paramagnetic iron sulfides. Two scenarios based on different diagenetic stages are proposed to explain the variations in the magnetic properties and mineralogy over the studied interval. The results suggest that rock magnetism appears useful to better constrain the gas hydrate distribution in Hole C0008C, and counterbalances the low resolution of pore water analyses and the absence of a BSR.

  17. Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Treiman, Allan H.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1992-01-01

    Earth-based, earth-orbital, and spacecraft observations of the atmosphere and surface of Venus, thermodynamic models of atmosphere-lithosphere interactions, and where available kinetic data on relevant gas-solid reactions to place constraints on the mineralogy of the surface of Venus are used. Which minerals and mineral assemblages are stable on the surface of Venus and which, if any, of these minerals are involved in controlling the abundances of reactive gases in the atmosphere of Venus. It is concluded by identifying key issues facing us today about the mineralogy and geochemistry of the surface of Venus and suggest experimental, observational, and theoretical studies that can improve knowledge of these important questions are discussed.

  18. Mineralogy and Surface Composition of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, V.; Dunn, T. L.; Thomas, C. A.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Burbine, T. H.

    Methods to constrain the surface mineralogy of asteroids have seen considerable development during the last decade, with advancement in laboratory spectral calibrations and validation of interpretive methodologies by spacecraft rendezvous missions. This has enabled the accurate identification of several meteorite parent bodies in the main asteroid belt and helped constrain the mineral chemistries and abundances in ordinary chondrites and basaltic achondrites. With better quantification of spectral effects due to temperature, phase angle, and grain size, systematic discrepancies due to noncompositional factors can now be virtually eliminated for mafic silicate-bearing asteroids. Interpretation of spectrally featureless asteroids remains a challenge. This chapter presents a review of all mineralogical interpretive tools currently in use and outlines procedures for their application.

  19. The upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian of the Preafrican Trough (Morocco): Platform configuration and palaeoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedel, V.; Lézin, C.; Andreu, B.; Ettachfini, El M.; Grosheny, D.

    2015-06-01

    A synthetic study was carried out based on sedimentological, palaeontological, geochemical and mineralogical data of the upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian carbonate platform of the Preafrican Trough (eastern Morocco) in order to (1) propose a 3D representation of the platform and constrain the temporal framework of the dysoxic/anoxic episodes recorded during the OAE2, (2) define and discuss the prevailing climate on the platform during this period, and (3) make comparisons with other Cenomanian-Turonian platforms. During the late Cenomanian, both before and during the CCIE (Cenomanian Carbon Isotope Excursion), the platform displayed an east-west polarity. Three third-order sequences of transgression-regression can be defined. Dysoxic conditions were developed in the sediments and the bottom waters of the deepest environment (mid- to outer-ramp setting), in the western part of the platform. Well-oxygenated waters were present in the eastern part of the platform (peritidal zone to mid-ramp environment). The climate was arid before the CCIE, becoming warm with contrasted seasons during the CCIE. This climate is associated with a low palaeoproductivity over the entire platform, along with the presence of photozoan followed by heterozoan carbonate-producers, as found also in other parts of the Saharan platform. However, such conditions are not in accordance with many studies which suggest a wet climate during the CCIE, leading to intense chemical weathering of the continent favouring the appearance of high palaeoproductivity at a global scale and the establishment of dysoxic/anoxic conditions. In the Preafrican Trough, poorly-oxygenated waters spread outwards from the deep basins and covered the platform in response to sea-level rise. Many disturbances are recorded in the platform succession during the early Turonian, after the CCIE. Indeed, just after the C/T boundary, the development of an outer-ramp environment over the entire Preafrican Trough reflects flooding of

  20. Mineralogical characterization of West Chestnut Ridge soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Kopp, O.C.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the Knox Group covered by a thick residuum. Three diagnostic horizons from four soil profiles and six samples from residuum cores were selected for mineralogical analysis. The coarse fractions (gravel and sand) of the samples included different types of chert, iron-manganese oxide nodules, and quartz. The samples were high in clay content (except those from the A and E horizons) and low in pH and base saturation. The clay fractions were composed of varying amounts of kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, gibbsite, and quartz. Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite is the major component in surface horizons, but kaolinite becomes dominant in subsurface horizons of the soils. Degradation of kaolinite and formation of aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and iron and aluminum oxides are pronounced chemical weathering processes in the surface soils. The aluminum hydroxy interlayering of vermiculite reduces cation exchange and selective sorption capacities of soils. In the residua, micaceous minerals free of aluminum hydroxy interlayering, kaolinite, and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides are major components in the clay fraction. The sorption ratios of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and the uranium isotopes expected to be in the radioactive wastes should be very high for the clays having such mineralogical composition. The low acid-buffering capacity (base saturation) of the residua suggest that the fragile chemical and mineralogical equilibria can be easily broken if an extreme chemical condition is imposed on the residua.

  1. The Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Samples of Comet Wild 2, provided by the Stardust Mission, have now been examined in terrestrial labs for two years, and are very surprising! Here we describe mainly the critical phases olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ni sulfides in Wild 2 grains, as a guide to the general mineralogy of the returned comet samples.

  2. Determining the modal mineralogy of Martian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y.; McGlynn, Ian O.; Rogers, A. Deane

    2010-12-01

    A method for identifying the major and minor minerals and quantifying their proportions (by weight) in soils at the Mars Exploration Rovers landing sites is presented. The procedure utilizes modeled Mössbauer data for iron-bearing minerals, chemical calculations of Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer data for iron-absent minerals, and modeling of MiniTES thermal infrared spectra for silica and clays. Two models are formulated, using different assumptions about the mineralogy of sulfur and chlorine: sulfate + chloride, or incorporated in or adsorbed onto schwertmannite + akaganeite. The actual soil mineralogy may be bracketed by these results. Using either model, average dark soils on the Gusev crater plains and on Meridiani Planum are shown to be composed of a mixture of igneous (olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe-Ti-Cr spinels, phosphate) and alteration (amorphous silica, hematite, nanophase oxides, clays, plus sulfate + chloride or oxysulfate + oxychloride) minerals. This assemblage suggests that soil alteration did not occur in situ and that the igneous and alteration components were likely derived from different sources. The (model dependent) mixing ratio of igneous and alteration components is identical at the two sites on opposite sides of the planet, implying that Martian soils may provide a representative mineralogical sampling of the exposed crust.

  3. Deep drivers of mesoscale circulation in the central Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Alyenik, D.; Dumont, E.; Inall, M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoscale variability in the central Rockall Trough between about 56 and 58° N has been investigated using a combination of ship-borne, underwater glider and gridded satellite altimeter measurements. Altimeter observations show that mesoscale features such as eddies and large scale circulation cells are ubiquitous phenomena. They have horizontal length scales of order 100 km with vertical scales of over 1000 m and are associated with mean current speeds (over the upper 1000 m) of 15 ± 7 cm s-1. Monthly area averaged surface Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) has substantial inter-annual variability, which at times can dominate a mean seasonal signal that varies from a maximum in May (74 cm2 s-2) to a minimum in October (52 cm2 s-2) and has increased gradually since 1992 at about 1.1 cm2 s-2 per year. A five month glider mission in the Trough showed that much of this energy comes from features that are located over 1000 m below the surface in the deep cold waters of the Trough (possibly from eddies associated the North Atlantic Current). The surface currents from altimeters had similar magnitude to the drift currents averaged over 1000 m from the glider in the stratified autumn, but were half the deep water speed during late winter. Although the mesoscale features move in an apparent random manner they may also be quasi-trapped by submarine topography such as seamounts. Occasionally anti-cyclonic and cyclonic cells combine to cause a coherent westward deflection of the European slope current that warms the Rockall side of the Trough. Such deflections contribute to the inter-annual variability in the observed temperature and salinity that are monitored in the upper 800 m of the Trough. By combining glider and altimeter measurements it is shown that altimeter measurements fail to observe a 15 cm s-1 northward flowing slope current on the eastern side and a small persistent southward current on the western side. There is much to be gained from the synergy between satellite

  4. Pregnancy After Kidney Transplantation: Outcomes, Tacrolimus Doses, and Trough Levels.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, S; Çelebi, Z K; Erdoğmuş, Ş; Kanmaz, A G; Yüce, T; Şengül, Ş; Keven, K

    2015-06-01

    Although pregnancy after kidney transplantation has been considered as high risk for maternal and fetal complications, it can be successful in properly selected patients. It is well known that pregnancy can induce changes in the plasma concentrations of some drugs; however, there has been very limited information about tacrolimus pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. In this study, we evaluated the tacrolimus doses, blood levels, and the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney allograft recipients. From 2004 to 2014, we found 16 pregnancies in 12 kidney allograft recipients at our center. We reviewed the files and data reports including fetal outcomes, graft function, complications, tacrolimus trough levels, and doses. We analyzed the tacrolimus trough levels and doses before pregnancy, during pregnancy (monthly), and in the postpartum period. Throughout the pregnancy, we aimed to achieve tacrolimus trough levels between 4 and 7 ng/mL. All patients were on triple immunosuppression, including tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisolone. In total, 11 of 16 (68.7%) pregnancies were successful, with a mean weight gain of 12.5 ± 1.66 kg. One patient developed gestational diabetes mellitus and 2 had preeclampsia. Although 5 of 11 babies were found to have low birth weight, 4 of these were premature. Two patients lost their grafts, 1 due to acute rejection and the second due to progression of chronic allograft dysfunction. We have shown that tacrolimus doses need to be significantly increased to keep appropriate trough levels during pregnancy (the doses: before, 3.20 ± 0.9 mg/day; first trimester, 5.03 ± 1.5; second trimester, 6.50 ± 1.8; third trimester, 7.30 ± 2.3; post-partum, 3.5 ± 0.9). In conclusion, the dose of tacrolimus needs to be increased to provide safe and stable tacrolimus trough levels during pregnancy. Although pregnancy can be successful in most cases, it should be kept in mind that there is an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, including

  5. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes in the Ionospheric Trough Region During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Coster, A. J.; Yizengaw, E.; Lyons, L. R.; Donovan, E.

    2013-12-01

    The ionospheric troughs are regions of remarkable electron density depression at the subauroral and auroral latitudes, and are categorized into the mid-latitude trough or high-latitude trough, depending on their relative location to the auroral oval. Substorms are one fundamental element of geomagnetic activity, during which structured field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection flows develop in the subauroral and auroral ionosphere. The auroral/trough region is expected to experience severe electron density variations during substorms. Accurate specification of the trough dynamics during substorms and understanding its relationship with the structured FACs and convection flows are of important practical purpose, including providing observational foundations for assessing the attendant impact on navigation and communication. In addition, troughs are important since they map to magnetospheric boundaries allowing the remote sensing of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this talk, we discuss the dynamics of the mid-latitude and high-latitude troughs during substorms based on multi-instrument observations. Using GPS total electron content (TEC) data, we characterize the location and width of the mid-latitude trough through the substorm lifecycle and compare them with existing trough empirical models. Using a combination of incoherent scattering radar (ISR), GPS TEC, auroral imager and a data assimilative model, we investigate the relationship between the high-latitude trough and FACs as well as convection flows. The high-latitude trough is found to be collocated with a counter-clockwise convection flow vortex east of the Harang reversal region, and downward FACs as part of the substorm current system are suggested to be responsible for the high-latitude trough formation. In addition, complex ionospheric electron temperature within the high-latitude trough is found, i.e., increase in the E region while decrease in the F region. We discuss possible

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  7. Interface between shamanism and psychiatry in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan: a viewpoint from medical and psychiatric anthropology.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, A

    1991-12-01

    This study is the first report regarding the borderland between psychiatry and shamanism in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan. Folk healing practices are still flourishing on the islands. Most mentally ill persons we examined admitted to having consulted shamans. Although there is a need to assess the positive and negative effects of shamanistic practices on Miyako Islands' health care system as a whole, this report indicates the urgent need to come to terms with the interaction between shamanism and psychiatry on a multidimensional level. We describe here psychotic illness attributed to kandaari. These cases underline the importance of understanding "the explanatory model" (Kleinman 1979) of people as regards the causes and the effective healing of illness. From the viewpoint of medical and psychiatric anthropology, aspects of the treatment of such patients in the biocultural context are described. PMID:1813672

  8. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5. PMID:27336796

  9. Concentration of organic sun-blocking agents in seawater of beaches and coral reefs of Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yutaka; Kameda, Yutaka

    2013-12-15

    The concentration of UV filters (UVFs) and UV light stabilizers (UVLSs) were measured in seawater and river water collected from sites at four beaches, two reefs, and one river on Okinawa Island, Japan. UVFs and/or UVLSs of 8-10 types were detected in beaches samples and 6-9 types were detected in reef samples. The total UVF concentrations at the beach sites were highest either in July or August with a maximum of 1.4 μg L(-1). The concentrations at the reef sites did not show peaks in summer and the maximum values were close to 10 ng L(-1). The detected UVF profiles reflected the ingredients of sunscreens used in each region. The highest UVLS concentrations at the reefs were observed not only in summer but also in June and September. The UVLS concentrations at the reefs were similar to or even higher than that at the beaches or in the river. PMID:24139648

  10. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented. PMID:26249444