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Sample records for okinawa trough mineralogy

  1. Tectonic evolution and volcanism of Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Marsset, B.; Davagnier, M.; Foucher, J.P.; Bougault, H.; Dosso, L.; Maury, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin formed by extension of the east China continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench system. The age of marine deposits drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough indicates a Miocene age for the splitting of the volcanic arc and the first tensional movements. The POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean-Charcot (September-October 1984) provided new evidence concerning the two main periods of extension as recognized by Kimura (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1985). Tilted fault blocks in the northern Okinawa Trough trend north 40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/ and belong to the early Pleistocene phase (2-0.5 Ma). The present-day phase is characterized over the entire basin by normal faults oriented 80/sup 0/N in the north and 90/sup 0/N in the south. In the southern Okinawa Trough, most of the deformation occurs along linear, subparallel, en echelon depressions intruded by volcanic ridges associated with positive magnetic anomalies. The system of volcanic ridges ends northeast of Okinawa Island in a series of parallel volcanic ridges named the VAMP (Volcanic arc-rift migration processes) area, which merges into an active volcanic chain extending north to Japan. Chemical analyses of the vesicular basalts dredged on the back-arc basin display flat to enriched rare-earth patterns. The niobium-tantalum negative anomalies reflect a subduction signature. A good positive correlation between strontium isotopic compositions and concentrations suggests a contamination effect.

  2. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital

  3. Gravity Inversion with Geological Modeling Constraint and Its Application in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2014-12-01

    The satellite altimetry gravity data is used to recover the 3D distribution of oceanic lithosphere density in the Okinawa Trough and its neighbor region. It's difficult to use only gravity data to invert complex geological structure and density distribution by 3D gravity Inversion method. In order to improve the vertical resolution of the density inversion result, 3D geological modeling method is used to build structural model for the inversion, prior constraint conditions can be applied to solve the non-unique problem. In the Okinawa Trough, it is proved by earthquake data that the Philippine plate dives beneath the Okinawa Trough, which result in the upwelling of mantel material and decrease of the crust thickness. The Benioff zone clearly shows the plate's subduction parameter, such as direction, dip, transformation. Therefore, a structural subduction model is created by geological modeling method and works as the initial model and as constraint condition in gravity inversion. The 3D gravity inversion result and seismology CMT data are both used to explain the oceanic lithosphere structure in the Okinawa Trough. The inversion result illustrates high density anomaly under the Okinawa Trough. Affected by small scale mantle convections, the continental lithosphere is separated, which result in the spreading of back-arc basin and the formation of the Okinawa Trough.

  4. Precipitation of authigenic uranium in suboxic continental margin sediments from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2006-02-01

    Concentrations of U and Th isotopes in Okinawa Trough and East China Sea sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of redox sensitive uranium in suboxic hemipelagic sediments and determine their significance in oceanic uranium balance. 238U concentrations and 238U/ 232Th activity ratios in the East China Sea sediments showed no remarkable variation with depth. However, 238U and 238U/ 232Th ratios in the Okinawa Trough sediments were low in the surface oxidizing layer but increased where the suboxic condition was encountered. The distribution profiles of 230Th and 232Th concentrations were relatively constant with depth in both the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea sediment cores. These results suggested that there has been post-depositional precipitation of authigenic uranium within the suboxic Okinawa Trough sediment column. The post-depositional precipitation rates of authigenic uranium were estimated to be 47 ± 5 to >62 ± 8 ng cm -2 yr -1; these rates were comparable to those previously reported for several anoxic sediments. A mechanism controlling precipitation of uranium may be the downward diffusion of uranium U(VI), reduction to U(IV) and finally precipitation onto the solid phase. The accumulation rate of uranium for the Okinawa Trough sediments was approximately eight times higher than the world average rate reported for suboxic sediments. This removal of uranium in the oceanic budget increases the importance of the suboxic sediment sink.

  5. Microearthquakes and Crustal Structures in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Sibuet, J.; Lee, C.; Hsu, S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Auffret, Y.; Pelleau, P.; Crozon, J.

    2004-12-01

    Located east of Taiwan, the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) is a portion of a young continental backarc basin, which is still in the rifting stage. Based on seismicity data, a slab tear was identified along 123.3°E. In order to better understand the nature and role of tectonic features in this region, a passive seismic Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) experiment was conducted from November 19 to December 1, 2003. 15 OBSs were deployed in a 130 x 90 km area including the Ryukyu slab tear and the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail (CBVT). OBSs with three 4.5 Hz component geophones and an hydrophone recorded about 4000 microearthquakes. Most of them (about 94%) are crustal earthquakes (0-20 km) which occured in the SOT central graben. Just a few earthquakes were recorded from the upper slope of the northern SOT and from the Ryukyu forearc. Most of the earthquake local magnitudes (ML) range from 1 to 2, even if the whole range of magnitudes spans from 0.9 to 4. Three clusters of high microearthquake activity are observed in : (1) the CBVT area (24.7-25°N; 122.5-123°E); (2) the southern central graben area (24.65-24.85°N;123-123.3°E); and (3) the northern central graben area (24.9-25.2°N ;123.2-123.65°E). The southern central graben cluster is also identified by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquakes determined by the JMA in the northern central graben present larger magnitudes than ours, but are globally located 10-km south of our cluster. The CBVT cluster is not recorded in JMA data probably because the shallow (O-5 km) volcanic activity only involved small earthquakes which are too far from the JMA's network. Based on swath bathymetric and seismic data, most of the epicenters lie along already identified normal faults. Thus, except the volcanic activity, which occurs in the CBVT area, the main factor controlling the SOT tectonic activity is normal faulting. On the northern and southern slopes of the central graben, hypocenters occur along normal fauls

  6. Melting features along the Ryukyu slab tear, beneath the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Sibuet, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-01

    The present-day active volcanic front associated with the Ryukyu subduction zone extends from Japan to the Ilan plain (northern Taiwan) and is located within the Okinawa Trough, 80-100 km above the Ryukyu slab. An abnormal amount of arc volcanism, which consists of basalt, andesite and rhyolite occurs within the southwestern Okinawa Trough, above a slab tear of the Ryukyu subduction zone (CBVT). The power spectrum analysis of magnetic data shows the occurrence of a thin crust above the slab tear and a thick crust beneath this volcanic area. We suggest that an excess of H2O-rich fluid might occur at the slab tear and might increase the melt flux. Both are conveyed obliquely to the uppermost mantle and lower crust CBVT magmas. After interactions, basaltic magmas would rise up, accounting for the contrast of magnetization between this volcanic body and the adjacent OT crust.

  7. Deepwater redox changes in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yanguang; Yang, Shouye; Li, Chao; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Jihua; Bi, Lei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, rare earth element (REE) was treated as a paleo-redox proxy to investigate the changes of depositional environment in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum. The acid-leachable fraction (leachate) of the sediments recovered from the ODP Site 1202B is dominated by biogenic and authigenic components while detrital contamination is minor. The significant enrichment of middle REE suggests a large contribution from authigenic Mn oxyhydroxides and cerium (Ce) anomaly can indicate deepwater redox change. The REE parameters including Ce anomaly in the leachate exhibit remarkable and abrupt changes in the early Holocene (∼9.5 ka) and during LGM (∼20 ka). An increase of Ce anomaly at 28-22 ka implies the suboxic deepwater condition probably caused by increased primary productivity. Weak positive Ce anomalies during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation suggest an oxic depositional environment responding to the enhanced deepwater ventilation with the advection of the North Pacific Intermediate Water and/or South China Sea Intermediate Water into the trough. A decrease of Ce anomaly in the early Holocene might be caused by the intrusion and strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the trough that enhanced the water stratification and induced a gradual development of suboxic depositional condition. Furthermore, an abrupt change of chemical composition at ca. 4 ka probably indicates a decrease of dissolved oxygen in deepwater and a weakening of ventilation in the Okinawa Trough. This study suggests that REE proxy can provide new insights into the linkage among surface current, deepwater circulation and sediment record in the continental margin where terrigenous input dominates.

  8. Spatial variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes in the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-Y.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, C.-S.; Hsu, S.-K.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2007-04-01

    The relations between the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of earthquakes are established in the southern Okinawa Trough for 2823 relocated earthquakes recorded during a passive ocean bottom seismometer experiment. Three high b-values areas are identified: (1) for an area offshore of the Ilan Plain, south of the andesitic Kueishantao Island from a depth of 50 km to the surface, thereby confirming the subduction component of the island andesites; (2) for a body lying along the 123.3°E meridian at depths ranging from 0 to 50 km that may reflect the high temperature inflow rising up from a slab tear; (3) for a third cylindrical body about 15 km in diameter beneath the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, at depths ranging from 0 to 15 km. This anomaly might be related to the presence of a magma chamber at the base of the crust already evidenced by tomographic and geochemical results. The high b-values are generally linked to magmatic and geothermal activities, although most of the seismicity is linked to normal faulting processes in the southern Okinawa Trough.

  9. Sea surface temperature variability in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2012-07-01

    Most of the temperature reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural variability during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air temperature in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.

  10. Sediment and crustal structures in the Okinawa trough constrained from seafloor compliance inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Cheng-Chien, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Seafloor compliance, the spectral ratio of vertical displacement over water pressure, measures how the seafloor deforms under the loading of ocean waves and thus reflects the elastic properties of the oceanic crust and mantle. Compliance functions have been constructed for 5 portable OBSs equipped with 120 s seismometers and differential pressure gauges (DPG) and one permanent, cabled OBS (station EOS1) equipped with a 360 s sensor and an absolute pressure gauge (APG) deployed offshore eastern Taiwan. The DPG and APG amplitude sensitivities were calibrated using the vertical acceleration and pressure data associated with Rayleigh waves. The compliance functions increase with frequency, implying the decreasing stiffness from mantle to sediment. We searched the best sediment/crustal model for each OBS by fitting the observed compliance function in a forward fashion. EOS1 is located on the Ryukyu arc 40 km offshore, and the portable OBSs S002 and S005 were deployed in the Okinawa trough 100 and 150 km away, respectively. The shear modulus of the sediment and shallow crust inverted from seafloor compliance at these sites may reflect effects of progressive rifting of the back-arc basin toward Taiwan or different source of sediment supply along the Okinawa trough.

  11. Geological Structures of the South Okinawa Trough based on Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Liu, C.; Teng, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) located offshore northeastern Taiwan is an extensional basin north of the Ryukyu Island Arc that opens toward Taiwan. In order to better understand the geological processes in the Southern Okinawa Trough, we collect all the available multi-channel seismic reflection data, reprocess some of them to improve the data quality, and interpret 22 seismic reflection profiles. A structural map, which shows the distribution of fault structures and submarine volcanoes in the study area, is compiled with the aid of seismic sequence analysis. We found that normal faults developed in both the northern and southern flanks of the SOT, and also in the axial area where volcanic extrusions are abundant, suggesting that the SOT is presently undergoing active extension. Some deeply rooted compressional structures are observed below the younger normal faults, which may indicate that the area offshore northern Taiwan was once in a convergent tectonic environment. We use seismic and bathymetry data to discuss the fault activities and related tectonic processes, also examine the volcanic activities and their geological environment.

  12. Origin of the southern Okinawa Trough volcanism from detailed seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, Chao-Shing; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Klingelhoefer, Frauke

    2007-08-01

    Magmatism associated with subducting plate edges or slab tears has been suggested in the southern Okinawa Trough. The cross back-arc volcanic trail, which consists of a cluster of about 70 seamounts, is located above a Ryukyu slab tear lying along the 123.3°E meridian. In November 2003, more than 3300 earthquakes recorded in this area by 15 ocean bottom seismometers and surrounding land stations during a period of 12 days were used to determine the three-dimensional Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A mantle inflow characterized by low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs passing through the slab tear is imaged. The fluid and/or melt component is rising obliquely from the slab tear in the directions of the cross back-arc volcanic trail, the northern slope of the southern Okinawa Trough and to north of Iriomote Island. The asthenospheric intake is also imaged by an inclined chip-like high Vp/Vs and low Vp and Vs body dipping northerly, which might be linked to the slab retreat. West of the slab tear, most of the earthquakes are located around low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs bodies, which suggests that the seismicity is related to magmatic and/or fluid activities. East of it, earthquakes are concentrated in an area characterized by high Vp and Vs velocities and low Vp/Vs, suggesting that the magma chamber is absent beneath the axial part of the trough and that normal faulting is the main factor controlling the seismicity.

  13. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex. PMID:26623914

  14. Carbonate system at Iheya North in Okinawa Trough~IODP drilling and post drilling environment~

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, T.; Hatta, M.; Sunamura, M.; Fukuba, T.; Suzue, T.; Kimoto, H.; Okamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field in middle Okinawa Trough is covered with thick hemipelagic and volcanic sediment. Geochemical characteristics of Okinawa Trough is to provide abundant of CO2, CH4, NH4, H2, and H2S which originated from magmatic gases, sedimentary organic matters. On this hydrothermal field, a scientific drilling by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was conducted to investigate metabolically diverse subseafloor microbial ecosystem and their physical and chemical settings. To clarify the spatial distribution of physical condition beneath seafloor around the hydrothermal filed, we focus on the carbonate species analysis to reconstruct in-situ pH, which regulate the diversities of microbial community and mineral composition. We developed the small sample volume dissolved total inorganic carbon (DIC) analyzer and conducted the onboard analysis for the interstitial water during IODP Exp.331. Total alkalinity, boron, phosphate, and ammonium also analyzed for thermodynamic calculation. In this presentation, we represent the spatial distribution of pH beneath the Iheya North hydrothermal field. In addition, we developed a 128 bottles multiple water sampler (ANEMONE) for post drilling environmental monitoring. ANEMONE sampler was deployed on the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 with other chemical sensors (CTD, turbidity, pH, ORP, and H2S), and collected the hydrothermal plume samples every 5 minutes during YK12-05 cruise by R/V Yokosuka (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, JAMSTEC). DIC concentration of plume samples collected by ANEMONE sampler were analyzed just after submersible retrieve, and nutrients, manganese, density, and total cell counts determination were conducted onshore analysis. Based on these results, we describe the spatial distribution of DIC and carbonate system on Iheya North hydrothermal field (interstitial water, hydrothermal fluid, and hydrothermal plume).

  15. High-resolution imaging of the Okinawa Trough deep-tow sonar WADATSUMI exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, K.; Tokuyama, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Sibuet, J. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution deep-tow side scan sonar data collected in the Okinawa Trough reveal details of the volcanic and tectonic features occurring along an active backarc rift zone, including an active hydrothermal vent site. Our new system, the deep-tow vector sidescan sonar WADATSUMI, is a 100 kHz system, which provides not only high-resolution backscattering images but also phase bathymetry. The system also includes a 3-6 kHz chirp sonar to investigate sub-bottom structure. The swath width for this survey is 1 km for a towing altitude of 100 to 350 m. The pixel size of the collected images is 50 cm. The towfish positioning is based on the ISBL (inverted short baseline) system, in which the signal transmitted from the ship is received at the towfish and all information is sent to the onboard control unit using co-axial cable. Four MAPRs (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder / provided by NOAA) were also equipped on the deep-tow system to detect hydrothermal activity using its thermometer and nephelometer. The Okinawa Trough, located between Japan and Taiwan, is an incipient backarc basin formed by extension within continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. The continuous formation of new oceanic crust has not yet occurred, however, crustal thinning and rifting is ongoing and many normal faults have developed. The southwestern part of the trough is most active and contains many interesting features, such as numerous volcanoes crossing the rift zone, high heat flow, and active hydrothermal site. The WADATSUMI images revealed the detailed volcanic and tectonic structure of the axial rift and a hydrothermal site. In the western area seafloor is dominated by volcanic construction, including hummocks, sheet flows, and blocky lava terrains. Small volcanic cones with crater pits are aligned along an E-W direction, which may constitute an elongated volcanic ridge within the graben. On the other hand, the eastern part of the survey area is a sedimented, deep

  16. Evaluation of nutrient sources for the sponges inhabited around seafloor hydrothermal fields in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashio, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yamagami, S.; Ise, Y.; Makita, H.

    2012-12-01

    Since discovery of seafloor hydrothermal vents, the dense and endemic animal communities inhabited around the hot vents have been the most impressive feature for many scientists. Such animals have been known as chemosynthesis-based species and studied many investigators. On the other hand, some benthic animals found on abyssal plain have been observed slightly high density at the adjacent area to active vent sites. It implies that those opportunistic benthoses may also rely on the chemosynthetic primary production and the hydrothermal chemosynthetic ecosystem may extend widely rather than previous expectation. In that case, it is an interesting issue how the dense sponge community is sustained around the hydrothermal fields. For clarifying the issue isotope geochemical study has been performed to evaluate food sources of the sponges and some other animals obtained from the deep seafloor in the Okinawa Trough. Stable isotope analysis for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur of the sample organisms obtained from the Izena Hole, where active hydrothermal emission has been observed, show significant low d13C and d34S values for the sponge samples. Those results suggest plausible contribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponges because such low d13C and d34S values are often observed for thioautotrophic chemosynthesis-based animals. The sulfur isotopic ratios of the sponges are almost comparable with the ratio reported hydrogen sulfide emitted from the vents, implying that the source of sulfur for sulfur oxidizing bacteria is magmatic and/or hydrothermal in origin. On the other hand, the sponge sample obtained from the Tarama Knoll ,where active hydrothermal emission were not found yet, shows similar isotopic characteristics observed for the sponges from the Izena Hole. It may also imply the importance of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponge at the Tarama Knoll. Turbid water was often observed during dive studies by the ROV around the

  17. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  18. Vapor-rich Hydrothermal Fluid Migration Within Pumiceous Sediment in the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Chiba, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Ijiri, A.; Nakagawa, S.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2007-12-01

    The newly developed ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) enabled pin-point piston core sampling from the active hydrothermal field. In the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the mid-Okinawa Trough (27°47.5'N, 126°53.8'E, depth = 1000m), animal colonies are observed not only around the central mound structure (named as NBC) which discharges vigrously high temperature (T=311°C) clear fluid, but also as Calyptogena colony at 200m east from the NBC mound and as tube-worm colony at 250m southeast from the NBC mound. During Leg 3 of KY05-14 cruise (R/V Kaiyo of JAMSTEC) in Jan. 2005, fourn piston cores were successfully recovered with length from 65cm to 250cm. Surface sediments from the Calyptogena colony and the tube-worm colony were revealed as mainly composed of pumiceous sediment. Pore fluids from the Calyptogena Field showed unusual chemistry characterized as very low salinity (Cl=420mM), low Mg concentration, significantly lower Na/Cl ratio than seawater and high methane concentration, which suggests contribution of a vapor-rich hydrothermal component migrating within the pumice layer from the activity center. Moreover, decrease of SO4 accompanied by increase of alkalinity is notable even less than one meter depth below the seafloor. In situ sulfate reduction in the surface sediment caused by entrainment of the hydrothermal component would be a source of hydrogen sulfide that supports Calyptogena colony.

  19. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS Exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Tara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The VCS survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by seismic sources. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program started by Japanese government. In 2010, we manufactured the autonomous VCS data acquisition systems. Through several experimental surveys, our VCS is successfully completed. In 2011 and 2013, we carried out the two VCS surveys using GI gun and high-voltage sparker respectively in the Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. Because seismic survey is not proven to be effective for SMS exploration, no seismic surveys have been conducted there so far. Our strategy for SMS exploration consists of two stages. In the first stage, we carried out VCS survey with the lower frequency GI gun (but higher compared to the convebtional oil/gas exploration) and explored deeper (up to 1,500m) structure to obtain the fault system of hydrothermal flow. Next, using a high frequency (about 1 kHz higher) and high-voltage sparker, we explored very shallow (up to 200m) part to delineate the very thin SMS deposits. These two VCS dataset have been processed with 3D Prestack Depth Migration. These results are consistent with geological information from the borehole drilled nearby and give useful information to SMS exploration.

  20. Unique chemistry of the hydrothermal solution in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Gamo, T.; Kim, E.S.; Shitashima, K.; Yanagisawa, F.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Sano, Y.; Wakita, H. ); Tanaka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Naganuma, T.; Mitsuzawa, K. )

    1990-11-01

    Submarine hydrothermal fluids from JADE and CLAM sites in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin are highly enriched in CO{sub 2}, K, Li, NH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4} and titration alkalinity compared to MOR fluids so far studied, while their H{sub 2}S and {sup 3}He contents are similar. The He and C isotropic ratios as well as these chemical features indicate that the hydrothermal systems are controlled by reaction between seawater and CO{sub 2}-rich intermediate to acid volcanic rocks of island-arc type, with strong influence of organic matter and are consistent with its initial stage of rifting on a continental plate margin. While the endmember JADE fluid is nearly devoid of Mg and SO{sub 4}, the CLAM fluid has definite concentrations of Mg (upper limit 22 {plus minus} 5 mM) and, most interestingly of {sup 34}S-enriched SO{sub 4} (upper limit 10 {plus minus} 2 mM, {delta}{sup 34}S = 27 to 39{per thousand}).

  1. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Mottl, M. J.; Nielsen, S. H. H.; IODP Expedition 331 Scientists, the

    2012-04-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platform with valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBC) mound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns with depth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10-30 m below seafloor (mbsf) where temperatures were relatively low, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.13.03.2011

  2. Faulting and hydration of the upper crust of the SW Okinawa Trough during continental rifting: Evidence from seafloor compliance inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Crawford, Wayne C.; Webb, Spahr C.; Lin, Ching-Ren; Yu, Tai-Chieh; Chen, Liwen

    2015-06-01

    The elastic response of seafloor to ocean gravity wave loading, or seafloor compliance, provides a constraint on the elastic properties of the crust. We measured seafloor compliance at three ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) sites around Taiwan—two in the southwestern (SW) Okinawa Trough and one on the Ryukyu arc—and performed inversion for crustal structures beneath them. Models best fitting the data demonstrate a decrease in upper crustal shear velocity and an increase in the compressional/shear velocity ratio from the arc site to the trough sites with increasing amount of back-arc extension. This variation suggests that the upper continental crust is highly faulted and hydrated during rifting of the Eurasian lithosphere.

  3. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  4. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi. Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. IMPORTANCE Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi. These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a

  5. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  6. Microbial diversity in the deep-sea sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the bacterial and archaeal diversities of the deep-sea sediments in Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough, using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq 2500 platform. Four samples (IN1, IN2, IR1 and IR2) were used in this study, of which IN1 and IN2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya North, while IR1 and IR2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya Ridge. The four samples were rich in different metal elements. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA gene obtained 170,363 taxon tags, including 122,920 bacterial tags and 47,433 archaeal tags, which cover 31 phyla, 50 classes, 59 orders, 87 families, and 138 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all samples were dominated by bacteria, in which Proteobacteria was the largest phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae, which together accounted for 64.6% of the total taxon tags. In contrast to the high bacterial diversities, the archaeal diversity was low and dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which accounted for 22.9% of the total taxon tags. Comparative analysis showed that (i) IN2 and IR2 exhibited more microbial richness than IN1 and IR1, (ii) IR1 and IR2 exhibited higher microbial diversities than IN1 and IN2, (iii) samples from Iheya Ridge and Iheya North fell into two groups based on principle component analysis. Furthermore, microbes potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen, and metal metabolism and cycling were detected in all samples. These results provide for the first time a comparative picture of the microbial diversities in the sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge and indicate that geological features and distance from active hydrothermal vents likely play important roles in the shaping of microbial community structure. PMID:26211965

  7. Intense winter cooling of the surface water in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kishizaki, Midori; Oba, Tadamichi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2013-06-01

    We generated a 42,000-year record of TEX86 (TEX86L and TEX86H) from core MD98-2195 to better understand changes in the hydrology of the East China Sea (ECS) in the last glacial period. The TEX86-derived temperature showed an intense cooling in the last glacial period, whereas U37K-derived spring sea surface temperature (SST) and foraminiferal Mg/Ca-derived summer SST showed a much smaller-scale cooling. The difference between the TEX86- and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures was around 14 °C from 19 to 16 ka and abruptly decreased to around 5 °C from 16 to 13 ka. This suggests a strong winter cooling of the surface water during the last glacial period. TEX86-, U37K'-, and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures were lowest at 18-17 ka, implying that the formation of cold water was maximized during that period. These results show that the cold water mass developed in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial and the Kuroshio branch did not fully enter the northern margin of the Okinawa Trough.

  8. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  9. Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) Survey for SMS exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu; Tara, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, the Japanese government started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), which includes 'New-generation Offshore Exploration Techniques' as an area of interest. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey technique for this program, especially for the exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS). VCS is a reflection seismic method that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by various acoustic sources. This method is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area below the seabed in the deep sea where conventional surface seismic is not effective. We have been developing an autonomous VCS system with the financial support of the Japanese government since 2009. We have carried out several VCS surveys and completed our VCS system. Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. There are two high potential areas, the north and south mound. We carried out the first VCS survey around the north mound in 2011 and the second survey around the south mound in 2013 respectively. The first VCS survey in Izena Cauldron was carried out using a GI gun in September, 2011, with the objective of surveying the large-scale and deeper structure of the hydrothermal system. The water depth was 1,500-1,600m. Four VCS systems were deployed. The shooting lines covered an area of 9 km x 9 km with a shooting interval of about 25m and line spacing of 200m to 400m. In the second survey, we used a high-voltage sparker. The objective is to explore very shallow parts to delineate very thin SMS deposits. The survey area was about 4 km x 4km with a 12.5 m shooting interval and 100m to 200m line spacing. Three VCS systems were deployed in this survey. The result of the first GI gun VCS survey was a 3D PSDM volume of the subsurface structure. It extends 2,000m horizontally and down to 1,500m in depth. Further, by re-processing the data with a

  10. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments. PMID:17733370

  11. Melting features along the western Ryukyu slab edge (northeast Taiwan) and Ryukyu slab tear (southernmost Okinawa Trough): Seismic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Hsu, S.; Sibuet, J.

    2003-12-01

    Behind the sedimentary Ryukyu arc lies the Okinawa Trough whose termination is located at the tip of the Ilan plain (northern Taiwan), just above the Ryukyu slab edge. The present-day active volcanic front, located 80-100 km above the Ryukyu slab, extends from Japan to Kueishantao Island, an islet situated 10-km offshore the Ilan plain. 3370 earthquakes recorded in northern Taiwan by 65 seismic land stations between December 1990 and May 1999 were used to determine the 3-D Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/Vs sausage like body, about 20 km in diameter, lies within the Eurasian mantle wedge, on top of the western Ryukyu slab extremity, from depths ranging between 20 km and 100 km. We suggest that the friction of the Ryukyu slab edge against the Eurasian lithosphere and/or the upwelling of the underlying Philippine Sea plate lithospheric mantle around the slab edge would cause an abnormal heating resulting in the formation of partial melt. Part of this melt feeds obliquely the Kueishantao andesitic Island. An abnormal amount of volcanism occurs within the Okinawa Trough, east of a slab tear located 140 km from the Ryukyu slab edge. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic data shows the presence of a thick crust located above the slab tear, suggesting that a similar pattern to the one identified above of the Ryukyu slab edge might exist in the slab tear region, feeding obliquely this area of abnormal volcanism.

  12. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  13. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro

    1999-10-01

    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  14. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed. PMID:26624398

  15. Marine Subsurface Microbial Communities Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; Hser Wah Saw, J.; Ettema, T.; House, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 meters below sea floor (mbsf). Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 mbsf. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data shows a shift over 15 mbsf from a heterogeneous community of cosmopolitan marine subsurface taxa toward an archaeal-dominated community in the deepest horizons of the predicted biosphere. Notably, the phylum Chloroflexi represents a substantial taxon through most horizons, where it appears to be replaced below 10 mbsf by punctuations of thermophilic and methanotrophic Archaea and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group abundances. DNA from the aforementioned transition horizons was further analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Preliminary taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic data agrees well with amplicon data in capturing the shift in relative abundance of Archaea increasing with depth. Additionally, reverse gyrase, a gene found exclusively in hyperthermophilic microorganisms, was recovered only in the metagenome of the deepest horizon. A BLAST search of this protein sequence against the GenBank non-redudnant protein database produced top hits with reverse gyrase from Thermococcus and Pyrococcus, which are

  16. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. PMID:26410427

  17. What is the constraint on formation of oil-starved hydrothermal systems in the sediment-rich Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Akashi, H.; Mitsunari, T.

    2012-12-01

    Petroleum generation associated with seafloor hydrothermal systems was first identified at the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California in 1978 (Simoneit et al., 1979). Since the first discovery, hydrothermal petroleums have been discovered at other seafloor hydrothermal fields, Escanaba Trough, Middle Valley, and the Red Sea, where thick sedimentary layer overlay the active spreading center. Simoneit (1990) suggested that hydrothermal petroleum can be occurred any hydrothermal systems as a result of interaction between hot hydrothermal fluid and organic mater in the sedimentary layer. In the middle Okinawa Trough, where typical sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems distribute, occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum has not been found. In 2010 IODP Exp. 331 had been performed, and then five sites were drilled at the Iheya North hydrothermal system. However, hydrothermal petroleum generation has not been reported even at that time. On the other hand, significant hydrothermal petroleum generation has been observed at a shallow-seafloor hydrothermal system in the Kagoshima Bay, north extension of Okinawa Trough (Yamanaka et al., 1999). It is an interesting subject why hydrothermal petroleum can not be found in the Okinawa Trough. So we considered what is the most critical constraint on occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum based on comparison with the well known hydrothermal fields occurred hydrothermal petroleum. Three major control factors for petroleum generation at seafloor hydrothermal systems are expected; (i) temperature, (ii) elapsed time, (iii) type of sediment. High temperature is essential for maturation of organic matter, but under extremely high temperature condition pyrolysis to gaseous hydrocarbon and other low-molecular weight product may be prevailed. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and methane concentrations may reflect the temperature condition, because methane generation may continue under extreme condition but DOM, especially low-molecular weight organic acid

  18. Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanic Rocks from the Southern Okinawa Trough and its Implications for Tectono-magmatic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, R.; Hokakubo, S.; Haraguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Woodhead, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a site of ongoing backarc rifting behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system. Recent intensive surveys, including submersible dives, at the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) have revealed details of bathymetric, geological, and geophysical features. Here, we present the petrological and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks collected during these cruises, and discuss its relation to the evolutionary stage of rifting. Based on bathymetirc and magmatic features, SOT can be divided into two (i.e., eastern and western) segments with non-transform offset at ˜ 123.5° E. The eastern segment represents a well-developed rift system with E-W-trending central graben and separated NE-SW-trending volcanic front; these two features merge at ˜ 125° E. In contrast, the western segment is in the incipient rifting stage; rift axis exists close to 100 km contour of the Wadati-Benioff zone. The most notable feature is the presence of 'abnormal' volcanic chain (Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, CBVT), which trends NE-SW and is obviously oblique to the axial trend. All rocks are subalkaline, but range from basalt to rhyolite; dacite-rhyolite are dominant in the eastern volcanic front and CBVT. Basalts from both segments are low-K tholeiites; they have high abundance of LILEs relative to HFSEs, negative Nb anomalies on MORB-normalized diagrams, and range of 143Nd/144Nd (0.5128-0.5129) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034-0.7048). Pb isotope systematics indicate 206Pb/204Pb=18.398-18.582, 207Pb/204Pb=15.594-15.652 and 208Pb/204Pb=38.570-38.912, clearly above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line. These elemental and isotopic variations are compatible with derivation from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with strong overprint of subduction components from the slab. There is clear difference among more felsic rocks between two segments. At similar silica contents, most of felsic rocks from the western segment, including CBVT rhyolites, have higher LILE contents, 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb/204Pb

  19. A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The δ13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The δ56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of δ18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

  20. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  1. A comparison of sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution between the southern Okinawa Trough and a nearby river with high sediment discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Woei-Lih; Huh, Chih-An

    2006-01-01

    Twelve surface sediments from the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) and nine surface sediments from a nearby river, the Lanyang River (LR), with high sediment discharge were analyzed for comparison of their aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions. Performing cluster analysis on all hydrocarbon data of LR and OT sediments showed that the two areas had a similarity level of only 0.15, meaning that they were quite dissimilar. The average ratio of terrigenous to aquatic n-alkanes was 0.99 for LR sediments and 9.64 for OT sediments, indicating that the concentrations of n-alkanes in LR and OT sediments were quite different. Furthermore, the mean pristane/phytane ratios for LR and OT sediments were 1.01 and 2.57, respectively; the difference between them was significant (Student's t test, at the 99% significance level). The carbon preference index (CPI) of C 25-C 33n-alkanes averaged 3.26 (range 2.16-4.59) for LR sediments and 2.92 (range 2.35-5.24) for OT sediments; no significant difference was found between the two CPI averages (Student's t test, at the 99% confidence level). However, higher plant n-alkanes generally maximized at C 29 for LR sediments, but maximized at C 31 for all OT sediments, strongly indicating significant differences in the origins of the hydrocarbons in these two areas. All present results appear to suggest that LR sediments are not a major hydrocarbon source for OT sediments. In addition, there was no positive, linear correlation between diploptene (hop-22(29)-ene) and terrestrial higher plant n-alkanes for LR and OT sediments.

  2. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Treude, Tina; Ohkubo, Satoru; Nakaseama, Miwako; Gena, Kaul; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Hisako; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Horikoshi, Koki; Boetius, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural CO2 reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO2 in such environments, are of great interest to science and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (>109 cm−3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (107 cm−3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes related to one-carbon assimilation and the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. Clearly, the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies. PMID:16959888

  3. Isotopic composition and speciation of sedimentary nitrogen and carbon in the Okinawa Trough over the past 30 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Dawei; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Total organic carbon to total nitrogen ratios (C/N) and their isotopic compositions (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) are oft-applied proxies to discern terrigenous from marine-sourced organics and to unravel ancient environmental information. In high depositional Asian marginal seas, the inclusion of N-bearing minerals in the bulk sediment dilutes or masks signals sought after in δ15N and δ13C analyses, thus leading to incorrect and even contradictory interpretations. We used KOH-KOBr to separate operationally defined total organic matter into oxidizable (labile) and residual fractions for content and isotope measurements. In a sediment core in the Okinawa Trough, significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen existed in the residual phase, in which the C/N ratio was ~9, resembling most documented sedimentary bulk C/N ratios in the China marginal seas. The residual carbon, which was included in operationally defined total organic carbon (TOC), displayed a δ13C range (-22.7 to -18.9‰, mean -20.7‰) similar to the oft-used marine end-member. After removing the interference from the residual fraction, we found that the temporal pattern of δ13CLOC (LOC denotes labile organic carbon) was more variable. The residual nitrogen content was associated with illite, suggesting a terrestrial origin. Additionally, δ15N in the residual fraction likely reflected the climatic controls (e.g., precipitation) on lithogenic source materials. Further studies are required to explore the controlling factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopic speciation and to retrieve the information locked in the residual fraction.

  4. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Kao, Shuh Ji; Johnson, Cody

    2014-07-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  5. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. It has also been known that subsurface waters that upwell onto the shelf are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical Water and the SCS Intermediate Water which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front has been found to separate the tropical and intermediate waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. Here historical hydrographic data between Mar. 1950 and Dec. 2011 in the Okinawa Trough and its neighborhood are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years across the World Ocean Circulation Repeated Lines PR 18 and 19 as well as at the PN cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. The front at the Smax level (sigma theta=24.6-24.9) shows large seasonal and interannual variations. In winter during normal and La Niña periods the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn during normal periods and in spring during La Nina periods. Yet during El Niño periods the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent in spring and it becomes the weakest in winter. As for intermediate waters (Smin at sigma theta= 26.7-26.9) the WPS Intermediate Water and SCS Intermediate Water show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although during normal periods in winter the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times. During El Niño periods the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest but in spring it is much strengthened. On the other hand, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest in spring, and the largest in winter during La Niña periods.

  6. Hg Isotopic Compositions of Chimneys and Pelagic Sediments at Active Submarine Hydrothermal Field in the Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Marumo, K.; Tomiyasu, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Komuro, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed and highly toxic pollutant in the environment. It is known that a submarine hydrothermal activity is one of the natural processes to emit Hg to marine environment. In order to estimate the degree to which the Hg found in the marine environment is from anthropogenic versus natural sources, it is important to characterize the Hg from the hydrothermal vents. Samples of chimneys and a ~20 cm sediment core, collected by a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle, from Iheya North hydrothermal field in Okinawa Trough, Japan, were analyzed for Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions. Total Hg concentrations of chimneys range between 8.2 and 16.9 mg/kg, whereas seafloor sediment total Hg concentrations are from 3.8 to 34.8 mg/kg. Approximately 0.4 to 1.1 μg/kg of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) was detected in the top 6 cm sediment cores. Hg isotopic compositions (δ202Hg) of chimneys are between -0.30 and -0.96 ‰, whereas δ202Hg values of sediment samples range from -0.85 to -1.60 ‰. Neither chimneys nor sediment samples exhibit the significant mass independent fractionations in Hg isotopes (Δ201Hg > ± 0.10). The chimney δ202Hg values are slightly higher than the δ202Hg values of sediments. This may indicate that the heavier Hg isotopes tend to be incorporated with mercury-bearing sulfides in chimneys, and the lighter isotopes tend to be remained in the hydrothermal fluid and distributed in the surrounding sediments. Also, the sediment samples from the upper portion of cores demonstrate approximately 0.4 - 0.5 ‰ lower δ202Hg values than those from the lower part. This isotopic fractionation may be resulted from a demethylated process of MMHg by microbes. Several studies have previously demonstrated the rapid demethylation of MMHg by microbes in Hg-contaminated aquatic sediments, and range of the isotopic fractionation is similar to that of the experimentally determined isotopic fractionation of MMHg by bacterial reduction

  7. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  8. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  9. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  10. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  11. Insights into life-history traits of Munidopsis spp. (Anomura: Munidopsidae) from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, in comparison with the existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masako; Chen, Chong; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Squat lobsters in the genus Munidopsis are commonly found at, and near, hydrothermal vents. However, the reproductive traits of most Munidopsis spp. are unknown. This study examined the reproductive features of two Munidopsis species sampled from hydrothermal vent fields in the southern Okinawa Trough in February 2014. Three ovigerous females were collected: two Munidopsis ryukyuensis at Irabu Knoll (1661-1675 m depth) and one M. longispinosa at Hatoma Knoll (1482 m depth). Carapace sizes and egg volumes were measured and compared with those of other Munidopsis species. The ovigerous M. ryukyuensis specimens had postorbital carapace lengths of 10.3 and 11.8 mm, without the rostrum, and carapace widths of 8.6 and 9.7 mm. Mean egg volumes of M. ryukyuensis and M. longispinosa were ~4 mm3. These results are consistent with early sexual maturity in M. ryukyuensis and lecithotrophic development in both species, as described in other species of the genus. These life-history traits may enable these vent species to maximize their reproductive and dispersive potential.

  12. Sea surface temperature variation during the last deglaciation in the southern Okinawa Trough: Modulation of high latitude teleconnections and the Kuroshio Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingtao; Li, Jun; Cai, Feng; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Wang, Libo; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Hongwei; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-11-01

    Three paleotemperature records (foraminiferal Mg/Ca, TEX86 and UK‧37) were generated for the past 17.3 ka in the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) using a sediment core (OKT-3) taken at a water depth of 1792 m. Temperature estimates based on the inorganic and organic indices for the OKT-3 core top sample approximated modern sea surface temperature (SST) and extended to the mixed layer (<50 m) in warmer seasons. Reconstructed SSTs from OKT-3 gradually increased towards the top of the core with lower values occurring during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These values coincided with the glacial-interglacial cycles established by the Globigerinoides ruber δ18O curve. Notably, SSTs decreased during the BØlling-AllerØd (B-A) but warming occurred before and after the B-A, from approximately 16 to 14 ka and 12.5 to 10 ka. The SST cooling during the B-A corresponded to the timing of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), which is thought to be connected with melt water pulse 1a (MWP1a). The cooling was also concurrent with the spread of millennial-scale cold signals to the OT during the HS1 and YD periods, when widespread melt and collapse of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets occurred along with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The last deglaciation, which began approximately 16-15 ka BP in the OT, might mark the time when the Kuroshio Current (KC) began to strengthen.

  13. Microearthquake activity around Kueishantao island, offshore northeastern Taiwan: Insights into the volcano-tectonic interactions at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, K. I.; Pan, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2013-05-01

    Kueishantao is a volcanic island located offshore the northeastern coast of Taiwan and lies at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough which is the back-arc basin of the Ryukyu subduction zone. Its last eruption occurred during the Holocene (~ 7 ka), hence Kueishantao can be considered as an active volcano. In an effort to better understand how magmatic processes may interact with the regional tectonics, a seismic network was installed in the area during early January 2008. This network consisted of 16 three-component seismometers located both on Kueishantao and the coast of northeastern Taiwan. One year of data was analyzed yielding 425 earthquakes whose P and S arrival times were manually picked and each event was located using a nonlinear probabilistic location method. In order to improve the location accuracy, the minimum 1-D velocity model for this dataset was derived and all earthquakes were relocated using this model. The results show a tight cluster of events near Kueishantao while the remaining earthquakes are scattered between the island and mainland Taiwan. The majority of hypocentral depths range between 2.5 and 10 km where the former depth coincides with the bottom of the shallow sedimentary layer and the latter with the ductile lower crust. Waveforms of the three largest events were also inverted for the determination of their deviatoric and full moment tensor. No statistically significant isotropic component was found, while two of the events can be explained by a double-couple source. The third event exhibited a low frequency content (< 10 Hz) and a large non-double-couple component suggesting fluid involvement at its source. A stress inversion of all available focal mechanisms in the area shows that fluid circulation in the upper crust generates a local stress field around Kueishantao facilitating the opening of cracks along the NW-SE direction of regional extension.

  14. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  15. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  16. Post-Drilling Changes in Seabed Landscape and Megabenthos in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System, the Iheya North Field, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, ‘artificially’ creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area

  17. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-04-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  18. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  19. Implication for horizontally-elongated fluid flow inferred from heat flow measurements in the Iheya-North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yuka; Kinoshita, Masataka; Kawada, Yoshifumi

    2010-05-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located in the southwestern part of Japan. It is considered to be in the initial stage of rifting of continental crust, and the activity generates volcanic edifices in this area, accompanied by hydrothermal circulation. The Iheya-North is one of the most active hydrothermal fields among them. As a proposed drilling site for the Integrated ocean Drilling Program, extensive geophysical surveys have been carried out including single-channel seismic imaging, and precise side-scan sonar imaging by using autonomous underwater vehicle 'Urashima' of Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology. In the recent few years, we have measured heat flow in and around the Iheya-North hydrothermal field to understand the spatial of hydrothermal circulation in detail. 78 measurements show that heat flow is higher than 10 W/m2 with in 0.5 km of the hydrothermal vent complex, that it gradually decrease eastward to < 1 W/m2, and that very low heat flow around 0.01 W/m2 is observed at 1.5 km east from the hydrothermal field. The average heat flow outside of Iheya-North is ~0.1 W/m2. The low heat flow to the east is most likely caused by an inward flow of seawater into the formation. Seismic and side-scan sonar images as well as piston core samples suggest an impermeable sediment layer to a few hundreds meters below the seafloor in this area. This sediment layer should work as a hydrological barrier to suppress flow through the seafloor, whereas seawater can penetrate into the formation at 1.5 km east of the hydrothermal field, where sidescan images suggest coars sediments on the seafloor. We infer that the hydrothermal circulation within the Iheya-North involves one with a horizontally-elongated scale (~1.5 km horizontal vs. ~a few hundreds meters vertical). We performed numerical calculations of fluid flow and heat transportation to give constraints on the depth of hydrothermal circulation, the magnitude of darcy velocity, and the permeability at

  20. Structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system in volcanic sediment: distribution of hydrothermal clay minerals, at the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Ishibashi, J.; Faure, K.; Uehara, S.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed investigation of clay minerals in hydrothermal fields provides fundamental information for understanding the physical and geochemical conditions within a hydrothermal system. Moreover, stable isotope geochemistry of clay minerals provides constraints on formation temperature. We investigated the distribution of clay minerals by XRD and TEM-EDS in a seafloor hydrothermal field at Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, using cored sediment obtained from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331. The chemical composition and isotope values of the representative clay minerals were analyzed to obtain information on the hydrothermal system beneath the seafloor. Vertically, two different clay mineral facies are present. The boundary between the facies was identified at 6 mbsf (meters below the seafloor) at Site C0013 (100 m east of hydrothermal mound) and at 23 mbsf at Site C0014 (450 m east of the mound). In the lower facies (6 - 28 mbsf and 45 mbsf at Site C0013, 23 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014), Mg-chlorite and/or Mg-chlorite-smectite mixed layer minerals are dominant. They are associated with sericite in deeper parts (45 mbsf at Site C0013 and 38 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014). The δ18O values of the clays range from +1.5 to +4.7 ‰ (VSMOW) and the formation temperatures of the Mg-chlorite are estimated to be 230 - 300 °C, assuming a value from 0 to +1.5 ‰ for δ18Owater. The original sediment in the Iheya North Knoll is considered to have been volcanic of felsic chemical composition, so alteration to Mg-rich chlorite would require supply of substantial amount of Mg. Abundant formation of Mg-chlorite is attributed to mixing of hydrothermal fluid and seawater. In the upper facies at both sites, Al-rich clay minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite) dominate. The δ18O values of clays range between +9.6 and +13.3 ‰ and formation temperatures are estimated to range between 120 - 160 °C. As kaolinite formation is favorable under acidic

  1. Structural and functional diversity of microbial communities beneath the hydrothermal vent at the Iheya North field of the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagawa, K.; Nunoura, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Hirai, M.; Sunamura, M.; Breuker, A.; Brandt, L.; House, C. H.; McAllister, S. M.; Moyer, C. L.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Complex and diverse microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids are apparently different from those in ambient seawater, some of which are predicted to migrate along hydrothermal vein from "subvent biosphere". Subseafloor environment just beneath active hydrothermal vent has been expected to be one of the most conceivable habitats for metabolically active and diverse microbial community. We conducted the scientific ocean drilling (IODP Expedition 331) for the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough in Sept. 2010, and collected core samples from the subseafloor biosphere beneath the hydrothermal vent. IODP Site C0014 was located 450 m east off the main hydrothermal vent. Temperature exceeded the limit of life at the depth of approximately 40 m below the seafloor. Both microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses successfully detected microbial populations in the shallower zone above 15 mbsf. However, the cultivation attempts of (hyper-)thermophiles were unsuccessful all over the depth. Culture-independent molecular biological experiments showed that microbial community composition distinctly changed with depth, possibly because of physicochemical conditions such as methane, sulfate and temperature. Microbial activities of methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation were in accordance with the geochemical profiles of methane and sulfate. These results indicated the presence of functionally active subseafloor microbial communities but those were different from expected members in subvent biosphere. Site C0017 located 1.6 km east off the hydrothermal vent is a potential seawater recharge zone of the hydrothermal system, where seawater penetrates into the oceanic crust. The lithostratigraphy consists of characteristic coarse angular pumiceous gravel, lying above and below hemipelagic mud, in which high permeability may allow entrainment of seawater. As is the case with sedimentary subsurface environments, uncultivated archaeal groups were

  2. The mechanism of formation of the seafloor massive sulfide ore body beneath the seafloor at HAKUREI Site in Izena Caldera, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The first seafloor hydrothermal activity in northwest Pacific was found at the northeastern rim of the Izena Caldera (Jade Site), Middle Okinawa Trough in 1988 (Halbach et al.,1989). The tectonic setting of the sulfide occurrence, even though small in amount, is similar to that of Kuroko deposits which are the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits found in volcano-sedimentary units in northern Japan. Later, large seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) ore bodies were discovered above and beneath the seafloor in the central part of the Izena Caldera (HAKUREI Site). The ore reserve is estimated to be 5million tons based on some 100 short (<20 meters), dense drillings (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), 2011), and is regarded as the biggest "proven" SMS deposit in the world. It is worthy to note that the HAKUREI ore deposit can be divided into Ore A (Upper ore bodies) and the Ore B (Lower ore bodies) which are separated by silt and pumice-rich sedimentary layer of a few meter in thickness. The Upper ore bodies are composed of sulfide "mounds" and "chimneys", which are commonly observed in hydrothermal areas. However, the nature of the Lower ore bodies remain uninvestigated. We conducted two research cruises at the HAKUREI site in 2011: TAIGA11 cruise of Exploration Vessel Hakurei-Maru NO.2 (JOGMEC) with Benthic Multicoreing System (BMS) and NT11-15 cruise of R/V Natshushima with ROV Hyper Dolphin (JAMSTEC). In the former cruise, a core (H-1) 5.4m in length was drilled to intersect both the Upper and Lower ore bodies which are separated by sediment using BMS. While, in latter cruise, volcanic rocks (aphyric rhyolite) and sulfide ores (Upper ore) were collected using Hyper Dolphin. The obtained sulfide ores were served for examination with the ore microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and heating stage for fluid inclusions in barite in ore. Sphalerite and galena dominate at upper part of the Lower ore, while chalcopyrite and covellite

  3. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  4. Structure and clay mineralogy: borehole images, log interpretation and sample analyses at Site C0002 Nankai Trough accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Schleicher, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Our research focused on the characterization of fracture and fault structures from the deep Nankai Trough accretionary prism in Japan. Logging Data and cuttings samples from the two most recent International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 338 and 348 of the NanTroSEIZE project were analyzed by Logging While Drilling (LWD) oriented images, geophysical logs and clay mineralogy. Both expeditions took place at Site C0002, but whereas Hole C0002F (Expedition 338) was drilled down to 2004.5 mbsf, Hole C0002N and C0002P (Expedition 348) reached a depth of 2325.5 mbsf and 3058.8 mbsf respectively. The structural interpretation of borehole imaging data illustrates the deformation within the fractured and faulted sections of the accretionary prism. All drill holes show distinct areas of intense fracturing and faulting within a very clay-dominated lithology. Here, smectite and illite are the most common clay minerals, but the properties and the role they may play in influencing the fractures, faults and folds in the accretionary prism is still not well understood. When comparing clay mineralogy and fracture/fault areas in hole C0002F (Expedition 338), a trend in the abundance of illite and smectite, and in particular the swelling behavior of smectite is recognizable. In general, the log data provided a good correlation with the actual mineralogy and the relative abundance of clay. Ongoing postcruise preliminary research on hole C0002 N and C0002P (Expedition 348) should confirm these results. The relationship between fracture and fault structures and the changes in clay mineralogy could be explained by the deformation of specific areas with different compaction features, fluid-rock interaction processes, but could also be related to beginning diagenetic processes related to depth. Our results show the integration of logging data and cutting sample analyses as a valuable tool for characterization of petrophysical and mineralogical changes of the structures of the

  5. Mineralogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veblen, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mineralogy has become increasingly linked to chemistry and physics during recent years. This relationship between chemistry, physics, and mineralogy, as indicated by the content of conference papers, research studies, and physical/chemical laboratory procedures used in mineralogy, is reviewed. Creative applications of established mineralogic…

  6. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  7. Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. Darby; Treiman, Allan; Beauchamp, Patricia; Blake, David; Blaney, Diana; Kim, Sun S.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Mehall, Greg; Morris, Richard; Ninkov, Zoran; Sprague, Ann; Zolensky, Michael; Pieters, Carle

    1996-01-01

    The power of mineralogical analysis as a descriptive or predictive technique stems from the fact that only a few thousand minerals are known to occur in nature as compared to several hundred thousand inorganic compounds. Further, all of the known minerals have specific stability ranges in pressure, temperature, an composition. A specific knowledge of the mineralogy of a planets surface or interior therefore allows one to characterize the present or past conditions under which the minerals were formed or have existed. For the purposes of this paper, a slightly broader definition of mineralogy was adopted by including not only crystalline materials found on planetary surfaces, but also ices and classes that can benefit from in situ types of analyses. Both visual examination and the various spectroscopies available for robotic probes to planetary surfaces are discussed.

  8. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  9. Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  10. Characterization of structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism from integrated analyses of LWD log response, resistivity images and clay mineralogy of cuttings: Expedition 338 Site C0002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Schleicher, Anja

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our research is a detailed characterization of structures on the basis of LWD oriented images and logs,and clay mineralogy of cuttings from Hole C0002F of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. Our results show an integrated interpretation of structures derived from borehole images, petrophysical characterization on LWD logs and cuttings mineralogy. The geometry of the structure intersected at Hole C0002F has been characterized by the interpretation of oriented borehole resistivity images acquired during IODP Expedition 338. The characterization of structural features, faults and fracture zones is based on a detailed post-cruise interpretation of bedding and fractures on borehole images and also on the analysis of Logging While Drilling (LWD) log response (gamma radioactivity, resistivity and sonic logs). The interpretation and complete characterization of structures (fractures, fracture zones, fault zones, folds) was achieved after detailed shorebased reprocessing of resistivity images, which allowed to enhance bedding and fracture's imaging for geometry and orientation interpretation. In order to characterize distinctive petrophysical properties based on LWD log response, it could be compared with compositional changes derived from cuttings analyses. Cuttings analyses were used to calibrate and to characterize log response and to verify interpretations in terms of changes in composition and texture at fractures and fault zones defined on borehole images. Cuttings were taken routinely every 5 m during Expedition 338, indicating a clay-dominated lithology of silty claystone with interbeds of weakly consolidated, fine sandstones. The main mineralogical components are clay minerals, quartz, feldspar and calcite. Selected cuttings were taken from areas of interest as defined on LWD logs and images. The clay mineralogy was investigated on the <2 micron clay-size fraction, with special focus on smectite and illite minerals. Based on X-ray diffraction

  11. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  12. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a sediment-hosted hydrothermal sulfide deposit from the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Lonsdale, Peter F.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Berndt, Michael E.; Howe, Stephen S.

    1985-07-01

    Samples dredged from a 15-m-high hydrothermal mound atop the flat turbidite pond in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin consist of pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide, barite, barite + calcite, talc, and opaline silica as well as substrate material composed of fossiliferous, clay-rich ooze. An 11-m-long sediment core taken near the dredge site shows increasing hydrothermal alteration with depth; anhydrite-filled fractures near the base of the core appear to be channels for hydrothermal discharge. Oxidation of the sulfide-rich samples to an assemblage of geothite, lepidocrocite, and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide is ubiquitous. Compared to other massive sulfide deposits on sediment-starved oceanic ridges, the hydrothermal deposit dredged in Guaymas Basin has a high pyrrhotite/pyrite ratio, a low Zn sulfide and combined ore metal (Cu + Zn + Pb + Ag + Cd) content, and a greater abundance of sulfate, carbonate, and silicate phases. Venting hydrothermal solutions are alkaline with moderately high pH; high Ca, Ba, and SiO2 content; low ƒS2 and ƒo2; and very low transition metal content. Disequilibrium assemblages of pyrrhotite and sulfate minerals form during rapid mixing of this evolved vent fluid with ambient bottom waters at the discharge site. Talc is formed at a temperature near 270°C by mixing or entrainment of Mg-rich bottom water or pore fluid with upwelling hydrothermal fluid that is saturated with silica. Calcite may precipitate from the alkaline, Ca-rich fluid during degassing of CO2. The minimum temperature range for sulfide and nonsulfide deposition is approximately 190°-326°C. The composition of hydrothermal deposits, vent solutions, and altered sediment requires that circulating fluids evolve during deep penetration into the basaltic basement complex, further interaction with the organic-and carbonate-rich sediment pile, and near-surface mixing with ambient seawater. Although the stable assemblage albite-epidote-clinochlore present at depth in the sediment

  14. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  15. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  16. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  17. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. PMID:21893946

  18. The 1768 and 1791 Okinawa tsunamis in the Ryukyu Trench region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Risk of the great earthquakes and tsunamis has been assumed to be low in the Ryukyu Trench because the interplate coupling is weak and great interplate earthquakes (> M8.0) had not been recorded historically for about 300 years. However, recent study revealed that the 1771 Yaeyama earthquake (M8.5 from tsunami heights distribution) at south Ryukyu Trench and the 1911 Kikaijima earthquake (M 8.0) at north-central Ryukyu Trench were the interplate earthquakes. We need re-examine the great historical earthquakes in the Ryukyu Trench. Two historical tsunamis which occurred on 1768 and 1791 in the Okinawa Island were documented in the old document 'Kyuyo' (formal chronicles of Ryukyu). I investigated the source fault model of two tsunami events using numerical simulations of tsunami and earthquake shaking, and showed that their events would be the interplate earthquakes. One earthquake occurred at noon of July 22th, 1768. The rock-walls of castle, grave of royal family were collapsed by the earthquake shaking around Naha, Okinawa Island. After the shaking, tsunami arrived Naha port and Zamami Island, which is west of Okinawa Island. Recorded tsunami heights were about 1 m at Naha port. Nine houses and rice fields were damaged by the inundation of the tsunami in the Zamami Island. Estimated tsunami heights were 4 and 5 m in the villages of the Zamami Island. The numerical modeling of tsunami and the estimation of earthquake shaking using empirical formula were employed, and the fault parameters of the 1768 earthquake were estimated. The faults were set to Okinawa Trough (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 reverse fault), and Ryukyu Trench (M8.0 thrust faults). The computed tsunami heights and intensities of the ground shaking of the M7.5 reverse fault near the Zamami Island and the M8.0 interplate earthquake models are consistent with to the recorded ones. Another tsunami was also recorded in the

  19. Rifting Process and Geomorphic Development of the Okinawa Tough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Matsumoto, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH11 (from 14 July to 15 August, 2011) and GH12 (from 20 to 30 July, 2012) were carried out around the Okinawa Trough. More than 3,600 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these cruises by the GI-gun (Generator 250 cu inch and Injector 105 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. As a result, two unconformities and three depositional sequence divided by the unconformities are recognized in the trough. The lower and the midlle sequence are tilted and blocked by many normal faults, on the other hand the upper one is not tilted and shows the pattern of onlap fill. From this result, the upper sequence started to deposit after start of the rifting. Additionally, internal reflection of the upper sequence shows the cyclic activities of the rifting. The position of the rifting axis was revealed based on dip of the normal faults. As a result, rifting axis shows echelon arrangement and the displacement of the faults are varied with the segment of the arrangement. The location of the segment boundaries is correlated with geometrical boundary of the adjacent slope. Steep slope with incised valley is distributed in southwestern part where the displacement of the normal fault is large, on the other hand, gentle slope without incised valley is distributed in northeastern part where the displacement is small. This difference of the displacement strongly controls the geometry of the adjacent slope.

  20. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O`Hern, T.J.; Grasser, T.W.

    1998-08-11

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects` surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 5 figs.

  1. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grasser, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects' surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  2. The light ion trough.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A distinct feature of the ion composition results from the OGO-2, 4 and 6 satellites is the light ion trough, wherein the mid-latitude concentrations of H+ and He+ decrease sharply with latitude. In contrast to the 'main trough' in electron density observed primarily as a nightside phenomenon, the light ion trough persists during both day and night. For daytime winter hemisphere conditions and for all seasons during night, the mid-latitude light ion concentration decrease is a pronounced feature. In the dayside summer and equinox hemispheres, the rate of light ion decrease with latitude is comparatively gradual, and the trough boundary is less well defined, particularly for quiet magnetic conditions. In response to magnetic storms, the light ion trough minimum moves equatorward, and deepens, consistent with earlier evidence of the contraction of the plasmasphere in response to storm time enhancements in magnetospheric plasma convection.

  3. Cerberus Fossae Troughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two of the Cerberus Fossae troughs, their dark-toned interiors, and dark wind streaks formed from material blowing out of the troughs. The wind streaks indicate winds that blew from the northeast (upper right) toward the southwest (lower left). The crust of Mars expanded and split to form the troughs. These features are located near 6.6oN, 187.2oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  4. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  5. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  6. Solar trough systems

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Trough systems predominate among today`s commercial solar power plants. All together, nine trough power plants, also called Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS), were built in the 1980s in the Mojave Desert near Barstow, California. These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) and today generate enough electricity to meet the needs of approximately 500,000 people. Trough systems convert the heat from the sun into electricity. Because of their parabolical shape, troughs can focus the sun at 30--60 times its normal intensity on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough. Synthetic oil captures this heat as the oil circulates through the pipe, reaching temperatures as high as 390 C (735 F). The hot oil is pumped to a generating station and routed through a heat exchanger to produce steam. Finally, electricity is produced in a conventional steam turbine. In addition to operating on solar energy the SEGS plants are configured as hybrids to operate on natural gas on cloudy days or after dark. Natural gas provides 25% of the output of the SEGS plants.

  7. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists. PMID:26552125

  8. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa. PMID:25749491

  9. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  10. The magnetospheric trough

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.; Elphic, R.C.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-03-04

    The authors review the history of the concepts of the magnetospheric cold-ion trough and hot-electron trough and conclude that the two regions are actually essentially the same. The magnetospheric trough may be viewed as a temporal state in the evolution of convecting flux tubes. These flux tubes are in contact with the earth`s upper atmosphere which acts both as a sink for precipitating hot plasma sheet electrons and as a source for the cold ionospheric plasma leading to progressive depletion of the plasma sheet and refilling with cold plasma. Geosynchronous plasma observations show that the rate of loss of plasma-sheet electron energy density is commensurate with the precipitating electron flux at the low-latitude edge of the diffuse aurora. The rate at which geosynchronous flux tubes fill with cold ionospheric plasma is found to be consistent with previous estimates of early-time refilling. Geosynchronous observations further indicate that both Coulomb collisions and wave-particle effects probably play a role in trapping ionospheric material in the magnetosphere.

  11. Investigating the effect of hydrothermal conditions on the subvent biosphere of the Okinawa backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.; Nunoura, T.; Yanagawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study an interesting subset of the ocean floor -- the subsurface environment surrounding an active hydrothermal vent. The subsurface sediments of the Iheya North Field within the mid-Okinawa trough are affected by high temperature fluids. In addition, the Okinawa backarc basin is situated on a continental margin. This particular environment has a unique set of conditions for investigating the vertical variability in microbial communities with depth as conditions become increasingly restrictive. IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014, located 450 m east of the active vent, has a surface temperature of 5°C and has no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m. Below a depth of ~10 mbsf, the sedimentary sequence is hydrothermally altered to a pale, gray clay with alteration products illite and montmorillonite. Thus, Site C0014 represents an ideal location to characterize whether 1) the microbial community structure shifts from non-hydrothermal margin microorganisms toward a more temperature-adapted group of microorganisms, or 2) repeating clades represented throughout the sediment column are seemingly adapting to the increasingly extreme conditions. DNA from sediments (0-44 mbsf) was extracted using a modified protocol from the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Primers were designed to amplify the V6-V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Select samples were sequenced with the Roche 454 FLX sequencer at The Pennsylvania State University. The amplicon data suggest that the subvent biosphere resides in the top 12-14 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The archaeal sequences abruptly disappear beyond the 14 mbsf horizon. The phylum Euryarchaeota, dominated by Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6) and ANME-1, are present throughout the top 14 meters. However, there is an increasingly stronger signal of non-Euryarchaeota clades Marine Crenarchaeotic

  12. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Shintani, Hideharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa. PMID:22969837

  13. The challenge to reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa: consensus of the first Okinawa breast oncology meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Gushimiyagi, Masanori; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Tengan, Hiromu; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Ishida, Takanori

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is gradually increasing in Okinawa. The 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was held on 6 July 2012 and discussions on how to curb the rising trend were focused on breast cancer screening, adjuvant treatment, socioeconomic and geographic issues, and the problem of complementary and alternative medicine. The consensus of the 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was that ultrasonography screening is an acceptable screening system for Okinawan women because of the geographic disadvantage of having many small islands and rural areas. Educational and economic support is needed for women in rural areas to get correct information, for access to urban areas and to be treated by evidence-based optimal therapy for breast cancer. In addition, new approaches are needed for Okinawan people to successfully educate patients to correctly interpret evidence-based information. PMID:23288933

  14. 16ch high-resolution seismic reflection surveys on the active fault of upper fore-arc slope off Okinawa Island, central Ryukyu Island Arc, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Sato, T.; Tuzino, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH08 (from 28th July to 29th August 2008) and GH09 (from 16th July to 17th August 2009) were carried out around Okinawa Island, which is located on the central Ryukyu Island Arc. More than 4,500 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these two cruises by the GI-gun (355cu. inch) or the Cluster-gun (30+30 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. Survey area in the southeast off Okinawa Island is located on the upper fore-arc slope. Seismic reflections of the upper fore-arc slope show a distinct reflector which may represent erosional unconformable surface. The distinct reflector had tilted southeastward and was overlain by the stratified sediments. No obvious deformation such as the fold and faults parallel to the Ryukyu Trench axis was found under the upper slope. In contrast, some active faults which were perpendicular to the Ryukyu Trench axis (NW-SE direction) were observed. The most conspicuous normal fault was found on north off Okinawa Island. The fault with 70-80°dipping toward northeast has been active since the early Pleistocene inferred from seismic stratigraphy and calcareous nannofossil biochronology. The maximum displacement reaches to 0.7 s two way travel time in depth. An average of maximum vertical displace component of the normal fault may reach up to ten cm/1000 years. Seismic profiles indicate that the tilting of Ryukyu Island Arc forward to the Ryukyu Trench plays the important role of formation of the fault in a NW-SE direction.

  15. Gullied Trough Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies emergent from beneath erosion-resistant rock layers in a trough south of Atlantis Chaos near 38.9oS, 176.3oW. Gullies such as these are fairly common in depressions at south middle latitudes. Tens of thousands of gullies have been identified in MGS MOC and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images. Whether they formed by running liquid water remains a controversial issue. Banked channels, like some shown here, are one form of evidence cited to indicate that a fluid with the properties of liquid water may have been involved. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  16. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  17. Structure of the Mekong trough

    SciTech Connect

    Van Khy, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Mekong trough occupies the shelf of southern Vietnam between the sea coast and the Condao-Cu Lao Tu line of islands and the adjacent area of the onshore Mekong delta. It extends for 400 km from southwest to northeast with a width of 100 km. The Mekong trough is situated on the upper Mesozoic volcanic belt of South Vietnam, which is part of the East Asian volcanogenic belt. It is bounded on the southeast by the Con Son high, on the southwest by the Corat-Ca Mau high, and on the northwest by the Dalat massif. The Mekong trough is considered to have major potential as a new petroleum province. Since 1969, numerous common depth point (CDP) seismic profiles have been run and seven deep wells have been drilled on the shelf in the Mekong trough. This paper is devoted to an analysis of the findings. 9 references, 4 figures.

  18. Neotectonics of the Manych Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshaev, R. R.; Svitoch, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional and local neotectonic features of the Manych Trough and regulating role of its tresholds in Caspian water overflows to the Black Sea are examined. Various evidence for neotectonic activity, with the maximums in Early and Late Khazarian epochs, of all the local tectonic rises in the Manych Trough, which were thresholds during the existence of the strait in the past, has been found. The Manych Trough is superimposed on the deep-laid faults of the Scythian Plate and in the sublatitudinal direction, it extends by more than 500 km. Throughout the Cenozoic, the system of narrow longitudinal and transverse structures continued to develop along the faults and some portions of these structures suffered differentiated motions in the Pleistocene as well. The general regional neotectonic Pleistocene character of the Manych Trough is confidently identified on the basis of coincidence with the large trough, which had been developing during Meso-Cenozoic; the non-altered character of modern relief; and the stable paleogeographic regime throughout the Pleistocene, when the Caspian straits repeatedly existed in the lowland parts of the trough. All these facts unambiguously indicate a general downward tectonic regime of the Manych Trough during the Pleistocene up to 100 m in amplitude. The amplitude of neotectonic motions of the trough over long time periods and within the Pleistocene in general were determined by comparative analysis of the modern and initial positions of reference horizons of the marine Pleistocene in the Manych Trough. The subsequent step-by-step comparison between the hypsometry of the bottom positions of the initial straits and the modern level of the corresponding strata allowed us to specify the value of tectonic deformation of the bottom for any concrete time period. The structural differentiation of the trough is clearly expressed in its modern relief and configuration of the river network; the former is en echelon sublatitudinal depressions joined

  19. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  20. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.

  1. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159

  2. Identification and characterization of the active hydrothermal deposits in Okinawa Trough, SW Japan: Estimates from logging-while-drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Hamada, Y.; Kumagai, H.; Nozaki, T.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A scientific drilling expedition was conducted at an active hydrothermal field on the Iheya-North Knoll by D/V Chikyu in 2014 (Expedition 907) as a part of "Next-generation Technology for Ocean Resources Survey" of the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program. During the expedition logging while drilling (LWD) was deployed to constrain the area of the fluid reservoir beneath seafloor followed by three coring holes down to 150 meter below the seafloor (mbsf). The LWD system is composed of arcVISION for resistivity and natural gamma ray measurement and TeleScope for real-time transmission of drilling parameters and arcVISION data. Five sites (C9011-15) at the Iheya-North Original Site and one site (C9016) at Aki Site were drilled with LWD. At C9012 and C9016, the arcVISION detected temperature anomaly up to 84℃ at 234 mbsf and up to 39℃ at 80 mbsf, respectively. The temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the existence of high-temperature heat source along borehole. Due to the continuous fluid circulation during drilling, the measured temperature does not indicate in-situ temperature, but it reflects the heat disturbed by the cold circulated water instead. High quality resistivity and natural gamma ray data were acquired at six sites. The log curves at Site C9016 show characteristic response; the natural gamma ray log exhibits extremely high radiation (>500 gAPI) at 7-13 and 23-31 mbsf (Zone A). In the underlying interval of 31-40 mbsf, the resistivity log exhibits extremely low value (<0.2 ohm-m) (Zone B). Then the resistivity log exhibits higher value (~10 ohm-m) and the natural gamma ray log shows very low radiation (<50 gAPI) at the interval of 41-48 mbsf (Zone C). The log characteristics in Zone A, B, and C can be interpreted as a series of K-rich alteration zone, sulfide zone, and low-K hard (silicified) sediments, respectively. The LWD-based lithological interpretation was confirmed by the following core description. Zones A and B can be correlated to altered clay zone and sulfide zone including sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. Our results show that LWD is a powerful tool for the identification and characterization of submarine hydrothermal deposits and LWD survey enhances the successful recovery of sulfide samples.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Alcanivorax sp. Strain KX64203 Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments of Iheya North, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Alcanivorax sp. strain KX64203, isolated from deep-sea sediment samples. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 4.76 Mb. The data will improve our understanding of the strain’s function in alkane degradation. PMID:27563046

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Alcanivorax sp. Strain KX64203 Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments of Iheya North, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Wang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Alcanivorax sp. strain KX64203, isolated from deep-sea sediment samples. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 4.76 Mb. The data will improve our understanding of the strain's function in alkane degradation. PMID:27563046

  5. Hanford basalt flow mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    Mineralogy of the core samples from five core wells was examined in some detail. The primary mineralogy study included an optical examination of polished mounts, photomicrographs, chemical analyses of feldspars, pyroxenes, metallic oxides and microcrystalline groundmasses and determination from the chemical analyses of the varieties of feldspars, pyroxenes and metallic oxides. From the primary mineralogy data, a firm understanding of the average Hanford basalt flow primary mineralogy emerged. The average primary feldspar was a laboradorite, the average pyroxene was an augite and the average metallic oxide was a solid solution of ilmenite and magnetite. Secondary mineralization consisted of vug filling and joint coating, chiefly with a nontronite-beidellite clay, several zeolites, quartz, calcite, and opal. Specific flow units also were examined to determine the possibility of using the mineralogy to trace flows between core wells. These included units of the Pomona, the Umatilla and a high chromium flow just below the Huntzinger. In the Umatilla, or high barium flow, the compositional variation of the feldspars was unique in range. The pyroxenes in the Pomona were relatively highly zoned and accumulated chromium. The high chromium flow contained chromium spinels that graded in chromium content into simple magnetites very low in chromium content. A study of the statistical relationships of flow unit chemical constituents showed that flow unit constituents could be roughly correlated between wells. The probable cause of the correlation was on-going physical-chemical changes in the source magma.

  6. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E viruses from mongooses in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Ogura, Go; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Shou; Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mishiro, Shunji; Nakamura, Masaji

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has previously been reported in wild mongooses on Okinawa Island; to date however, only one HEV RNA sequence has been identified in a mongoose. Hence, this study was performed to detect HEV RNA in 209 wild mongooses on Okinawa Island. Six (2.9%) samples tested positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 6 HEV RNAs belonged to genotype 3 and were classified into groups A and B. In group B, mongoose-derived HEV sequences were very similar to mongoose HEV previously detected on Okinawa Island, as well as to those of a pig. This investigation emphasized the possibility that the mongoose is a reservoir animal for HEV on Okinawa Island. PMID:22850461

  7. Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

  8. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Taku; Fujii, Takuma; Kawamura, Iori; Mizuyama, Masaru; Montenegro, Javier; Shikiba, Haruka; Naruse, Tohru; McClelland, TY; Denis, Vianney; Reimer, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat) affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef. PMID:24032094

  9. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  10. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  11. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Schertz, William W.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  12. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  13. Mineralogy: A Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews changing concepts of the origins, properties, and classification of minerals. Emphasis is placed on developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during which time the interwoven advances of chemistry, physics, crystallography, and high-temperature, high-pressure studies transformed mineralogy from a qualitative to a…

  14. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-10-17

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its` related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed.

  15. Sulfide Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilles, John

    2007-02-01

    Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, Volume 61 David J. Vaughan, Editor Geochemical Society and Mineralogical Society of America; ISBN 0-939950-73-1 xiii + 714 pp.; 2006; $40. Sulfide minerals as a class represent important minor rock-forming minerals, but they are generally known as the chief sources of many economic metallic ores. In the past two decades, sulfide research has been extended to include important roles in environmental geology of sulfide weathering and resultant acid mine drainage, as well as in geomicrobiology in which bacteria make use of sulfides for metabolic energy sources. In the latter respect, sulfides played an important role in early evolution of life on Earth and in geochemical cycling of elements in the Earth's crust and hydrosphere.

  16. Stable isotopes in mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Stable isotope fractionations between minerals are functions of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the minerals and therefore bear on several topics of mineralogical interest. Isotopic compositions of the elements H, C, O, Si, and S can now be determined routinely in almost any mineral. A summary has been made of both published and new results of laboratory investigations, analyses of natural materials, and theoretical considerations which bear on the importance of temperature, pressure, chemical composition and crystal structure to the isotopic properties of minerals. It is shown that stable isotope studies can sometimes provide evidence for elucidating details of crystal structure and can be a powerful tool for use in tracing the reaction paths of mineralogical reactions. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Parabolic Trough VSHOT Optical Characterization in 2005-2006 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation regarding parabolic trough VSHOT optical characterization describes trough deployment and operation phases including: development, manufacture/installation, and maintenance/operation.

  18. Modal mineralogy of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Francois; Langevin, Yves; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-11-01

    The surface composition of Vesta is constrained using spectral data gathered by the visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer VIR onboard NASA/Dawn. To derive new constraints on the surface composition of this asteroid, we applied a scattering model to VIR reflectance spectra. This model was first successfully tested by properly reproducing the characteristics of several HED meteorites spectra. Abundance estimates of end-members in HEDs are accurate to within 15-25% for the analyzed samples, while the estimated particle sizes are within the intervals of actual sizes. The modeling technique was then applied to the VIR data to retrieve the modal mineralogy of selected terrains of Vesta. Major expected minerals (Low-Calcium Pyroxene, High-Calcium Pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine) can provide satisfactory fits with overall residuals ≤1%. The modal mineralogy of terrains exhibiting the strongest LCP signatures is well representative of those of diogenites. Modeling results demonstrate that coarse-grained olivine (a few hundred µm in size) is likely to be present in all major units of Vesta, with inferred abundance ranging from 10% to 20%. A bimodal distribution in grain size with relatively coarse grain for olivine and fine grains (typically smaller than 100 µm) for the other components is derived. This is similar to the lithologic size distribution of HEDs, in particular howardites containing olivine-bearing melt. In addition, there is a good agreement between the modal mineralogy of this type of HED and Vesta. The relatively uniform derived modal mineralogy of different units confirms that major homogenization occurred with time, possibly explaining the lack of specific olivine enrichment in Rheasilvia. This study provides strong support for the vestan origin of HEDs by clarifying the relationship between HEDs and the different geological units on Vesta. Howardites containing olivine-bearing melt, although rare in the HED collections, are the closest

  19. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  20. Vertical distribution of precipitation particles in Baiu frontal stratiform intense rainfall around Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oue, M.; Ohigashi, T.; Tsuboki, K.; Nakakita, E.

    2015-06-01

    The vertical distribution of precipitation particles in an intensely precipitating stratiform cloud associated with the Baiu front around Okinawa Island was observed. X-band polarimetric radar, disdrometer, and hydrometeor videosonde data were used to examine the precipitation processes. The cloud top was approximately 12 km above sea level, as convection was depressed while stratiform regions developed near Okinawa Island. In the rain region below 3 km, the mean median volume diameter of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) estimated from the radar variables was 1.55 mm, and the mean normalized intercept parameter was 104.12 mm-1 m-3 with a mean radar reflectivity of 40.5 dBZe. The DSD indicates that the stratiform precipitation was characterized by higher number concentrations of smaller drops than observed previously in convective cells in a Baiu frontal convective precipitation region around Okinawa Island. The DSD also suggests the presence of larger raindrops than in convective cells embedded in a Baiu frontal stratiform precipitation region around Okinawa Island. In the ice region at 5-6 km, just above the melting layer and 6 km below the cloud top, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase showed positive values, and videosonde measurements revealed that the number concentration of column-, plate-, and capped-column-like crystals (maximum dimensions of ≥0.1 mm) was 112 L-1. The high number concentration of these crystals contributed to the intense stratiform rainfall associated with the Baiu front.

  1. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  2. Elemental composition and Its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Akihide; Oshiro, Seiji; Azechi, Sotaro; Handa, Daishi; Arakaki, Takemitsu

    2010-05-01

    Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km south east of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutions in East Asia, because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. In the present study, elemental composition and its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago was investigated by a X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). From these results, chemical properties of aerosols transported to Okinawa archipelago and long-range transport of metal pollutions were discussed. We continuously collected bulk aerosols for 7 days at a time during 2008 - 2009. The samplings were performed by using the same type of high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS), respectively. XRF allows us to analyze bulk aerosols rapidly without any pretreatment. However, it is very difficult to determine trace metals in aerosol samples accurately. The concentration ratios to Al for 15-20 elements, whose accuracy was evaluated using standard reference materials (NIES No.28) and measuring by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid-digestion, were obtained by XRF. From seasonal variations obtained, the concentration rations to Al for Pb and As in aerosol particles were clearly higher in winter than in summer. These results suggest that North-west wind blown in winter would transport pollutant aerosols to Okinawa archipelago from East Asia.

  3. How do spiral troughs form on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2004-04-01

    A three-dimensional model for the coupled evolution of ice-surface temperature and elevation in the Martian polar ice caps is presented. The model includes (1) enhanced heat absorption on steep, dust-exposed scarps, (2) accumulation and ablation, and (3) lateral conduction of heat within the ice cap. The model equations are similar to classic equations for excitable media, including nerve fibers and chemical oscillators. In two dimensions, a small zone of initial melting in the model develops into a train of poleward-migrating troughs with widths similar to those observed on Mars. Starting from random initial conditions, the three-dimensional model reproduces spiral waves very similar to those in the north polar ice cap, including secondary features such as gull-wing shaped troughs, bifurcations, and terminations. These results suggest that eolian processes and ice flow may not control trough morphology.

  4. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  5. Cooling-Trough Condenser for Sublimation Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbraun, E. J.; Lucas, J. M.

    1995-11-01

    A wrap-around, trough condenser for use with large diameter (2.5") sublimation tubes is described. The design permits attachment of the condenser to the sublimation tube without removing the tube from the heater. It also permits the use of a variety of liquid (tap water, Dry Ice, and alcohol or acetone) or solid (ice or Dry Ice) coolants.

  6. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  7. Revisiting trough interactions and tropical cyclone intensity change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirano, C. M.; Corbosiero, K. L.; Tang, B. H.

    2016-05-01

    An updated climatology of Atlantic basin tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change in the presence of upper tropospheric trough forcing is presented. To control for changes in the background thermodynamic environment, a methodology that normalizes intensity change by the potential intensity of the TC is used to more narrowly focus on the effect of troughs compared to previous studies. Relative to the full sample of Atlantic TCs, troughs are a negative influence on intensification: trough interaction cases are 4% less likely to intensify and 5% more likely to weaken. Troughs are especially detrimental compared to TCs without trough forcing: trough interaction cases are 14% less likely to intensify and 13% more likely to weaken. Additionally, eddy flux convergence of angular momentum, previously shown to positively affect TC intensity change, is shown to be a weak predictor of intensity change compared to vertical wind shear, which is enhanced during a trough interaction.

  8. Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nose, Mine; Shiraishi, Susumu; Miyahara, Fumihiko; Ohira, Mineko; Matsunaga, Koji; Tobase, Masashi; Koyama, Takao; Yoshimoto, Kikuo

    2009-09-01

    Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island. PMID:22736814

  9. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  10. Mineralogy of Meteorite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 275 mineral species have been identified in meteorites, reflecting diverse redox environments, and, in some cases, unusual nebular formation conditions. Anhydrous ordinary, carbonaceous and R chondrites contain major olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase; major opaque phases include metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and chromite. Primitive achondrites are mineralogically similar. The highly reduced enstatite chondrites and achondrites contain major enstatite, plagioclase, free silica and kamacite as well as nitrides, a silicide and Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Na-, Cr-, K- and Ti-rich sulfides. Aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites contain major amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates, complex organic compounds, magnetite, various sulfates and sulfides, and carbonates. In addition to kamacite and taenite, iron meteorites contain carbides, elemental C, nitrides, phosphates, phosphides, chromite and sulfides. Silicate inclusions in IAB/IIICD and lIE iron meteorites consist of mafic silicates, plagioclase and various sulfides, oxides and phosphates. Eucrites, howardites and diogenites have basaltic to orthopyroxenitic compositions and consist of major pyroxene and calcic plagioclase and several accessory oxides. Ureilttes .are made up mainly of calcic, chromian olivine and low-Ca clinopyroxene embedded in a carbonaceous matrix; accessory phases include the C polymorphs graphite, diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite as well as metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and halides. Angrites are achondrites rich in fassaitic pyroxene (i.e. , AI-Ti diopside); minor olivine with included magnesian kirschsteinite is also present. Martian meteorites comprise basalts, Iherzolites, a dunite and an orthopyroxenite. Major phases include various pyroxenes and olivine; minor to accessory phases include various sulfides, magnetite, chromite and Ca-phosphates. Lunar meteorites comprise mare basalts with major augite and calcic plagioclase and anorthositic breccias with major calcic plagioclase. Several meteoritic

  11. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry). PMID:27110163

  12. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health. PMID:25481361

  13. Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Binh, Tran Thanh; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Helicobacter pylori cagA can be classified into mainly two types (East-Asian-type and Western-type cagA) according to the repeat regions located in the 3′ region. Recent studies showed that the Western-type cagA in strains from Okinawa, Japan formed a different cluster (J-Western-type cagA subtype). We also reported that J-Western-type cagA possess a 12-bp insertion located in the 5′ region of cagA sequence. Methods The prevalence of 12-bp insertion in cagA in Okinawa and the United States (U.S.) was examined by DNA sequencing. We then designed the primer pair which can detect the 12-bp insertion only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of strains with 12-bp insertion was examined in 336 strains isolated from Okinawa by PCR. Results In case of Western-type cagA/vacA s1m2 strains, the prevalence of 12-bp insertion was significantly higher in strains isolated from Okinawa than that from the U.S. (P = 0.002). Phylogenetic tree showed that strains with 12-bp insertion formed two individual clusters within J-Western-type cagA subtype; one is from Okinawa and another is from the U.S. Our designed primer set showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.8%) in Okinawa. The 12-bp insertion was found in 23.7%, 14.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% of strains with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastritis, gastric cancer (GC), and gastric ulcer (GU), respectively (P < 0.001 for DU vs. GU) in Okinawa. Conclusions Although the mechanisms are unknown, the presence of 12-bp insertion was associated with the presence of DU and might have a suppressive action on GU and GC. PMID:23190390

  14. Oceanic And Terrestrial Controls On Chlorophyll -a Abundance Around The Island Of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikema, T.; Bryant, R. G.; Bigg, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    This research aims to understand key factors affecting ocean surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) blooms at a range of scales (both regional and near the coastal zone) around the Island of Okinawa in the western Pacific. The study region is characterised by both the actions of the Kuroshio Current (which brings warm water) and the Asian Monsoon (which provides moist southwest winds in summer and dry northern winds in winter). Due to these influences, Okinawa has a subtropical climate, with a rainy season in the summer months (MJ), and prevailing northerly winds in winter (NDJ). In order to better understand factors which may influence the timing and magnitude of Chl-a blooms in the vicinity of Okinawa, we applied empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to a time series of AVHRR (monthly mean SST from 1985-2006) and SeaWIFS (monthly mean Chl-a from 1998 to 2006) data over two different spatial scales: domain 1 (D1) - a region of the ocean southeast of Kuroshio, and domain 2 (D2) - a sub-region near coastline focused on Okinawa itself. The first EOF mode of SST in regions D1 and D2 (which accounted for more than 90 % in each domain) showed a clear radiation-driven annual cycle: high SST in summer and low SST in winter. The first EOF mode of Chl-a in D1 (which accounted for 51 %) also demonstrated an annual cycle, but in this instance one that mirrored that of SST (i.e. low Chl-a in summer and high Chl-a in winter). The first mode Chl-a EOF in D2 (accounting for 63 % of the total variance) also has a similar annual cycle, displaying a significant correlation (r=0.75, p<0.001) with northerly wind magnitudes, lagged by 2 months, suggesting that the winter monsoon is a major control on the observed Chl-a bloom. However, extreme events such as typhoons can also cause a Chl-a bloom around the coast. As a result of further analysis of daily Chl-a data along the western coastline of Okinawa, it was found that some of the peaks of Chl-a were closely correlated with river

  15. Composition of massive sulfide deposits from the sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge: implications for depositional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Oscarson, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Massive sulfide deposits with two distinct compositions are spatially related to volcanic edifices that penetrate up to 500 m of turbiditic sediment in Escanaba Trough (ET), southern Gorda Ridge. The mineralogy, metal content, sulfur isotope composition, and hydrocarbon content of massive sulfides from ET reflect the extensive interaction between underlying turbiditic sediment and hydrothermal fluid. Pyrrhotite-rich sulfide mounds are inferred to have formed under gentle temperature and chemical gradients related to diffuse, low-velocity flow through disrupted sediment near the sediment-capped hills.

  16. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  17. Deformation and Seismicity Within the Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohman, R. B.; McGuire, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We examine ground deformation and seismicity within the Salton Trough of Southern California with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The Salton Trough is the landward extension of the spreading centers and transforms within the Gulf of California, and is associated with a higher heat flow than is found further north along the San Andreas system. The Salton Trough region is characterized by seismicity swarms similar to those that are characteristic of fault systems on the East Pacific Rise. Transient episodes of shallow and deep creep occur on the southern San Andreas, Imperial, and Superstition Hills faults, and pronounced afterslip and triggered slip are associated with local and regional earthquakes. Documentation of the temporal and spatial evolution of transient and triggered slip phenomena is vital to development of stress transfer and strain partitioning models explaining the dynamics of interactions within the North America-Pacific plate boundary. We determine the extent to which aseismic fault slip can be observed with SAR data, and perform specific investigations of the time periods surrounding several of the ~10 major earthquake swarms that have occurred within the Salton Trough since 1992. We seek to determine whether seismic swarm activity is associated with aseismic slip transients. Extensive agricultural activity in the region limits the utility of traditional InSAR, so we explore use of the persistent scatterer method to isolate roads, buildings and other features that retain interferometric coherence over time. Because a large number of SAR acquisitions are available (>30), and because of the large spatial and temporal variations in coherence between urban, agricultural, water-covered and desert landscapes within the scene, the Salton trough provides an interesting test scenario for the persistent scatterer method. We use spatially and temporally varying fault slip to model observed activity on the Superstition Hills fault. We explore

  18. Inflammation is associated with voriconazole trough concentrations.

    PubMed

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J P; Span, Lambert F R; Rodgers, Michael G G; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Uges, Donald R A; van der Werf, Tjip S; Kosterink, Jos G W; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2014-12-01

    Voriconazole concentrations display a large variability, which cannot completely be explained by known factors. Inflammation may be a contributing factor, as inflammatory stimuli can change the activities and expression levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. We explored the correlation between inflammation, reflected by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and voriconazole trough concentrations. A retrospective chart review of patients with at least one steady-state voriconazole trough concentration and a CRP concentration measured on the same day was performed. A total of 128 patients were included. A significantly (P < 0.001) higher voriconazole trough concentration was observed in patients with severe inflammation (6.2 mg/liter; interquartile range [IQR], 3.4 to 8.7 mg/liter; n = 20) than in patients with moderate inflammation (3.4 mg/liter; IQR, 1.6 to 5.4 mg/liter; n = 60) and in patients with no to mild inflammation (1.6 mg/liter; IQR, 0.8 to 3.0 mg/liter; n = 48). The patients in all three groups received similar voriconazole doses based on mg/kg body weight (P = 0.368). Linear regression analyses, both unadjusted and adjusted for covariates of gender, age, dose, route of administration, liver enzymes, and interacting coadministered medications, showed a significant association between voriconazole and CRP concentration (P < 0.001). For every 1-mg/liter increase in the CRP concentration, the voriconazole trough concentration increased by 0.015 mg/liter (unadjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.011 to 0.020 mg/liter; adjusted 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.019 mg/liter). Inflammation, reflected by the C-reactive protein concentration, is associated with voriconazole trough concentrations. Further research is necessary to assess if taking the inflammatory status of a patient into account is helpful in therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole to maintain concentrations in the therapeutic window, thereby possibly preventing suboptimal treatment or adverse events

  19. Compositional and isotopic properties of nitrogen in subseafloor hydrothermal environments at the Iheya North field in the mid-Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, M.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen is one of the essential elements as a substrate for energy metabolism and a building block of protein and nucleic acids. However, little is known about biogeodynamics of nitrogen in the subseafloor hydrothermal environments. Here, we report compositional and isotopic properties of nitrogen in pore water from 0 mbsf to 150 mbsf at the Iheya North hydrothermal field. At the site C0014 (450 meter east from the North Big Chimney), ammonia is the most abundant nitrogen compound, while nitrate is detected in a certain depth interval. In the depth interval around 10 mbsf, the ammonia concentration steeply increased from 0.3 mM to 1.5 mM downwards. In the same interval, potassium concentration profile showed the same trend as ammonia, while sulfate and magnesium concentration profiles showed the opposite trends. These profiles suggest binary mixing of shallower early diagenetic fluid and deeper hydrothermal fluid at the depth around 10 mbsf, where ammonia oxidation coupled with sulfate reduction can potentially occur. Further, Cl-depleted pore water at 40 mbsf was slightly enriched in ammonia relative to Cl-enriched pore water, probably originating from elemental fractionation during phase separation. By combining isotopic and compositional data, we will discuss the nitrogen biogeodynamics.

  20. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  1. Revisiting the Ariel Trough Work for HF Telecommunication Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulunay, Y.; Stanisławska, I.; Rothkaehl, H.

    2003-07-01

    Muldrew [1] was the pioneer who reported the midlatitude electron density trough at the topside ionosphere. For about ten to fifteen years the trough, its morphology, dynamical behavior, relationship to the equatorial plasmapause, and physical and chemical processes which lead to the trough formation had been extensively investigated. Then, the work on the trough had been slowed down gradually. As the new space systems have become more vulnerable to space weather effects, a need for robust programs and a long track record in space environment sensing and modeling to produce new space environment models and products that would meet high-priority defense and commercial needs arises naturally. In this context, it is intended to go over the reported trough work dating back to the 1970s and some typical findings of later developments briefly. Most of the aspects of the trough studies have been repeated with new data for newer physical models. From this point of view, the Ariel 3 and Ariel 4 satellite trough results are chosen since the work on the Ariel trough had been very original and very extensive quantitatively and qualitatively in the 1970s. The results reviewed here are based on more than 1000 beautiful selected trough cases. Due to the good quality and quantity of the Ariel satellite data, equal coverage in space and time were maintained, which makes the trough results very important. This paper will end with some reference to the trough models, results that establish a link between the topside and the F2 region of the ionosphere. As one typical application, HF radiocommunication is chosen to be the point of interest. In practical applications of the HF radiocommunications any model that does not include the trough is not complete.

  2. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhelil, J.

    The intracontinental Benue Trough was initiated during the Lower Cretaceous in relation with the Atlantic Ocean opening. The first stage of its evolution started in the Aptian, forming isolated basins with continental sedimentation. In the Albian times, a great delta developed in the Upper Benue Trough, while the first marine transgression coming from the opening Gulf of Guinea occurred in the south and reached the Middle Benue. The widespread Turonian transgression made the Atlantic and Tethys waters communicate through the Sahara, Niger basins and the Benue Trough. The tectonic evolution of the Benue Trough was closely controlled by transcurrent faulting through an axial fault system, developing local compressional and tensional regimes and resulting in basins and basement horsts along releasing and restraining bends of the faults. Two major compressional phases occurred: in the Abakaliki area (southern Benue) during the Santonian; and at the end of the Cretaceous in the Upper Benue Trough. In Abakaliki, the sedimentary infilling was severely deformed through folding and flattening, and moderate folding and fracturing occurred in the northeast. The Cretaceous magmatism was restricted to main fault zones in most of the trough but was particularly active in the Abakaliki Trough, where it has alkaline affinities. From Albian to Santonian, the magmatism was accompanied in part of the Abakaliki Trough by a low-grade metamorphism. Geophysical data indicate a crustal thinning beneath the Benue Trough and, at a superficial level, an axial basement high flanked by two elongated deep basins including isolated sub-basins. The model of the tectonic evolution of the trough is based upon a general sinistral wrenching along the trough responsible for the structural arrangement and the geometry of the sub-basins. During the early stages of the Gulf of Guinea opening the Benue Trough was probably the expression on land of the Equatorial Fracture Zones.

  3. A survey of junior high school students' sleep habit and lifestyle in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, M; Taira, K; Tanaka, H; Yamakawa, K; Toguchi, H; Kadekaru, H; Yamamoto, Y; Uezu, E; Shirakawa, S

    2001-06-01

    A survey was made of the sleep and lifestyle activity patterns of 3754 students from 14 different junior high schools on Okinawa Island. The survey showed that bedtimes became progressively and significantly later as students ascended to higher grades, resulting in adolescent sleep debt. The later adolescents retired to sleep, there appeared significantly greater numbers suffering from insufficient sleep, who found difficulty in waking up, who arose later in the mornings, and who failed to eat breakfast. The study indicated that along with later bedtimes, staying up late resulted in deterioration of sleep health, poor dietary habits and feeling ill, contributing to sleepiness during class. PMID:11422845

  4. Tetrodotoxin-Medicated Delay in Aconitine Toxicity: A Murder in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y

    2014-07-01

    Aconite (wolfsbane) plants, which belong to the genus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae family), contain highly toxic alkaloids, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and jesaconitine, in all of their parts. The relevance of this plant material is illustrated by the case of a Japanese female who died suddenly in 1986 and was autopsied in Okinawa by the author. The detection in 1987 of Aconitum alkaloids in her blood using gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring (GC/SIM), which was newly developed for this case, demonstrated that she had died from aconite poisoning. PMID:26227030

  5. Mineralogy of the Mercurian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Evans, Larry R.; Frank, Elizabeth A.; McCoy, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited Mercury for four years until April 2015, revealing its structure, chemical makeup, and compositional diversity. Data from the mission have confirmed that Mercury is a compositional end-member among the terrestrial planets. The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on board MESSENGER provided the first detailed geochemical analyses of Mercury's surface. These instruments have been used in conjunction with the Neutron Spectrometer and the Mercury Dual Imaging System to classify numerous geological and geochemical features on the surface of Mercury that were previously unknown. Furthermore, the data have revealed several surprising characteristics about Mercury's surface, including elevated S abundances (up to 4 wt%) and low Fe abundances (less than 2.5 wt%). The S and Fe abundances were used to quantify Mercury's highly reduced state, i.e., between 2.6 and 7.3 log10 units below the Iron-Wustite (IW) buffer. This fO2 is lower than any of the other terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System and has important consequences for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury, its surface mineralogy and geochemistry, and the petrogenesis of the planet's magmas. Although MESSENGER has revealed substantial geochemical diversity across the surface of Mercury, until now, there have been only limited efforts to understand the mineralogical and petrological diversity of the planet. Here we present a systematic and comprehensive study of the potential mineralogical and petrological diversity of Mercury.

  6. Ridges and Troughs in Sippar Sulcus, Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Embayment of ridges and troughs in a portion of the Sippar Sulcus area of Jupiter's moon Ganymede in this image from NASA's Galileo spacecraft is interpreted as evidence that the low-lying area was filled in by flooding with low-viscosity material, such as water or water-ice slush lavas. Bays of the material appeared to have formed in troughs (indicated by arrows) between the ridges.

    The smallest features visible are about 180 meters (590 feet) across. Analysis of such high-resolution images in combination with estimates of the features' relative elevations is helping scientists interpret the roles of volcanism and tectonics in creating the bright terrain on Ganymede.

    This image was prepared by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, and included in a report by Dr. Paul Schenk et al. in the March 1, 2001, edition of the journal Nature.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    Images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo .

  7. Eponym of Naso-Jugal Fold and Tear Trough.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the eponym of the naso-jugal fold and tear trough and to make a suggestion to standardize the terminology.In a PubMed search, the search terms (naso-jugal) and (fold OR groove); (tear trough) and (anatomy) were used, which resulted in 48 and 37 titles, respectively. Eliminating duplicated titles, 80 abstracts were reviewed. Among them, 18 full papers were reviewed. Two papers were excluded and 3 mined papers were added. Finally, 19 papers were reviewed.In a paper published by an ophthalmologist Dr David Miller, "tear trough" was first used for designating the circular trough carved into a scleral contact in 1969. In the remaining 18 papers including 1 conference presentation, 6 terms were used for the same structure; naso-jugal fold (4), naso-jugal groove (4), naso-jugal ditch (1), tear trough (5), tear trough deformity (6), and tear trough depression (1). Whitnall first used "naso-jugal" and 10 other papers stated "naso-jugal." Eight papers cited Whitnall (2), Duke-Elder (2), and Loeb (4) in the origin of the term "naso-jugal." Flowers adapted "tear trough" for the cheek groove and 12 other papers wrote "tear trough." Eleven papers cited Flowers (9), Le Louarn (1), Mendelson (1) when referring to the origin of the term "tear trough."The name of the structure should contain "naso-jugal" rather than "tear trough" because "naso-jugal" was coined earlier and expresses the location of the structure. The recommended term should be "the deepened naso-jugal groove" since it deepens with age. PMID:27315310

  8. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species. PMID:25649850

  9. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  10. Sedimentation and tectonics of the Sylhet trough, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Nur Alam, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Sylhet trough, a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin in northeastern Bangladesh, contains a thick fill (12 to 16 km) of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that record its tectonic evolution. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and petrographic data collected from outcrops, cores, well logs, and seismic lines are used to reconstruct the history of this trough. -from Authors

  11. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals are... animals. (b) Sheep, goats, and swine. Pens for these animals shall have feed troughs not less than...

  12. Modal Mineralogy of Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S. T.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Modal mineralogy of the lunar regolith is fundamentally important. It varies with the composition of underlying bedrock, extent of addition of materials excavated by impact both local and distant, and small-scale reworking by micrometeorite bombardment, so it contains information about local geological history. Determining modal mineralogy of soils provides vital ground truth to remote sensing studies. Mineralogy can be determined by a variety of techniques that provide complementary information: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), optical point counting, element mapping by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or electron microprobe (EMP), and normative calculation from a bulk chemical analysis. SEM and EMP element mapping can be converted into mineral modal abundances in a variety of ways, including defining compositional windows for specific minerals and using image processing techniques. XRD provides direct determination of the phases present, but gives little information about the chemical composition of those phases. We have launched a project to determine the modal mineralogy of over 100 lunar soils from all Apollo sites. The goal is to use this quantitative mineralogy and laboratory and remote reflectance spectra of the same soils to improve our ability to extract quantitative mineralogy from remote sensing data. Samples (< 1mm bulk soils) were dry-sieved and the <150 micron fractions analyzed in a Terra XRD instrument (InXitu, Inc.) using sample sizes of ~35 mg. We reduced the data using Reitveld refinement as implemented by the Jade program (Materials Data, Inc.). Glass abundances were determined by choosing a linear background and fitting a broad Gaussian to the scattering hump above background. Quantitative XRD is well established, but usually requires some calibration, in spite of the sophisticated Reitveld refinement and whole-pattern fitting. We calibrated the instrument by using mixtures of terrestrial minerals and results from the Lunar Sample Characterization

  13. Influence of climate on deep-water clastic sedimentation: application of a modern model, Peru-Chile Trough, to an ancient system, Ouachita Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity

  14. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  15. Modeling the mineralogy of atmospheric dust sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claquin, T.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y. J.

    1999-09-01

    The variability of atmospheric dust mineralogy influences the impact of desert dust on the Earth's radiative budget and biogeochemical cycles. Until now, atmospheric transport models have assumed that dust was a constant homogeneous mixture, hence neglecting this variability. The lack of mineralogical data in arid areas prevented a better description of the atmospheric dust composition, and we propose here a new formulation to estimate the mineral content of arid surfaces on a global scale. First, we collect a Database of Arid Soil Surface Mineralogy for eight major minerals: quartz, feldspar, calcite, gypsum, illite, kaolinite, smectite, and hematite, both for the clay and silt fraction. On the basis of this, we formulate a Mean Mineralogical Table that relates classical soil types to surface mineralogy. We use this table and the geographical distribution of soil types given in the Food and Agriculture Organization Soil Map of the World to obtain the mineralogy of arid surfaces globally. In order to validate these results, we present a compilation of measured mineralogical composition of dust samples with identified sources. The correlation between observed dust mineralogy and those inferred from soil types in corresponding areas is between 0.70 and 0.94. We then calculate the maps of the single scattering albedo and of the ratio of infrared extinction to visible extinction for the erodible fraction of arid areas. Mineralogical maps presented here will be used in future studies with an emission scheme in a global transport model.

  16. Reflectance spectroscopy and asteroid surface mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, Michael J.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    Information available from reflectance spectroscopy on the surface mineralogy of asteroids is discussed. Current spectral interpretive procedures used in the investigations of asteroid mineralogy are described. Present understanding of the nature and history of asteroids is discussed together with some still unresolved issues such as the source of ordinary chondrites.

  17. Effects of causeway construction on environment and biota of subtropical tidal flats in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Yang, Sung-Yin; White, Kristine N; Asami, Ryuji; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Hongo, Chuki; Ito, Shingo; Kawamura, Iori; Maeda, Isshu; Mizuyama, Masaru; Obuchi, Masami; Sakamaki, Takashi; Tachihara, Katsunori; Tamura, Maiko; Tanahara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Aika; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2015-05-15

    Okinawa, Japan is known for its high marine biodiversity, yet little work has been performed on examining impacts of numerous large-scale coastal development projects on its marine ecosystems. Here, we examine apparent impacts of the construction of the Kaichu-Doro causeway, which was built over 40 years ago. The causeway is a 4.75 km long embankment that divides a large tidal flat and has only two points of water exchange along its entire length. We employed quadrats, transects, sampling, visual surveys, and microbial community analyses combined with environmental, water quality data, and 1m cores, at five stations of two paired sites each (one on each side of Kaichu-Doro) to investigate how the environment and biota have changed since the Kaichu-Doro was built. Results indicate reduction in water flow, and site S1 was particularly heavily impacted by poor water quality, with low diversity and disturbed biotic communities. PMID:25865345

  18. Variations of short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.

    2013-12-01

    . Some of them accompany regular earthquakes with the maximum magnitude of ~5. A shallow Mw~6.4 SSE was detected east off southern Kyushu around January 27, 2010. VLFEs were coincidentally activated in a shallow adjacent region near the trench. Although a resolving power of SSEs along the Ryukyu arc is limited due to sparse GNSS stations, we found series of repeated SSEs near Kikaijima and Okinawa Islands in a depth of 10-30 km. A cumulative slip of the estimated SSEs over 16 years suggests along-trench variations of SSEs distribution. A band of large (> 10 cm) slip at a depth of 30-40 km stretches from Shikoku to northeast Kyushu which is ~50 km southwest of the western limit of the tremors. However, the cumulative slip in the Bungo channel and northeast Kyushu is one-third of that in western Shikoku. No shallow slip of SSEs was found from Shikoku to northeast Kyushu. Shallow separated patches of SSEs exist in a region southwest of southern Kyushu along the Ryukyu trench. The variation of SSEs may be related with that of large megathrust earthquakes, that is, repeated Mw>8 and few earthquakes along the Nankai Trough and the Ryukyu Trench, respectively.

  19. Cobbles in Troughs Between Meridiani Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues to traverse from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the rover navigates along exposures of bedrock between large, wind-blown ripples. Along the way, scientists have been studying fields of cobbles that sometimes appear on trough floors between ripples. They have also been studying the banding patterns seen in large ripples.

    This view, obtained by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 802nd Martian day (sol) of exploration (April 27, 2006), is a mosaic spanning about 30 degrees. It shows a field of cobbles nestled among wind-driven ripples that are about 20 centimeters (8 inches) high.

    The origin of cobble fields like this one is unknown. The cobbles may be a lag of coarser material left behind from one or more soil deposits whose finer particles have blown away. The cobbles may be eroded fragments of meteoritic material, secondary ejecta of Mars rock thrown here from craters elsewhere on the surface, weathering remnants of locally-derived bedrock, or a mixture of these. Scientists will use the panoramic camera's multiple filters to study the rock types, variability and origins of the cobbles.

    This is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters.

  20. Interior trough deposits on Mars: Subice volcanoes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread, several-kilometer-thick successions of layered deposits occur as mounds that partly fill the troughs or chasmata that compose the Valles Marineris on Mars. Like terrestrial subice volcanoes, the layered deposits occur in a volcano-tectonic setting within basins that may have held ponded water or ice. On the basis of their dimensions, morphologies, and associated catastrophic floods and other geologic events as shown in Viking and new Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets, we suggest that the interior deposits are volcanic in origin and possibly generated by subice eruptions. A tuya origin for the mounds can explain the lack of external sediment, mound heights that can rival the plateau, local flat-topped mesas, morphologically distinct mounds of different ages, horizontal to steep dips, fine-grained materials, indications of rare volcanic vents and lava flows, and spectral composition. The extremely diverse layering of west Candor Chasma and possible volcanic cones in Melas may have formed by related subaerial eruptions. Consistent with the suggestion that interior deposits are eroding out of the wall rock, some deposits could have been erupted from sites along the walls.

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  3. Troughs under threshold modeling of minimum flows in perennial streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önöz, B.; Bayazit, M.

    2002-02-01

    Troughs under threshold analysis has so far found little application in the modeling of minimum streamflows. In this study, all the troughs under a certain threshold level are considered in deriving the probability distribution of annual minima through the total probability theorem. For the occurrence of minima under the threshold, Poissonian, binomial or negative binomial processes are assumed. The magnitude of minima follows the generalized Pareto, exponential or power distribution. It is shown that asymptotic extreme value distributions for minima or the two-parameter Weibull distribution is obtained for the annual minima, depending on which models are assumed for the occurrence and magnitude of troughs under the threshold. Derived distributions can be used for modeling the minimum flows in streams which do not have zero flows. Expressions for the T-year annual minimum flow are obtained. An example illustrates the application of the troughs under threshold model to the minimum flows observed in a stream.

  4. Detail view of concrete trough and metal stanchions at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of concrete trough and metal stanchions at east side of middle level, with scale stick - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Cow Barn, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr Avenue SE, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  6. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  7. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes. PMID:26201386

  8. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; et al

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers ofmore » the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.« less

  9. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  10. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-01-01

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ-15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  11. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miguel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Orgando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  12. Mineralogical characteristics of electric arc furnace dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagni, Ann M.; Hagni, Richard D.; Demars, Christelle

    1991-04-01

    Reflected light microscopy can contribute important information regarding the mineralogy, mineral abundance, internal textures, sizes and shapes of particles in electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis are useful to determine the chemical compositions of the specific mineral grains in the dust particles. Furthermore, the mineralogical reactions that have taken place during the pyro-metallurgical treatment of EAF dusts and the mineralogy and textural character of those treated dust samples can be directly observed by reflected light microscopy. Such studies are useful in monitoring the efficiency of experimental pyrometallurgical treatment of EAF dusts which are designed to render them nonhazardous.

  13. Radiocarbon Analysis of Elemental Carbon and Total Organic Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Handa, D.; Nakajima, H.; Kumata, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shibata, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2008-12-01

    A study was initiated to understand the sources and behaviors of carbon-containing compounds in the atmospheric aerosols in East Asian region. As an initial attempt, we collected airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter <10 micrometer (PM10) in Okinawa, Japan and analyzed 14C/12C ratio in EC and total organic carbon (TOC) to apportion source of biomass and fossil fuel combustion in PM10 aerosols. Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia. Aerosol particles were collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan. Each sample was collected for two weeks with a high-volume air sampler at a rate of 1000 L min-1 to collect aerosol particles on a quartz filter, which was pre-combusted before use to eliminate residual organic compounds. Radiocarbon is measured in AMS facility (NIES-TERRA) at National Institute for Environmental Studies after preparing graphite. The results showed that during Asian dust events in March and April, both APM and EC in PM10 aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan were much higher than those of non-Asian dust event. The percent modern carbon (pMC) of EC and TOC was much smaller for the PM10 aerosols collected during Asian dust events than those of non-dust event. When maritime air mass prevailed, biomass originated organic compounds were the major TOC in the aerosols. We will report data on 14C/12C ratio of EC and TOC in PM10 aerosols collected at CHAAMS during March to October, 2008

  14. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  15. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Nakaema, F.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2009-12-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. A computer simulation study showed that air pollutants emitted from Asian continent could spread quickly within northern hemisphere. We initiated a study to elucidate the special distribution and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols around Okinawa archipelago, Japan. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same types of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa Island), Kume Island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS) and Minami-daitou Island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We report and discuss spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species concentrations in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected during July, 2008 to July, 2009. We determine “background” concentration of chemical components in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume Island and Minami-daito Island to elucidate the influence of the long-range transport of chemical species from Asian continent.

  16. A mineralogical instrument for planetary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Vaniman, David T.; Bish, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The mineralogy of a planetary surface can be used to identify the provenance of soil or sediment and reveal the volcanic, metamorphic and/or sedimentological history of a particular region. We have discussed elsewhere the applications and the instrument design of possible X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) devices for the mineralogical characterization of planetary surfaces. In this abstract we evaluate some aspects of sample-detector geometry and sample collection strategies.

  17. Vesta Mineralogy: VIR maps Vesta's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coradina, A.; DeSanctis, M.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, T.; Carraro, F.; Cartacci, M.; Filacchione, G.; Fonte, S.; Magni, G.; Noschese, R.; Tosi, F.; Barucci, A.; Federico, C.; Frigeri, A.; Fulchigoni, M.; Langevin, Y.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Turrini, D.; McCord, T.; McFadden, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    The Dawn mission will have completed Survey orbit around 4 Vesta by the end of August 2011. We present a preliminary analysis of data acquired by the Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (VIR) to map Vesta mineralogy. Thermal properties and mineralogical data are combined to provide constraints on Vesta's formation and thermal evolution. delivery of exogenic materials, space weathering processes, and origin of the howardite. eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  18. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  19. Daytime F layer trough observed on a macroscopic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J.A. )

    1987-03-01

    This paper reports a new technique of observing the high-latitude ionospheric trough which defines its continuity in space and time on a macroscopic scale not previously possible. Vertical ionospheric soundings provide the observations in the midday to evening sector where the signature of the trough is found to be a bite-out' of a factor of 3-10 in the diurnal distribution of the solar produced electron density at the F layer maximum. The data base employed is that produced by the extensive array of ionospheric sounders operating at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere during the International Geophysical Year period of December 1958, hence at solar maximum. The worldwide extent, high density, simultaneity, and continuity of these measurements make possible the description of the trough for the first time as an integral, spatially continuous entity in its entire daytime extent and UT duration. The technique is demonstrated in studies of 4 days which span the range of activity for the month. On the most disturbed day the daytime trough is continuous in magnetic latitude, magnetic local time between (75{degree}, 1030) and (51{degree}, 1630) and remains nearly stationary in this frame of reference for a duration of 14.5 hours UT. A snapshot' constructed from multiple simultaneous observations on this day shows the trough to have a continuous length of 6 {times} 10{sup 3} km and an area of > 4 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. The trough, which is also stable for similar durations on the other 3 days, is found to rotate clockwise to earlier magnetic local time by 5.5. hours and to expand equatorward in magnetic latitude by 20{degree} as activity increases from quiet to disturbed. Activity dependence and morphology are consistent with other observations that the trough locates rapid westward convection within the dusk convection cell.

  20. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  1. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

    2007-12-01

    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  2. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I

  3. Geomorphological and mineralogical mapping of Hebes Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Gwinner, K.; Gendrin, A.; Fueten, F.; Stesky, R.; Pelkey, S.; Zegers, T.; Bibring, J. P.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    Despite more than three decades of analysis, the origin of the Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) in the Valles Marineris (VM) trough system is still unknown. The advance of new remote sensing data obtained by the recent planetary missions Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (MO), and Mars Express (MEX) allow investigation of the morphology and composition in unprecedented detail. This study focusses on Hebes Chasma in the central VM, which is unique because it contains a huge mesa of ILD in a completely closed depression. We used topographic data from the HRSC camera onboard MEX to analyze the geometry of layering in Hebes Mensa with the Orion structural analysis software. Strike and dip were measured in 50m/px gridded Digital Elevation Models and corresponding orthoimages. These data have a higher spatial resolution than those used in an earlier study. We find that the layers dip gently in the downslope direction. These results are in agreement with our earlier results in Hebes Chasma and with our similar ILD studies in western Candor and Ophir Chasmata, also based on HRSC topography. A mineralogic map indicating concentrations of polyhydrated sulfates, kieserite, and oxides was produced from OMEGA spectral data. It shows that these alteration minerals are only observed in low-lying areas, which are not covered by landslides. We consider a lacustrine origin of the ILD in Hebes Chasma as unlikely. The downslope dipping of ILD layers is in agreement with a draping process, e.g., pyroclastic fall deposits from a W-E trending volcanic vent, or a series of WNW-ESE trending vents in an en echelon alignment. Thin, finely layered deposits on top of the plateaus surrounding vm (e.g., west of Juventae or south of Ius ChasmaTA) could represent that portion of the pyroclastics which escaped the troughs and were distributed on the adjacent high plains. The occurrence of alteration minerals only in very deep portions of Hebes Chasma also argues against a deposition in a deep

  4. Errors in trough: peak ratio determinations induced by patient behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dutrey-Dupagne; Vaur; Genès; Mallion; Meredith; Elkik

    1996-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Trough: peak ratio is often used to evaluate the duration of antihypertensive action. Whatever the method of measurement chosen, trough effect has to be measured 24 h after the last drug intake for a once daily regimen. Peak effect is usually measured 4-6 h after drug intake. If patients' compliance to therapeutic instructions is perfect, then the 'intrinsic' trough: peak ratio of the drug is equal to the measured trough: peak ratio. Some patients do not follow these instructions, leading to biases in the evaluation of the ratio. For trough evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the last dose of the drug the day before blood pressure measurement. However, if some patients (n1) wrongly take the drug in the morning of the visit, they will be evaluated at peak (type A error). For peak evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the drug a few hours before blood pressure measurement. If some patients (n2) miss their morning dose, they will be evaluated at trough (type B error). METHODS: In the MACH 1 study, the use of an electronic pill count monitor allowed us to quantify n1/N and n2/N. A total of 452 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group 1 received written instructions to take their last dose during the morning of the day before the visit, whereas patients of group 2 had to take their last dose on the morning of the visit. RESULTS: Electronic pill-box recording revealed that 32.9%: of patients in group 1 committed type A error, whereas 27.7% of patients in group 2 committed type B error. The resulting 'pill-box corrected' trough: peak ratio was lower (87.5% for diastolic blood pressure and 93.1% for systolic blood pressure) than the uncorrected trough: peak ratio (95.2% for diastolic blood pressure and 96.0% for systolic blood pressure) of the population. CONCLUSION: The random behaviour of patients, with respect to treatment compliance, results in a systematic overestimation of the measured trough

  5. Tear trough deformity: review of anatomy and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Stutman, Ross L; Codner, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    The lower eyelid can be a challenging area in facial rejuvenation. While lower eyelid bags are commonly the reason that patients present for lower eyelid rejuvenation, a separate entity known as a tear trough deformity may occur in conjunction with lower eyelid bags or alone. In this article, the authors outline the current understanding of the tear trough anatomy; describe multiple classification systems, which provide an objective means of evaluating the deformity and aid the surgeon in choosing appropriate treatment options; and review surgical and nonsurgical techniques for correcting the tear trough deformity. Treatment options include hyaluronic acid filler, fat grafting, skeletal implants, and fat transposition. Each procedure is associated with advantages and disadvantages, and each should be considered more complex than traditional lower blepharoplasty alone. While lower blepharoplasty removes excess fat and may tighten the anterior lamella, tear trough procedures require the addition of volume to the underlying depression. These procedures requiring release of the ligamentous structures and orbicularis (of which the tear trough is composed), as well as fat transposition or fat grafting, are associated with additional complications, which are also reviewed. PMID:22523096

  6. Tear trough deformity: different types of anatomy and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jindou; Wang, Xuekun; Chen, Rongrong; Xia, Xueying; Sun, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the efficacy of tear trough deformity treatment with the use of hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat for soft tissue augmentation and fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. Material and methods Seventy-eight patients with the tear trough were divided into three groups. Class I has tear trough without bulging orbital fat or excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class II is associated with mild to moderate orbital fat bulging, without excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class III is associated with severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class I or II was treated using hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat injections. Class III was treated with fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. The patients with a deep nasojugal groove of class III were treated with injecting autologous fat into the tear trough during fat repositioning lower blepharoplasty as a way of supplementing the volume added by the repositioned fat. Results Seventy-eight patients with tear trough deformity were confirmed from photographs taken before and after surgery. There were some complications, but all had complete resolution. Conclusions Patients with mild to moderate peri-orbital volume loss without severe orbital fat bulging may be good candidates for hyaluronic acid filler or fat grafting alone. However, patients with more pronounced deformities, severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin are often better served by fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release and fat grafting. PMID:27605904

  7. Aeolian Sediment Transport Pathways and Aerodynamics at Troughs on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Mary C.; Bullard, Joanna E.; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier S.

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between wind regimes and topography can give rise to complex suites of aeolian landforms. This paper considers aeolian sediment associated wit11 troughs on Mars and identifies a wider range of deposit types than has previously been documented. These include wind streaks, falling dunes, "lateral" dunes, barchan dunes, linear dunes, transverse ridges, sand ramps, climbing dunes, sand streamers, and sand patches. The sediment incorporated into these deposits is supplied by wind streaks and ambient Planitia sources as well as originating within the trough itself, notably from the trough walls and floor. There is also transmission of sediment between dneTsh. e flow dynamics which account for the distribution of aeolian sediment have been modeled using two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. The model predicts flow separation on the upwind side of the trough followed by reattachment and acceleration at the downwind margin. The inferred patterns of sediment transport compare well with the distribution of aeolian forms. Model data indicate an increase of wind velocity by approx. 30 % at the downwind trough margin. This suggests that the threshold wind speed necessary for sand mobilization on Mars will be more freqentmlye t in these inclined locations.

  8. Characterization of Mineralogy Across Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Capaccioni, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    Dawn VIR spectra are characterized by pyroxene absorptions and no clear evidence for abundant other minerals are observed at the scale of the present measurements. Even though Vesta spectra are dominated by pyroxenes, spectral variation at regional and local scales are evident and distinct color units are identified. Although almost all of the surface materials exhibit spectra like those of howardites, some large units can be interpreted to be material richer in diogenite (based on pyroxenes band depths and band centers) and some others like eucrite-rich howardite units. VIR data strongly indicate that the south polar region (Rheasilvia) has its own spectral characteristics, indicating the presence of Mg-pyroxene-rich terrains (diogenite-like), while the equatorial areas have swallower band depths and average band centers at slightly longer wavelengths, consistent with more eucrite rich materials. Vesta surface shows considerable diversity at smaller scales (tens of km), in terms of spectral reflectance and emission, band depths and slopes. Many bright and dark spots are present on Vesta. Dark spots have low reflectance at visible wavelengths and are spectrally characterized by shallower 1 and 2 micron bands with respect the surrounding terrains. Bright materials have high reflectance and are often spectrally characterized by deep pyroxenes absorption bands. Vesta presents complex geology/topography and the mineral distribution is often correlated with geological and topographical structures. Ejecta from large craters have distinct spectral behaviors, and materials exposed in the craters show distinct spectra on floors and rims. VIR reveals the mineralogical variation of Vesta s crustal stratigraphy on local and global scales. Maps of spectral parameters show surface and subsurface unit compositions in their stratigraphic context. The hypothesis that Vesta is the HED parent body is consistent with, and strengthened by, the geologic and spectral context for pyroxene

  9. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  10. Tectonic evolution of the Tobago Trough forearc basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R.; Torrini, R., Jr.; Smith, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    The histories of configurational changes and sedimentation in the Tobago Trough, which is a modern bathymetric forearc basin of the Lesser Antilles island arc, were investigated using marine seismic data from the Tobago Trough. Special attention is given to two tectonic problems. The first is the evolution of the southeastern corner of the Caribbean as related to the finding that the early forearc basins had substantially different configurations from that of the modern forearc basin. The second is the interaction between the forearc basin and the accretionary prism within the Lesser Antilles system. It is pointed out that Miocene and younger features of the Tobago Trough might reflect a superposition of tectonism associated with the development of the Neogene Lesser Antilles arc on an older arc system.

  11. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 μM. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 μM, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 μM, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  12. Interspecific interactions among species of the coral genus Porites from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, B; Sakai, K

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of field established xenogeneic interactions among five Porites species from Sesoko Island, Okinawa, revealed a transitive type of hierarchy as: P. rus >P. cylindrica >P. lobata >P. australiensis>P. lutea. Out of the 111 interspecific encounters studied, in only 5.4% reciprocal interactions were recorded, and in a single case, the opposite directionality of hierarchy was documented. Allogeneic encounters were also observed. A single major effector mechanism, an overgrowth (together with secondary outcomes such as the formation of small points of rejection, bleaching and pink color formation along a narrow peripheral belt of contacting tissues), was the only response in all 10 xenogeneic and 5 allogeneic combinations. In some massive colonies, a long contacting line of up to 50 cm was established. No sign for allelopathy, stand-off or rejection from a distance (i.e., by sweeper tentacles, sweeper polyps) was observed. Results are discussed with the accumulated data on Porites species from different reefs, worldwide, confirming that this genus is commonly lower in the hierarchy of xenogeneic interactions. PMID:16351822

  13. Multiple copies of SRY on the large Y chromosome of the Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki.

    PubMed

    Murata, Chie; Yamada, Fumio; Kawauchi, Norihiro; Matsuda, Yoichi; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2010-09-01

    The Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki, is the only species with a Y chromosome in the genus Tokudaia. Its phylogenic relationship with two XO/XO species, Tokudaia osimensis and Tokudaia tokunoshimensis, lacking a Y chromosome and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY, is unknown. Furthermore, there has been little cytogenetic analysis of the sex chromosomes in T. muenninki. Therefore, we constructed molecular phylogenetic trees with nucleotide sequences of cyt b, RAG1, and IRBP. All trees strongly supported that T. muenninki was the first to diverge from the Tokudaia ancestor, indicating that loss of the Y chromosome and SRY occurred in the common ancestor of the two XO/XO species after T. muenninki diverged. We found that the X and Y chromosomes of T. muenninki consisted of large euchromatic and heterochromatic regions by conducting G- and C-banding analyses. PCR, Southern blotting, and FISH revealed that T. muenninki males had multiple SRY copies on the long arm of the Y chromosome. At least three of 24 SRY sequences contained a complete open reading frame (ORF). A species-specific substitution from alanine to serine was found in all copies at the DNA-binding surface within the HMG-box, suggesting that it occurred in an original SRY. PMID:20574822

  14. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  15. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  16. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  17. Ancient buried submarine trough, northwest Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berryhill, H.L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large buried submarine trough crosses the seaward margin of the continental shelf off the southwest coast of Louisiana. Original length was about 90 km, and width at the shelf edge was 16 km. Maximum eroded depth may have been as much as 305 m. Seismic characteristics of the prograded fill indicate cyclically repeated sequences of retrogressive deltaic and partly slumped sediments overlain by well-layered transgressive deposits. Slumping was increasingly prevalent toward the shelf edge. The cyclic sequences indicate that the trough was a passageway for large volumes of sediment onto the continental slope during several stages of lowered sea level. ?? 1981 A.M. Dowden, Inc.

  18. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap: A Pathway for Sustained Commercial Development and Deployment of Parabolic-Trough Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.

    1999-01-31

    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop.

  19. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  20. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, I. D. R.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of current investigations on the mineralogy of chondritic micrometeorites obtained from the lower stratosphere using flat-plate collection surfaces attached to high-flying aircraft. A compilation of detailed mineralogical analyses for 30 documented chondritic interplanetary dust particles indicates a wide variety of minerals present in assemblages which, as yet, are poorly defined. Two possible assemblages are: (1) carbonaceous phases and layer silicates and (2) carbonaceous and chain silicates or nesosilicates. Particles with both types of silicate assemblages are also observed.

  1. High-resolution MIRU-VNTRs typing reveals the unique nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage is highly prevalent in Japan. The aim of the present study was to describe the population structure of the Beijing lineage in this country based on 12-, 15-, and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping schemes. The MIRU-VNTR patterns of Beijing strains from Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands were compared to those recently published from the Osaka-Kobe megalopolis of the main island of Japan, Honshu (Wada et al., 2009). We also compared proportions of "modern/typical" vs. "ancient/atypical" Beijing strains as defined by structure of the NTF locus. Contrarily to the 12-loci Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), the 15- and 21-loci trees allowed the distinction of two groups of strains in Okinawa. A 12-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern (223325173533) corresponding to MIRU international type MIT17 was identified as the most prevalent Beijing genotype in Japan. In the SITVIT2 database, this pattern was found to be disseminated worldwide and corresponded to the most widely distributed Beijing profile in East Asia and former USSR countries. A comparison of 15- and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR patterns showed that two loci (QUB-4156 and Mtub21) were most polymorphic in our study, and could be potential candidates to distinguish between NTF locus based subclassification of Beijing strains. High-resolution VNTR typing using 15- and 21-loci underlined an evolutionarily distinct "ancient/atypical" subpopulation of the Beijing genotype in Okinawa as well as a subgroup of strains closely related to "modern/typical" Beijing strains observed in Osaka/Kobe. PMID:21723420

  2. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  3. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  4. Deep-water hydrocarbon potential of Georges Bank Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Levie, D.S. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Characterization of the petroleum potential for Georges Bank Trough has been based primarily on limited organic geochemical data that indicate the area of recent drilling activity behind the paleoshelf edge to be poor in organic carbon and C/sub 15/ + extract values, with predominantly terrestrial kerogen types. Maturation data also suggest an inadequate thermal history for hydrocarbon generation in the area. It is possible that the effects of heat flow from the New England Seamount Chain may contribute to hydrocarbon generation in the Georges Bank Trough - a relationship that may also exist between the Newfoundland Seamount Chain and the Hibernia area of the Grand Banks. Also, comparisons can be drawn between the Atlantic Fracture Zone bordering the Georges Bank Trough and the Romanche-St. Paul Fracture Zone off the Ivory Coast. In the latter region, restricted anoxic environments with sediments rich in marine kerogen types have been identified, as have both structural and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms. Within this rhombochasm configuration, reservoir lithologies of sandstone and carbonate turbidites, fractured deep-water chalks, and reefal limestones should occur. The relationships of seamount to fracture zone, as applied to the rhombochasm model for the Georges Bank Trough, should enhance the hydrocarbon potential of the lower Mesozoic sediments seaward of the paleoshelf edge and thus classify this area as a future major hydrocarbon province.

  5. Electrodynamic structure of the morning high-latitude trough region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A.; Voiculescu, M.; Juusola, L.; Nygrén, T.; Kuula, R.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the electrodynamics of a postmidnight, high-latitude ionospheric trough, observed with the European Incoherent Scatter radar in northern Scandinavia on 24-25 June 2003 around 22:00-02:30 UT during quiet conditions. The UHF radar made meridian scans with a 30 min cadence resulting in nine cross sections of ionospheric parameters. The F region electric field was also determined with the tristatic system. Ionospheric equivalent currents, calculated from ground magnetometer data, mostly show an electrojet-like current that is reasonably uniform in the longitudinal direction. Combined analysis of the conductances and equivalent current with a local Kamide-Richmond-Matsushita (KRM) method yields the ionospheric electric field and field-aligned current (FAC) in a 2-D (latitude-longitude) area around the radar. We conclude that the most likely scenario is one where the trough is initially created poleward of the auroral oval by downward FAC that evacuates the F region, but as the trough moves to lower latitudes during the early morning hours, it becomes colocated with the westward electrojet. There the electron density further decreases due to increased recombination caused by enhanced ion temperature, which in turn is brought about by a larger convection speed. Later in the morning the convection speed decreases and the trough is filled by increasing photoionization.

  6. Identification of Risk Factors for Elevated Neonatal Gentamicin Trough Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, John; Noyes, Elizabeth; Corriveau, Michele; Mercier, Charles

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify neonatal and maternal characteristics that may be associated with elevated neonatal gentamicin trough concentrations despite application of a previously published gentamicin dosage strategy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all neonates admitted to University of Vermont Medical Center (562-bed academic teaching hospital, Burlington, VT) receiving gentamicin between June 1, 2009, and August 31, 2013. A total of 205 neonates were included, with 41 cases and 164 controls. RESULTS: Postmenstrual age (PMA, gestational age plus chronological age) and small-for–gestational age (SGA) status were independently associated with elevated neonatal gentamicin trough concentrations. No maternal risk factor evaluated remained significantly associated in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of an elevated gentamicin trough concentration increases with lower PMA and is further accentuated in neonates with SGA status. In contrast, the presence of maternal risk factors did not increase the likelihood of elevated gentamicin trough concentrations. Neonates with lower PMA and SGA status may require an individualized dosage and monitoring strategy. PMID:27199620

  7. Parabolic trough solar power for competitive U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-07-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 190. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a results of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive US power market.

  8. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  9. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  10. 3. WOODLINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WOOD-LINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN POSITION, LOOKING NORTH. TRANSVERSE GIRDERS HAVE BEEN ADDED TO HELP STABILIZE THE AQUEDUCT. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Tinker's Creek Aqueduct, Canal Road, South Tinkers Creek Road, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Solar Thermal Power Plants with Parabolic-Trough Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L.; León, J.

    2004-12-01

    Parabolic-trough collectors (PTC) are solar concentrating devices suitable to work in the 150°C- 400°C temperature range. Power plants based on this type of solar collectors are a very efficient way to produce electricity with solar energy. At present, there are eight commercial solar plants (called SEGS-II, III,.. IX) producing electricity with parabolic-trough collectors and their total output power is 340 MW. Though all SEGS plants currently in operation use thermal oil as a heat transfer fluid between the solar field and the power block, direct steam generation (DSG) in the receiver tubes is a promising option to reduce the cost of electricity produced with parabolic- trough power plants. Most of technical uncertainties associated to the DSG technology were studied and solved in the DISS project and it is expected that this new technology will be commercially available in a short term. In Spain, the Royal Decree No. 436/204 (March 12th , 2004) has defined a premium of 0,18€/kWh for the electricity produced by solar thermal power plants, thus promoting the installation of solar thermal power plants up to a limit of 200 MW. Due to the current legal and financial framework defined in Spain, several projects to install commercial solar power plants with parabolic-trough collectors are currently underway.

  12. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substantially contributes to particulate organic matter affecting the regional and global air quality and the climate. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected in October 2009 to February 2012 on a weekly basis at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian aerosols and precursors. The TSP samples were analyzed for SOA tracers derived from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Total isoprene-SOA tracers showed a maximum in summer (2.12 ± 2.02 ng m-3) and minimum in winter (1.16 ± 0.92 ng m-3). This seasonality is mainly controlled by isoprene emission from the local subtropical forest, followed by regional scale emission of isoprene from the surrounding seas and long-range transported air masses. Total monoterpene-SOA tracers peaked in March (3.38 ± 2.03 ng m-3) followed by October (2.95 ± 1.62 ng m-3). In contrast, sesquiterpene-SOA tracer, β-caryophyllinic acid, showed winter maximum (1.63 ± 1.18 ng m-3) and summer minimum (0.20 ± 0.46 ng m-3). The variations of the monoterpene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are likely related to the continental outflow of oxidation products of BVOC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the total biogenic SOC of 0.25-157 ng m-3 (mean 35.8 ng m-3) that accounts for 0.01-9.8% (mean 2.7%) of aerosol organic carbon. Our study suggests that SOA formation in the western North Pacific Rim is involved with not only local but also regional emissions followed by long-range atmospheric transport.

  13. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  14. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)). PMID:27262360

  15. Biogenic carbonate mineralogies through the Phanerozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Constantz, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence is rapidly becoming available which indicates that global ocean chemistry has fluctuated with respect to carbonate solubility through Phanerozoic time; the mineralogy of inorganically precipitated carbonate cements appears to have changed as a result. Reported here are new scanning and transmission electron microscopic and ultrastructural evidence together with theoretical calculations that suggest such changes in global ocean chemistry also mediated mineralogic changes in the carbonate skeletons or some organisms. Many groups of organisms are thought to mediate the entire skeletal crystal growth process by actively directing ions into a potentially charged organic matrix, always constructing a specific mineral. A host of other groups of organisms only initiate skeletal crystal growth so that the majority of their skeletal mineral growth is physicochemical, akin to the precipitation of marine cements; inorganic skeletal crystal growth is usually followed by readsorption of these inorganically precipitating crystals by the organism, halting crystal growth and forming skeletons of finished adaptive design. The author propose that physicochemical dominated skeletonizers had heterogeneous primary mineralogies through Phanerozoic time; he further suggests that organisms most susceptible to mineralogic inversion with changing ocean chemistry are those that, by new definition (presented here), are organisms which are the dominant reef builders of any given ancient carbonate system.

  16. Moessbauer mineralogy of calcined Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Hiroi, T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    The three Antarctic meteorites B7904, Y82162, and Y86720 are unusual because they have characteristics in common with both CI and CM groups and because they apparently underwent thermal alteration after hydrous alteration on their parent body. They are also spectrally similar (visible and near-IR) to C, G, B, and F asteroids, which may imply that the surface materials on those asteroids may have undergone thermal alteration. Based on the reflectance spectra of samples of Murchison (CM2 carbonaceous chondrite) that were thermally altered in the laboratory (cryopumped and initial 10(exp -5) atm H2), Hiroi et al. concluded that putative thermal alteration occurred at temperatures of 600 to 1000 C. Similar experiments have been done on Murchison and reported mineralogical changes based on data from transmission electron diffraction microscopy, electron diffraction, and analytical electron microscopy. We report here the Mossbauer mineralogy of the same samples of thermally-altered Murchison. Mossbauer mineralogy gives the molar distribution of Fe among its oxidation states and iron-bearing mineralogies.

  17. Mineralogy of artificially heated carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Hiroi, T.

    1994-01-01

    We have examined suites of heated Murchison (CM2) and Allende (CV3) samples heated in the range 400-1200 C, in a H2 atmosphere with a pressure of 10(exp 5) bar for periods of 1 to 4 weeks. We used a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe and TEM analyses to determine the mineralogy of these samples.

  18. Mineralogical Controls on Cold Desert Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, E. D.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Wright, I. P.; Grady, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Textural and chemical alteration of silicates is studied in L6 chondrites with relation to local mineral reactions and distance from the rim of the samples. Alteration is seen to be complex and more related to adjacent mineralogy than rim distance.

  19. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Fendrich, K. V.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yen, A. S.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Craig, P. I.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Gellert, R.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  20. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  1. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  2. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  3. Development of sheet-metal parabolic-trough reflector panels

    SciTech Connect

    Biester, A.W.

    1982-06-01

    Efforts to develop accurate, durable, and mass producible sheet metal parabolic trough solar collectors and the associated support for the collectors are described. The design considered is similar to an automobile hood, a two-piece sheet metal structure consisting of a formed steel frame or stiffening panel and a smooth contoured skin. The two pieces may be bonded or welded to form a rigid structure, and a reflective surface applied such as a film, glass mirror, or any of the presently utilized materials. The work encompassed material selection, adhesive selection and testing, tool design and fabrication, prototype panel production, and design and development of torque tube assemblies on which the trough is inclined. Appended are results of adhesive bonding studies. It is found that high volume technology can be used to produce accurate and structurally sound reflector panels, and one configuration has been selected for fabrication in suitable quantities for performance testing. (LEW)

  4. The Rome trough and evolution of the Iapetean margin

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.; Hamilton-Smith, T.; Drahovzal, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent structural mapping of the Rome trough suggests a complex structure very different from the symmetrical and laterally continuous graben commonly depicted. Early and Middle Cambrian extension in the Rome trough of eastern Kentucky and adjacent areas resulted in a series of alternately facing half-grabens with variable displacement. These half-grabens are bounded by southwest-northeast-trending normal faults (e.g., Kentucky River and Warfield faults), which are laterally continuous only on the order to tens of kilometers. The Rome trough is laterally segmented by north-south-trending faults (e.g., Lexington fault) commonly expressed as flexures in younger rocks (e.g., Burning Springs anticline and Floyd County channel). Many of these north-south-trending faults have significant left-lateral displacement, and probably represent reactivated thrust faults of the Grenville tectonic front. The Rome trough and the associated Mississippi Valley, Rough Creek, and Birmingham fault systems were initiated during an Early Cambrian shift in sea-floor spreading from the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift to the Ouachita rift along the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault. These fault systems have been proposed as having originated from extensional stress propagated northward from the Ouachita rift across the transform fault. In the alternate model proposed here, faulting was brittle, extensional failure resulting form subsidence and flexure of the continental margin to the east. Following initiation of sea-floor spreading at the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift in the latest Proterozoic, margin subsidence in the presence of the Alabama-Oklahoma transform boundary and the inherited Grenville tectonic front resulted in this interior cratonic fault system.

  5. Detecting Strain Transients in the Salton Trough (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. J.; Segall, P.; Herring, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Salton Trough region routinely experiences fault creep transients with time-scales of days to weeks, and previous studies have documented a temporal relationship between these aseimsic transients and earthquake swarms. The Plate Boundary Observatory has greatly increased the density of continuous geodetic data available in the Salton Trough, and we are analyzing this dataset to detect time periods when aseismic transients occurred in the Salton Trough. We are searching the daily GPS solutions for the time period from 2005-2009 for transients using Kalman Filter based detection algorithm called the Network Strain Filter [Ohtani, McGuire, and Segall, 2009]. The NSF solves for estimates of the secular velocity field and a time-vary transient displacement field that are expanded in basis functions. We utilize two dimensional wavelets as the basis functions. Spatial smoothing of the transient and secular velocity field are achieved by weighting the prior covariance matrix elements based on the scale of the individual wavelet basis. Site specific colored noise (seasonal terms, etc) is estimated as an random walk for each component. The vast majority of the Salton Trough GPS records are well explained by a combination of secular velocity and seasonal terms. However, we do find two spatially coherent transient episodes visible at multiple stations in the GPS data. The largest occurs near the southern extension of the Superstition Hills fault (Weinert Fault) during the second half of 2007. About 1 cm of extra motion to the northwest is observed at station P494, P496, and P497. The time scale of this transient is a few months. A second, smaller more abrupt transient is observed at stations P500 and P744 at the time of the February 2008 earthquake swarm at Cerro Prieto. We are investigating whether these two transients can be explained by slip on the Superstition Hills and Imperial faults respectively.

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2007-11-15

    For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

  8. Concept of Methane Hydrate System in the eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakubo, S.; Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Kawasaki, T.

    2008-12-01

    By the study of the Phase 1 (FY2001-2008) of the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium), MH21 Research Consortium showed that methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediments had a potential to develop in the future. It is important to clarify the accumulation mechanism and processes of methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediment because it would contribute to explore new methane hydrate field to develop other than the eastern Nankai Trough in the future. Therefore Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), as a member of MH21 Research Consortium, has been constructing a concept of Methane Hydrate System (methane generation and migration, MH formation and dissociation) with methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediment. We extracted critical elements and executed processes to summarize Methane Hydrate System in the eastern Nankai Trough by reviewing past geochemical analysis, well logs and core analyses, seismic interpretations, and laboratory studies for the eastern Nankai Trough. We also conducted case studies using 1D and 2D numerical simulators developed for the clarification of methane hydrate accumulation mechanism. It was determined that there are still many unsolved issues as listed below though we try to construct a concept of Methane Hydrate System in the eastern Nankai Trough. 1.Methane source and migration -methane-dominant generation depth -methane generation rate. -driving forces of methane migration 2.Occurrences and distribution -occurrences and distribution of methane hydrates other than methane hydrates pore-filled in sandy sediment. -methane-bearing fluid condition (properties, distribution) below methane hydrate bearing zones. 3.Relation between seafloor phenomena and methane hydrate occurences. 4.Impact of geohistory and sea level (water depth) change to methane hydrate accumulation. New investigation surveys (drilling and geological/geochemical surveys on seafloor) are required to

  9. Grounding zone wedges, Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebesco, Michele; Urgeles, Roger; Özmaral, Asli; Hanebuth, Till; Caburlotto, Andrea; Hörner, Tanja; Lantzsch, Hendrik; LLopart, Juame; Lucchi, Renata; Skøtt Nicolaisen, Line; Giacomo, Osti; Sabbatini, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Swath bathymetry within Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) shows a seafloor characterized by E-W trending megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs) overprinted by transverse Grounding Zone Wedges (GZWs), which give the trough a stair profile (Rebesco et al., 2011). GZWs are formed by deposition of subglacial till at temporarily stable ice-stream fronts in between successive episodic retreats (Rüther et al., 2012; Bjarnadóttir et al., 2012). Sub-bottom data show that present-day morphology is largely inherited from palaeo-seafloor topography of GZWs, which is draped by a deglacial to early Holocene glaciomarine sediments (about 15 m thick). The ice stream that produced such subglacial morphology was flowing from East to West inside Kveithola Trough during Last Glacial Maximum. Its rapid retreat was likely associated with progressive lift-offs, and successive rapid melting of the grounded ice, induced by the eustatic sea-level rise (Lucchi et al., 2013). References: Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Rüther, D.C., Winsborrow, M.C.M., Andreassen, K., 2012. Grounding-line dynamics during the last deglaciation of Kveithola, W Barents Sea, as revealed by seabed geomorphology and shallow seismic stratigraphy. Boreas, 42, 84-107. Lucchi R.G., et al. 2013. Postglacial sedimentary processes on the Storfjorden and Kveithola TMFs: impact of extreme glacimarine sedimentation. Global and Planetary Change, 111, 309-326. Rebesco, M., et al. 2011. Deglaciation of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet - a swath bathymetric and subbottom seismic study from the Kveitehola Trough. Marine Geology, 279, 141-14. Rüther, D.C., Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Junttila, J., Husum, K., Rasmussen, T.L., Lucchi, R.G., Andreassen, K., 2012. Pattern and timing of the north-western Barents Sea Ice Sheet deglaciation and indications of episodic Holocene deposition. Boreas 41, 494-512.

  10. Investigation of anthropogenic-origin-metals in the atmospheric aerosols collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.; Azechi, S.; Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Kasaba, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are important to atmospheric chemistry, and affect our lives. Aerosols include fine particles, which consist of inorganic compounds, organic substances, heavy metals, etc. Aerosols can be roughly separated into natural and anthropogenic origins. For example, natural origins include wind-blown sea-salt, Asian dust (called Kosa in Japan), etc. Anthropogenic origins include burning of fossil fuel and agricultural biomass, automobiles, industrial activities, etc. In Japan, Kosa is the most well-known aerosol. This study investigated anthropogenic-origin-metals present in the aerosols. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa Island, Japan with a high volume air sampler. Samples analyzed for this study were collected between January 2008 and August 2014. A 1/8 of aerosol filter was digested by the mixture of acids and oxidant (nitric acid/hydrogen fluoride/hydrogen peroxide). The sample was filtered by 0.45 μm membrane filter before analyses. Metal ion concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Na, Mg, K) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb). Air mass movement was analyzed by NOAA's HYSPRIT model. Results showed that concentrations of heavy metals were high during winter and spring, and the lowest in summer. V/Mn ratios were used as an indicator for heavy oil burning. High V/Mn ratios were observed during maritime air mass periods. On the other hand, Pb/Zn ratio was used as an indicator for leaded gasoline usage, which was high when air mass was coming from Asian continent during winter and spring. Average Pb/Zn ratio was 0.65. Non-sea-salt K (nss-K) was used as an indicator for biomass burning, and showed good correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. However, nss-K and crustal-origin-metals also showed good correlation. Thus, we have to be careful when considering whether nss-K is from

  11. Microbial Community in the Hydrothermal System at Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Itahashi, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Utsumi, M.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.; Yamagishi, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is unique ecosystem around deep-sea hydrothermal area. Living organisms are supported by chemical free energy provided by the hydrothermal water. The ecosystem is expected to be similar to those in early stage of life history on the earth, when photosynthetic organisms have not emerged. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial diversity in the hydrothermal area at southern Mariana trough. In the "Archaean Park Project" supported by special Coordination Fund, four holes were bored and cased by titanium pipes near hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana trough in 2004. Hydrothermal fluids were collected from these cased holes and natural vents in this area. Microbial cells were collected by filtering the hydrothermal fluid in situ or in the mother sip. Filters were stored at -80C and used for DNA extraction. Chimneys at this area was also collected and stored at -80C. The filters and chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted. DNA samples were used for amplification of 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using archaea specific primers and universal primers. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. These PCR clones of different samples will be compared. We will extend our knowledge about microbiological diversity at Southern Mariana trough to compare the results obtained at other area.

  12. Development effort of sheet molding compound (SMC) parabolic trough panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, P.A.; Champion, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the development effort are to: investigate the problems of molding parabolic trough solar reflector panels of sheet molding compound (SMC); develop molding techniques and processes by which silvered glass reflector sheets can be integrally molded into SMC trough panels; provide representative prototype panels for evaluation; and provide information regarding the technical feasibility of molding SMC panels in high volume production. The approach taken to meet the objectives was to design the parabolic panel, fabricate a prototype die, choose an SMC formulation and mold the glass and SMC together into a vertex to rim mirrored panel. The main thrust of the program was to successfully co-mold a mirrored glass sheet with the SMC. Results indicate that mirrored glass sheets, if properly strengthened to withstand the temperature and pressure of the molding process, can be successfully molded with SMC in a single press stroke using standard compression molding techniques. The finalized design of the trough panel is given. The SMC formulation chosen is a low shrink, low profile SMC using 40% by weight one inch chopped glass fibers in a uv stabilized polyester resin matrix. A program to test for the adhesion between mirrored glass sheets and the SMC is discussed briefly. (LEW)

  13. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  14. Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in Solar Parabolic Trough Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Blake, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    Solar parabolic trough systems for electricity production are receiving renewed attention, and new solar plants are under construction to help meet the growing demands of the power market in the Western United States. The growing solar trough industry will rely on operating experience it has gained over the last two decades. Recently, researchers found that trough plants that use organic heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as Therminol VP-1 are experiencing significant heat losses in the receiver tubes. The cause has been traced back to the accumulation of excess hydrogen gas in the vacuum annulus that surrounds the steel receiver tube, thus compromising the thermal insulation of the receiver. The hydrogen gas is formed during the thermal decomposition of the organic HTF that circulates inside the receiver loop, and the installation of hydrogen getters inside the annulus has proven to be insufficient for controlling the hydrogen build-up over the lifetime of the receivers. This paper will provide an overview of the chemical literature dealing with the thermal decomposition of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl, the two constituents of Therminol VP-1.

  15. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  16. Authigenesis of magnetic minerals in gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kars, Myriam; Kodama, Kazuto

    2015-03-01

    Gas hydrate occurrence is one of the possible mechanisms invoked for iron sulfide formation. A high-resolution rock magnetic study was conducted in IODP Expedition 316 Hole C0008C located in the Megasplay Fault Zone of the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. In this particular zone, no bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), indicating the base of the gas hydrate stability field, have been identified. Two hundred and eighteen Pleistocene samples were collected from 70 to 110 m CSF in order to document the changes in the concentration, grain size, and rock magnetic parameters of magnetic minerals, through the gas hydrate-bearing horizons. Two different populations of magnetic grains are recognized in the pseudosingle domain range. Three types of magnetic mineral assemblages are identified: iron oxides (magnetite), ferrimagnetic iron sulfides (greigite and pyrrhotite), and their mixture. Greigite and pyrrhotite are authigenic and constitute six layers, called IS1-IS6. IS1, IS3, IS4, and IS6 are associated with pore water anomalies, suggesting the occurrence of gas hydrates and anoxic conditions. IS2 and IS5 are probable gas hydrates horizons, although there is no independent data to confirm it. The remaining intervals are mainly composed of detrital iron oxides and paramagnetic iron sulfides. Two scenarios based on different diagenetic stages are proposed to explain the variations in the magnetic properties and mineralogy over the studied interval. The results suggest that rock magnetism appears useful to better constrain the gas hydrate distribution in Hole C0008C, and counterbalances the low resolution of pore water analyses and the absence of a BSR.

  17. The upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian of the Preafrican Trough (Morocco): Platform configuration and palaeoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedel, V.; Lézin, C.; Andreu, B.; Ettachfini, El M.; Grosheny, D.

    2015-06-01

    A synthetic study was carried out based on sedimentological, palaeontological, geochemical and mineralogical data of the upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian carbonate platform of the Preafrican Trough (eastern Morocco) in order to (1) propose a 3D representation of the platform and constrain the temporal framework of the dysoxic/anoxic episodes recorded during the OAE2, (2) define and discuss the prevailing climate on the platform during this period, and (3) make comparisons with other Cenomanian-Turonian platforms. During the late Cenomanian, both before and during the CCIE (Cenomanian Carbon Isotope Excursion), the platform displayed an east-west polarity. Three third-order sequences of transgression-regression can be defined. Dysoxic conditions were developed in the sediments and the bottom waters of the deepest environment (mid- to outer-ramp setting), in the western part of the platform. Well-oxygenated waters were present in the eastern part of the platform (peritidal zone to mid-ramp environment). The climate was arid before the CCIE, becoming warm with contrasted seasons during the CCIE. This climate is associated with a low palaeoproductivity over the entire platform, along with the presence of photozoan followed by heterozoan carbonate-producers, as found also in other parts of the Saharan platform. However, such conditions are not in accordance with many studies which suggest a wet climate during the CCIE, leading to intense chemical weathering of the continent favouring the appearance of high palaeoproductivity at a global scale and the establishment of dysoxic/anoxic conditions. In the Preafrican Trough, poorly-oxygenated waters spread outwards from the deep basins and covered the platform in response to sea-level rise. Many disturbances are recorded in the platform succession during the early Turonian, after the CCIE. Indeed, just after the C/T boundary, the development of an outer-ramp environment over the entire Preafrican Trough reflects flooding of

  18. Mineralogy and Surface Composition of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, V.; Dunn, T. L.; Thomas, C. A.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Burbine, T. H.

    Methods to constrain the surface mineralogy of asteroids have seen considerable development during the last decade, with advancement in laboratory spectral calibrations and validation of interpretive methodologies by spacecraft rendezvous missions. This has enabled the accurate identification of several meteorite parent bodies in the main asteroid belt and helped constrain the mineral chemistries and abundances in ordinary chondrites and basaltic achondrites. With better quantification of spectral effects due to temperature, phase angle, and grain size, systematic discrepancies due to noncompositional factors can now be virtually eliminated for mafic silicate-bearing asteroids. Interpretation of spectrally featureless asteroids remains a challenge. This chapter presents a review of all mineralogical interpretive tools currently in use and outlines procedures for their application.

  19. Venus surface mineralogy - Observational and theoretical constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Treiman, Allan H.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1992-01-01

    Earth-based, earth-orbital, and spacecraft observations of the atmosphere and surface of Venus, thermodynamic models of atmosphere-lithosphere interactions, and where available kinetic data on relevant gas-solid reactions to place constraints on the mineralogy of the surface of Venus are used. Which minerals and mineral assemblages are stable on the surface of Venus and which, if any, of these minerals are involved in controlling the abundances of reactive gases in the atmosphere of Venus. It is concluded by identifying key issues facing us today about the mineralogy and geochemistry of the surface of Venus and suggest experimental, observational, and theoretical studies that can improve knowledge of these important questions are discussed.

  20. Mineralogical characterization of West Chestnut Ridge soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Kopp, O.C.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the Knox Group covered by a thick residuum. Three diagnostic horizons from four soil profiles and six samples from residuum cores were selected for mineralogical analysis. The coarse fractions (gravel and sand) of the samples included different types of chert, iron-manganese oxide nodules, and quartz. The samples were high in clay content (except those from the A and E horizons) and low in pH and base saturation. The clay fractions were composed of varying amounts of kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, gibbsite, and quartz. Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite is the major component in surface horizons, but kaolinite becomes dominant in subsurface horizons of the soils. Degradation of kaolinite and formation of aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and iron and aluminum oxides are pronounced chemical weathering processes in the surface soils. The aluminum hydroxy interlayering of vermiculite reduces cation exchange and selective sorption capacities of soils. In the residua, micaceous minerals free of aluminum hydroxy interlayering, kaolinite, and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides are major components in the clay fraction. The sorption ratios of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and the uranium isotopes expected to be in the radioactive wastes should be very high for the clays having such mineralogical composition. The low acid-buffering capacity (base saturation) of the residua suggest that the fragile chemical and mineralogical equilibria can be easily broken if an extreme chemical condition is imposed on the residua.

  1. The Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Samples of Comet Wild 2, provided by the Stardust Mission, have now been examined in terrestrial labs for two years, and are very surprising! Here we describe mainly the critical phases olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ni sulfides in Wild 2 grains, as a guide to the general mineralogy of the returned comet samples.

  2. Pregnancy After Kidney Transplantation: Outcomes, Tacrolimus Doses, and Trough Levels.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, S; Çelebi, Z K; Erdoğmuş, Ş; Kanmaz, A G; Yüce, T; Şengül, Ş; Keven, K

    2015-06-01

    Although pregnancy after kidney transplantation has been considered as high risk for maternal and fetal complications, it can be successful in properly selected patients. It is well known that pregnancy can induce changes in the plasma concentrations of some drugs; however, there has been very limited information about tacrolimus pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. In this study, we evaluated the tacrolimus doses, blood levels, and the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney allograft recipients. From 2004 to 2014, we found 16 pregnancies in 12 kidney allograft recipients at our center. We reviewed the files and data reports including fetal outcomes, graft function, complications, tacrolimus trough levels, and doses. We analyzed the tacrolimus trough levels and doses before pregnancy, during pregnancy (monthly), and in the postpartum period. Throughout the pregnancy, we aimed to achieve tacrolimus trough levels between 4 and 7 ng/mL. All patients were on triple immunosuppression, including tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisolone. In total, 11 of 16 (68.7%) pregnancies were successful, with a mean weight gain of 12.5 ± 1.66 kg. One patient developed gestational diabetes mellitus and 2 had preeclampsia. Although 5 of 11 babies were found to have low birth weight, 4 of these were premature. Two patients lost their grafts, 1 due to acute rejection and the second due to progression of chronic allograft dysfunction. We have shown that tacrolimus doses need to be significantly increased to keep appropriate trough levels during pregnancy (the doses: before, 3.20 ± 0.9 mg/day; first trimester, 5.03 ± 1.5; second trimester, 6.50 ± 1.8; third trimester, 7.30 ± 2.3; post-partum, 3.5 ± 0.9). In conclusion, the dose of tacrolimus needs to be increased to provide safe and stable tacrolimus trough levels during pregnancy. Although pregnancy can be successful in most cases, it should be kept in mind that there is an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, including

  3. Deep drivers of mesoscale circulation in the central Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Alyenik, D.; Dumont, E.; Inall, M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoscale variability in the central Rockall Trough between about 56 and 58° N has been investigated using a combination of ship-borne, underwater glider and gridded satellite altimeter measurements. Altimeter observations show that mesoscale features such as eddies and large scale circulation cells are ubiquitous phenomena. They have horizontal length scales of order 100 km with vertical scales of over 1000 m and are associated with mean current speeds (over the upper 1000 m) of 15 ± 7 cm s-1. Monthly area averaged surface Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) has substantial inter-annual variability, which at times can dominate a mean seasonal signal that varies from a maximum in May (74 cm2 s-2) to a minimum in October (52 cm2 s-2) and has increased gradually since 1992 at about 1.1 cm2 s-2 per year. A five month glider mission in the Trough showed that much of this energy comes from features that are located over 1000 m below the surface in the deep cold waters of the Trough (possibly from eddies associated the North Atlantic Current). The surface currents from altimeters had similar magnitude to the drift currents averaged over 1000 m from the glider in the stratified autumn, but were half the deep water speed during late winter. Although the mesoscale features move in an apparent random manner they may also be quasi-trapped by submarine topography such as seamounts. Occasionally anti-cyclonic and cyclonic cells combine to cause a coherent westward deflection of the European slope current that warms the Rockall side of the Trough. Such deflections contribute to the inter-annual variability in the observed temperature and salinity that are monitored in the upper 800 m of the Trough. By combining glider and altimeter measurements it is shown that altimeter measurements fail to observe a 15 cm s-1 northward flowing slope current on the eastern side and a small persistent southward current on the western side. There is much to be gained from the synergy between satellite

  4. Determining the modal mineralogy of Martian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y.; McGlynn, Ian O.; Rogers, A. Deane

    2010-12-01

    A method for identifying the major and minor minerals and quantifying their proportions (by weight) in soils at the Mars Exploration Rovers landing sites is presented. The procedure utilizes modeled Mössbauer data for iron-bearing minerals, chemical calculations of Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer data for iron-absent minerals, and modeling of MiniTES thermal infrared spectra for silica and clays. Two models are formulated, using different assumptions about the mineralogy of sulfur and chlorine: sulfate + chloride, or incorporated in or adsorbed onto schwertmannite + akaganeite. The actual soil mineralogy may be bracketed by these results. Using either model, average dark soils on the Gusev crater plains and on Meridiani Planum are shown to be composed of a mixture of igneous (olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe-Ti-Cr spinels, phosphate) and alteration (amorphous silica, hematite, nanophase oxides, clays, plus sulfate + chloride or oxysulfate + oxychloride) minerals. This assemblage suggests that soil alteration did not occur in situ and that the igneous and alteration components were likely derived from different sources. The (model dependent) mixing ratio of igneous and alteration components is identical at the two sites on opposite sides of the planet, implying that Martian soils may provide a representative mineralogical sampling of the exposed crust.

  5. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes in the Ionospheric Trough Region During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Coster, A. J.; Yizengaw, E.; Lyons, L. R.; Donovan, E.

    2013-12-01

    The ionospheric troughs are regions of remarkable electron density depression at the subauroral and auroral latitudes, and are categorized into the mid-latitude trough or high-latitude trough, depending on their relative location to the auroral oval. Substorms are one fundamental element of geomagnetic activity, during which structured field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection flows develop in the subauroral and auroral ionosphere. The auroral/trough region is expected to experience severe electron density variations during substorms. Accurate specification of the trough dynamics during substorms and understanding its relationship with the structured FACs and convection flows are of important practical purpose, including providing observational foundations for assessing the attendant impact on navigation and communication. In addition, troughs are important since they map to magnetospheric boundaries allowing the remote sensing of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this talk, we discuss the dynamics of the mid-latitude and high-latitude troughs during substorms based on multi-instrument observations. Using GPS total electron content (TEC) data, we characterize the location and width of the mid-latitude trough through the substorm lifecycle and compare them with existing trough empirical models. Using a combination of incoherent scattering radar (ISR), GPS TEC, auroral imager and a data assimilative model, we investigate the relationship between the high-latitude trough and FACs as well as convection flows. The high-latitude trough is found to be collocated with a counter-clockwise convection flow vortex east of the Harang reversal region, and downward FACs as part of the substorm current system are suggested to be responsible for the high-latitude trough formation. In addition, complex ionospheric electron temperature within the high-latitude trough is found, i.e., increase in the E region while decrease in the F region. We discuss possible

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  7. Interface between shamanism and psychiatry in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan: a viewpoint from medical and psychiatric anthropology.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, A

    1991-12-01

    This study is the first report regarding the borderland between psychiatry and shamanism in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan. Folk healing practices are still flourishing on the islands. Most mentally ill persons we examined admitted to having consulted shamans. Although there is a need to assess the positive and negative effects of shamanistic practices on Miyako Islands' health care system as a whole, this report indicates the urgent need to come to terms with the interaction between shamanism and psychiatry on a multidimensional level. We describe here psychotic illness attributed to kandaari. These cases underline the importance of understanding "the explanatory model" (Kleinman 1979) of people as regards the causes and the effective healing of illness. From the viewpoint of medical and psychiatric anthropology, aspects of the treatment of such patients in the biocultural context are described. PMID:1813672

  8. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5. PMID:27336796

  9. Concentration of organic sun-blocking agents in seawater of beaches and coral reefs of Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yutaka; Kameda, Yutaka

    2013-12-15

    The concentration of UV filters (UVFs) and UV light stabilizers (UVLSs) were measured in seawater and river water collected from sites at four beaches, two reefs, and one river on Okinawa Island, Japan. UVFs and/or UVLSs of 8-10 types were detected in beaches samples and 6-9 types were detected in reef samples. The total UVF concentrations at the beach sites were highest either in July or August with a maximum of 1.4 μg L(-1). The concentrations at the reef sites did not show peaks in summer and the maximum values were close to 10 ng L(-1). The detected UVF profiles reflected the ingredients of sunscreens used in each region. The highest UVLS concentrations at the reefs were observed not only in summer but also in June and September. The UVLS concentrations at the reefs were similar to or even higher than that at the beaches or in the river. PMID:24139648

  10. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented. PMID:26249444

  11. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Nanipora kamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed. PMID:26257549

  12. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  13. Springtime variations of organic and inorganic constituents in submicron aerosols (PM1.0) from Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Torii, K.; Zhu, Chunmao; Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    During the spring season with enhanced Asian outflow, we collected submicron aerosol (PM1.0) samples at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim. We analyzed the filter samples for diacids, oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids to better understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow regions of Asian pollutants. Molecular distributions of diacids show a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Total diacids strongly correlated with secondary source tracers such as SO42- (r = 0.87), NH4+ (0.90) and methanesulfonate (MSA-) (0.84), suggesting that diacids are secondarily formed from their precursor compounds. We also found good correlations among C2, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the Okinawa aerosols, suggesting that diacids are mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. However, a weak correlation of diacids with levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, suggests that biomass buring is not the main source of diacids, rather diacids are secondarily formed by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors derived from fossil fuel combustion. We found a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), to which organic nitrogen (ON) contributed 23%. Fatty acids were characterized by even carbon number predominance, suggesting that they are derived from biogenic sources. The higher abundances of short chain fatty acids (C20) further suggest that fatty acids are largely derived from marine phytoplankton during spring bloom.

  14. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, subtropical Okinawa Island from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001); the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrsosugsars are caused by a long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in north and northeast China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly. The monthly averaged levoglucosan/mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in north China, Korea and southwest Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agriculture waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  15. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, on subtropical Okinawa Island, from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001); the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrosugars are caused by long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in northern and northeastern China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly winds. The monthly averaged levoglucosan / mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in northern China, Korea and southwestern Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agricultural waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  16. Macrogenomic Evidence for the Origin of the Black Fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Peter H.; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K.; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated ‘D,’ which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated ‘A’ and ‘B,’ each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated ‘C,’ on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, ‘K,’ of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform ‘L’ of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks. PMID:23951001

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m‑2 s‑1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  18. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Nakajima, H.; Nakaema, F.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2008-12-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the air pollution transported from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asian atmospheric aerosols because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. In 2005, Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) was established by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) at the northern tip of Okinawa Island, Japan to monitor the air quality of Asia. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon in the bulk aerosols collected at the CHAAMS, using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions.

  19. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Daishi; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Azechi, Sotaro; Nakaema, Fumiya; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Tanahara, Akira

    2010-05-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the long-range transported air pollution from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan because of increase in photochemical oxidants in relatively remote islands. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the bulk aerosols collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We will report water-soluble chemical components data of anions, cations and DOC in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS during August, 2005 to April, 2010. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions. In addition, we calculated background concentration of water-soluble chemical components at Okinawa

  20. Tufts submarine fan: turbidity-current gateway to Escanaba Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jane A.; Normark, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel near its western exit from the Blanco Fracture Zone has formed the Tufts submarine fan, which extends more than 350 km south on the Pacific Plate to the Mendocino Fracture Zone. For this study, available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic-reflection data, long-range side-scan sonar images, and sediment core data are used to define the growth pattern of the fan. Tufts fan deposits have smoothed and filled in the linear ridge-and-valley relief over an area exceeding 23,000 km2 on the west flank of the Gorda Ridge. The southernmost part of the fan is represented by a thick (as much as 500 m) sequence of turbidite deposits ponded along more than 100 km of the northern flank of the Mendocino Fracture Zone. Growth of the Tufts fan now permits turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel to reach the Escanaba Trough, a deep rift valley along the southern axis of the Gorda Ridge. Scientific drilling during both the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) provided evidence that the 500-m-thick sediment fill of Escanaba Trough is dominantly sandy turbidites. Radiocarbon dating of the sediment at ODP Site 1037 showed that deposition of most of the upper 120 m of fill was coincident with Lake Missoula floods and that the provenance of the fill is from the eastern Columbia River drainage basin. The Lake Missoula flood discharge with its entrained sediment continued flowing downslope upon reaching the ocean as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. These huge turbidity currents followed the Cascadia Channel to reach the Pacific Plate, where overbank flow provided a significant volume of sediment on Tufts fan and in Escanaba Trough. Tufts fan and Tufts Abyssal Plain to the west probably received turbidite sediment from the Cascadia margin during much of the Pleistocene.

  1. Lupus-anticoagulant testing at NOAC trough levels.

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Franz; Lang, Mona; Belik, Sabine; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Quehenberger, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC), including rivaroxaban, apixaban or dabigatran, regularly show relevant effects on coagulation tests, making the interpretation of results difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interferences of NOACs in trough level concentrations in lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing. Citrate plasma specimens of 30 healthy volunteers were spiked with rivaroxaban, apixaban or dabigatran in four plasma concentration levels at or below trough NOAC levels. The NOAC concentration was measured using dedicated surrogate concentration tests and a stepwise diagnostic procedure for LA-testing was applied using screening, mixing and confirmatory testing. Results were compared to NOAC-free specimens. Starting with a plasma concentration of 12.5 ng/ml, dabigatran-spiked specimens showed significant prolongations in the lupus anticoagulant-sensitive activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-LA) as well as in the Dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT), leading to 43.3 % false positives in confirmatory testing in the dRVVT. In contrast, rivaroxaban, beginning with 7.5 ng/ml, exclusively affected dRVVT-based tests. In confirmatory tests, 30.0 % of rivaroxaban-spiked specimens showed false positive results. Starting with 18.75 ng/ml apixaban, a significant prolongation of the dRVVT and up to 20.7 % false positives in confirmatory tests were found. In contrast to other NOACs tested, apixaban did not present with a dose-dependent increase of the dRVVT ratio. In conclusion, the rate of false positive results in LA-testing is unacceptably high at expected trough levels of NOACs. Even at plasma concentrations below the LLOQ of commercially available surrogate tests, LA testing is best avoided in patients with NOAC therapy. PMID:27075441

  2. Lateral Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: The Bone Trough Technique.

    PubMed

    Chahla, Jorge; Olivetto, Javier; Dean, Chase S; Serra Cruz, Raphael; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    The lateral meniscus plays a critical role in the stability and health of the knee. Treating patients who have undergone a total lateral meniscectomy or functional equivalent is challenging, especially young and active patients. Current literature regarding meniscal tears supports that repair should be the first surgical option. Moreover, it is recommended to preserve as much meniscal tissue as possible. In cases in which a total or functional meniscectomy is a pre-existing condition, a lateral meniscal allograft transplantation is a possible option. The purpose of this surgical technique description was to detail the method of lateral meniscal allograft transplantation using a bone trough. PMID:27462536

  3. Deep drivers of mesoscale circulation in the central Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Aleynik, D.; Dumont, E.; Inall, M. E.

    2015-05-01

    Mesoscale variability in the central Rockall Trough, immediately west of the British Isles, has been investigated using a combination of ship-borne, underwater glider and gridded satellite altimeter measurements. Altimeter observations show that eddies and large-scale circulation cells are ubiquitous phenomena. They have horizontal length scales of order 100 km with vertical scales of over 1000 m and are associated with mean current speeds (over the upper 1000 m) of 15 ± 7 cm s-1. Monthly area averaged surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE) has substantial inter-annual variability, which at times can dominate a mean seasonal signal that varies from a maximum in May (74 cm2 s-2) to a minimum in October (52 cm2 s-2) and has increased gradually since 1992 at about 1.1 cm2 s-2 per year. This increase may be related to the retreat of the sub-polar gyre (SPG). A 5 month glider mission in the trough showed that the cyclonic component of EKE came from cold water features that are located over 1000 m below the surface. The surface currents from altimeters had similar magnitude to the drift currents averaged over 1000 m from the glider in the stratified autumn, but were half the deep water speed during late winter. Although the mesoscale features move in an apparent random manner, they seem to be constrained by submarine topography such as seamounts. Occasionally anti-cyclonic and cyclonic cells combine to cause a coherent westward deflection of the European slope current that warms the Rockall side of the trough. Such deflections contribute to the inter-annual variability in the observed temperature and salinity that are monitored in the upper 800 m of the trough. By combining glider and altimeter measurements it is shown that altimeter measurements fail to observe a 15 cm s-1 northward flowing slope current on the eastern side as well as a small persistent southward current on the western side. There is much to be gained from the synergy between satellite altimetry and in situ

  4. Scintillation near the F-layer trough over Northern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kersley, L.; Pryse, S.E.; Russell, C.D.

    1990-05-03

    Results are presented of scintillation observations made during a two and a half year period at Lerwick in the Shetland Islands using more than 19000 passes of NNSS satellites. Examples of scintillation morphology, in the region near the scintillation boundary and the F-layer trough, for both amplitude and phase are discussed using exceedence levels for the S sub 4 and sigma sub psi indices respectively. The equatorwards advancement of the scintillation boundary in response to enhanced solar activity during the increasing phase of the solar cycle is shown to be a dominant feature in the observations.

  5. Plagioclase mineralogy of olivine alkaline basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A geological and mineralogical study of the Potrillo volcanics is reported. The investigation consisted first of field mapping to establish and identify the different rock types and volcanic features in order to determine the geological history. Next, samples were collected and analyzed petrographically to determine suitable rocks from the various stratigraphic units for study of plagioclase. Samples selected for further study were crushed and the plagioclase extracted for the determination of composition and structural state. These results were then related to the petrology and crystallization of the basalt.

  6. Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Sanchez

    2004-09-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the mineral abundance within the geologic framework model domain. The mineralogic model enables project personnel to estimate mineral abundances at any position, within the model region, and within any stratigraphic unit in the model area. The model provides the abundance and distribution of 10 minerals and mineral groups within 22 stratigraphic sequences or model layers in the Yucca Mountain area. The uncertainties and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.4. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7.

  7. The Mineralogical Evolution of Dusty Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Ciska

    2010-01-01

    Using Spitzer-IRS a wealth of information on the dust composition of stars in the Magellanic Clouds has been revealed. Observations from the SAGE-Spec and SMC-Spec as well as numerous archival programs have charted the mineralogy in a range of post-main-sequence stars, as well as young stellar objects. Due to the large number of available observations, the dust condensation sequence is well mapped in both galaxies, and can be compared with objects in the higher metallicity environment of the Milky Way. I will review our current understanding of the dust properties as a tracer of stellar evolution in the Magellanic Clouds.

  8. Double troughs in broad absorption line quasars and Ly-alpha-N V line-locking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Voit, G. M.; Morris, Simon L.; Weymann, Ray J.

    1993-01-01

    It was investigated whether the double trough (DT) structure in the mean C IV BAL trough reported by Weymann et al. (1991) is real or due to statistical fluctuations of BAL troughs over random outflow velocities in a limited sample. A sample of 72 BAL QSOs with C IV BAL troughs was analyzed. It is found that only 22 percent of the sample explicitly exhibits the DT feature; when present the DTs are deep. A Monte Carlo simulation of the mean C IV BAL suggests that the DT feature is real at only the 95-98 percent level.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shallow marine sediments from the Nankai Trough, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Hugh; Thomas, Brittney; Rowe, Harry; Nieto, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We measured nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times on samples from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 333 Sites C0011, C0012, and C0018. We compared our results to permeability, grain size, and specific surface measurements, pore size distributions from mercury injection capillary pressure, and mineralogy from X-ray fluorescence. We found that permeability could be predicted from NMR measurements by including grain size and specific surface to quantify pore networks and that grain size is the most important factor in relating NMR response to permeability. Samples within zones of anomalously high porosity from Sites C0011 and C0012 were found to have different NMR-permeability relationships than samples from outside these zones, suggesting that the porosity anomaly is related to a fundamental difference in pore structure. We additionally estimated the size of paramagnetic sites that cause proton relaxation and found that in most of our samples, paramagnetic material is present mainly as discrete, clay-sized grains. This distribution of paramagnetic material may cause pronounced heterogeneity in NMR properties at the pore scale that is not accounted for in most NMR interpretation techniques. Our results provide important insight into the microstructure of marine sediments in the Nankai Trough.

  10. The 1946 Nankai earthquake and segmentation of the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Phil R.; Baba, Toshitaka; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2002-09-01

    We perform a simple subevent analysis of seismic P-waveforms from historical records of the 1946 Nankai earthquake. The results of this analysis establish that the earthquake rupture consisted of two main subevents, one lying within the 1-day aftershock area off the Kii Peninsula, while the other lies much farther to the west in the area of pronounced crustal deformation of western Shikoku. These conform to two segments of the Nankai Trough which have long been referred to in studies of historical earthquakes and geology of the Nankai Trough, but to our knowledge have not previously been established as having distinct megathrust rupture behavior. We show that these two subevents are bounded by pronounced features in the geometry of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (PSP): a tear in the plate to the east beneath the Kii Peninsula, and a subducting seamount farther to the west. We speculate that these features may be associated with low-strength parts of the upper and/or lower plates that may be susceptible to permanent, anelastic deformation which prevents the accumulation of the elastic strain energy necessary to sustain seismic rupture.

  11. Geodetic investigation into the deformation of the Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Brendan W.; Bock, Yehuda; Sandwell, David T.; Fialko, Yuri

    2013-09-01

    Salton Trough represents a complex transition between the spreading center in Baja California and the strike-slip San Andreas fault system and is one of the most active zones of deformation and seismicity in California. We present a high-resolution interseismic velocity field for the Salton Trough derived from 74 continuous GPS sites and 109 benchmarks surveyed in three GPS campaigns during 2008-2009 and previous surveys between 2000 and 2005. We also investigate small-scale deformation by removing the regional velocity field predicted by an elastic block model for Southern California from the observed velocities. We find a total extension rate of 11 mm/yr from the Mesquite Basin to the southern edge of the San Andreas Fault, coupled with 15 mm/yr of left-lateral shear, the majority of which is concentrated in the southern Salton Sea and Obsidian Buttes and is equivalent to 17 mm/yr oriented in the direction of the San Andreas Fault. Differential shear strain is exclusively localized in the Brawley Seismic Zone, and dilatation rate indicates widespread extension throughout the zone. In addition, we infer clockwise rotation of 10°/Ma, consistent with northwestward propagation of the Brawley Seismic Zone over geologic time.

  12. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.

  13. Observations of mesoscale variability in the Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, J. E.; White, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Rockall Trough west of Ireland displays a high level of mesoscale activity for an eastern ocean boundary region. Eddies off the continental slope at 50-56°N have been studied using a combination of in situ observations of current velocity and hydrography from two deep-sea moorings at the southern entrance to the Trough, and data from satellite altimetry and Argo floats. South of Rockall-Hatton Plateau, where a branch of the NAC enters the region from the west, more cyclonic eddies are found, while anticyclonic eddies dominate along the path of the Slope Current in the east. Temperature-salinity profiles from the perimeters of a cyclone and an anticyclone, respectively, show large differences on isopycnals both at the level of the subsurface salinity maximum and at intermediate depths. Anticyclonic eddies likely formed by instabilities of the Slope Current can include a parcel of salty Mediterranean Water (MW) at the intermediate level, contributing to the patchy distribution of MW in the region.

  14. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.

    2014-12-01

    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  15. Simulation of point light concentration with parabolic trough collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Andriy; Zettl, Marcus; Lynass, Mark

    2010-08-01

    As the amount of solar generated energy usage increases worldwide, researches are turning to more advanced methods to increase collection efficiencies and drive down system costs. In this paper, four different optical system designs for solar concentrator applications are discussed. Each of the designs studied utilizes a parabolic trough optical element. The use of the parabolic trough in conjunction with a secondary optical component eliminates the need for expensive complicated 2-axis tracking, whilst still allowing the precise point focus normally only possible with more complex paraboloid systems. The result is an optical system, which offers all the advantages of a linear focus geometry combined with the possibility to utilize point focus concentration. The results were obtained using photometric geometrical ray tracing methods. Ideal surface simulations were initially used to separate surface from geometrical loss contributions. Later, more realistic simulations, including surface and reflectivity data of typical manufacturing methods and materials, were used to compare optical output power densities and system losses. For the systems studied, the minimum and maximum optical efficiencies obtained were 76.73% and 81% respectively. The AM 1.5 solar spectrum power densities in the absorption plane ranged from 50 to 195.8Wm-2.

  16. Ouachita trough: Part of a Cambrian failed rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Donald R.

    1985-11-01

    Pre-flysch (Cambrian-Mississippian) strata of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma include two main sandstone lithofacies: (1) a craton-derived lithofacies made up largely of mature medium- to coarse-grained quartzose and carbonate detritus and, in some units, sediment eroded from exposed basement rocks and (2) an orogen-derived facies made up mainly of fine-grained quartzose sedimentary and metasedimentary debris and possibly, in lower units, a volcaniclastic component. Paleocurrent and distribution patterns indicate that detritus of facies I in the Benton uplift was derived from north and detritus of facies II throughout the Ouachitas was derived from south and east of the depositional basin. Overall sedimentological results suggest that the Ouachita trough was a relatively narrow, two-sided basin throughout most and probably all of its existence and never formed the southern margin of the North American craton. Regional comparisons suggest that it was one of several basins, including the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, Reelfoot Rift, Illinois Basin, and Rome trough, that formed as a Cambrian failed rift system 150 to 250 m.y. after initial rifting along the Appalachian margin of the North American craton.

  17. Petrochemical and Mineralogical Constraints on the Source and Processes of Uranium Mineralisation in the Granitoids of Zing-Monkin Area, Adamawa Massif, NE Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Haruna, I. V.; Orazulike, D. M.; Ofulume, A. B.; Mamman, Y. D.

    2011-12-15

    Zing-Monkin area, located in the northern part of Adamawa Massif, is underlain by extensive exposures of moderately radioactive granodiorites, anatectic migmatites, equigranular granites, porphyritic granites and highly radioactive fine-grained granites with minor pegmatites. Selected major and trace element petrochemical investigations of the rocks show that a progression from granodiorite through migmatite to granites is characterised by depletion of MgO, CaO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} Sr, Ba, and Zr, and enrichment of SiO{sub 2} and Rb. This trend is associated with uranium enrichment and shows a chemical gradation from the more primitive granodiorite to the more evolved granites. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the uranium is content in uranothorite and in accessories, such as monazite, titanite, apatite, epidote and zircon. Based on petrochemical and mineralogical data, the more differentiated granitoids (e.g., fine-grained granite) bordering the Benue Trough are the immediate source of the uranium prospect in Bima Sandstone within the Trough. Uranium was derived from the granitoids by weathering and erosion. Transportation and subsequent interaction with organic matter within the Bima Sandstone led to precipitation of insoluble secondary uranium minerals in the Benue Trough.

  18. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  19. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  20. Mineralogy of Saudi Arabian soils: eastern region

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dixon, J.B.; Aba-Husayn, M.M.

    1983-03-01

    Mineralogical properties of soils along a 500 km east-west transect of an eastern province of Saudi Arabia were examined. Mineralogical composition of soils along the eastern coastal playa near Al Qatif is mostly gypsum or calcite in the whole soil, and smectite among layer silicate minerals in the clay fraction (<2mm). In soils of the Harad area palygorskite and smectite are the major layer silicate minerals. In the Al Kharj area kaolinite and smectite are the major clay minerals. Small amounts of chlorite occur in all soils studied although it varies in thermal stability and the amount is very small in Al Kharj 11 and Al Kharj Mountain surface soils. In the entire eastern region mica and vermiculite are present in the soil clays. The results of transmission electron microscpoy and x-ray diffraction analyses show that acicular palygorskite is widely distributed in the eastern-region soils. Palygorskite is believed to originate from the underlying Mio-Pliocene limestone in the basin, and to be redistributed by alluvial and eolian processes.

  1. Mineralogical Signatures in Electrically Coupled Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauermeister, A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Schramm, J.

    2014-12-01

    'Electric cable bacteria' are organisms of the family Desulfobulbaceaethat exhibit a novel method of electron transport. Cells form conductive filaments that function like electric wires, transferring electrons over distances of more than 1 cm from deep sulfidic sediments to oxygen or other electron acceptors near the soil/water interface. The rate of electron transfer across redox boundaries far exceeds that of diffusion limited processes and generates pH gradients that can significantly influence geochemical reactions, leading to the formation of distinct mineralogical profiles unlikely to be created by abiotic means. Electrically coupled sediments are characterized by carbonate and iron sulfide dissolution reactions occurring at depth and formation of carbonate and metal oxide crusts at the surface, exhibiting a reverse pattern compared to conventional sediment geochemistry. Our research seeks to address the following questions: How prevalent are electric cable bacteria in diverse environments? How do biogeochemical conditions such as ion concentration influence mineral formation? Do biogenic minerals participate in charge transfer? What is the importance of electric charge transfer in the subsurface or other low energy habitats? Can mineral banding patterns caused by cable bacteria activity be preserved in the geologic record? With this research we hope to further elucidate the impact of biologically-induced electric fields on the mineralogy of sediments.

  2. Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover. PMID:23565291

  3. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment. PMID:19443033

  4. Mineralogy and composition of the oceanic mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putirka, Keith; Ryerson, F.J.; Perfit, Michael; Ridley, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    The mineralogy of the oceanic basalt source region is examined by testing whether a peridotite mineralogy can yield observed whole-rock and olivine compositions from (1) the Hawaiian Islands, our type example of a mantle plume, and (2) the Siqueiros Transform, which provides primitive samples of normal mid-ocean ridge basalt. New olivine compositional data from phase 2 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) show that higher Ni-in-olivine at the Hawaiian Islands is due to higher temperatures (T) of melt generation and processing (by c. 300°C) related to the Hawaiian mantle plume. DNi is low at high T, so parental Hawaiian basalts are enriched in NiO. When Hawaiian (picritic) parental magmas are transported to shallow depths, olivine precipitation occurs at lower temperatures, where DNi is high, leading to high Ni-in-olivine. Similarly, variations in Mn and Fe/Mn ratios in olivines are explained by contrasts in the temperatures of magma processing. Using the most mafic rocks to delimit Siqueiros and Hawaiian Co and Ni contents in parental magmas and mantle source compositions also shows that both suites can be derived from natural peridotites, but are inconsistent with partial melting of natural pyroxenites. Whole-rock compositions at Hawaii and Siqueiros are also matched by partial melting experiments conducted on peridotite bulk compositions. Hawaiian whole-rocks have elevated FeO contents compared with Siqueiros, which can be explained if Hawaiian parental magmas are generated from peridotite at 4-5 GPa, in contrast to pressures of slightly greater than 1 GPa for melt generation at Siqueiros; these pressures are consistent with olivine thermometry, as described in an earlier paper. SiO2-enriched Koolau compositions are reproduced if high-Fe Hawaiian parental magmas re-equilibrate at 1-1·5 GPa. Peridotite partial melts from experimental studies also reproduce the CaO and Al2O3 contents of Hawaiian (and Siqueiros) whole-rocks. Hawaiian magmas have TiO2

  5. Environmental mineralogy - Understanding element behavior in ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Calas, Georges

    2011-02-01

    Environmental Mineralogy has developed over the past decade in response to the recognition that minerals are linked in many important ways with the global ecosystem. Minerals are the main repositories of the chemical elements in Earth's crust and thus are the main sources of elements needed for the development of civilization, contaminant and pollutant elements that impact global and local ecosystems, and elements that are essential plant nutrients. These elements are released from minerals through natural processes, such as chemical weathering, and anthropogenic activities, such as mining and energy production, agriculture and industrial activities, and careless waste disposal. Minerals also play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of the elements, sequestering elements and releasing them as the primary minerals in crustal rocks undergo various structural and compositional transformations in response to physical, chemical, and biological processes that produce secondary minerals and soils. These processes have resulted in the release of toxic elements such as arsenic in groundwater aquifers, which is having a major impact on the health of millions of people in South and Southeast Asia. The interfaces between mineral surfaces and aqueous solutions are the locations of most chemical reactions that control the composition of the natural environment, including the composition of natural waters. The nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to the disposition of high-level nuclear waste, is also intimately related to minerals. A fundamental understanding of these processes requires molecular-scale information about minerals, their bulk structures and properties such as solubility, their surfaces, and their interactions with aqueous solutions, atmospheric and soil gases, natural organic matter, and biological organisms. Gaining this understanding is further complicated by the presence of natural, incidental, and manufactured nanoparticles in the environment, which are

  6. High versus low vancomycin serum trough regimen for Gram-positive infections: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Long; Fang, Yun; Chen, Yongfei; Zhu, Huaijun; Long, Rui

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of high vancomycin serum trough concentrations (≧15 mg/l) on clinical outcomes and nephrotoxicity among adult subjects. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and CNKI systematically. A total of 17 studies were included. Meta-analysis found that high trough group showed no significant difference comparing to low trough group in treatment failure [relative risk (RR) 0·91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·67-1·24; P = 0·57] and all-cause mortality (RR 1·14, 95% CI 0·81-1·59; P = 0·46). However, the high trough concentrations were associated with lower treatment failure in bacteremia subgroup (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·59-0·88; P = 0·001). High trough concentrations were associated with an increased risk of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity (RR 2·06, 95% CI 1·52-2·79; P<0·00001). Our meta-analysis indicates that high trough concentrations were not significantly superior to low trough concentrations in lowering treatment failure and mortality. Moreover, high trough concentrations significantly increased the risk of nephrotoxicity. PMID:24641266

  7. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biofilms on livestock watering trough materials.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kimberly L; Britt, Jenks S; Bolster, Carl H

    2010-02-24

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection that affects ruminants. Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of Mycobacterium sp. in nature and the fact that Johne's disease has been reported worldwide, little research has been done to assess its survival in agricultural environments. The goal of this 365-day study was to evaluate the ability of Map to persist in mixed-community biofilms on materials commonly used to construct livestock watering troughs. Map was inoculated into 32l of trough water containing either concrete, plastic, galvanized or stainless steel trough materials. The concentration of Map was determined by using quantitative, real-time PCR to target the IS900 sequence in DNA extracts. High concentrations of Map were detected on all trough materials after 3 days (around 1 x 10(5)cells cm(-2)). Based on the best-fit slopes, the time required for a 99% reduction (t(99)) in biofilm-associated Map cells was 144 and 115 days for plastic and stainless steel trough materials, respectively. Map concentrations did not decrease on concrete and galvanized steel trough materials. These results suggest that Map survives well in biofilms present on livestock watering trough materials. To inhibit spread of this organism and exposure of susceptible animals to Map on infected farms, best management practices aimed at maintaining biofilm-free trough surfaces should be included in any Johne's control plan. PMID:19717251

  8. The magnetisation of Rosemary Bank Seamount, Rockall Trough, northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, P. R.; Roberts, D. G.

    1981-08-01

    Rosemary Bank is a non-uniformly magnetised seamount in the northern Rockall Trough. The reversely magnetised major component of the anomaly field was simulated by a numerical method and modelled using the Talwani three-dimensional magnetics program. The results suggest a higher Koenigsberger ratio than earlier reported for Rosemary Bank and a remanent magnetisation vector compatible with post-Jurassic formation and probably of a Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The limited depth to the base of the model implies that Rosemary Bank post-dates the underlying basement in agreement with a volcanic origin. The residual of the observed anomaly field is interpreted as being caused by normally magnetised bodies within and on top of the bank. This suggests subsequent volcanic activity during an interval of normal polarity.

  9. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  10. Monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation using GPS/Acoustic technique along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Watanabe, T.; Fujii, C.; Matsuhiro, K.; Sayanagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor crustal deformation is crucial for estimating the interplate locking at the shallow subduction zone and has been carried out at subduction margins in Japan, e.g., Japan Trench and Nankai Trough [Sato et al., 2011; Tadokoro et al., 2012]. Iinuma et al. [2012] derived slip distributions during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using GPS/Acoustic data and on-land GPS data. The result showed that maximum slip is more than 85 m near the trench axis. The focal area along the Nankai trough extended to the trough axis affected this earthquake by cabinet office, government of Japan.  We monitored seafloor crustal deformation along the Nankai trough, Japan. Observation regions are at the eastern end of Nankai trough (named Suruga trough) and at the central Nankai trough. We established and monitored by two sites across the trough at each region. In the Suruga trough region, we repeatedly observed from 2005 to 2013. We observed 13 and 14 times at a foot wall side (SNE) and at a hanging wall side (SNW), respectively. We estimated the displacement velocities with relative to the Amurian plate from the result of repeated observation. The estimated displacement velocity vectors at SNE and SNW are 42±8 mm/y to N94±3˚W direction and 39±11 mm/y to N84±9˚W direction, respectively. The directions are the same as those measured at the on-land GPS stations. The magnitudes of velocity vector indicate significant shortening by approximately 4 mm/y between SNW and on-land GPS stations at hanging wall side of the Suruga Trough. This result shows that the plate interface at the northernmost Suruga trough is strongly locked. In the central Nankai trough region, we established new two stations across the central Nankai trough (Both stations are about 15km distance from trough) and observed only three times, August 2013, January 2014, and June 2014. We report the results of monitoring performed in this year.

  11. Mineralogy and chemistry of planets and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The data collection and the interpretation with respect to the mineralogy of meteoritic and terrestrial samples are summarized. The key conclusion is that the Moon underwent a series of melting episodes with complex crystal-liquid differentiation. It was not possible to determine whether the Moon melted completely or only partially. The stage is now set for a systematical geochemical and geophysical survey of the Moon. Emphasis was moved to meteorites in order to sort out their interrelationships from the viewpoint of mineral chemistry. Several parent bodies are needed for the achondrites with different chemical properties. Exploration of Mars is required to test ideas based on the possible assignment of shergottites, nakhlites and chassignite to this planet. Early rocks on the Earth have properties consistent with a heavy bombardment and strong volcanic activity prior to 4 billion years ago.

  12. Mineralogy of an OH/IR superwind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombaert, R.; de Vries, B. L.; Hillen, M.

    2016-07-01

    The mineralogy of the dense, dusty superwind of OH/IR stars can provide important constraints for understanding the dust formation process as well as the acceleration of the wind. We aim to model the ISO-SWS spectrum of the OH/IR star OH 30.1-0.7 in detail by reproducing the slope of the spectral energy distribution in the continuum regions between 3 and 8 μm and 12 and 15 μm. In addition to metallic Fe, we find that larger amorphous olivine grains of size on the order of 1 μm may also contribute to the continuum emission. We report here on the preliminary model results and discuss their validity given the important assumption of a 1D spherically symmetric stellar wind.

  13. Surface chemistry and mineralogy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Clark, B. C.; Waenke, H.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulated knowledge on the chemistry and mineralogy of Martian surface materials is reviewed. Pertinent information obtained by direct analyses of the soil on Mars by the Viking Landers, by remote sensing of Mars from flyby and orbiting spacecraft, by telescopic observations from earth, and through detailed analyses of the SNC meteorites presumed to be Martian rocks are summarized and analyzed. A compositional model for Mars soil, giving selected average elemental concentrations of major and trace elements, is suggested. It is proposed that the fine surface materials on Mars are a multicomponent mixture of weathered and nonweathered minerals. Smectite clays, silicate mineraloids similar to palagonite, and scapolite are suggested as possible major candidate components among the weathered minerals.

  14. Characterization of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Three Islands in Okinawa, Japan by X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents of bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (NIES No.28) of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies on quartz filters for calibration curves. Then, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosol on filter were seen in the following 10 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb and As. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. Okinawa islands, consisting of many small islands, are situated east of Asian continent, and its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants. Also, in Okinawa islands, maritime air mass prevails during summer, while Asian continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities such as industries and automobiles. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals

  15. Electron density profiles in the plasmasphere and trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H.; Masson, A.

    The plasmasphere is a manifestation of an ionospheric ion outflow that corotates with the Earth's magnetic field. This region has been studied for several decades but we still have lack of good empirical model for it. Since year 1996, the Polar satellite has passed through the inner magnetosphere more than 5,000 times, crossing the plasmapause region more than 15,000 times (sometimes four times per 18-hr orbit). Using the electron densities provided by the EFI experiment, we study statistically the density variation at L = 3-12 shells. With a power law fitting, we determine the plasmapause (PP) location and thickness, and the power law index of density slope in the plasmasphere and trough region. All characteristics reveal strong and interesting variations with MLT and Kp. The average PP location moves from L = 5 to L = 3.5 with increasing Kp. For any Kp, however, the MLT dependence is clear; both dawn- and duskside show particularly interesting activity. The PP thickness decreases with increasing Kp from 0.7 L to 0.1 L. Particularly on the nightside the plasmapause becomes very steep during increasing geomagnetic activity. On the dayside the PP thickness tends to remain always quite large (0.4-0.8 L). The trough power law index k (density is proportional to L-k) shows strong behavior with both MLT and Kp; for instance, in the post-midnight sector k decreases from 5 to 3 with increasing Kp whereas in the pre-midnight sector the change occurs between 4 and 3. Near noon k is 2.5 for all Kp conditions.

  16. Oil and gas potential of the west Kamchatka trough

    SciTech Connect

    Savostin, L.; Kusnetsov, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The west Kamchatka trough (WKT) is a region with a two-stage structural pattern (i.e., Cenozoic cover and pre-Cenozoic basement). The composition of hydrocarbons in local accumulations in the trough, and the present-day and paleotemperature distributions suggest that the hydrocarbons have a complex history. The WKT basement complexes, which have been penetrated by wells, are exposed in uplifts in the southern Median-Kamchatka ridge (MKR), where it is possible to study their composition and structure. The nappe structure of the MKR comprises various sedimentary and volcanoclastic complexes, including some highly carbonaceous Mesozoic clastics. Geodynamic analysis of the MKR rocks shows that during the Mesozoic, two separate island-arc terrances evolved in this part of the northwest Pacific, behind which a back-arc basin developed. In the Paleogene, rocks of this basin were overridden by nappes and metamorphosed. New understanding of the structure and evolution of the older complexes suggest that hydrocarbon accumulations may exist in underthrust zones in the WKT basement, which contains both reservoirs and source rocks. Subsequent evolution of the region was accompanied by the formation of zones of anomalously high formation pressure. Hydrocarbons drained upwards along faults and accumulated in structures in the cover, in places reaching the surface. Existing drilling and seismic data do not help with the interpretation of the basement structure because these operations were aimed at discovering local structural traps in the Cenozoic cover. Future oil exploration surveys in the region will require remote sensing methods that have much deeper penetration.

  17. Behavior of Particulate Mercury in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at 2 Sites in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Oshiro, Y.; Tsuhako, A.; Murayama, H.; Tanahara, A.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is toxic to animals. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from two sources; natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include volcanic eruption, forest fire and so on. Anthropogenic sources include fossil fuel combustion, metal and cement production and so on. There are three forms of mercury in the atmosphere: gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury. Gaseous elemental mercury is the most abundant form in the atmosphere, and has long atmospheric lifetime, ca. a few years. This study focuses on particulate mercury, which has a relatively short lifetime, ca. a few days, in the atmosphere because it reflects characteristics of nearby emission sources. Objectives of this study were to elucidate the behavior of particulate mercury in aerosols and to understand relationships between mercury and other metals and water-soluble anions. Aerosol samples were collected at two sites; Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), northern tip of Okinawa island, and University of the Ryukyus (UR, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), central and more populated area of Okinawa island. They were collected by using identical high-volume air samplers on quartz filters. Concentrations of particulate mercury in aerosols were determined by using a MA-3000 (Nippon Instruments Corporation). The results showed that particulate Hg concentrations were mostly higher for the aerosols collected at UR site than those at CHAAMS site, suggesting locally emitted Hg. Samples collected at UR showed clear seasonal variation, the lowest in summer and the highest winter. On the other hand, the CHAAMS samples showed lower concentration in winter and higher concentration in summer, but the difference was relatively small. Both UR and CHAAMS samples had similar concentration levels in summer season. Back trajectory analysis showed that particulate Hg at CHAAMS site during summer was not from Asian continent. Since samples

  18. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature. PMID:26898665

  19. Magnetic mineralogy of the Mercurian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Becky; Feinberg, Joshua; Johnson, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury and Earth are the only inner solar system planets with present-day core-dynamo magnetic fields, in contrast to the past fields of Mars and the Moon and the absence of evidence for a past or present field at Venus. Recently, the MESSENGER mission also measured magnetic fields from lithospheric magnetization on Mercury for the first time. These fields are consistent with remanent magnetization held by rocks exposed to an ancient, internally generated planetary magnetic field. However, the conditions for magnetization in the lithosphere of Mercury are unique among terrestrial planets, and the mechanisms for the acquisition (induced versus remanent) and alteration of magnetization are still unknown. We investigate the physical and chemical environment of Mercury's crust, past and present, to establish the conditions in which magnetization may have been acquired and subsequently modified. Three factors are particularly crucial to the determination of crustal composition and iron mineralogy: the temperature profile of the lithosphere and its evolution over time, redox conditions in the planet's crust and mantle, and the iron content of the lithosphere. We explore potential mechanisms for remanence acquisition and alteration on Mercury, whose surface environment is distinct from that of other inner solar system planets in that it is both very hot and highly reducing. The long-term thermal history of Mercury's crust plays an important role in the longevity of any crustal magnetization, which may be subject to remagnetization through thermal, viscous, and shock mechanisms. This thermal and compositional framework isused to constrain plausible candidate magnetic mineralogies, which can then be analyzed in terms of their capacity to acquire and retain magnetic remanence that is detectable from satellite orbit. We propose a suite of minerals and materials that could be carriers of remanence in the lithosphere of Mercury, including iron alloys, silicides, and sulfides.

  20. [Toxicity and toxin profile of scavenging and carnivorous gastropods from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Sorimachi, Taiki; Sagara, Takefumi; Kubo, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ono, Kaname; Xiao, Ning; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Arakawa, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    From January to June 2009, a total of 64 gastropod specimens of 15 species were collected from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and examined for toxicity by means of mouse bioassay. Among the specimens tested, 5 species, Nassarius glans, Nassariuscoronatus, Olivaannulata, Oliva concavospira and Zeuxis sp., were toxic. The toxicity scores of N. glans were very high; 39.6-461 MU/g in muscle, and 98.6-189 MU/g in viscera including digestive gland, followed by Zeuxis sp. (12.7 MU/g in whole body), N. coronatus (5.64-11.1 MU/g in whole body), O. annulata (10.8 MU/g in the whole body), O. concavospira (6.65 MU/g in the muscle). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that the major toxic component was tetrodotoxin (TTX), which accounting for 13-82% of the total toxicity. As for the remaining toxicity in the case of N. glans, 4,9-anhydroTTX, 4-epiTTX and 11-oxoTTX were contributors. Moreover, Niotha albescens showed no toxicity (less than 10 MU/g) in mouse bioassay, but TTX (5.08 MU/g) was detected by LC-MS. Paralytic shellfish poison was not detected in any of the specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:23470873

  1. Entamoeba marina n. sp.; a New Species of Entamoeba Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment of Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Entamoeba includes anaerobic lobose amoebae, most of which are parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. We report a new Entamoeba species, E. marina n. sp. that was isolated from a sample of tidal flat sediment collected at Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Trophozoites of E. marina were 12.8-32.1 μm in length and 6.8-15.9 μm in width, whereas the cysts were 8.9-15.8 μm in diam. and contained four nuclei. The E. marina cells contained a rounded nucleus with a small centric karyosome and uniformly arranged peripheral chromatin. Although E. marina is morphologically indistinguishable from other tetranucleated cyst-forming Entamoeba species, E. marina can be distinguished from them based on the combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA gene and the difference of collection sites. Therefore, we propose E. marina as a new species of the genus Entamoeba. PMID:26452446

  2. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, Terminalia catappa L. from Okinawa Island and its tannin corilagin.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S; Inoue, Y; Nakama, S; Ichiba, T; Aniya, Y

    2007-11-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of Terminalia catappa L. collected from Okinawa Island were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using leaves extract and isolated antioxidants. A water extract of the leaves of T. catappa showed a strong radical scavenging action for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) anion. Chebulagic acid and corilagin were isolated as the active components from T. catappa. Both antioxidants showed a strong scavenging action for O(2)(.-) and peroxyl radicals and also inhibited reactive oxygen species production from leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate. Galactosamine (GalN, 600 mg/kg, s.c.,) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 microg/kg, i.p.)-induced hepatotoxicity of rats as seen by an elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities was significantly reduced when the herb extract or corilagin was given intraperitoneally to rats prior to GalN/LPS treatment. Increase of free radical formation and lipid peroxidation in mitochondria caused by GalN/LPS treatment were also decreased by pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. In addition, apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and the increase in caspase-3 activity in the liver observed with GalN/LPS treatment were prevented by the pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. These results show that the extract of T. catappa and its antioxidant, corilagin are protective against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:17293097

  4. Possible Food Sources of Macrozoobenthos in the Manko Mangrove Ecosystem, Okinawa (Japan): A Stable Isotope Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: −22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., −25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, −22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, −24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, −21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., −29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and −24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  5. Effect of Okinawa Propolis on PAK1 Activity, Caenorhabditis elegans Longevity, Melanogenesis, and Growth of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-07-13

    Propolis from different areas has been reported to inhibit oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1, which is responsible for a variety of conditions, including cancer, longevity, and melanogenesis. Here, a crude extract of Okinawa propolis (OP) was tested against PAK1 activity, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity, melanogenesis, and growth of cancer cells. We found that OP blocks PAK1 and exhibits anticancer activity in the A549 cell (human lung cancer cell) line with IC50 values of 6 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Most interestingly, OP (1 μg/mL) significantly reduces reproduction and prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans by activating the HSP-16.2 gene, as shown in the PAK1-deficient strain. Furthermore, OP inhibits melanogenesis in a melanoma cell line (B16F10) by downregulating intracellular tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 30 μg/mL. Our results suggest that OP demonstrated a life span extending effect, C. elegans, anticancer, and antimelanogenic effects via PAK1 inactivation; therefore, this can be a potent natural medicinal supplement against PAK1-dependent diseases. PMID:27337169

  6. Possible food sources of macrozoobenthos in the manko mangrove ecosystem, okinawa (Japan): a stable isotope analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: -22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., -25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, -22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, -24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, -21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., -29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and -24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  7. Sulfur Mineralogy at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Golden, D.C.; Sutter, B.; Clark, B.C.; Boynton, W.V.; Hecht, M.H.; Kounaves, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout mission landed at the northernmost location (approx.68deg N) of any lander or rover on the martian surface. This paper compares the S mineralogy at the Phoenix landing site with S mineralogy of soils studied by previous Mars landers. S-bearing phases were not directly detected by the payload onboard the Phoenix spacecraft. Our objective is to derive the possible mineralogy of S-bearing phases at the Phoenix landing site based upon Phoenix measurements in combination with orbital measurements, terrestrial analog and Martian meteorite studies, and telescopic observations.

  8. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig S.

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  9. Plasmaspheric Density Troughs: Global IMAGE EUV Observations and Analysis via Global Core Plasma Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To date, the IMAGE EUV camera has observed several plasmaspheric density trough features inside the plasmapause under a wide range of geomagnetic activity. From the perspective of EUV, a density trough feature appears as a channel of diminished pixel counts which spans a width of L-shell (DELTA L) and magnetic local time (MLT) inside the plasmapause. Plasmaspheric density troughs are found to be morphologically complex possessing considerable spatial and temporal variability. We present an analysis of the evolution of trough DELTA L and MLT extent as functions of associated D (sub ST) and K (sub p) history. Trough features range in size from 0.16 less than or equal to DELTA L less than or equal to 1.2 with azimuthal extent from 1500 less than or equal to MLT less than or equal to 1200. All cases of plasmaspheric density troughs studied to date appear to have evolved as a result of the inner edge of the afternoon/evening plasma drainage plume being wrapped around through the nightside plasmasphere. The structure of plasmaspheric density trough features is further probed by analyzing simulated EUV images produced by forward modeling artificially introduced regions of depleted density into both static and dynamic global core plasmaspheric models. Forward modeling suggests that (1) L-shell refilling of density troughs during storm recovery can be modeled as filling from the ionosphere toward the equator (i.e., bottom-up refilling), and (2) that an erosion process is operating within flux tubes beyond the outer L-shell wall of the observed density troughs.

  10. Relationship between trough plasma and epithelial lining fluid concentrations of voriconazole in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Heng, Siow-Chin; Snell, Gregory I; Levvey, Bronwyn; Keating, Dominic; Westall, Glen P; Williams, Trevor J; Whitford, Helen; Nation, Roger L; Slavin, Monica A; Morrissey, Orla; Kong, David C M

    2013-09-01

    Trough (predose) voriconazole concentrations in plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of lung transplant recipients receiving oral voriconazole preemptive treatment were determined. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) ELF/plasma ratio was 12.5 ± 6.3. A strong positive linear relationship was noted between trough plasma and ELF voriconazole concentrations (r(2) = 0.87), suggesting the feasibility of using trough plasma voriconazole concentration as a surrogate to estimate the corresponding concentration in ELF of lung transplant recipients. PMID:23817382

  11. Venus trough-and-ridge tessera - Analog to earth oceanic crust formed at spreading centers?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The similarity between the morphologies of Venus trough-and-ridge tessera and the earth's ocean floor is discussed. The hypothesis that tessera texture might be related to a crustal fabric produced at spreading centers is examined. It is suggested that the proccesses that produce the ocean floor fabric on earth are good candidates for the origin and production of the trough-and-ridge tessera. To support this hypothesis, the characteristics of the trough-and-ridge terrain in Laima Tessera are described and compared to the seafloor at spreading centers.

  12. Mineralogy of the Almahata Sitta Ureilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Herrin, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Rumble, D.; Steele, A.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.; Le, L.; Robinson, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    Mineralogy & Petrography: Almahata Sitta, deriving from the asteroid 2008 TC3, is a coarse-grained- to porous, fine-grained, fragmental breccia with subrounded mineral fragments and olivine aggregates embedded in a cataclastic matrix of ureilitic material. Mineral fragments include polycrystalline olivine, low-calcium, pigeonite, and augite. Abundant carbonaceous aggregates containing graphite, microdiamonds and aliphatics. Kamacite, Cr-rich troilite, silica and schreibersite are abundant. The compositional range of the silicates is characteristic of the ureilites as a group, but unusually broad for an individual ureilite. The dense lithology is typical for ureilites, but the porous lithology is anomalous. In the porous lithology pore walls are largely coated by crystals of olivine. Classification: Almahata Sitta is an anomalous, polymict eucrite. Anomalous features include large compositional range of silicates, high abundance and large size of pores, crystalline pore wall linings, and fine-grained texture. Tomography reveals that the pores define thin, discontinuous "sheets" connected in three dimensions, suggesting that they outline grains that have been incompletely welded together. The crystals lining the pore walls are probably vapor phase deposits. Therefore Almahata Sitta may represent an agglomeration of coarse- to fine-grained, incompletely reduced pellets formed during impact, and subsequently welded together at high temperature.

  13. COMPAS: Compositional mineralogy with a photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. Hayden

    1992-01-01

    There is an important need for an in situ method of mineral and rock identification and quantification that provides true absorption spectra for a wide spectral range for lunar lander/rover missions. Many common minerals such as feldspars, magnetite, ilmenite, and amorphous fine solids or glasses, can exhibit flat spectral reflectances in the 400-2500 nm spectral region that render inaccurate or difficult their spectral detection and quantitative analysis. Ideal rock and mineral spectra are, of course, pure absorption spectra that are independent of the spectral effects of scattering, particle size, and distribution that can result in a suppression or distortion of their spectral features. This ideal seldom pertains to real samples. Since sample preparation is difficult and may fundamentally alter the observed diffuse spectral reflectance, an in situ spectral measurement method for rocks and minerals on the Moon, insensitive to the sample morphology, would be invaluable. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a well-established technique appropriate for this task that has been widely applied in condensed-phase spectral studies of complex, highly light scattering, unprepared samples of everything from coal to whole blood, including rock and mineral characterization. A Compositional Mineralogy Photoacoustic Spectrometer, or COMPAS, can enable in situ spectral measurement of rocks and minerals, bypassing the major limitations of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. COMPAS spectral capabilities for rock and mineral samples will be incorporated into an instrument prototype specifically for lunar measurements, compatible with rover capabilities.

  14. Mineralogy of the Almahata Sitta Ureilite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Herrin, J.; Friedrich, J.; Rumble, D.; Steele, A.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M.; Le, L.; Robinson, G.

    2009-09-01

    Mineralogy & Petrography: Almahata Sitta, deriving from the asteroid 2008 TC3, is a coarse-grained- to porous fine-grained, fragmental breccia with subrounded mineral fragments and olivine aggregates embedded in a cataclastic matrix of ureilitic material [1]. Mineral fragments include polycrystalline olivine, low-calcium, pigeonite, and augite. Abundant carbonaceous aggregates containing graphite, microdiamonds and aliphatics. Kamacite, Cr-rich troilite, silica and schreibersite are abundant. The compositional range of the silicates is characteristic of the ureilites as a group, but unusually broad for an individual ureilite [2&3]. The dense lithology is typical for ureilites, but the porous lithology is anomalous. In the porous lithology pore walls are largely coated by crystals of olivine. Classification: Almahata Sitta is an anomalous, polymict eucrite [1]. Anomalous features include large compositional range of silicates, high abundance and large size of pores, crystalline pore wall linings, and fine-grained texture. Tomography reveals that the pores define thin, discontinuous "sheets” connected in three dimensions, suggesting that they outline grains that have been incompletely welded together. The crystals lining the pore walls are probably vapor phase deposits. Therefore Almahata Sitta may represent an agglomeration of coarse- to fine-grained, incompletely reduced pellets formed during impact, and subsequently welded together at high temperature [4]. References [1] Jenniskens et al. (2009) Nature 458, 485-488; [2] Goodrich (1992) Meteoritics 27, 327-352; [3] Mittlefehldt et al. (1998) RiM 36, ch. 4; [4] Herrin et al. (2009) MAPS in press.

  15. The Mineralogy of Dust Around Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, A. K.

    1998-11-01

    Infrared (IR) observations of evolved red giant stars (AGB stars) have shown that many are surrounded by dust envelopes, which are ejected into the interstellar medium and seed the next generation of stars and planets. By studying these one can understand the origins of interstellar and solar system materials. AGB stars fall into two main categories: oxygen-rich and carbon-rich. The prominent features of the IR spectra of AGB stars are: the 11.3microns feature of C-stars, attributed to silicon carbide (SiC); and the 9.7microns feature of O-rich stars, attributed to silicates. There are also various minor features with less secure identifications. Identifying dust around stars requires the use of laboratory spectra of dust species analogous to those one expects to observe. I have compiled a database of such spectra, and thereby constrained the identifications of circumstellar dust, which I have also tried to ensure are compatible with data from meteoritic presolar grains. Some laboratory spectra need to be modified before they are relevant to the problem in hand, i.e. stardust. The techniques used for such modifications are outlined in the thesis. In order to fully comprehend the problems that can arise from using laboratory spectra, the way in which light interacts with matter must be understood. To this end the optical properties of matter are discussed. While the mineral constituents of the Earth have been reprocessed so extensively that they no longer contain any evidence of their stellar origins, the same is not true of primitive meteorites which contain "presolar" dust grains with isotopic fingerprints identifying their stellar sources. By comparing these presolar grains with nucleosynthesis models, grains expected to form around various stars and observational evidence of dust, we can gain a better picture of the formation mechanisms and sites of the various dust grains. I have investigated the mineralogy of SiC of 32 C-stars and its relationship to

  16. Mineralogical microanalysis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Monso, E.; Tura, J.M.; Marsal, M.; Morell, F.; Pujadas, J.; Morera, J. )

    1990-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis of lung tissue was conducted on 25 samples from patients who had been diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low magnification and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) was used. In all samples, the surface silicon/sulfur (Si/S) ratio was calculated. The Si/S ratio for 25 samples of normal lung and 6 samples of pneumoconiotic lung was also determined (upper limit of normal Si/S ratio = 0.3). The difference between the Si/S ratio in the group with IPF and group with normal lung tissue was significantly significant (p less than .007, Wilcoxon test). Six of 12 patients with a previous diagnosis of IPF and a Si/S ratio greater than 0.3 had an exposure history that could imply inhalation of silica/silicates, and the correct diagnosis for these patients is most probably pneumoconiosis. The silica/silicate deposits detected in patients with IPF, and who had a ratio and no past exposure to dusts, could be either a cause or an effect of the disease.

  17. Geochemical and Mineralogical Proxies for characterizing Tsunami and Paleotsunami Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwhagen, L.; Jankaew, K.; Kylander, M. E.; Skelton, A.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show how geochemistry and mineralogy can be used to correlate between previously dated tsunami and paleotsunami deposits in western Thailand. We do this based on cores from three parallel swales along a transect from the shoreline inland. Stratigraphy, together with geochemical and mineralogical analyses was used to correlate between tsunami and paleotsunami layers at these sites. Using element biplots (Ti-Zr, Ti-Y and Zr-Y) and mineralogical constraints, source signatures of each of the tsunami and paleotsunami layers were used to correlate between sand layers representing the 2004 tsunami and sand layers representing at least three paleotsunamis. Based on our correlations between these swales, we predict different inundation distances and directions for these paleotsunamis. Our study shows that a combination of geochemical and mineralogical analysis provides a powerful tool for correlation between tsunami and paleotsunami layers.

  18. Cobbles in Troughs Between Meridiani Ripples (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues to traverse from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the rover navigates along exposures of bedrock between large, wind-blown ripples. Along the way, scientists have been studying fields of cobbles that sometimes appear on trough floors between ripples. They have also been studying the banding patterns seen in large ripples.

    This view, obtained by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 802nd Martian day (sol) of exploration (April 27, 2006), is a mosaic spanning about 30 degrees. It shows a field of cobbles nestled among wind-driven ripples that are about 20 centimeters (8 inches) high.

    The origin of cobble fields like this one is unknown. The cobbles may be a lag of coarser material left behind from one or more soil deposits whose finer particles have blown away. The cobbles may be eroded fragments of meteoritic material, secondary ejecta of Mars rock thrown here from craters elsewhere on the surface, weathering remnants of locally-derived bedrock, or a mixture of these. Scientists will use the panoramic camera's multiple filters to study the rock types, variability and origins of the cobbles.

    This is a false-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. The false color is used to enhance differences between types of materials in the rocks and soil.

  19. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  20. Load on Trough Bellows Following an Argon Spill

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, K.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-12

    In the case of a gross argon spill from the DO detector, the liquid argon is caught in three plenums. These plenums are to be connected by bellows to make a horizontal trough open at one end for removing the argon. The design of these bellows is dependent on the maximum argon load they must carry. Bellows to connect the three argon-catching plenums in the DO detector must be able to carry at least 92 lbs of argon when closed and 231 lbs when open, plus the load due to argon in the convolutions. Examples of such loads and the method for their calculations are contained in the Discussion. It should be noted that a set of assumptions was used in these calculations. First, we considered a uniform channel and uniform flow. Second, we used a value for Manning's n meant for a similar, but not exactly the same, case. Finally, we were forced to define an average depth, d, to be used to state the hydraulic radius, R, and area of flow, A. These facts may warrant consideration in future calculations.

  1. Wouthuysen-Field absorption trough in cosmic string wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Oscar F.

    2014-12-01

    The baryon density enhancement in cosmic string wakes leads to a stronger coupling of the spin temperature to the gas kinetic temperate inside these string wakes than in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The Wouthuysen-Field (WF) effect has the potential to enhance this coupling to such an extent that it may result in the strongest and cleanest cosmic string signature in the currently planned radio telescope projects. Here we consider this enhancement under the assumption that x-ray heating is not significant. We show that the size of this effect in a cosmic string wake leads to a brightness temperature at least two times more negative than in the surrounding IGM. If the SCI-HI [T. C. Voytek et al., Astrophys. J. 782, L9 (2014), J. B. Peterson et al., arXiv:1409.2774] or EDGES [J. D. Bowman and A. E. E. Rogers Nature (London) 468, 796 (2010), J. D. Bowman et al., Astrophys. J. 676, 1 (2008)] experiments confirm a WF absorption trough in the cosmic gas, then cosmic string wakes should appear clearly in 21 cm redshift surveys of z =10 to 30.

  2. Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

    1987-08-01

    The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

  3. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  4. Modal Mineralogy of CV3 Chondrites by PSD-XRD: Mineralogic Insights into a Complex Evolutionary History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2009-03-01

    CV3 chondrites Vigarano, Efremovka, Allende, Mokoia, Grosnaja and Kaba are amongst the most studied rocks in existence. By XRD we define the first quantitative modal mineralogy of these samples and explore implications of our data to petrogenesis.

  5. Overview of Holocene Tsunami Deposits along the Nankai, Suruga, and Sagami Troughs, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsubara, Junko; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-03-01

    Tsunami deposits provide a basis for reconstructing Holocene histories of great earthquakes and tsunamis on the Pacific Coast of southwest Japan. The deposits have been found in the past 15 years at lakes, lagoons, outcrops, and archaeological excavations. The inferred tsunami histories span 3000 years for the Nankai and Suruga Troughs and nearly 10,000 years for the Sagami Trough. The inferred histories contain recurrence intervals of variable length. The shortest of these —100 200 years for the Nankai Trough, 150 300 years for the Sagami Trough — resemble those known from written history of the past 1000 1500 years. Longer intervals inferred from the tsunami deposits probably reflect variability in rupture mode, incompleteness of geologic records, and insufficient research. The region's tsunami history could be clarified by improving the geologic distinction between tsunami and storm, dating the inferred tsunamis more accurately and precisely, and using the deposits to help quantify the source areas and sizes of the parent earthquakes.

  6. New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

    2012-11-01

    A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

  7. Coupling flexible solar cell with parabolic trough solar-concentrator-prototype design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Alexander; Bergquist, Jonathon

    2007-10-01

    Solar cells are still too expensive (5-20/watt) to compete with traditional fossil fuel power generating methods (˜1/watt). Parabolic trough solar concentrator has the advantage of modest concentration ratio (10-100) which is well suited for coupling with solar cell. Thus using small area solar cell placed in the focal line of parabolic trough may be economically viable alternative to flat solar panels. We experiment with flexible solar cell (backed by water cooling pipe) placed in the focus of parabolic trough reflector. Another advantage of parabolic trough concentrator is very relaxed tracking requirement. For example, east-west oriented concentrator (aligned with the ecliptic plane) does not even need any tracking during core 4-6 hours around noon (when maximum illumination is available). The design and the performance of the prototype, as well as possible economical benefits of full scale projects are discussed in the presentation.

  8. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  9. Review of polymer usage in the development of prototype troughs by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, N. H.; Champion, R. L.

    The use of polymers as structural materials, adhesives, and coatings for parabolic trough reflectors is discussed. Four design concepts for producing panel reflectors are described relative to the role polymers play in them.

  10. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  11. The spiral troughs of Mars North Polar Layered Deposits as Cyclic Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Isaac; Spiga, Aymeric; Holt, John

    2014-05-01

    The spiral troughs of Mars North Polar Layered Deposits [NPLD] are intriguing features that dominate the polar landscape. Because the stratigraphy of the NPLD is related to deposition of ice and dust, the layers of the NPLD act as a geologic record to recent Martian climate, potentially useful for understanding global processes and validating Global Circulation Models [GCMs]. Stratigraphy related to the spiral troughs is exceptionally rich and offers more variability than lower, subhorizontal layers, so determining the processes controlling trough formation and evolution is an important step in understanding the history of ice and climate on Mars. However, the mechanism behind trough initiation has remained a puzzle. Recent studies of subsurface stratigraphy and low altitude clouds have indicated that the troughs formation and evolution is intricately tied to atmospheric processes, especially katabatic winds and asymmetric ice accumulation. We utilize stratigraphy collected by the Shallow Radar instrument (SHARAD) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to examine accumulation of layers that record trough evolution and constrain lateral transport of ice. We then employ simulated wind fields from the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique GCM and mesoscale models to calculate Froude numbers associated with katabatic flow. These simulations predict flows that experience katabatic jumps at numerous spiral troughs. Katabatic jumps are the aeolian counterpart of hydraulic jumps in open channel flow and are prominent on Mars near the poles. Next, we present visible images from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and other optical spectrum instruments to observe low altitude clouds that we interpret as visible indications of katabatic jumps. These clouds potentially serve as mechanisms of deposition. Finally, we devise a theoretical framework for understanding the origin of the spiral troughs in a Froude supercritical cyclic step model. Cyclic steps are quasi

  12. The Nakhlite Secondary Mineralogy and Fluid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The nakhlite olivine clinopyroxenite meteorites preserve a detailed record of water-rock interaction on Mars. Detailed knowledge of the mineralogy of the secondary assemblages [1,2,3] now allow us to accurately model the fluid from which it was deposited [4]. This combined mineralogical and fluid characterisation provides constraints on the near surface conditions associated with the similar assemblages identified e.g. with CRISM on the surface of Mars [5]. Brittle fractures in the olivine grains of the Lafayette nakhlite are filled with a zoned assemblage of siderite at the margins of veins, then phyllosilicate, and finally silicate gel in the centre of the veins [2,3]. The mesostasis also contains parts of this alteration assemblage. The silicate gel is the most abundant secondary phase within the nakhlites. The phyllosilicate in Lafayette is a complex mixture of 2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicate: Fe smectite and Fe serpentine. Soluble salts are also present although some of these e.g. in Y000749 are terrestrial contamination. The gel has a similar composition to the Lafayette phyllosilicate, with its amorphous nature shown by HRTEM [3]. The carbonate and gel compositions vary between in respect to their position in the nakhlite cumulate pile [2,3]. For instance, Lafayette and NWA998, which sample the bottom of the nakhlite cumulate pile [6] near the fluid source have a high gel Mg#, and the nakhlites which sample levels closer to the martian surface, a lower Mg#. We have used CHILLER [7] to model the hydrothermal brine from which the secondary minerals were deposited. The starting materials are derived from a mixture of Lafayette bulk, Lafayette olivine and mesostasis. The early parts of the fluid's history with formation of the siderite are associated with dissolution of the olivine. The carbonate compositions in the nakhlites suggest water/rock (W/R) ratios ~10, 100oC, pH 5.5. As the fluid evolved the bulk and mesostasis become components of the dissolved rock

  13. Virological and epidemiological analysis of coxsackievirus A24 variant epidemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Okinawa, Japan, in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Asato, Yoshimori; Uchio, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a highly contagious enterovirus infection of the conjunctiva and cornea. Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) is one of its etiological agents. We report a clinical, epidemiological, and virological analysis of a large epidemic of AHC that occurred from May to September, 2011, in Okinawa, Japan. Methods Clinical and epidemic aspects were evaluated for 435 AHC patients (348 bilateral and 87 unilateral, 783 eyes). Virological studies were carried out on nine isolates from ten patients. Virus isolation and direct detection of the enterovirus genome by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method and complete nucleotide sequencing of the VP1 gene and phylogeny-based classification using the VP4 sequences were carried out. Results The 11–15-year age group comprised the highest (62.0%) proportion of cases among all age groups. Conjunctival hyperemia was present in all patients, and subconjunctival hemorrhage, superficial punctate keratitis, and preauricular lymphadenopathy were present in 25.4%, 10.3%, and 7.8% of eyes, respectively. CA24v was isolated from the epidemic strain, and phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the VP1 gene showed 96%–97% identity between the current strain and the recent China/GD01/2010 strain. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the clinical and epidemiological features of AHC observed in this study were similar to those of the past epidemic in the same region. It should be noted that sequential outbreaks of AHC due to CA24v might occur in the same location after a considerable period of time, and public health precautions are necessary to control this explosive epidemic. PMID:26109843

  14. Volcanism and massive sulfide formation at a sedimented spreading center, Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge, northeast Pacific.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, J.L.; Holmes, M.L.; Koski, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic-reflection profiles over the sediment-filled Escanaba Trough at the southern Gorda Ridge reveal a series of volcanic centers that pierce the sediment. The volcanic edifices are 3 to 6 km in diameter and are spaced at 15 to 20 km intervals along the axis of the trough. Composition and form of sulfide samples obtained from the bank suggest significant interaction between hydrothermal fluids and sediment at depth, and deposition of sulfide within the sediment pile.-from Authors

  15. Investigations on SYNROC mineralogy. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1982-01-21

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: (1) factors influencing the leaching performance of hollandiate; (2) incorporation of uranium and rare earths into zirconolite; (3) reconnaissance studies of the stability relations of Ca-Ti-Al phases in SYNROC C formulations; (4) immobilization of highly aluminous sludges; (5) SYNROC D formulations produced by sintering in air; (6) crystallization behavior of interstitial glass in SYNROC D formulations. Some of the highlights are: (1) leaching performance of all hollandites irrespective of preparation technique, can be improved by hot-pressing under specific controlled redox conditions, below Ni-NiO; (2) there is no satisfactory crystal-chemical reason why the leaching performance of Ti/sup 3 +/-bearing hollandite should be superior to that of Al/sup 3 +/ hollandite; (3) experiments have shown that the zirconolite lattice can accept up to 30% rare earths (Sm/sub 2/O/sub 3/) before becoming destabilized in favor of pyrochlore or a related f.c.c. structure; (4) SYNROC zirconolites will therefore be well below their saturation limits in rare earths and trivalent actinides; (5) experiments have established that the Ca-Ti-Al phase (CTA) is compatible with perovskite, hollandite and zirconolite; (6) magnetoplumbite-type phases coexists with hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite and Fe-bearing pseudobrookite, but do not coexist with the CTA phase CaTi/sub 3/Al/sub 8/O/sub 19/; (7) experiments demonstrated that it is not possible to convert highly aluminous sludges to a waste form comprising zirconolite, perovskite, spinel and nepheline plus corundum, by adding appropriate minimum amounts of the inert SYNROC additives (CaO, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, SiO/sub 2/); (8) sintering of SYNROC D in air at temperatures just above the solidus (1200 to 1250/sup 0/C) produced a dense compact ceramic, but the optimum SYNROC-D mineralogy was not produced. (ATT)

  16. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  17. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  18. Modeling the double-trough structure observed in broad absorption line QSOs using radiative acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1994-01-01

    We present a model explaining the double trough, separated by delta v approximately = 5900 km/s, observed in the C IV lambda-1549 broad absorption line (BAL) in a number of BALQSOs. The model is based on radiative acceleration of the BAL outflow, and the troughs result from modulations in the radiative force. Specifically, where the strong flux from the Lyman-alpha lambda-1215 broad emission line is redshifted to the frequency of the N V lambda-1240 resonance line, in the rest frame of the accelerating N V ions, the acceleration increases and the absorption is reduced. At higher velocities the Lyman-alpha emission is redshifted out of the resonance and the N V ions experience a declining flux which causes the second absorption trough. A strongly nonlinear relationship between changes in the flux and the optical depth in the lines is shown to amplify the expected effect. This model produces double troughs for which the shallowest absorption between the two troughs occurs at v approximately = 5900 km/s. Indeed, we find that a substantial number of the observed objects show this feature. A prediction of the model is that all BALQSOs that show a double-trough signature will be found to have an intrinsic sharp drop in their spectra shortward of approximately 1200 A.

  19. Temporal variations in the dawn and dusk midlatitude trough position-modeled and measured (Ariel 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Tulunay, Y. K.; Chen, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The temporal development of the latitudinal position of the 600 km midlatitude electron density trough at dawn and dusk during the period 25-27 May 1967, which encompassed a large magnetic storm, was measured by the RF capacitive probe on the polar orbiting Ariel 3 satellite. The substorm-related changes in the L coordinate of the trough minimum and the point of most rapid change of density gradient on the low latitude side of the trough are similar. Oscillations of the trough position at dusk are in phase with substorm activity whereas movement of the trough at dawn is only apparent with the onset of the large storm. Near dusk there is evidence of structure in the form of a tail-like extension of the plasmasphere at the peak of the storm. Detailed model calculations assuming a spatially invariant equatorial convection E field which varies in step with K sub p index reproduces much of the observed behavior, particularly at dusk, and shows that more than one plasmapause-type transition may be identifiable in the trough region.

  20. A roadmap for parabolic trough progress in large-scale power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.W.; Price, H.W.

    1999-07-01

    In 1998 the US DOE/Sun{sm_bullet}Lab sponsored a workshop to discuss and outline a pathway for sustained deployment of commercial parabolic trough power technology. Including both industry and institutional interests, a plan emerged to move to the next step in trough installations. Backed by over ten years operating experience of 354 MW of trough steam plants in the California Mojave Desert, the plan explored future markets, technology advancements, and improvements in cost-effectiveness. This paper highlights the key conclusions and findings that were subsequently documented in the DOE parabolic trough technology roadmap report. Initially, the cost of trough solar power is expected to be 10--12{cents} kWh, depending on plant configuration. After initial market subsidies by GEF buy-down grants or other special green/renewable financing options, and with the next level of technology development, the cost of trough power should reduce to 6--8{cents} kWh. With further reduction of electricity costs below 6{cents} kWh, projections suggest that achievement of up to 1 gigawatt (GW) installed capacity by 2005 and 5 GW by 2010 are possible.

  1. Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism in the Great Basin: The Dry Mountain trough and related basins

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism affected the continental margin of western North America from the Yukon to the Mojave Desert. Specific signatures of this tectonism include local angular unconformities, regional disconformities, renewed outpouring of clastic debris from a reactivated Antler and related highlands, and development of deeper water basins with anoxic sediments deposited below wave base. The basins formed include Ishbel trough (Canada), the Wood River basin (Idaho), Cassia basin, Ferguson trough, Dry Mountain trough (all Nevada), and unnamed basins in Death Valley-Mojave Desert region. The Dry Mountain trough (DMT) was initiated during early Wolfcampian and received up to 1,200 m of sediment by the late Leonardian. The lower contact is a regional unconformity with the Ely Limestone, or locally with the Diamond Peak or Vinini formations. Thus, following a period of localized regional uplift that destroyed the Ely basin, portions of the uplifted and exposed shelf subsided creating the Dry Mountain trough. Evidence suggesting a tectonic origin for the DMT includes (1) high subsidence rates (60-140 m/m.y.); (2) renewed influx of coarse clastic debris from the Antler highlands: (3) possible pre-Early Permian folding, thrusting, and tilting within the highlands; and (4) differential subsidence within the Dry Mountain trough, suggesting the existence of independent fault blocks.

  2. Seismic Reflectivity of the Crust in the Northern Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Persaud, P.; Ryberg, T.; Langenheim, V. E.; Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Catchings, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin that was formed by migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the Imperial Fault are the current, northernmost examples. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was undertaken to improve our knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF. Such data are useful as input for modeling scenarios of strong ground shaking in the surrounding high-population areas. We used pre-stack depth migration of line segments from shot gathers in several seismic profiles that were acquired in the northern part of the SSIP study area (Lines 4 - 7). Our migration approach can be considered as an infinite-frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume pre-stack depth migration method. We use line segments instead of the original waveform data. We demonstrate the method using synthetic data and analyze real data from Lines 4 - 7 to illustrate the relationship between distinct phases in the time domain and their resulting image at depth. We show both normal-moveout reflections from sub-horizontal interfaces and reverse-moveout reflections from steep interfaces, such as faults. Migrated images of dipping faults, such as the SAF and the Pinto Mountain Fault, are presented in this way. The SAF is imaged along Line 4, through the Mecca Hills, as a number of steeply dipping fault segments that collectively form a flower structure, above 5 km depth, that sole into a moderately NE-dipping fault below that depth. The individual migrated reflection packages correlate with mapped surface fault traces in the Mecca Hills. A similar geometry is seen on Line 6, from Palm Springs through Yucca Valley, where fault splays sole or project into a moderately dipping SAF below 10-km depth. We also show and discuss the reflectivity pattern of the middle and lower crust for Lines 4 - 7.

  3. Protocol versus Nonprotocol Dosing of Vancomycin in Neonates: A Single Center Evaluation of Steady State Trough Levels.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Megan L; Wrobel, Joanna; Huntley, Jamalee; Zeilmann, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Objective This study aims to assess the need for modification of the current vancomycin dosing protocol at a single institution by conducting a comparison of dosing per protocol versus off protocol and the resulting first troughs in neonates. Secondary outcomes include comparison of time to first therapeutic steady-state trough, dose at first therapeutic steady-state trough, and success of the consult-to-pharmacy service. Study Design This single center retrospective chart review analyzed patients at a level-IIIb neonatal intensive care unit who received vancomycin and had at least one appropriately drawn trough level documented from 2013 to 2014. Effectiveness of each dosing strategy was evaluated by assessing troughs. Results Approximately 30% of first vancomycin trough levels obtained are within the desired range of 15 to 20 µg/mL and patients achieve therapeutic steady-state trough levels after 3.6 days, regardless of the initial dosing strategy. The current protocol reflects the therapeutic steady state dosing only 22% of the time. The vancomycin consult-to-pharmacy service improves the achievement of goal trough ranges. Conclusion An assessment of doses that achieved a goal vancomycin trough of 15 to 20 µg/mL revealed that a dose of 12.5 mg/kg at the same intervals and age ranges specified in the current protocol would enable the achievement of this higher goal trough. PMID:26862722

  4. Mineralogical and spectral analysis of Vesta's Gegania and Lucaria quadrangles and comparative analysis of their key features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Zinzi, Angelo; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Ammannito, Eleonora; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Cristopher T.

    2015-10-01

    This work is aimed at developing and interpreting infrared albedo, pyroxene and OH band depths, and pyroxene band center maps of Vesta's Gegania and Lucaria quadrangles, obtained from data provided by the Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapper spectrometer on board NASA's Dawn spacecraft. The Gegania and Lucaria quadrangles span latitudes from 22°S to 22°N and longitudes from 0°E to 144°E. The mineralogical and spectral maps identify two large-scale units on this area of Vesta, which extend eastwards and westward of about 60°E, respectively. The two regions are not associated to large-scale geological units, which have a latitudinal distribution rather than longitudinal, but are defined by different contents of carbonaceous chondrites (CC): the eastern region, poor in CCs, is brighter and OH-depleted, whereas the western one, rich in CCs, is darker and OH-enriched. A detailed analysis of the small-scale units in these quadrangles is also performed. Almost all the units show the typical correspondence between high albedo, deep pyroxene bands, short band centers and absence of OH and vice versa. Only a few exceptions occur, such as the ejecta from the Aelia crater, where dark and bright materials are intimately mixed. The most characteristic features of these quadrangles are the equatorial troughs and the Lucaria tholus. The equatorial troughs consist of graben, i.e. a depression limited by two conjugate faults. The graben do not present their own spectral signatures, but spectral parameters similar to their surroundings, in agreement to their structural origin. This is observed also in graben outside the Gegania and Lucaria quadrangles. However, it is possible to observe other structural features, such as tectonic grooves, characterized by a changing composition and hence an albedo variation. This result is confirmed not only by mineralogical maps of Vesta, but also by analyzing the VIRTIS-Rosetta observations of Lutetia. The albedo change is instead a typical

  5. Geomicrobiology; inseparable from low temperature geochemistry & mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southam, G.

    2009-05-01

    Bacteria play an important role in catalyzing a wide array of biogeochemical processes that affect the dissolution of minerals, the aqueous geochemistry of their surroundings and secondary mineral formation. Processes occurring at the bacteria-mineral interface can occur on the scale of nanoenvironments and will normally extend to microenvironments or even, to macroscopic features where extensive growth of bacteria is supported. The action of bacteria in these systems can produce a wide range of biomarkers that can be preserved over geologic time periods. Possible biomarkers include dissolution features in mineral substrates, fossil structures of individual cells to complex cell-cell associations, and chemical (isotopic and organic) signatures. In any system, we need to focus at the scale of the bacteria themselves to appreciate the actual chemistry of their surroundings and the kinds of reactions that they can catalyse. For example, photosynthetic microbial mats in an Atlin, BC wetland create ideal conditions for biologically induced precipitation of magnesium carbonates, specifically dypingite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)25H2O, which we were unable to reproduce abiotically. The preservation of biosignatures over geologic time presents obvious challenges, and the effect of diagenesis on fossils and their mineralogical assemblages deserves attention, especially with respect to the preservation and analysis of materials on (or from) Mars. For this, we need to rely on our Earth analogue sites as a way to triage the wide range of samples that are available for collection and analysis. The preservation of organic materials and cells in salts is particularly interesting. Conversely, the hematite nodules on Mars may not be good samples to target in the search for a Martian biosphere. The possibility of finding an extant biosphere increases with depth; however, evidence from Earth's deep subsurface demonstrates that it does not contain an abundant biosphere. Bacteria thrive in

  6. Diagenetic Mineralogy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Thomas F.; Chipera, Steve; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, E. B.; Rapin, William

    2015-01-01

    Three years into exploration of sediments in Gale crater on Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has provided data on several modes and episodes of diagenetic mineral formation. Curiosity determines mineralogy principally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), but with supporting data from thermal-release profiles of volatiles, bulk chemistry, passive spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectra of targeted spots. Mudstones at Yellowknife Bay, within the landing ellipse, contain approximately 20% phyllosilicate that we interpret as authigenic smectite formed by basalt weathering in relatively dilute water, with associated formation of authigenic magnetite as in experiments by Tosca and Hurowitz [Goldschmidt 2014]. Varied interlayer spacing of the smectite, collapsed at approximately 10 A or expanded at approximately 13.2 A, is evidence of localized diagenesis that may include partial intercalation of metal-hydroxyl groups in the approximately 13.2 A material. Subsequent sampling of stratigraphically higher Windjana sandstone revealed sediment with multiple sources, possible concentration of detrital magnetite, and minimal abundance of diagenetic minerals. Most recent sampling has been of lower strata at Mount Sharp, where diagenesis is widespread and varied. Here XRD shows that hematite first becomes abundant and products of diagenesis include jarosite and cristobalite. In addition, bulk chemistry identifies Mg-sulfate concretions that may be amorphous or crystalline. Throughout Curiosity's traverse, later diagenetic fractures (and rarer nodules) of mm to dm scale are common and surprisingly constant and simple in Ca-sulfate composition. Other sulfates (Mg,Fe) appear to be absent in this later diagenetic cycle, and circumneutral solutions are indicated. Equally surprising is the rarity of gypsum and common occurrence of bassanite and anhydrite. Bassanite, rare on Earth, plays a major role at this location on Mars. Dehydration of gypsum to bassanite in the

  7. Olivine-dominated asteroids: Mineralogy and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Kelley, Michael S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Lucas, Michael P.; Hardersen, Paul S.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Abell, Paul A.; Corre, Lucille Le

    2014-01-01

    Olivine-dominated asteroids are a rare type of objects formed either in nebular processes or through magmatic differentiation. The analysis of meteorite samples suggest that at least 100 parent bodies in the main belt experienced partial or complete melting and differentiation before being disrupted. However, only a few olivine-dominated asteroids, representative of the mantle of disrupted differentiated bodies, are known to exist. Due to the paucity of these objects in the main belt their origin and evolution have been a matter of great debate over the years. In this work we present a detailed mineralogical analysis of twelve olivine-dominated asteroids. We have obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectra (0.7-2.4 μm) of asteroids (246) Asporina, (289) Nenetta, (446) Aeternitas, (863) Benkoela, (4125) Lew Allen and (4490) Bamberry. Observations were conducted with the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. This sample was complemented with spectra of six other olivine-dominated asteroids including (354) Eleonora, (984) Gretia, (1951) Lick, (2501) Lohja, (3819) Robinson and (5261) Eureka obtained by previous workers. Within our sample we distinguish two classes, one that we call monomineralic-olivine asteroids, which are those whose spectra only exhibit the 1 μm feature, and another referred to as olivine-rich asteroids, whose spectra exhibit the 1 μm feature and a weak (Band II depth ˜4%) 2 μm feature. For the monomineralic-olivine asteroids the olivine chemistry was found to range from ˜Fo49 to Fo70, consistent with the values measured for brachinites and R chondrites. In the case of the olivine-rich asteroids we determined their olivine and low-Ca pyroxene abundance using a new set of spectral calibrations derived from the analysis of R chondrites spectra. We found that the olivine abundance for these asteroids varies from 0.68 to 0.93, while the fraction of low-Ca pyroxene to total pyroxene ranges from 0.6 to 0.9. A search for dynamical

  8. Steps toward interstellar silicate dust mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.; Henning, TH.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most certain facts on interstellar dust is that it contains grains with silicon oxygen tetrahedra (SOT), the internal vibrations of which cause the well known silicate bands at 10 and 18 microns. The broad and almost structureless appearance of them demonstrates lack of translation symmetry in these solids that must be considered amorphous or glassy silicates. There is no direct information on the cations in these interstellar silicates and on the number of bridging oxygens per tetrahedron (NBO). Comparing experimental results gained on amorphous silicates, e.g., silicate glasses, of cosmically most abundant metals (Mg, Fe, Ca, Al) with the observations is the only way to investigate interstellar silicate dust mineralogy (cf, Dorschner and Henning, 1986). At Jena University Observatory IR spectra of submicrometer-sized grains of pyroxene glasses (SSG) were studied. Pyroxenes are common minerals in asteroids, meteorites, interplanetary, and supposedly also cometary dust particles. Pyroxenes consist of linearly connected SOT (NBO=2). In the vitreous state reached by quenching melted minerals, the SOT remain nearly undistorted (Si-O bond length unchanged); the Si-O-Si angles at the bridging oxygens of pyroxenes, however, scatter statistically. Therefore, the original cation oxygen symmetry of the crystal (octahedral and hexahedral coordination by O) is completely lost. The blended bands at 10 and 18 microns lose their diagnostic differences and become broad and structureless. This illustrates best the basic problem of interstellar silicate mineral diagnostics. Optical data of glasses of enstatite, bronzite, hypersthene, diopside, salite, and hedenbergite have been derived. Results of enstatite (E), bronzite (B), and hypersthene (H) show very good agreement with the observed silicate features in the IR spectra of evolutionarily young objects that show P-type silicate signature according to the classification by Gurtler and Henning (1986). Compositional

  9. Discrepancy in the degree of population differentiation between color-morph frequencies and neutral genetic loci in the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis in Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Nobuyuki; Hironaka, Kumiko; Sawada, Kouji; Kuriwada, Takashi; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of relative contribution of natural selection and stochastic processes to population differentiation has been of great interest in evolutionary biology. In a damselfly, Ischnura senegalensis, females show color dimorphism (gynochrome vs. androchrome), and color-morph frequencies are known to greatly vary among local populations within Okinawa Island, a small island of Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. In this study, to examine the effects of natural selection and stochastic processes on the within-island variation in color-morph frequencies, we compared the degree of population differentiation at the color-morph locus with that at a mitochondrial DNA region and ten nuclear microsatellite loci. F ST values at the neutral loci were close to zero, indicating presence of sufficient gene flow (dispersal of adult individuals) between the local populations. In contrast, F ST values at the color-morph locus were significantly different from zero. These results suggest that variation in female color-morph frequencies observed among local populations in Okinawa Island has been caused by divergent selection acting on the phenotype and/or genes tightly linked with the color locus. PMID:25633100

  10. Photochemical Formation of Fe(II) and Peroxides in Coastal Seawater Collected around Okinawa Island, Japan - Impact of Red Soil Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Taira, H.

    2003-12-01

    In a study to elucidate the impacts of red soil pollution on the oxidizing power of seawater, photochemical formation of Fe(II) and peroxides was studied in seawaters collected around Okinawa Island, Japan. The northern part of Okinawa Island suffers from red soil pollution which is caused mainly by land development such as pineapple farming and the construction of recreational facilities. We studied photochemical formation of peroxides and Fe(II) in the same seawater samples because the reaction between HOOH and Fe(II) forms hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent environmental oxidant. Photochemical formation of Fe(II) was fast and reached steady-state in 30 minutes of simulated sunlight illumination and the steady-state Fe(II) concentrations were about 80% of total iron concentrations. Photochemical formation of peroxides was relatively slow and formation kinetics varied, depending on the initial peroxide concentrations. Because photochemical formation of peroxides was faster and total iron concentrations in the red soil polluted seawater were higher, red soil polluted seawater is expected to have greater oxidizing power than seawater that is not polluted with red soil.

  11. The Mineralogy of the Youngest Lunar Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staid, M. I.; Pieters, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    The last stage of lunar volcanism produced spectrally distinct basalts on the western nearside of the Moon, which remain unsampled by landing missions. The spectral properties of these late-stage basalts are examined using high-spatial-resolution Clementine images to constrain their mineralogic composition. The young high-Ti basalts in the western Procellarum and Imbrium Basins display a significantly stronger ferrous absorption than earlier mare basalts, suggesting that they may be the most Fe-rich deposits on the Moon. The distinct long-wavelength shape of this ferrous absorption is found to be similar for surface soils and materials excavated from depth. The pervasive character of this absorption feature supports the interpretation of abundant olivine within these late-stage lunar deposits. Important distinctions exist between the early-stage eastern maria and the late-stage western basalts, even though both appear to be Ti-rich. For example, the western maria are more radiogenic than eastern deposits. Telescopic spectra of the high-Ti western maria also exhibit a unique combination of a strong 1 micron feature and a relatively weak or attenuated 2-micron absorption. Pieters et al. concluded that the unusual strength and shape of the 1-micron absorption in western basalts results from an additional absorption from abundant olivine and/or Fe-bearing glass. Either mineralogy could produce the strong long wavelength 1-micron band, but a glassy Fe-rich surface could only form by rapid cooling along the exterior surfaces of flows. Clementine UV-VIS data of late-stage basalts are examined for regions in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium. The spectral properties of western regions are compared to the sampled Apollo 11 basalts in Mare Tranquillitatis, which contain similar albedos and UV-VIS spectral properties. For reference, the western basalts are also compared to the low-Ti and Fe-rich basalts in Mare Serenitatis (mISP). Serenitatis basalts have the strongest

  12. Seismicity and active tectonic processes in the ultra-slow spreading Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läderach, C.; Schlindwein, V.; Schenke, H.-W.; Jokat, W.

    2011-03-01

    With its remote location in the ice-covered Fram Strait, Lena Trough is a poorly known segment of the global mid-ocean ridge system. It is a prominent member of the ultra-slow spreading mid-ocean ridges but its spreading mechanisms are not well understood. We relocalized teleseismically recorded earthquakes from the past five decades to identify tectonic processes in Lena Trough and the adjacent Spitsbergen Fracture Zone (FZ). During two cruises with RV Polarstern in 2008 and 2009 we deployed seismic arrays on ice floes to record the local seismicity of Lena Trough. We could identify and localize microseismic events which we assume to be present in the entire rift valley. In contrast, our relocalization of teleseismically recorded earthquakes shows an asymmetric epicentre distribution along Lena Trough with earthquakes occurring predominately along the western valley flanks of Lena Trough. In 2009 February/March, several high-magnitude earthquakes peaking in an Mb 6.6 event occurred in an outside-corner setting of the Spitsbergen FZ. This is the strongest earthquake which has ever been recorded in Fram Strait and its location at the outside-corner high of the ultra-slow spreading ridge is exceptional. Comparing the seismicity with the magnetic anomalies and high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, we divide Lena Trough in a symmetrically spreading northern part and an asymmetrically spreading southern part south of the South Lena FZ. We propose that a complex interaction between the former De Geer Megashear zone, which separated Greenland from Svalbard starting at Late Mesozoic/Early Cenozoic times, and the developing rift in the southern Lena Trough resulted an increasing eastward dislocation towards the Spitsbergen FZ between older spreading axes and the recent active spreading axis which we believe to be located west of the bathymetric rift valley flanks in a wide extensional plain.

  13. Structural and tectonic evolution of the eastern Cayman Trough (Caribbean Sea) from seismic reflection data

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, S.; Mauffret, A.; Pubellier, M.

    1996-02-01

    The eastern Cayman Trough preserves a record of the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Caribbean history that is largely affected by Neogene strike-slip tectonics of the current plate boundary. We conducted an analysis of seismic data within the eastern Cayman Trough, based upon single and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles collected during the Seacarib II cruise in 1987 and the Casis cruise in 1992. These data show that the basement of the eastern Cayman Trough can be divided into four domains from east to west, with distinct morphologic and sedimentary character and inferred older to younger ages: (1) a province of rifted Mesozoic continental crust exhibiting seven parallel horst blocks striking northeast-southwest; (2) a continent-ocean transition between provinces 1 and 3 that exhibits seamounts, small hills, and sedimentary basins; (3) an Eocene oceanic crust with rough basement but smoother relief than the rifted crust; basement trends are roughly north-south and oblique to the northwest trend in domain 1, and (4) the northern Jamaica slope, which forms an east-west-trending slope, with northward-dipping strata that flank the three deeper water domains of the Cayman Trough. The domains are interpreted to be the product of the Eocene east-west opening of the Cayman Trough as a pull-apart basin in a left-lateral strike-slip setting. Closure of the 1100 km of Eocene and younger oceanic crust of the Cayman Trough places the fault-block province adjacent to the Belize margin of Central America. A Neogene phase of transpression has reactivated structures in the four domains, along with on-land structures described by previous authors in Jamaica. The proximity of the eastern margin of the Cayman Trough to petroliferous, continental rocks in Central America suggests an improved possibility of hydrocarbon potential. Unfortunately, sediment thicknesses of less than 1 km probably are not conducive to hydrocarbon formation.

  14. Chemical and mineralogical characterisation of illite-smectite: Implications for episodic tectonism and associated fluid flow, central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Alexander W.; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Golding, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    The Warburton-Cooper-Eromanga basins of central-eastern Australia contain a number of reactivated fracture-fault networks that relate to a complex and poorly understood thermal and tectonic evolution. Authigenic illite was sampled from two prominent features of the Warburton-Cooper basins: the Gidgealpa-Merrimelia-Innamincka Ridge, composed of anticlinal imbricate thrust fault blocks, and the synclinal Nappamerri Trough. These sample sets were investigated using a combination of clay mineralogical, trace element and stable isotope analyses to deduce the palaeofluid chemistry associated with past tectonothermal perturbations. The Nappamerri Trough hosts the highly radiogenic Big Lake Suite granite and part of one of Australia's larger on-shore oil and gas reserves. Calculated fluid stable isotope values from the trough, in conjunction with calculated palaeotemperatures, indicate an influx of evolved high-latitudinal meteoric waters under an extremely high geothermal gradient (∼100 °C km-1) and high water/rock ratios consistent with an extensional environment. Such high water/rock ratios resulted in intense alteration of the granite during which it underwent substantial enrichment in the heat-producing elements (HPE), particularly Th. This hydrothermal system is interpreted to result from continent-wide transmission of tensional stress originating from episodic rifting of the eastern Australian margin in the mid Cretaceous, as dated by Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar. The Gidgealpa-Merrimelia-Innamincka Ridge, by contrast, is marked by a lower, but still elevated, palaeogeothermal gradient (∼42 °C km-1) and calculated fluid isotopic values compatible with evolved basinal fluids of meteoric origin under low water/rock ratio conditions. Distinct trace element compositions of residue and leachate aliquots further indicate two periods of fluid flow with unique chemical compositions. In light of previous geochronology, these events are interpreted as westward extensions of

  15. Mineralogical and geochemical aspects of mineral-induced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.; Raymond, R.; Saffiotti, U.; Aust, A.; Mossman, B.

    1996-04-01

    Many minerals are known to cause disease following inhalation, including asbestos, silica, zeolites, and clays. The mineralogical properties that determine toxicity are not known, hindering effective risk assessment. Consequently, many minerals that do not pose risks are controlled excessively and many minerals that do pose risk remain uncontrolled. The authors are integrating mineralogy and biology in an interdisciplinary scientific investigation of the mechanisms of mineral-induced disease. The biological endpoints include the formation of ferruginous bodies and chemical signaling (e.g., production of cytokines or active oxygen species) by cells; the mineralogical variables include structure, composition, and surface properties. The authors are also determining what information about the biological reaction is preserved in the mineral surface.

  16. X-ray Spectroscopy and Magnetism in Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainctavit, Philippe; Brice-Profeta, Sandrine; Gaudry, Emilie; Letard, Isabelle; Arrio, Marie-Anne

    The objective of this paper is to present the kind of information that can be gained in the field of mineralogy from the use of x-ray magnetic spectroscopies. We review some of the questions that are unsettled and that could benefit from an interdisciplinary approach where magnetism, spectroscopy and mineralogy could be mixed. Most of the attention is focused on iron and some other 3d transition elements. The mineralogy of planetary cores and its relation with known meteorites are exemplified. The various oxide phases in the mantle and the nature of iron in these phases is also underlined. The presence of transition elements in insulating minerals and its relation with macroscopic properties such as the color of gemstones are reviewed. Finally an introduction to paleomagnetism is given with a special attention to nanomaghemites.

  17. Lunar cryptomaria: Mineralogy and composition of ancient volcanic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Jennifer; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Ancient lunar volcanic deposits, known as cryptomaria, have been detected by remote telescopic and orbital measurements since the 1970s. Cryptomaria are most easily identified by the presence of dark-halo impact craters and are associated with a mare basalt mineralogy, which is indicated by two pyroxene spectral absorption features near 1 μm and 2 μm in the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths. However, there are many early igneous lithologies that have been identified in the Apollo sample collection that have a similar VNIR spectral signal, implying a pyroxene-dominant mineralogy. In this study we use high resolution Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) VNIR spectral data and the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) to determine cryptomare mineralogy as well as Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer (LP GRS) FeO and Th compositional measurements to evaluate which ancient igneous rocks (e.g., low-Ti mare basalt, high-Ti mare basalt, Mg-suite rocks, dunite, high-Al mare basalt, KREEP basalt) are consistent with our mineralogical observations. In addition, spectra from different M3 optical periods were compared to determine how the MGM-derived absorption band centers vary between datasets. Band center differences between optical periods are on the order of ~6±4 nm and ~25±10 nm for the 1 μm and 2 μm features, respectively. Cryptomare mineralogies are dominated by clinopyroxene and are consistent with measurements from locally exposed mare basalts. LP GRS measurements support a mare basalt rock type when regolith mixing is taken into account.

  18. Crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Salton Trough, southeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; McCarthy, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents data and modelling results from a crustal and upper mantle wide-angle seismic transect across the Salton Trough region in southeast California. The Salton Trough is a unique part of the Basin and Range province where mid-ocean ridge/transform spreading in the Gulf of California has evolved northward into the continent. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the final leg of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE). Two perpendicular models of the crust and upper mantle were fit to wide-angle reflection and refraction travel times, seismic amplitudes, and Bouguer gravity anomalies. The first profile crossed the Salton Trough from the southwest to the northeast, and the second was a strike line that paralleled the Salton Sea along its western edge. We found thin crust (???21-22 km thick) beneath the axis of the Salton Trough (Imperial Valley) and locally thicker crust (???27 km) beneath the Chocolate Mountains to the northeast. We modelled a slight thinning of the crust further to the northeast beneath the Colorado River (???24 km) and subsequent thickening beneath the metamorphic core complex belt northeast of the Colorado River. There is a deep, apparently young basin (???5-6 km unmetamorphosed sediments) beneath the Imperial Valley and a shallower (???2-3 km) basin beneath the Colorado River. A regional 6.9-km/s layer (between ???15-km depth and the Moho) underlies the Salton Trough as well as the Chocolate Mountains where it pinches out at the Moho. This lower crustal layer is spatially associated with a low-velocity (7.6-7.7 km/s) upper mantle. We found that our crustal model is locally compatible with the previously suggested notion that the crust of the Salton Trough has formed almost entirely from magmatism in the lower crust and sedimentation in the upper crust. However, we observe an apparently magmatically emplaced lower crust to the northeast, outside of the Salton Trough, and propose that this layer in part

  19. Macrobenthos of the southern part of St. Anna trough and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.; Minin, K. V.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Molodtsova, T. N.; Rajskiy, A. K.; Kucheruk, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Taxonomic composition and ecological structure of benthic communities of the southern part of St. Anna Trough were investigated during the 54th and 59th cruises of RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Material was collected using Sigsbee trawl at 10 stations arranged in two transects (depth range 57-554 m). It was shown that benthic communities of the western arm of the St. Anna Trough differ considerably from the communities of the eastern arm. The western arm communities develop under the influence of active near-bottom hydrodynamics in conditions of rugged topography and a coarse-grained sediment or hard substrate. The wastern arm of the trough is characterized by the predomination of the soft sediment, smooth topography, and weak currents. In the western arm of the trough the influence of the Barents Sea fauna is traced down to the edge of the internal shelf (about 150 m depth). The community of the eastern arm of the trough situated out from the direct influence of the Barents Sea waters represents a continuation of the Ophiocten sericeum community, typical for external Kara Sea shelf. With increasing depth, Ophiopleura borealis becomes the dominant species of the community. In the greatest explored depths some deep-water High-Arctic species, such as echinoids Pourtalesia jeffreysi, were observed. The major factors determining the distribution of benthic communities in the investigated area are the microrelief pattern, the sediment structure, and near-bottom hydrodynamics.

  20. The structure and subsidence of Rockall Trough from two-ship seismic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Joppen, M.; White, R.S. )

    1990-11-10

    Coincident multichannel seismic reflection and refraction profiles acquired northwest of Britain during a two-ship seismic experiment in the southern Rockall Trough provide evidence for a thin (6 km) syn-rift crust below Rockall Trough. The variation of seismic velocity with depth is consistent with either oceanic crust similar to that found in other parts of the North Atlantic or with thinned continental crust heavily intruded by syn-rift igneous rocks. The syn-rift crust beneath Rockall Trough is now buried by nearly 5 km of sediments that are intruded by Tertiary volcanics varying in extent from isolated sills to a large sill complex extending 100 km laterally. The basement imaged on seismic profiles exhibits a band of subhorizontal reflectors that extend laterally over distances of up to 40 km which they interpret as sediments intercalated with submarine lava flow generated during the opening of the Trough. Estimates of stretching from crustal thinning and from subsidence indicate that Rockall Trough has undergone extensive rifting ({beta} > 6). Upwelling asthenosphere beneath the thinned lithosphere generated at least 1-3 km thickness of melt as it decompressed. The molten rock rose upward from the mantle until it was in part extruded as lava flows and in part intruded into the crust.

  1. The noon and midnight mid-latitude trough as seen by Ariel 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulunay, Y. K.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The electron density data returned by the polar orbiting satellites Ariel 3 and Ariel 4 revealed that the midlatitude trough is one of the distinct large-scale features of the ionosphere at about 550 km. Recent work (e.g., Tulunay and Grebowsky, 1975) on the data included the investigation of the temporal development of the latitudinal position of the midlatitude electron density trough at dawn and dusk during the large magnetic storms of May 1967 and May 1972. Model calculations which assumed that the equatorial convection E-field varies in step with the Kp index reproduced on the average the observed behavior. In the present paper, trough observations made at noon and midnight during the period, 12-21 December 1971 which encompassed a relatively large magnetic storm are discussed. In this context, model calculations have been employed as a guide of average approximations of the actual situation in predicting the plasmapause location. It is also shown that the trough observed on the noon passes is not generally plasmapause-related as the nightside troughs are expected to be.

  2. Crustal structure of the NE Rockall Trough from wide-angle seismic data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KlingelhöFer, F.; Edwards, R. A.; Hobbs, R. W.; England, R. W.

    2005-11-01

    Two wide-angle seismic lines located in the northern Rockall Trough were acquired in May 2000. One line (line E) crosses the trough from the continental shelf off Lewis to normal oceanic crust west of Lousy Bank in NW-SE direction. The other line (line D) intersects with line E, crosses the Wyville-Thomson Ridge in a SW-NE direction and ends in the Faeroe-Shetland Basin. Sonobuoy data and expanding spread profiles acquired in the same area have been remodeled. Analysis of the seismic data using travel times and amplitudes reveals an up to 5 km thick sedimentary basin including an up to 1.5 km thick basaltic layer which is present in most of the trough. Further conclusions of this study are that the Rockall Trough is underlain by highly stretched continental crust of ˜13 km thickness. The crust thickens to ˜24 km beneath Lousy Bank, which is interpreted to be of continental nature. Beneath the Hebrides continental shelf a three-layer continental crust of 26 km is modeled. An up to 12 km thick high-velocity layer is observed underneath the ocean-continent boundary and is interpreted as magmatic underplating resulting from excess volcanism during rifting. No evidence for an underplate layer could be distinguished beneath the trough area. Modeling of the structure of the Wyville-Thomson Ridge revealed no existing igneous core of the ridge confirming existing theories, that it is a compressional structure.

  3. Altitude Variation of the Plasmapause Signature in the Main Ionospheric Trough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Benson, Robert F.; Webb, Phillip A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Bilitza, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    The projection of the plasmapause magnetic-field lines to low altitudes, where the light-ion chemistry is dominated by O(+), tends to occur near the minimum electron density in the main (midlatitude) electron density trough at night. With increasing attitude in the trough, where H(+) emerges as the dominant iota on the low-latitude boundary, we have found cases where the plasmapause field lines are located on the sharp low-Latitude side of the trough as expected if this topside ionosphere H(+) distribution varies in step with the plasmapause gradient in the distant plasmasphere. These conclusions are based on near-equatorial crossings of the plasmapause (corresponding to the steep gradient in the dominant species H(+) by the Explorer-45 satellite as determined from electric-field measurements by Maynard and Cauffman in the early 1970s and ISIS-2 ionospheric topside-sounder measurements. The former data have now been converted to digital form and made available at http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The latter provide samples of nearly coincident observations of ionospheric main trough crossings near the same magnetic-field lines of the Explorer 45-determined equatorial plasmapause. The ISIS-2 vertical electron density profiles are used to infer where the F-region transitions from an O(+) to a H(+) dominated plasma through the main trough boundaries.

  4. Magmatogenic manganese ores of the South Minusa Intermontane Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassandrov, E. G.; Mazurov, M. P.

    2009-10-01

    The first data on the mineral composition and formation conditions of manganese ore at the Chapsordag and Malosyrsky deposits in the Askiz ore district of Khakassia are integrated and systematized. The detailed mineralogical mapping of the deposits has been carried out. The identification of minerals and examination of the ore microstructure were performed with optical microscopy in transmitted and reflected light and using SEM/EDS, EMPA, XRD, IRS, and other methods. It was established that the ore mineralization is spatially and genetically related to the Early Devonian magmatism and accompanying hydrothermal activity and metasomatism. Syngenetic braunite was detected for the first time in elevated amounts reaching an economic level in the devitrified groundmass of volcanic rocks, in cement of lava breccia, and in fragments in pyroclastic rocks. By analogy with iron deposits, this magmatogenic type of manganese mineralization is regarded as ore lavas and tuffs combined with metasomatic and hydrothermal mineral assemblages into a strata-bound orebearing complex and as a source of hydrothermal metasomatic ore. The elevated Mn content in magmatic melts of the Early Devonian trachybasalt-trachyandesite-trachydacite association is caused by assimilation of Riphean and Lower Cambrian high-Mn carbonate sequences in crustal magma chambers. In contours of economic orebodies, the hydrothermal economic ore is recognized as sites of massive, patchy and impregnated, brecciated, stringer-disseminated, and disseminated varieties. High-grade massive ore occurs as stratiform and branching bodies up to 1.5 m thick and a few tens of meters long and as smaller pocketlike bodies. Braunite and pyrolusite (polianite) are major ore minerals varying in size, degree of crystallinity, and character of intergrowths with associating minerals. Gangue minerals include carbonates, sulfates, albite, quartz, chlorite, actinolite, piemontite, and okhotskite, a Mn-pumpellyite identified in Russia

  5. Mineralogy: a modern approach to teaching a traditional discipline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. W.

    2011-12-01

    Mineralogy has traditionally been a primary component in undergraduate geoscience curriculum. In recent years, there has been a trend in which mineralogy and petrology have been combined into Earth Materials courses. This is unfortunate as these disciplines each have much to offer students, and content once considered essential is eliminated out of necessity. Mineralogy is still fundamental to students' understanding of the Earth and Earth processes. Using a modern approach to time-honored concepts, I teach a quarter-long Introductory Mineralogy class offered through the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Student evaluations of this course unequivocally indicate a high degree of learning and interest in the material, confirming that mineralogy continues to be a valuable class into the 21st century. While much of the content remains similar to what has been taught over the last century, my strategy involves a well-balanced approach to old and new. The first third of the course is background including the relevance of mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and crystallography; the second third of the course is systematic mineralogy using the Dana system; the last third of the course is devoted to understanding optical mineralogy, using modern analytical equipment such as XRD and SEM, and learning to use the petrographic microscope. Throughout the quarter, a strong emphasis is placed on the importance of hand-sample identification. Field work, traditionally not emphasized in mineralogy courses, has been re-introduced to the curriculum. I use modern technology to facilitate and support student learning. A lecture-based approach is employed with carefully crafted and organized PowerPoint presentations. PowerPoint lectures can be effective and highly engaging. The key is to ensure that the lectures are not overly reliant on text, instead relying on diagrams, charts, photos, and embedded media such as 3-D animations (ex. to teach

  6. Mineralogy of the Lunar Crust in Spatial Context: First Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Combe, J-P; Green, R.; Goswami, J. N.; Head, J. W., III; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, S.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M. I.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-01-01

    India's Chandrayaan-1 successfully launched October 22, 2008 and went into lunar orbit a few weeks later. Commissioning of instruments began in late November and was near complete by the end of the year. Initial data for NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) were acquired across the Orientale Basin and the science results are discussed here. M 3 image-cube data provide mineralogy of the surface in geologic context. A major new result is that the existence and distribution of massive amounts of anorthosite as a continuous stratigraphic crustal layer is now irrefutable.

  7. Paleoenvironmental Assessment and Deglacial Chronology of the Onondaga Trough, Onondaga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Teece, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Onondaga Lake Partnership and Onondaga Environmental Institute, has been studying the hydrogeology of the Onondaga Trough since 2002 to determine the movement and concentration of naturally occurring brine in the glacial valley-fill aquifer. Numerous shallow and deep test holes have been drilled to determine the glacial and water-quality stratigraphy in the Onondaga Trough. Organic materials were recovered from the Onondaga Creek, Ninemile Creek, and Harbor Brook valleys, and from lakebed sediments in Onondaga Lake (fig. 1) and age-dated with carbon-isotope analysis techniques. This report summarizes the carbon-isotope data collected from 1996 through 2006 in the Onondaga Trough. The results of these analyses provide a means to understand the deglaciation of the watershed and the development of the watershed from barren glacial sediment to a forested ecosystem.

  8. Stratigraphic framework and petroleum potential of Northeastern Baltimore Canyon Trough, Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Libby-French, J.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic data from 29 wells in the Baltimore Canyon Trough were released to the public as of 1982, and provide sufficient information for establishing Upper Jurassic through Cenozoic rock-stratigraphic units. The oldest rocks penetrated by exploratory wells are of Late Jurassic age and are correlative to the Scotian Shelf Mohawk, Mic Mac, and Abenaki Formations. The Mohawk(.) sandstone and Mic Mac shale equivalents in the Baltimore Canyon Trough represent lower delta plain to predominantly prodelta environments, and the Abenaki-equivalent limestone represents a shelfmargin carbonate buildup. A destructional phase of the delta is represented by the Naskapi equivalents a calcareous shale. Stratigraphic traps may be present in the Baltimore Canyon Trough Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deltaic sandstones and shelf-margin carbonates. The deltaic units contain channel and distributary-mouth-bar sandstones, which may be potential reservoirs. The Abenaki stratigraphic-reef trend provides another potential target.

  9. A vacuum tube vee-trough collector for solar heating and air conditioning applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the performance of a vee-trough vacuum tube collector proposed for use in solar heating and cooling applications. The vee-trough reflector is a triangular sectioned, flat surfaced reflector, whose axis is laid in the East-West direction. A vacuum tube receiver placed at the bottom of the vee-trough collects solar heat most efficiently since convection is completely eliminated. Radiation losses are reduced by use of selective coatings on the absorber. Owing to its high temperature capabilities (300-400 F), the proposed scheme could also be used for power generation applications in combination with an organic Rankine conversion system. It is especially recommended for unattended pumping stations since the reflectors only require reversal once every six months.

  10. The 3D heat flux density distribution on a novel parabolic trough wavy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demagh, Yassine; Kabar, Yassine; Bordja, Lyes; Noui, Samira

    2016-05-01

    The non-uniform concentrated solar flux distribution on the outer surface of the absorber pipe can lead to large circumferential gradient temperature and high concentrated temperature of the absorber pipe wall, which is one of the primary causes of parabolic trough solar receiver breakdown. In this study, a novel shape of the parabolic trough absorber pipe is proposed as a solution to well homogenize the solar flux distribution, as well as, the temperature in the absorber wall. The conventional straight absorber located along the focal line of the parabola is replaced by wavy one (invention patent by Y. Demagh [1]) for which the heat flux density distribution on the outer surface varies in both axial and azimuthal directions (3D) while it varies only in the azimuthal direction on the former (2D). As far as we know, there is not previous study which has used a longitudinally wavy pipe as an absorber into the parabolic trough collector unit.

  11. The origin of polygonal troughs on the northern plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pechmann, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The morphology, distribution, geologic environment and relative age of large-scale polygonal trough systems on Mars are examined. The troughs are steep-walled, flat-floored, sinuous depressions typically 200-800 m wide, 20-120 m deep and spaced 5-10 km apart. The mechanics of formation of tension cracks is reviewed to identify the factors controlling the scale of tension crack systems; special emphasis is placed on thermal cracking in permafrost. It is shown that because of the extremely large scale of the Martian fracture systems, they could not have formed by thermal cracking in permafrost, dessication cracking in sediments or contraction cracking in cooling lava. On the basis of photogeologic evidence and analog studies, it is proposed that polygonal troughs on the northern plains of Mars are grabens.

  12. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  13. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  14. Crustal deformation at the Nankai Trough estimated from seafloor geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Nagai, S.; Kuno, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath the southwest Japan along the Nankai Trough with a rate of about 4-6 cm/yr, where megathrust earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-150 years. Because the region expected to be the hypocentral area of next Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes is almost located in offshore area, it is important to know the spatio-temporal variation of crustal deformation accompanied with plate interaction in high precision. For this issue, we have conducted seafloor geodetic observation at the Nankai Trough using a GPS/Acoustic technique since 2004. In this system, we estimate the position of a surveying vessel by Kinematic GPS analysis and measure the distance between the vessel and the benchmark on the seafloor by Acoustic measurements. Next we determine the location of the benchmark. For the repeatability of this observation, the location of benchmark is determined within a precision of 2-3 cm at horizontal components. Several seafloor benchmarks are located at the Nankai Trough, which are individually operated by Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University, and Nagoya University. In the Kumano Basin, we have three seafloor benchmarks located about 60-80 km away from the deformation front of the Nankai Trough. The observations from 2005 to 2011 have illustrated that those benchmarks are moving at rates of about 4 cm/yr toward west-northwest with velocity uncertainties of about 2 cm/yr relative to the Amurian plate. In this study, to explain the crustal deformation derived from seafloor geodetic observations especially at the shallower part of the Nankai Trough, we conduct numerical simulations using finite element method and then discuss the interplate coupling at the Nankai Trough.

  15. Tectonics of the Dalrymple Trough and uplift of the Murray Ridge (NW Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Mathieu; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Huchon, Philippe; Fournier, Marc; Lallemant, Siegfried; Delescluse, Matthias; Zaragosi, Sébastien; Mouchot, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The Dalrymple Trough is a 150-km-long, 30-km-wide basin located at the northern termination of the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ), which is the present-day active India-Arabia plate boundary. The Dalrymple Trough is closely associated with the Murray Ridge, a complex of prominent bathymetric highs located on its eastern flank. Recent multibeam mapping of the connection between the Dalrymple Trough and the OFZ revealed a horsetail structure, which suggests a close relationship between geological histories of both structures. However, the 3-6 Ma age of initiation of the OFZ contrasts with the commonly accepted Early Miocene emplacement of the Dalrymple Trough. Recent seismic lines document a new tectonic history of the Dalrymple Trough, involving two major episodes of deformation along the India-Arabia plate boundary at ~ 8-10 Ma and ~ 1.9 ± 0.9 Ma. The 8-10 Ma episode is marked by a system of folds linked to the main uplift of the southern Murray Ridge and the first uplift of the northern Murray Ridge. This episode is related to a global plate reorganization event in the Late Miocene, well expressed by intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean. The Dalrymple Trough opened at ~ 1.9 ± 0.9 Ma subsequently to the formation of a stepover at the India-Arabia plate boundary, coeval with the regional M-unconformity in the Oman abyssal plain, which marks a structural reorganization of the Makran accretionary wedge, and the last uplift of the northern Murray Ridge.

  16. New Results and Future IPY Investigations in Hektoria Trough, Inner Larsen-B Embayment, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S.; Domack, E. W.; Leventer, A.; Willmott, V.; Ishman, S.

    2007-12-01

    We present new results from a sediment core collected in the inner Larsen-B embayment, Antarctic Peninsula. The 2002 break-up of the Larsen-B Ice Shelf enabled access to the termini of glaciers that formerly fed into the ice shelf. United States Antarctic Program cruise LMG05-02 discovered and mapped an 800-m deep glacial trough off Hektoria Glacier at the northern end of the Larsen-B embayment. Sub-bottom profiling reveals the presence of at least 20-m of unconsolidated sediment in the trough, which varies in character between acoustically laminated, and packages with weak, discontinuous reflectors. A 2.5-m kasten core was recovered from the Hektoria trough during cruise LMG05-02. The sediment consists of silty clay with a minor component of very fine sand, and is laminated in the uppermost meter. Downcore magnetic and geochemical parameters were used to investigate the terrigenous sediment supplied to Hektoria Trough. Bulk sediment geochemistry suggests a constant sediment source that is chemically consistent with upper continental crust. Magnetic parameters reveal several intervals in which the magnetic material supplied to the trough varies in abundance and particle size. We observe shifts at approximately 850, 5900, and 7900 14C yr B.P., based on a preliminary age model. Superimposed on these shifts are periodic pulses of coarser material into the trough, which may be related to fluctuations in the location of the grounding line with respect to the core site. Our preliminary age model indicates an average sedimentation rate of 21 cm/kyr, which suggests that the basin fill extends back to perhaps 100,000 yr B.P., a rare archive of the late Pleistocene in an ice proximal site.

  17. Controls of bioclastic turbidite deposition in eastern Muertos Trough northeast Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Forsthoff, G.M.; Holcombe, T.L.

    1985-02-01

    A study of seismic-reflection profiles and sediment cores establishes regional bathymetric and source area control over the composition, transport, and distribution of turbidites in the eastern Muertos Trough, Bioclastic (carbonate) turbidites dominate the eastern portion of the trough. Analyses of carbon content and sand-sized components suggest that the bioclastic turbidites (characterized by planktonic foraminifera, pteropods, and sponge spicules) are reworked pelagic oozes originally deposited on the outer-shelf and upper-slope areas south of St. Croix and eastern Puerto Rico. The presence of several intrashelf and upper-slope basins prohibits shallow-water carbonate sediments from entering the Muertos Trough. Volcanic rock fragments derived from Puerto Rico are transported to the trough via the Guayanilla Canyon system. Mixing of the volcanic fragments with outer-shelf and upper-slope lutites results in mixed bioclastic-terrigenous turbidites south of central and western Puerto Rico. The paucity of shallow-water carbonate sediments in the trough suggests that the submarine canyons are effective conduits for the rapid transport of volcaniclastic sands across the shelf and thereby prevent extensive mixing with inner- and middle-shelf carbonate sediments. Sediment transport within the trough is primarily axial in an east-west direction. Outer trench-wall fault scarps, south of Guayanilla Canyon, limit the southerly progradation of the trench-wedge facies and deflect incoming gravity flows in a down-axis (westward) direction. Where no faults exist, the trench wedge progrades southward and interfingers with the pelagic sediments of the northern Venezuelan basin.

  18. Moessbauer Mineralogy on the Moon: The Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Korotev, Randy L..; Shelfer, Tad D.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar

    1997-01-01

    A first-order requirement for spacecraft missions that land on solid planetary objects is instrumentation for mineralogical analyses. For purposes of providing diagnostic information about naturally-occurring materials, the element iron is particularly important because it is abundant and multivalent. Knowledge of the oxidation state of iron and its distribution among iron-bearing mineralogies tightly constrains the types of materials present and provides information about formation and modification (weathering) processes. Because Moessbauer spectroscopy is sensitive to both the valence of iron and its local chemical environment, the technique is unique in providing information about both the relative abundance of iron-bearing phases and oxidation state of the iron. The Moessbauer mineralogy of lunar regolith samples (primarily soils from the Apollo 16 and 17 missions to the Moon) were measured in the laboratory to demonstrate the strength of the technique for in situ mineralogical exploration of the Moon. The regolith samples were modeled as mixtures of five iron-bearing phases: olivine, pyroxene, glass, ilmenite, and metal. Based on differences in relative proportions of iron associated with these phases, volcanic ash regolith can be distinguished from impact-derived regolith, impact-derived soils of different geologic affinity (e.g., highlands, maria) can be distinguished on the basis of their constituent minerals, and soil maturity can be estimated. The total resonant absorption area of the Moessbauer spectrum can be used to estimate total FeO concentrations.

  19. The Composition of 433 Eros: A Mineralogical-Chemical Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Gaffey, M.; Bell, J. F., III; Boynton, W. V.; Burbine, T. H.; Chapman, C. R.; Cheng, A.; Clark, P. E.; Evans, L. G.; Gorenstein, P.

    2001-01-01

    We report on an effort with the Near-Infrared Spectrometer/Multi-Spectral Imager (NIS/MSI) and X-ray/Gamma-ray Spectrometer (XGRS) teams to synthesize our data sets to constrain the relationship between Eros and meteorites; the mineralogy, abundances and compositions of Eros; and the processes that formed Eros. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  1. Carbon abundance and silicate mineralogy of anhydrous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. L.; Blanford, G. E.; Keller, L. P.; Klock, W.; McKay, D. S.

    1993-04-01

    We have studied nineteen anhydrous chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) using analytical electron microscopy. We have determined a method for quantitative light element EDX analysis of small particles and have applied these techniques to a group of IDPs. Our results show that some IDPs have significantly higher bulk carbon abundances than do carbonaceous chondrites. We have also identified a relationship between carbon abundance and silicate mineralogy in our set of anhydrous IDPs. In general, these particles are dominated by pyroxene, olivine, or a subequal mixture of olivine and pyroxene. The pyroxene-dominated IDPs have a higher carbon abundance than those dominated by olivines. Members of the mixed mineralogy IDPs can be grouped with either the pyroxene- or olivine-dominated particles based on their carbon abundance. The high carbon, pyroxene-dominated particles have primitive mineralogies and bulk compositions which show strong similarities to cometary dust particles. We believe that the lower carbon, olivine-dominated IDPs are probably derived from asteroids. Based on carbon abundances, the mixed-mineralogy group represents particles derived from either comets or asteroids. We believe that the high carbon, pyroxene-rich anhydrous IDPs are the best candidates for cometary dust.

  2. Mineralogical controls on dust emissions in the Bodele Depression, Chad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface mineralogy is critical in the understanding of aeolian processes, however its role in dust production is currently underestimated. Recent research indicates that discrepancies between predicted and observed dust loads by dust models may be attributed to inadequacies within their associated d...

  3. Models as an Aid to Courses in Crystallography and Mineralogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, K. T.

    1983-01-01

    Three models used in teaching crystallography/mineralogy at the University of Technology (Papua, New Guinea) are described. These include stereographic projection model, optical indicatrix models for Istropic/Anisotropic minerals, and model showing effect of anisotropic minerals under crossed polars. Photographs of the models are also included.…

  4. Mineralogy of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP-19 core

    SciTech Connect

    Sewards, T.; Glenn, R.; Keil, K. )

    1991-03-01

    The mineralogy of the Rustler Formation is a critical element in many of the radionuclide release models for the Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and it is necessary to know the abundances of the various minerals present, their compositions, their textures and locations with respect to water-bearing features, and their interrelationships. Clay mineralogy in particular is of vital importance because of the ability of clay minerals to sorb contaminant cations. Furthermore, the minerals present in the different units of the Rustler Formation are possible sources for solutes present in waters taken from various boreholes in the vicinity of the WIPP site. This report characterizes the mineralogy of the Rustler Formation as represented in core from borehole WIPP-19. The major components, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), are halite, anhydrite, gypsum, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, and clay. Minor components include calcite, pyrite, feldspar and phyllosilicates of metamorphic origin (muscovite, biotite, and chlorite). Clay minerals, identified by XRD, include illite, serpentine, chlorite, and mixed-layer chlorite/smectite (including corrensite). In general, this study should be considered a detailed analysis of the Rustler section mineralogy. It is unlikely that any other minerals are present elsewhere in the Rustler Formation in any great quantity. Abundances of individual minerals may vary considerably in other areas of the formation. 20 refs., 39 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Variations in the Fe mineralogy of bright Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John; Erard, Stephane; Geissler, Paul; Singer, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Bright regions on Mars are interpreted as 'soil' derived by chemical alteration of crustal rocks, whose main pigmentary component is ferric oxide or oxyhydroxide. The mineralogy and mineralogic variability of ferric iron are important evidence for the evolution of Martian soil: mineralogy of ferric phases is sensitive to chemical conditions in their genetic environments, and the spatial distributions of different ferric phases would record a history of both chemical environments and physical mixing. Reflectance spectroscopic studies provide several types of evidence that discriminate possible pigmentary phases, including the position of a crystal field absorption near 0.9 microns and position and strengths of absorptions in the UV-visible wavelength region. Recent telescopic spectra and laboratory measurements of Mars soil analogs suggest that spectral features of bright soil can be explained based on a single pigmentary phase, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), occurring in both 'nanophase' and more crystalline forms. Here we report on a systematic investigation of Martian bright regions using ISM imaging spectrometer data, in which we examined spatial variations in the position and shape of the approximately 0.9 microns absorption. We found both local and regional heterogeneities that indicate differences in Fe mineralogy. These results demonstrate that bright soils do not represent a single lithology that has been homogenized by eolian mixing, and suggest that weathering of soils in different geologic settings has followed different physical and chemical pathways.

  6. Asteroid surface mineralogy: Evidence from earth-based telescope observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of asteroid reflectance spectrophotometry in terms of mineralogical types gives inferred mineral assemblages for about 60 asteroids. Asteroid surface materials are compared with similar materials that make up many meteorites. The absence of asteroids with spectra that match identically the ordinary chondrites is noted.

  7. Mineralogical Biosignatures and the Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Jillian F.; Moreau, John W.; Chan, Clara S.; Welch, Susan A.; Little, Brenda

    2001-12-01

    If life ever existed, or still exists, on Mars, its record is likely to be found in minerals formed by, or in association with, microorganisms. An important concept regarding interpretation of the mineralogical record for evidence of life is that, broadly defined, life perturbs disequilibria that arise due to kinetic barriers and can impart unexpected structure to an abiotic system. Many features of minerals and mineral assemblages may serve as biosignatures even if life does not have a familiar terrestrial chemical basis. Biological impacts on minerals and mineral assemblages may be direct or indirect. Crystalline or amorphous biominerals, an important category of mineralogical biosignatures, precipitate under direct cellular control as part of the life cycle of the organism (shells, tests, phytoliths) or indirectly when cell surface layers provide sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Biominerals also form indirectly as byproducts of metabolism due to changing mineral solubility. Mineralogical biosignatures include distinctive mineral surface structures or chemistry that arise when dis solution and/or crystal growth kinetics are influenced by metabolic by-products. Mineral assemblages themselves may be diagnostic of the prior activity of organisms where barriers to precipitation or dissolution of specific phases have been overcome. Critical to resolving the question of whether life exists, or existed, on Mars is knowing how to distinguish biologically induced structure and organization patterns from inorganic phenomena and inorganic self-organization. This task assumes special significance when it is acknowledged that the majority of, and perhaps the only, material to be returned from Mars will be mineralogical.

  8. Some not so obvious reasons to teach optical mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    Hands-on, interactive, critical thinking, interdisciplinary, spiral learning, and 3-D visualization are familiar words in pedagogy, while Becke lines, dispersion staining, grain mounts, sign of elongation, extinction angle, and optical indicatrix are words seldom used in today's geosciences curriculum. However, the teaching of these seemingly rather historical optical methods, and proper training in the use of the polarized (not petrographic) light microscope (PLM), will by themselves lead to improved learning of our students. And this, if for no other reason, might warrant the inclusion of a semester-long optical mineralogy course. However, another $70 billion per year concern in the U.S. also warrants inclusion of optical mineralogy in a geosciences curriculum. That dollar amount (which would be approximately 10% of annual petroleum sales in the U.S.) centers around the cost spent (wasted?) on asbestos litigation in the U.S. Unfortunately, because we no longer teach PLM skills in the geosciences curriculum, many of the microscopists, regulators, and "expert" witnesses involved in the asbestos issue have little or no formal training in mineralogy or optical mineralogy. This, in turn, often leads to formulation of regulations that make little sense (e.g., that quartz, the most abundant mineral species in the earth's crust is now listed as a human carcinogen) and unsolved mineralogical issues (e.g., OSHA deregulated high-aspect ratio amphibole cleavage fragments in 1994 but did not propose a method to distinguish them from amphibole fibers). The current asbestos issues often deal with tremolite contamination in chrysotile or talc. There are simple PLM methods that we could teach whereby thousands of particles could be screened in minutes to find these possible contaminates, whereas electron beam or X-ray diffraction methods require orders of magnitude more time and cost - and this is only one of many examples. Finally, one might also argue that since minerals

  9. Skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans: Taxonomic and temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Key, Marcus M., Jr.; Gordon, Dennis P.

    2006-10-01

    Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of 1183 specimens of marine bryozoans from the literature was examined for phylogenetic patterns in order to elucidate the effects of bryozoan mineralogy on geochemical and paleoenvironmental analysis. Colonies are composed of calcite (66% of specimens), aragonite (17% of specimens) or various mixtures of the two (17% specimens) (phylum mean = 72.9 wt.% calcite, n = 1051). When calcite is present, it ranges from 0.0 to 13.7 wt.% MgCO 3 (mean = 5.0 wt.% MgCO 3, n = 873). Most (61%) calcitic specimens are formed of intermediate-Mg calcite (4 to 8 wt.% MgCO 3), others (28%) of low-Mg calcite (0 to 4 wt.% MgCO 3), and few of high-Mg calcite (> 8 wt.% MgCO 3). The phylum occupies at least 63% of the theoretical mineralogical "space" available to biomineralisation. Most of this variation occurs in the class Gymnolaemata, order Cheilostomata, suborder Neocheilostomata. Fossil and Recent stenolaemate taxa are generally low- to intermediate-Mg calcite (mean = 99.7 wt.% calcite, 2.6 wt.% MgCO 3, 17% of available biomineral space). Variability among families is related in a general way to first appearance datum: families younger than 100 Ma display greater mineralogical complexity than older ones. The cheilostome infraorder Flustrina includes unusual free-living aragonitic families, dual-calcite skeletons (mainly low-Mg calcite, but with secondary high-Mg calcite), and some genera with considerable mineralogical variability. Families (e.g., Membraniporidae and Phidoloporidae) and species (e.g., Schizoporella unicornis) with the highest degree of variability have potential for environmental correlations with mineralogy, paleoenvironmental interpretation, and possibly molecular investigation for potential cryptic species. Stenolaemate families, genera and species with low variability, on the other hand, are well-suited for geochemical work such as stable isotope analysis. Variability in the skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans suggests that they may be

  10. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks across Rome Trough, central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Restored stratigraphic cross sections drawn primarily through the subsurface of parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee provide new detailed information to further the understanding of Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentation and tectonics associated with the Rome trough sector of the Appalachian basin. Drilled thickness of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence ranges from a maximum of about 14,500 ft (4.5 km) along the axis of the trough to a minimum of about 3500 ft (1 km) on the western flank.

  11. Carbon isotope systematics of individual hydrocarbons in hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough, Northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Schoell, M.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7%, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7 per mill, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.

  12. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  13. New Insights into the Spiral Troughs of the Northern Polar Layered Deposits, Mars from SHARAD Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I.; Holt, J. W.; Phillips, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    The SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter greatly expands our ability to study the Polar Layered Deposits (PLDs) by resolving internal layers and structure with a theoretical vertical resolution in ice of ~ 8 m and horizontal resolution of 0.3-1 km (along track) x 3-6 km (cross track). This complements high-resolution optical imagery, which has been used for decades as the basis for studying surface features and developing hypotheses linking them to known processes. Spiral trough and scarp migration in the northern PLD (NPLD) has been a topic of debate since the idea was first proposed (Howard, Icarus 34/3, pp. 581-599, 1978). Layers observed on the equator-facing slopes of the troughs are generally truncated at the surface, while no layers are generally seen on the pole-facing slopes. Scenarios involving wind erosion, solar ablation, and atmospheric deposition in relative amounts have been hypothesized to explain this stratigraphy. Other studies indicate that the troughs have not migrated, instead being recently eroded into the NPLD. The advent of high-resolution radar sounding provides the first opportunity to address this debate through the analysis of subsurface stratigraphy. SHARAD data reveal stratigraphic discontinuities indicating that most troughs initiated ~ 500 m below the present surface, persisted throughout subsequent deposition, and have indeed migrated (Smith et al., LPSC 40, Abstract 1423, 2009). We have conducted additional analyses at various NPLD localities showing that the migration takes multiple stratigraphic forms, some of which do not include discontinuities. The longest troughs of the NPLD, in the 0-90°E quadrant north of Gemini Lingula, have stratigraphy with layer thickness variations that correlate well to those predicted by wind-driven migration. Troughs nearer the NPLD margin at ~90°E show a different structure corresponding more to insolation-dominated ablation. Between these locations and at other places

  14. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Additional record of Rayllianassa amboinensis (de Man, 1888) from Japan, and description of a new species from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Maenosono, Tadafumi

    2014-01-01

    Two species referred to the callianassid ghost shrimp genus Rayllianassa Komai & Tachikawa, 2008 are reported herewith. Additional locality records from Japan are provided for R. amboinensis (de Man, 1888), and the synonymy of Callianassa ngochoae Sakai, 1999 with R. amboinensis is discussed. It is shown that R. amboinensis is associated with sponges or alcyonacean soft corals, representing unusual habitats for callianassids. Rayllianassa rudisulcus n. sp. is described on the basis of a single ovigerous female from shallow soft sediment in Ohura Bay, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands. The new species is distinguished from R. amboinensis by the absence of a dorsal oval on the carapace, the antennal peduncle being longer than the antennular peduncle, and the different shape of the third maxilliped. The status of Rayllianassa is also briefly discussed. PMID:25081469

  16. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification. PMID:26249520

  17. Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-β1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

  18. First records of interstitial leptocytherids (Crustacea, Ostracoda): two new species and a redescription of Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 collected from the Okinawa Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tran Manh; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Two new and one known species belonging to the genus Callistocythere of the family Leptocytheridae from interstitial environments of the Okinawa Islands are fully described. Callistocythere intermedia sp. nov. is regarded as belonging to the C. japonica group, and Callistocythere ryukyuensis sp. nov. belongs to the C. minor group (these groups were established by Hanai 1957 based on carapace morphology). The redescribed Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 clearly differs from known leptocytherid species in the morphologies of the carapace and the male copulatory organ. The habitats of C. intermedia sp. nov. and C. ryukyuensis sp. nov. are found along the shoreline zone and the mid to high tide levels of the littoral zone, respectively, and C. ventricostata is found from the shoreline to the sub-tidal zone. These species are the first global records of interstitial leptocytherids. PMID:26623759

  19. Analyses of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Okinawa Archipelago, Japan by Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of bulk atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents in the bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (referred to "SRM", NIES No.28 of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies) on quartz filters for calibration curves in two different methods; 1) water-insoluble materials were collected after dispersing SRM in pure water and filtered with the quartz filters ("wet method"), and 2) SRM was dispersed in air in the plastic container and the aerosols were collected by using the low-volume air sampler ("dry method"). Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosols on the filter were seen in the following 9 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, and Pb (with wet method) and 12 metals; K, Ti, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu (with dry method). Furthermore, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals determined by the XRF method in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the three islands during June 2008 to June 2010, and for CHAAMS during June 2008 to October 2012.

  20. Survival of the causative agent of Johne’s disease (Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis) in biofilms on trough materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock watering troughs are frequented by all animals on a farm, they provide a moist, nutrient rich environment for bacterial survival and the trough basin provides a surface for bacterial adhesion (i.e., biofilm formation). MAP has been shown to have a very hydrophic cell wall structure (as do ...

  1. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry....

  2. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  3. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  4. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  5. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  6. Initiation and development of slickenlined surfaces in clay-rich material of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Schleicher, Anja

    2016-04-01

    During the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, which is part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (stage 3), the drilling vessel Chikyu advanced the deep riser hole at Site C0002, located 80 km offshore of the Kii Peninsula (Japan), from a depth of 860 meters below sea floor (mbsf) to 3058.5 mbsf. Underlying the Kumano Basin sediments, the Nankai accretionary prism appears, below 975.5 mbsf. It accreted during Upper Miocene to Pliocene times and is formed mainly by turbiditic silty claystone with rarely observed sandstone intercalations. Cuttings from both the 1-4 mm and >4 mm size fractions were investigated, showing slickenlined surfaces and deformation bands together with carbonate veins throughout the entire section from 1045.5 until 3058.5 mbsf. A scaly fabric is increasingly observed below approximately 2400 mbsf. Clay-rich cuttings were selected at different depth for specific SEM-EDS analysis, in order to investigate the initiation and development of the slickenlined surfaces, from both a structural and mineralogical point of view. Two end-members of the slickenlined surface types were observed: a) isolated smooth and uniform planes, between 20 and 50 μm long, formed by single grains of smectite with marked lineations and frequently jagged boundaries and b) microfaults (longer than 100 μm) with sharp boundaries to the undeformed rock, formed by aggregates of illite and smectite and with a well-developed lineation. In transition between these two end-member types, planes that are apparently unconnected draw a single plane and show subparallel lineations. Concerning the orientation of the slickenlines, it seems to be coherent with that observed in an array of conjugated faults, i.e. all the slickenlines belong to the same plane, in turn sub-perpendicular to the intersection of conjugated planes. These observations suggest that the slickenlined surfaces initiated along single grains of smectite and that with increasing

  7. The poleward edge of the mid-latitude trough - Its formation, orientation and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, A. S.; Brace, L. H.; Hoegy, W. R.; Winningham, J. D.

    1986-08-01

    Data from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) deployed at Halley, Antarctica (76-deg S, 27-deg W; L = 4.2) and the Dynamics Explorer-2 spacecraft (DE-2) are used to investigate several aspects of the formation processes and dynamics of the poleward edge of the midlatitude electron density trough. These include a study of the flux and energy of charged particles precipitating into the F-region as a function of Magnetic Local Time. It is found that local energetic electron precipitation is a major source of ionization of the poleward edge in the evening sector, but only after magnetic midnight transport processes become more important. Occasionally a significant increase in the flux of conjugate photoelectrons is colocated with the poleward edge of the trough in the morning sector. The combination of AIS and DE-2 data has allowed identification of significant longitudinal structure on the poleward edge of the trough that may be the result of substorm activity. It is found that the orientation of the poleward edge of the trough and the locus of the plasmapause predicted from the 'tear-drop' model vary in rather a similar manner with local time, though no close physical link between the two features is inferred from this coincidence.

  8. The poleward edge of the mid-latitude trough - Its formation, orientation and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodger, A. S.; Brace, L. H.; Hoegy, W. R.; Winningham, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) deployed at Halley, Antarctica (76-deg S, 27-deg W; L = 4.2) and the Dynamics Explorer-2 spacecraft (DE-2) are used to investigate several aspects of the formation processes and dynamics of the poleward edge of the midlatitude electron density trough. These include a study of the flux and energy of charged particles precipitating into the F-region as a function of Magnetic Local Time. It is found that local energetic electron precipitation is a major source of ionization of the poleward edge in the evening sector, but only after magnetic midnight transport processes become more important. Occasionally a significant increase in the flux of conjugate photoelectrons is colocated with the poleward edge of the trough in the morning sector. The combination of AIS and DE-2 data has allowed identification of significant longitudinal structure on the poleward edge of the trough that may be the result of substorm activity. It is found that the orientation of the poleward edge of the trough and the locus of the plasmapause predicted from the 'tear-drop' model vary in rather a similar manner with local time, though no close physical link between the two features is inferred from this coincidence.

  9. Electromagnetic emissions and fine structures observed near main ionospheric trough during geomagnetic storms and their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przepiórka, Dorota; Marek, Michał; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic conditions triggered by the solar activity affect the ionosphere, its fine and global structures. Very intense magnetic storms substantially change the plasma density, concentration and circulation. Especially sensitive region is located near auroral oval, where most energy is deposited during geomagnetic storms. In this region and just below it, where the main ionospheric trough is located, we observe enhanced electromagnetic emissions in different frequency ranges. In particular the AKR-like (Auroral Kilometric Radiation) emissions are seen at frequencies of the order of hundreds of kHz in the ionosphere, just below the auroral oval. Analyzing spectrograms from DEMETER mission and comparing them with electron density measurements from DEMETER, we found that AKR-like emissions are seen near poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough, during geomagnetic storms. Main ionospheric trough is known as a turbulent region which properties change as the geomagnetic storm evolves. This work is an attempt to determine how the presence of the different emissions affect main ionospheric trough parameters such as location, width and depth. Data used in this study come from DEMETER and RELEC missions. This work was partly supported by NCN grant Rezonans 2012/07/B/ST9/04414.

  10. Vertical tectonics in northern Escanaba Trough as recorded by thick late Quaternary turbidites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Serra, F.

    2001-01-01

    Escanaba Trough, the southernmost segment of the Gorda Ridge, is filled by as much as 500 m of late Quaternary turbidite and hemipelagic sediment. Coring at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 35 and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1037 and 1038 together with 4.5-kHz deep-tow and 3.5-kHz surface-ship seismic reflection profiles enable a distinct pattern of reflections to be mapped throughout Escanaba Trough in the upper part of this sediment fill. The uppermost 80 m of turbidite sediment, which includes at least 11 turbidity current events, were deposited in 3200 m. The turbidity currents were trapped upon entering Escanaba Trough, resulting in all of the sediment in suspension in the flows being deposited. The thickness of the turbidite layers reflects both the flow thickness and the vertical grain concentration within the flow that deposited the layer. Variations in the turbidite thickness with respect to water depth can be used to estimate the degree of relative vertical movement within the floor of Escanaba Trough. In the area of hydrothermal activity near ODP Site 1038, uplift of as much as 140 m has occurred over the past 8 kyr. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Drilling investigations of crustal rifting processes in the Salton Trough, California. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Duba, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of CSDP activities in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) are briefly described, concentrating on a shallow heat flow survey, but also discussing preliminary results from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP). The hypothesis that localized thermal zones are the source of all the heat in the Salton Trough is examined. (ACR)

  12. Effect of Watering Trough Chlorination on Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continued global increase in the number of cases of Johne’s disease suggests that more information is needed to understand the mechanisms by which the causative agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is spread among livestock on the farm site. Livestock watering troughs are freq...

  13. Drilling investigations of crustal rifting processes in the Salton Trough, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Duba, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes the results of CSDP activities in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), concentrating on a shallow heat-flow survey, but also considering preliminary results from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP). Whether the heat input rate to localized systems is high enough to account for the overall thermal budget of the Salton Trough is examined. (ACR)

  14. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia): Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content.

    PubMed

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pérez-García, Concepción; Kendall, Jack; Pasantes, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells. PMID:27537915

  15. Vertical structure, physical properties, and energy exchange of the East Asian trough in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Zhou, Wen

    2015-09-01

    The relation between the intensity of the East Asian trough and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon is documented. A prominent dipole of the available potential energy of the zonal mean flow can be observed over the midlatitudes and polar regions and is related to temperature anomalies. Variation in the intensity of the East Asian trough is caused by variation in the energy conversion from the available potential energy of the zonal mean flow to the East Asian trough. The in-phase relation between the intensities of the East Asian jet and East Asian trough is illustrated by the relation between the potential energy and kinetic energy of stationary eddies. The dipole of height anomalies over the midlatitude and polar regions develops in late autumn and decays in early spring. We investigate the effect of both stationary and transient eddy forcing on the evolution of the dipole. The combined forcing of the two types of eddy makes an important contribution to the development, maintenance, and decay of the dipole.

  16. Superplumes and ridge interactions between Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus and the Nova-Canton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Roger L.

    1997-09-01

    The initial pulse of volcanism on the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus began prior to 123 124 Ma and had largely ceased by about 122 Ma, whereas the intervening Pacific-Phoenix spreading ridge probably was disrupted between 120 and 115 Ma by formation of the Nova-Canton Trough rift system. Plateau formation may have resulted from a large plume head that rose beneath each of the two plateau sites. During the plateau eruption phase, these two plumes spread beyond the plateaus and within the asthenosphere. They eventually coalesced beneath the intervening spreading ridge, where the Nova-Canton Trough rift system is now located, at about the time volcanism ceased on the plateaus. The two plumes combined to form the Nova-Canton Trough rift system by reheating the nascent lithosphere near the ridge crest and widening the plate boundary from the usual 1 10 km to a much broader region. The present rift system is a maximum of 500 km wide, and much of this area may have formed by normal faulting and crustal accretion across the broadened plate boundary as plate divergence continued. Eventually, coherent spreading resumed somewhere south of the Nova-Canton Trough rift system.

  17. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia): Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content

    PubMed Central

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pérez-García, Concepción; Kendall, Jack; Pasantes, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells. PMID:27537915

  18. Carbon isotope systematics of individual hydrocarbons in hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough, northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Simoneit, B R; Schoell, M; Kvenvolden, K A

    1997-01-01

    We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7%, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source. PMID:11541391

  19. The measurement of cold ion densities in the plasma trough. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, K. K.

    1974-01-01

    The cold ion density in the plasma trough region is an important fundamental parameter in the currently proposed mechanisms to describe magnetospheric dynamics. Direct in situ measurements of the cold ion density are generally difficult owing to uncertainties in vehicle potentials and ion temperatures. It is shown that the light ion mass spectrometer from Ogo 5 was very successful in acquiring these data and that vehicle potentials appear not to have been a prohibitive factor. The cold ion plasma trough data show a great deal of variability, indicating a strong dependence on the state of the convection electric field; consequently, average values of cold ion densities in the plasma trough may be significantly different from the actual time-dependent values. The local time plot of plasma trough densities at L = 7 for data acquired over a 1-year period shows the anticipated increase in cold ion density during the daytime and the expected decrease in cold ion density during dusk and early nighttime.

  20. Lena Trough (Arctic Ocean): Active mantle exhumation on a continental rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; von der Handt, A.; Nauret, F.

    2004-12-01

    Lena Trough is the northern continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge through Fram Strait and into the Arctic Ocean. The rifting of Lena Trough began in the Miocene, and significantly, is the final and the most recent event in the separation of the North American from the Eurasian continent. Lena Trough was mapped in 1999, 2001 and 2004 by PFS Polarstern (Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany), revealing sea floor structures that are inconsistent with any normally conceived mid-ocean ridge spreading, and instead indicative of late continental rifting. Lena Trough is shown to be a deep, fault-bounded basin with depths of 3800-4200m, and irregular, steep valley sides that are oblique to the spreading direction. Basement horst structures that outcrop as sigmoidal ridges with steeply dipping sides project out of the valley floor. These basement ridges are roughly parallel along flow lines to the valley walls on either side. Ridge-orthogonal topography is simply absent (ie no segments trending parallel nor fracture zones perpendicular to Gakkel Ridge). Most faults trend approximately SSE-NNW, an obliquity with respect to Gakkel Ridge (SW-NE) of about 55°. The basement ridges are composed nearly entirely of fertile mantle peridotite, as are the valley walls. Only at the northern and southern extremities of Lena Trough do basalts appear at all. The peridotites compositions are consistent with either continental or oceanic (asthenospheric) mantle. They show evidence of low-degree mantle melting, followed by high-level stagnation in a thick lithosphere. This evidence (veining, impregnation) is more evident where little or no basaltic cover is present, while peridotites dredged in the vicinity of basalts tend to be more residual. This may indicate some degree of magmatic focusing in the absence of a basaltic crust per se. Lena Trough contains rare, highly alkaline basalts that are unlike any compositions dredged from mid-ocean ridges

  1. Lena Trough (Arctic Ocean): Active mantle exhumation on a continental rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; von der Handt, A.; Nauret, F.

    2007-12-01

    Lena Trough is the northern continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge through Fram Strait and into the Arctic Ocean. The rifting of Lena Trough began in the Miocene, and significantly, is the final and the most recent event in the separation of the North American from the Eurasian continent. Lena Trough was mapped in 1999, 2001 and 2004 by PFS Polarstern (Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany), revealing sea floor structures that are inconsistent with any normally conceived mid-ocean ridge spreading, and instead indicative of late continental rifting. Lena Trough is shown to be a deep, fault-bounded basin with depths of 3800-4200m, and irregular, steep valley sides that are oblique to the spreading direction. Basement horst structures that outcrop as sigmoidal ridges with steeply dipping sides project out of the valley floor. These basement ridges are roughly parallel along flow lines to the valley walls on either side. Ridge-orthogonal topography is simply absent (ie no segments trending parallel nor fracture zones perpendicular to Gakkel Ridge). Most faults trend approximately SSE-NNW, an obliquity with respect to Gakkel Ridge (SW-NE) of about 55°. The basement ridges are composed nearly entirely of fertile mantle peridotite, as are the valley walls. Only at the northern and southern extremities of Lena Trough do basalts appear at all. The peridotites compositions are consistent with either continental or oceanic (asthenospheric) mantle. They show evidence of low-degree mantle melting, followed by high-level stagnation in a thick lithosphere. This evidence (veining, impregnation) is more evident where little or no basaltic cover is present, while peridotites dredged in the vicinity of basalts tend to be more residual. This may indicate some degree of magmatic focusing in the absence of a basaltic crust per se. Lena Trough contains rare, highly alkaline basalts that are unlike any compositions dredged from mid-ocean ridges

  2. Rare gases in lavas from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauret, F.; Moreira, M.; Snow, J. E.

    2010-06-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Arctic Ocean have been much less studied than those from the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific due to the difficulty of access related to ice cover. In 2001 and 2004 the Arctic ridges (Gakkel Ridge and Lena Trough) were intensively sampled. In this study we present the first helium, neon, and argon concentrations and isotopic ratios in a suite of samples from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough (˜0.75 cm/yr effective full rate). Central Lena Trough (CLT) lavas display 4He/3He between 89,710 and 97,530 (R/Ra between 7.4 and 8.1), similar to the mean MORB ratio of 90,000 ± 10,000 (R/Ra = 8 ± 1). In a three neon isotope diagram, the samples fall on the MORB line, without showing any excess of nucleogenic 21Ne. The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from 349 to 6964. CLT samples have a typical MORB He and Ne isotopic composition. Rare gases do not indicate any mantle heterogeneities or contribution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, although this has been suggested previously on the basis of the Sr-Nd and Pb isotopic systems. Based on noble gas systematics, a DUPAL-like anomaly is not observed in the Arctic Ocean. We propose two possible models which reconcile the rare gases with these previous studies. The first is that the Lena Trough mantle has a marble cake structure with small-scale heterogeneities (<1 km), allowing rapid diffusion and homogenization of rare gases compared to elements such as Sr, Nd, and Pb. The second model proposes that the recycled component identified by other isotopic systems was fully degassed at a recent date. It would therefore have a negligible mass budget of rare gases compared to other isotopic systems. This would suggest that the mantle enrichment beneath Lena Trough was generated by rift-forming processes and not by recycling.

  3. Gas potential of the Rome Trough in Kentucky: Results of recent Cambrian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.C.; Drahovzal, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    A recent gas discovery in the Rome Trough suggests the need to re-evaluate the deep Cambrian potential of eastern Kentucky. A new phase of Cambrian exploration began in mid-1994 with a new pool discovery by the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well in Elliott County, Ky. This well blew out and initially flowed 11 MMcfd of gas from the upper Conasauga Group/Rome Formation at 6,258 to 6,270 feet. After this discovery, a second exploratory well (the Blue Ridge No. 1Greene) was drilled on a separate structure in Elliott County in late 1995. The Blue Ridge well was temporarily abandoned, but had shows of gas and condensate. In early 1996, Carson Associates offset their initial discovery well with the No. 33 Lawson Heirs well. This activity follows a frustrating exploration history in the Rome Trough that is marked by numerous gas and oil shows, but rare commercial production. Only three single-well pools have produced commercial gas from the trough, including the recent Kazee well. Stratigraphic units below the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group in the Rome Trough are dramatically thicker than their equivalents on the shelf to the north. The interval in the trough is thought to include rocks as old as Early Cambrian, consisting of a basal sandstone, equivalents of the Shady/Tomstown Dolomite, the Rome Formation, and the Conasauga Formation. Sandstones and fractured shales have been responsible for most of the production to date, but dolostone intervals may also have potential. Limited seismic data indicate possible fan-delta and basin-floor fan deposits that may have reservoir potential.

  4. Optical analysis of a photovoltaic V-trough system installed in western India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subarna; Sarmah, Nabin; Bapat, Pratap; Mallick, Tapas K

    2012-12-20

    The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north-south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels' row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64 m×0.55 m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%. PMID:23262601

  5. CLAY MINERALOGY OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUES IN MARINE EVAPORITES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, Marc W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Insoluble residues from three sequences of Paleozoic marine evaporites (Retsof salt bed in western New York, Salado Formation in south-eastern New Mexico, and Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation in southeastern Utah) are rich in trioctahedral clays. Chlorite (clinochlore), corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite-trioctahedral smectite), talc, and illite (the only dioctahedral clay) are the dominant clay minerals; serpentine, discrete trioctahedral smectite (saponite), and interstratified talc-trioctahedral smectite are sporadically abundant. These clay-mineral assemblages differ chemically and mineralogically from those observed in most continental and normal marine rocks, which commonly contain kaolinite, dioctahedral smectite (beidellite-montmorillonite), illite, mixed-layer illite-dioctahedral smectite, and, in most cases, no more than minor quantities of trioctahedral clay minerals. The distinctive clay mineralogy in these evaporite sequences suggests a largely authigenic origin. These clay minerals are thought to have formed during deposition and early diagenesis through interaction between argillaceous detritus and Mg-rich marine evaporite brines.

  6. The mineralogy and formation processes of Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, Amos

    1992-01-01

    The mineralogical nature of Mars soil is far from being understood, nor are the formation time and weathering processes known. Quantitatively, the two major mineral-forming elements in Mars soil are silicon and iron, constituting 44 and 19 percent of the soils as SiO4 and Fe2O3, respectively. The silicate phases have been studied only briefly, mostly because of their limited spectral fingerprinting in the VIS and NIR. Much attention was given to the iron minerals in the soil, due to their pronounced absorption in the VIS and NIR, making them easily detectable by telescopic observations. The available information on Mars soil mineralogy, mostly obtained by remote sensing, is reviewed, and it is hypothesized that it leads to the suggestion that nanophase short-range-order (amorphous) phases of the silicates and iron oxides abound in the soil.

  7. Revisiting the Bodélé Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millham, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The ongoing discussions and research related to identification of minerals in dust emissions continues to pose a variety of difficulties. Source regions, historical geology, deposition, wind speeds, and particle size, shape, and distribution are but some of the considerations in determining mineral content of dust emissions. This reanalysis of data derived from a study to identify the mineralogy of dust emissions from the Bodélé Depression (BD) in NE Chad, Africa continues to support findings that the dust is predominately composed of ferromagnesian silicates, aluminum silicates, amorphous silica, and small quantities of calcium carbonates and dolomites, mixed with 10-20 percent desiccated diatom structures (remnants of fresh-water diatoms during Mega-Lake Chad period), hematite, and/or illite, supporting an expected mineralogy of clay and fine-grained silt aggregates covering quartz sand grains typically found in association (aridisols) in the Sahara.

  8. Polishing surgical metal pieces, granulomatosis and mineralogical analysis.

    PubMed

    Catinon, Mickaël; Chemarin, C; Roux, E; Cavalin, C; Rosental, P-A; Thivolet-Bejui, F; Vincent, M

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 44-year-old man with pulmonary nodules whose histological analysis initially suggested tuberculosis. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) culture was negative and a questionnaire revealed a professional activity of brushing and polishing surgical instruments without any protection for 7 years.  A mineralogical analysis by optical and electron microscopy was performed on both a healthy lung tissue biopsy and a lung nodule in a paraffin block. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of metal particles (iron oxide, titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and steel) in both samples. This study suggests that mineralogical analysis combined with a questionnaire on dust exposure could help redirect the diagnosis of a dust-related disease. PMID:27537720

  9. Mineralogy of the Martian Surface: Crustal Composition to Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Over the course of this award we have: 1) Completed and published the results of a study of the effects of hyperfine particles on reflectance spectra of olivine and quartz, which included the development of scattering codes. Research has also progressed in the analysis of the effects of fine particle sizes on clay spectra. 2) Completed the analysis of the mineralogy of dark regions, showed the insitu compositions are highly correlated to the SNC meteorites, and determined that the martian mantle was depleted in aluminum prior to 2-3 GA ago; Studies of the mineralogic heterogeneity of surficial materials on Mars have also been conducted. and 3) Performed initial work on the study of the physical and chemical processes likely to form and modify duricrust. This includes assessments of erosion rates, solubility and transport of iron in soil environments, and models of pedogenic crust formation.

  10. Dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of SVS13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyoshi, T.; Wright, C.; Moore, T.

    It is of great interest to study the mineralogy of circumstellar dust around young stars as it represents the original constituents of planetesimals, hence of the rocky planets like our own Earth. To this end, we have obtained an N-band (8-13 µm) spectrum of a pre-main-sequence star SVS13, using the facility mid-infrared imaging spectrometer COMICS on the Japanese 8.2-m Subaru Telescope atop the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We have fitted various emissivities/absorption coefficients of dust species to the spectrum to examine dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of this remarkable young star. In this presentation, we outline the modelling and highlight some of our findings.

  11. Mineralogical biosignatures and the search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Banfield, J F; Moreau, J W; Chan, C S; Welch, S A; Little, B

    2001-01-01

    If life ever existed, or still exists, on Mars, its record is likely to be found in minerals formed by, or in association with, microorganisms. An important concept regarding interpretation of the mineralogical record for evidence of life is that, broadly defined, life perturbs disequilibria that arise due to kinetic barriers and can impart unexpected structure to an abiotic system. Many features of minerals and mineral assemblages may serve as biosignatures even if life does not have a familiar terrestrial chemical basis. Biological impacts on minerals and mineral assemblages may be direct or indirect. Crystalline or amorphous biominerals, an important category of mineralogical biosignatures, precipitate under direct cellular control as part of the life cycle of the organism (shells, tests, phytoliths) or indirectly when cell surface layers provide sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Biominerals also form indirectly as by-products of metabolism due to changing mineral solubility. Mineralogical biosignatures include distinctive mineral surface structures or chemistry that arise when dissolution and/or crystal growth kinetics are influenced by metabolic by-products. Mineral assemblages themselves may be diagnostic of the prior activity of organisms where barriers to precipitation or dissolution of specific phases have been overcome. Critical to resolving the question of whether life exists, or existed, on Mars is knowing how to distinguish biologically induced structure and organization patterns from inorganic phenomena and inorganic self-organization. This task assumes special significance when it is acknowledged that the majority of, and perhaps the only, material to be returned from Mars will be mineralogical. PMID:12448978

  12. Mineralogy and cooling history of magnesian lunar granulite 67415

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Masamichi

    1993-01-01

    Apollo granulite 67415 was investigated by mineralogical techniques to gain better understanding of cooling histories of lunar granulities. Cooling rates were estimated from chemical zoning of olivines in magnesian granulitic clasts by computer simulation of diffusion processes. The cooling rate of 10 deg C/yr obtained is compatible with a model of the granulite formation, in which the impact deposit was cooled from high temperature or annealed, at the depth of about 25 m beneath the surface.

  13. Mineralogical-petrological characterization of near-earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, L. A.; Gaffey, M. J.; McCord, T. B.

    1984-07-01

    The mineralogy and petrology of 17 near-earth asteroids are characterized using reflectance spectroscopy with ground-based telescopes. Assuming the surfaces are composed of cosmically abundant materials, the presence of certain mineralogical species can be determined from diagnostic absorption features and spectral characteristics which have been studied under known laboratory conditions and understood in terms of crystal-field theory. With one possible exception, the surface composition of near-earth asteroids consists of common rock-forming minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, and phyllosilicates. Opaque components are present but cannot be mineralogically identified with existing experimental data. The spectrum of 2201 Oljato cannot be interpreted in terms of common rock-forming minerals and is examined for cometary features because its high orbital eccentricity suggests a possible relation to comets, but no common cometary features are identified. The predominance of mafic silicate absorption features in spectra of near-earth asteroids (compared to the majority of main-belt asteroids) may be a primary compositional feature or may be the signature of relatively fresher asteroid material.

  14. Martian Surface Mineralogy from Rovers with Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has landed three well-instrumented rovers on the equatorial martian surface. The Spirit rover landed in Gusev crater in early January, 2004, and the Opportunity rover landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridian Planum 21 days later. The Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater to the west of Gusev crater in August, 2012. Both Opportunity and Curiosity are currently operational. The twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity carried Mossbauer spectrometers to determine the oxidation state of iron and its mineralogical composition. The Curiosity rover has an X-ray diffraction instrument for identification and quantification of crystalline materials including clay minerals. Instrument suites on all three rovers are capable of distinguishing primary rock-forming minerals like olivine, pyroxene and magnetite and products of aqueous alteration in including amorphous iron oxides, hematite, goethite, sulfates, and clay minerals. The oxidation state of iron ranges from that typical for unweathered rocks and soils to nearly completely oxidized (weathered) rocks and soils as products of aqueous and acid-sulfate alteration. The in situ rover mineralogy also serves as ground-truth for orbital observations, and orbital mineralogical inferences are used for evaluating and planning rover exploration.

  15. GPS/acoustic Seafloor Geodetic Observations Near the Nankai Trough Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Fujii, C.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.

    2013-12-01

    The GPS/acoustic seafloor geodetic observation system, which uses precise acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques, has been developed as a useful tool for observing seafloor crustal deformations associated with plate convergence and with earthquakes that occurred in ocean area including the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake of Mw 9.0. Our research group installed eight seafloor benchmarks for this observation system in source areas of anticipated major interplate earthquakes along the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. We have performed campaign measurement for 4-8 years until the end of 2012. The error of displacement rate is almost 5 mm/y through the monitoring for more than four years. At the northern-most potion of the Nankai (Suruga) Trough, the observed steady horizontal displacement rate is 45 mm/y toward west. Also no significant velocity difference is observed across the trough, indicating strong interplate locking up to the shallowest segments. On the other hand, site velocities are 40 mm/y in the direction of N75W at the central region of the Nankai trough, 70-90 km landward from the trough axis. Although this result is the strong evidence for interplate locking, with coupling ratios of 60-80% on the basis of the back-slip model, it has no resolution for the interplate locking at the most-shallowest segments whose depths are 0-10 km. In other words, seaward up-dip limit of locked zone is never resolved from the present seafloor benchmark network [Tadokoro et al., 2012] . Large co-seismic slips larger than 40-50 m on the shallowest interplate segment [Ito et al., 2011; Fujii et al., 2011; Iinuma et al., 2012] are the cause of the unexpected high tsunami that has attacked the pacific coasts of the Tohoku region during the Tohoku-oki Earthquake; it is, therefore, essential to understand slip deficit or strain accumulation condition near the trench axis, also for the anticipated mega-thrust earthquake at the Nankai Trough. For this reason, we

  16. Electrodynamics of the high-latitude trough: Its relationship with convection flows and field-aligned currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shasha; Moldwin, Mark B.; Nicolls, Michael J.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Coster, Anthea J.; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Lyons, Larry R.; Donovan, Eric F.

    2013-05-01

    We present a detailed case study of the electrodynamics of a high-latitude trough observed at ~ 12 UT (~1 MLT) on 8 March 2008 using multiple instruments, including incoherent scattering radar (ISR), GPS total electron content (TEC), magnetometers, and auroral imager. The electron density within the trough dropped as much as 80% within 6 minutes. This trough was collocated with a counterclockwise convection flow vortex, indicating divergent horizontal electric fields and currents. Together with a collocated dark area shown in auroral images, the observations provide strong evidence for an existence of downward field-aligned currents (FACs) collocated with the high-latitude trough. This is further supported by assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics results. In addition, the downward FACs formed at about the same time as a substorm onset and east of the Harang reversal, suggesting it is part of the substorm current wedge. It has long been a puzzle why this type of high-latitude trough predominantly occurs just east of the Harang reversal in the postmidnight sector. We suggest that the high-latitude trough is associated with the formation of downward FACs of the substorm current system, which usually occur just east of the Harang reversal. In addition, we find that the ionospheric electron temperature within the high latitude trough decreases in the F region while increasing in the E region. We discuss possible mechanisms responsible for the complex change in electron temperature, such as ion composition change and/or presence of downward FACs.

  17. Electrodynamics of the high-latitude trough: Its relationship with convection flows and field-aligned currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Coster, A. J.; Yizengaw, E.; Lyons, L. R.; Donovan, E.

    2012-12-01

    The ionospheric troughs are regions of remarkable electron density depression at subauroral and auroral latitudes, and significant electron density gradients exist at their boundaries. The high-latitude trough is defined as the low-density region present within the auroral oval or the polar cap. We present a detailed case study of the electrodynamics of a high-latitude trough observed at ~ 12 UT (~1 MLT) on March 8, 2008 using multiple instruments, including incoherent scattering radar (ISR), GPS total electron content (TEC), magnetometers and auroral imager. The electron density within the trough dropped as much as 80% within 6 minutes. This trough was collocated with a counter-clockwise convection flow vortex, indicating divergent horizontal electric fields and currents. Together with a collocated dark area shown in auroral images, the observations provide strong evidence for an existence of downward field-aligned currents (FACs) collocated with the high-latitude trough. This is further supported by Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) results. In addition, the downward FACs formed at about the same time as a substorm onset and east of the Harang reversal, suggesting it is part of the substorm current wedge. It has long been a puzzle why this type of high-latitude trough predominantly occurs just east of the Harang reversal in the post-midnight sector. We suggest that the high-latitude trough is associated with the formation of downward FACs of the substorm current system, which usually occur just east of the Harang reversal. In addition, we find that the ionospheric electron temperature within the high latitude trough decreases in the F region while increasing in the E region. We discuss possible processes responsible for the complex change in electron temperature, such as ion composition change and/or presence of downward FACs.

  18. Implications of Plume-Trench Interaction Models for the Formation of Niue Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Druken, K. A.; Kincaid, C. R.; Kelley, K. A.; Graham, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    The enigmatic Niue Trough is a 400-km long, 5000-m deep, scissor-shaped bathymetric depression (~500 m of local relief) located near the northern terminus of the Tonga Trench. Regional geophysical data and seafloor morphology suggest recent tectonic and volcanic activity along the trough. Reasonable explanations for this recent activity and morphology include: rifting associated with uplift along the peripheral bulge, tearing of the lithosphere due to differential subduction velocities, or reactivation of an existing rift. Recent laboratory models of the Tonga Trench - Samoa Hotspot system, however, provide new observations that indicate the Niue Trough may be the result of plume-trench interactions. Modeling results indicate an ascending plume head (e.g., Samoa Hotspot) would be drawn toward the subduction zone and would segregate into three parts. The majority of the plume head would be subducted with the down-going lithosphere, with one part located below the slab and a second part wrapping around the slab edge into the mantle wedge. Notably, the third part continues to rise and move laterally with plate motion until it impacts the base of the lithosphere (e.g., Pacific Plate) extending over a region corresponding to the northern third of the Tonga Trench. The coincidence between the location of the Niue Trough and the persistent plume head material at the base of the lithosphere from the laboratory models suggest a possible causal relationship. To test the plume head origin of the Niue Trough, we have performed 2D and 3D gravity models of the region. Our results indicate that the possibility of a 5-km thick, 30-km wide melt body (~20% melt) may be present along the length of the trough to account for the 50 mGal anomaly. Although the gravity models are equivocal and may be explained by crustal and sediment thickness variations, the melt anomaly scenario is the most consistent with available data and observations. This interpretation is also consistent with a

  19. Observations of the Fawn Trough Current over the Kerguelen Plateau from instrumented elephant seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquet, Fabien; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bailleul, Frédéric; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît

    2009-10-01

    Due to its great meridional extent and relatively shallow depths, the Kerguelen Plateau constitutes a major barrier to the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. While most of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport is deflected north of the Kerguelen Islands, the remainder (˜ 50 Sv, 1 Sv = 10 6 m 3 s - 1 ) must pass south of the islands, most probably through the Fawn and Princess Elizabeth Troughs. However, the paucity of finely resolved quasi-synoptic hydrographic data in this remote and infrequently sampled area has limited the progress in our knowledge of the regional circulation. Since 2004, a new approach using elephant seals from the Kerguelen Islands as autonomous oceanographic profilers has provided new information on the hydrography over the Kerguelen Plateau, covering the entire Antarctic Zone between the Polar Front and Antarctica, with a mean along-track resolution of about 25 km. These finely resolved bio-logged data revealed details of a strong northeastward current found across the Fawn Trough (sill depth: 2600 m; 56°S, 78°E). This so-called Fawn Trough Current transports cold Antarctic waters found mostly south of the Elan Bank, between the Ice Limit (58°S) and the Antarctic Divergence (64°S) in the eastern Enderby Basin, toward the Australian-Antarctic Basin. Our analysis also demonstrates that the Deep Western Boundary Current, which carries cold Antarctic water along the eastern flank of the southern Kerguelen Plateau collides with Fawn Trough Current at the outlet of the Fawn Trough sill. In other words, the Fawn Trough constitutes a veritable bottleneck, channelling the quasi-totality of the Antarctic Circumpolar flow found south of the Polar Front. Thanks to the unprecedented fine resolution of seal-borne data, a branch of flow centered at the Winter Water isotherm of 1 °C is also revealed along the northern escarpment of the Elan Bank, and then along the southern edge of Heard

  20. 3D Porosity Estimation of the Nankai Trough Sediments from Core-log-seismic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Nankai Trough off southwest Japan is one of the best subduction-zone to study megathrust earthquake fault. Historic, great megathrust earthquakes with a recurrence interval of 100-200 yr have generated strong motion and large tsunamis along the Nankai Trough subduction zone. At the Nankai Trough margin, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate to the northwest at a convergence rate ~4 cm/yr. The Shikoku Basin, the northern part of the PSP, is estimated to have opened between 25 and 15 Ma by backarc spreading of the Izu-Bonin arc. The >100-km-wide Nankai accretionary wedge, which has developed landward of the trench since the Miocene, mainly consists of offscraped and underplated materials from the trough-fill turbidites and the Shikoku Basin hemipelagic sediments. Particularly, physical properties of the incoming hemipelagic sediments may be critical for seismogenic behavior of the megathrust fault. We have carried out core-log-seismic integration (CLSI) to estimate 3D acoustic impedance and porosity for the incoming sediments in the Nankai Trough. For the CLSI, we used 3D seismic reflection data, P-wave velocity and density data obtained during IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expeditions 322 and 333. We computed acoustic impedance depth profiles for the IODP drilling sites from P-wave velocity and density data. We constructed seismic convolution models with the acoustic impedance profiles and a source wavelet which is extracted from the seismic data, adjusting the seismic models to observed seismic traces with inversion method. As a result, we obtained 3D acoustic impedance volume and then converted it to 3D porosity volume. In general, the 3D porosities show decrease with depth. We found a porosity anomaly zone with alteration of high and low porosities seaward of the trough axis. In this talk, we will show detailed 3D porosity of the incoming sediments, and present implications of the porosity anomaly zone for the

  1. Some Inferences on the Spreading Rate of the Ayu Trough, Equatorial Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, H.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ayu Trough, located in the equatorial western Pacific, is the only divergent boundary surrounding the Philippine Sea plate. It has long been thought that detailed magnetic anomaly studies at the Ayu Trough may provide an important constraint on the past motion of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Caroline plate and subsequently with the Pacific plate. However, because the region lies near the magnetic equator and has spread more or less in the east-west direction, the determination of the relative motion using traditional method of matching total magnetic anomalies across the spreading axis has not been possible. Instead to estimate the spreading rate, the average increase in sediment thickness obtained from multi-channel seismic profiles has been used, which suggests that it opened at a half-spreading rate of 4.1 mm/yr during the last 25 Ma. This result places the Ayu Trough in the category of ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. However, there is a great uncertainty in this estimation because the sedimentation rate that was used in previous studies comes from a considerable distance away from the Ayu Trough, that is, from the middle of the Caroline plate where the sediment supply and transport conditions may be quite different. During the last decade, high-resolution bathymetric mapping and analyses of rocks dredged from more than 10 ultraslow-spreading ridges. As a result, a new picture of ultraslow-spreading ridges has emerged which differs from normal slow and fast spreading ridges. According to the new finding, the former are clearly more enriched in Rare Earth Elements (REE) than the latter. However, dredged rock samples from the Ayu Trough do not exhibit such signature, putting the earlier notion into question. Although it is difficult to determine the exact spreading rate, the geochemistry of rock samples obtained from the Ayu Trough suggests that the spreading occurred much more rapidly and over a shorter period of time than previously

  2. Effect of electron-density gradients on propagation of radio waves in the mid-latitude trough. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Citrone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Partial contents of this thesis include: (1) Radio-wave propagation and the mid-latitude trough; (2) Ionospheric measurements; (3) Modification of time-dependent ionospheric model output with latitudinal electron-density profiles from digisonde trough depictions; (4) Ray-tracing simulations to examine ground range; and (5) Effects of three-dimensional gradients in electron density on radio-wave propagation in the trough region. Data is tabulated for geophysical conditions, solar activity level, geomagnetic activity level, conditions for vertical ray refraction to surface, and ray-tracing fixed-input conditions.

  3. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  4. Weak Gravitational Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Daniel; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is in the process of imaging 5000 sq. deg. of the southern sky in five broad-band filters. Its primary purpose is to constrain cosmology and the physics of dark energy using weak gravitational lensing, galaxy clusters, baryonic acoustic oscillations, and supernova distance measurements.I will give an overview of weak gravitational lensing results from early DES data, with a focus on the newly developed galaxy trough statistics. Using the latter, we have made the highest signal-to-noise lensing measurements of the low density Universe to date, probing gravity and structure formation in the underdense regime. Besides these recent results, I will give an outlook on cosmological and astrophysical applications of the trough lensing signal.

  5. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of hydrothermally generated petroleum from Escanaba trough, offshore Californi U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.; Hostettler, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, three samples of sulfide-rich sediments, impregnated with hydrothermally derived, asphaltic petroleum, were recovered in a dredge and by submersible from Escanaba Trough, the sediment-covered, southern end of the Gorda Ridge spreading axis, offshore northern California. The molecular distributions of hydrocarbons in the two pyrrhotite-rich samples recovered by submersible are similar and compare well the hydrocarbon composition of the first pyrrhotite-rich samples containing petroleum discovered at a 1985 dredge site about 30 km to the south of the site of the submersible dive. In contrast, the 1986 dredge sample, composed of a polymetallic assemblage of sulfides, containes petroleum in which the distribution of hydrocarbons indicates a slightly higher of maturity relative to the other samples. The observation that petroleum of variable composition occurs with metallic sulfides at two and probably more distinct site indicates that petroleum generation may be a common process in the hydrothermally active Escanaba Trough. ?? 1990.

  6. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  7. Reducing the Cost of Energy from Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.

    2003-01-01

    Parabolic trough solar technology is the most proven and lowest cost large-scale solar power technology available today, primarily because of the nine large commercial-scale solar power plants that are operating in the California Mojave Desert. However, no new plants have been built during the past ten years because the cost of power from these plants is more expensive than power from conventional fossil fuel power plants. This paper reviews the current cost of energy and the potential for reducing the cost of energy from parabolic trough solar power plant technology based on the latest technological advancements and projected improvements from industry and sponsored R&D. The paper also looks at the impact of project financing and incentives on the cost of energy.

  8. The longitude dependence of the dayside F region trough - A detailed model-observation comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Whalen, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    The nighttime main F-region trough extends into the sunlit afternoon sector. This trough feature exhibits both a strong magnetic-activity dependence and a longitude (UT) dependence. Whalen (1987), using IGY ionosonde data, showed that both of these effects are readly extracted from f0F2 observations. This study shows that the longitude effect is the same as that contained in the Utah State University time-dependent ionospheric model. It arises from the offset of the geomagnetic axis from the geographic axis. The magnetic-activity dependency is associated with the westward convection in the afternoon sector. It is also contained in the ionospheric model via the empirical magnetospheric convection model.

  9. Towards standardization of in-site parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; de Jalón, Alberto García; Leon, Javier; Bernad, Ignacio David

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the testing procedure and a validation of the methodology of parabolic trough collector in solar thermal power plants. The applied testing methodology is the one proposed within the Spanish standardization sub-committee AEN/CTN 206/SC117 working group WG2 related to the components for solar thermal power plants. This methodology is also proposed within the international committee IEC TC 117 (Standard draft IEC 62862-3-2 Ed. 1.0). This study is done at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Almeria within the European project STAGE-STE. This paper presents the results of the optical and thermal efficiency of a large-size parabolic trough collector. The obtained values are similar to the previous analysis on this collector by PSA. The results of the tracking system have a good accuracy compared to the acceptance angle of the concentrator.

  10. Near-term improvements in parabolic troughs: an economic and performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.; Murphy, L.M.

    1981-08-01

    Improved parabolic-trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis qualifies the performance potential of various parabolic-trough component improvements from a systems viewpoint and uses these performance data to determine the worth of each improvement on an economic basis. The improvements considered are evacuated receivers, silvered-glass reflectors, improved receiver, selective coatings, higher optical accuracy concentrations, and higher transmittance receiver glazings. Upper-bound costs for each improvement are provided as well as estimates of the increased solar system rates of return that are made possible by these improvements. The performance and economic potential of some of these improvements are shown to be substantial, especially at higher collector operating temperatures.

  11. Diplopia after hyaluronic acid gel injection for correction of facial tear trough deformity.

    PubMed

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Heirati, Abtin; Pakdel, Farzad; Kiavash, Victoria

    2012-10-01

    A 38 Year-old-female presented with diplopia and bilateral lower eyelid swelling 1.5 months after hyaluronic acid filler injection of tear trough deformity. Comprehensive eye examination showed an inferior oblique muscle restriction on the right eye. Diplopia and bilateral lower eyelid puffiness were treated by injection of hyaluronidase which resulted in disappearance of both diplopia and bilateral lower eyelid puffiness. PMID:22571493

  12. Extreme precipitation events in the Middle East: Dynamics of the Active Red Sea Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, A. J.; Tyrlis, E.; Edry, D.; Krichak, S. O.; Steil, B.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Active Red Sea Trough (ARST) is an infrequent weather phenomenon that is associated with extreme precipitation, flash floods, and severe societal impacts in the Middle East (ME). Using reanalysis (ERA-Interim) and observational precipitation (Aphrodite and stations) data, we investigate its underlying dynamics, geographical extent, and seasonality. Twelve ARST events affecting the Levant have the same dynamical characteristics as those associated with a major flood in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) on 25 November 2009. Hence, the Jeddah flooding was caused by an ARST, which implies that ARSTs can affect a much larger part of the ME than previously assumed. We present an ARST concept involving six dynamical factors: (1) a low-level trough; the Red Sea Trough (RST), (2) an anticyclone over the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabian Anticyclone (AA), (3) a transient midlatitude upper trough, (4) an intensified subtropical jet stream, (5) moisture transport pathways, and (6) strong ascent resulting from tropospheric instability and the synoptic-scale dynamical forcing. We explain the ARST as the interaction of a persistent stationary wave in the tropical easterlies (i.e., the RST) with a superimposed amplifying Rossby wave, resulting in northward propagating moist air masses over the Red Sea. Our findings emphasize the relevance of the AA, causing moisture transport from the Arabian and Red Seas. The particular topography in the Red Sea region and associated low-level circulation makes the ARST unique among tropical-extratropical interactions. The ARST seasonality is explained by the large-scale circulation and in particular the seasonal cycle of the semipermanent quasi-stationary RST and AA.

  13. Extreme Precipitation Events in the Middle East: Dynamics of the Active Red Sea Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Andries Jan; Lelieveld, Jos; Tyrlis, Evangelos; Krichak, Shimon; Edry, Dudi; Steil, Benedikt

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Middle East can cause flash floods with serious societal impacts. For example, in Egypt in November 1994, and in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) in November 2009, flash floods caused almost 600 and more than 120 casualties, respectively. A major meteorological phenomenon involved is the Active Red Sea Trough (ARST), a midlatitude-tropical interaction. Previous ARST studies addressed the dynamics, however, do not provide a complete understanding of the mechanism, and moreover, focus only on the Levant. This study presents a generalized concept of the ARST dynamics and aims for an improved understanding of its geographical extent and seasonality. We used ERA-Interim data to analyze several ARST events affecting the Levant, the Jeddah flooding, and the seasonality of the ARST associated dynamics. The synoptics around 25 November 2009 show a similar dynamical evolution as the ARST events over the Levant, revealing that the Jeddah flooding was in fact caused by an ARST. An ARST concept is defined, involving six important dynamical features: (1) a semi-permanent low-level trough (i.e. the Red Sea Trough), (2) a semi-permanent anticyclone at mid-levels over the Arabian Peninsula, (3) a mid-latitude upper level trough, (4) an intensified subtropical jet stream, (5) moisture transport and convergence, and (6) ascending motions resulting from the large scale forcing and tropospheric instability, leading to mesoscale convective systems and (local) extreme precipitation. Our analysis emphasizes the significance of the semi-permanent anticyclone over the Arabian Peninsula, predominantly causing moisture transport from the Arabian and Red Seas. The seasonal cycle of these dynamical factors explains why the ARSTs over the Levant region occur primarily in autumn and to a lesser extent in spring, and suggests a temporal shift further to the south (e.g. around Jeddah), starting later in autumn, ending earlier in spring, and favorable conditions for ARSTs

  14. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Gullies in Sirenum Fossae Trough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This mosaic of two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images shows about 20 different gullies coming down the south-facing wall of a trough in the Sirenum Fossae/Gorgonum Chaos region of the martian southern hemisphere. Each channel and its associated fan--or apron--of debris appears to have started just below the same hard, resistant layer of bedrock located approximately 100 meters (about 325 feet) below the top of the trough wall. The layer beneath this hard, resistant bedrock is interpreted to be permeable, which allows ground water to percolate through it and--at the location of this trough--seep out onto the martian surface. The channels and aprons only occur on the south-facing slope of this valley created by faults on each side of the trough. The depression is approximately 1.4 km (0.9 mi) across.

    The mosaic was constructed from two pictures taken on September 16, 1999, and May 1, 2000. The black line is a gap between the two images that was not covered by MOC. The scene covers an area approximately 5.5 kilometers (3.4 miles) wide by 4.9 km (3.0 mi) high. Sunlight illuminates the area from the upper left. The image is located near 38.5oS, 171.3oW. MOC high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s.

  15. Gafsa trough of central Tunisia: Basin evolution and maturation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S.; Reed, J.K. ); Traut, M. ); Hassine, B.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The Gafsa trough of onshore central Tunisia is one of the more interesting and underexplored features of North Africa. It is a 5-12 km deep, east-west-trending depression along the inner edge of the Tunisian-Libyan shelf margin. The basin has had a long and virtually uninterrupted history of subsidence from the late Paleozoic into the early Cenozoic. Subsidence began in the late Carboniferous, soon after the close of the Hercynian orogeny, and resulted in deposition of a 3000+ m succession of Permo-Carboniferous carbonates and shale that pinches out southward onto the Saharan Flexure. The tectonic setting for this earliest phase of subsidence is not clear. The main episode of subsidence, which began in the Middle Triassic, continued through the Jurassic as left-lateral, transtensional rifting along the South Saharan and Maghrebian Shear zones. A set of organic maturation maps for onshore central Tunisia depicts the minimum time of entry into the oil and gas generative windows of the two potential source rocks in the region, the Lower Silurian Tannezufft Formation and Middle-Upper Jurassic basinal shales. Maturation modeling suggests that the Lower Silurian source rocks beneath the deeper portions of the Gafsa trough are overmature, even for generation of dry gas. Everywhere north of the Saharan Flexure potential Paleozoic source rocks are highly mature to overmature. The Middle-Upper Jurassic basinal shales in the deeper, central portions of the Gafsa trough entered the oil generative window as early as mid-cretaceous time and into the gas generative window in the Late Cretaceous - early Tertiary. These possible source rocks are mature to highly mature beneath nearly all of the basin. The Gafsa trough is a probable gas province, with occurrences of condensate possible.

  16. Monitoring of Seafloor Crustal Deformation Along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Eto, S.; Yasuda, K.; Sakata, T.; Sayanagi, K.

    2011-12-01

    \\ \\ \\ The Suruga-Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. The Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath the Amurian (Eurasian) plate along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, causing major subduction earthquakes. The subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, have repeatedly occurred with intervals of about 100-150 years. Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese Government [2011] estimates the 30-years probabilities of the next major earthquakes at 60-70 %. It is necessary to monitor crustal deformation above the source regions of the major earthquakes. The source regions are located beneath the seafloor, and we developed a system for monitoring seafloor crustal deformation [Tadokoro et al., 2006, GRL; Ikuta et al., 2008, JGR]. The system is composed of the precise acoustic ranging with ultrasonic waves and kinematic GPS positioning techniques. \\ \\ \\ We monitor seafloor crustal deformation at five sites altogether along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, three in the Kumano region and two in the Suruga region, with the use of this system. We have repeatedly measured the coordinate of seafloor benchmark installed beforehand every about 2-3 months on the average. The monitoring results, the horizontal site velocities with relative to the Amurian Plate, as of 2010 are approximately 3-4 cm/yr in the direction of N70W at the three sites in the Kumano region, and approximately 2-4 cm/yr in the direction of N85-100W at the two sites in the Suruga region. The observed horizontal seafloor crustal deformations are consistent to the plate convergence along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, showing strain accumulation before the next major subduction earthquakes. Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the captain and crews of R/Vs "Hokuto," Tokai University and "Asama," Mie Prefecture Fisheries Research Institute, Japan. This study has been promoted by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japanese Government.

  17. Vertical tilt structure of East Asian trough and its interannual variation mechanism in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Xiaolong; Wei, Ke; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Tianjun

    2014-02-01

    Vertical tilt structure of the East Asian trough (EAT) and its interannual variation mechanism in boreal winter are studied using NCEP/NCAR, ERA40, and NCEP/DOE reanalyses. A vertical tilt index (VTI) is defined as the mean slope of vertical trough line on the longitude-height cross section to describe the tilting extent of the EAT, with high index indicating a more west-tilted trough and vice versa. The VTI series derived from the three reanalysis datasets are highly correlated with each other during the corresponding periods. A significant positive correlation is found between the VTI and the zonal range of the vertical trough line. Based on the close relation, a possible physical mechanism is proposed to explain the interannual variation of VTI. It demonstrates that positive (negative) temperature anomalies within the mean zonal range of the EAT result in expansion (contraction) of the zonal range and lead to high (low) VTI years. The composite analyses based on the three reanalysis datasets well support the proposed mechanism. Furthermore, the general relationship between the VTI and the zonal temperature gradient is discussed based on the proposed mechanism. It is revealed that the asymmetric change of temperature gradient on the western and eastern sides of the EAT plays an important role in the variation of VTI, which suggests that the tilting extent of the EAT is strongly affected by the two-order zonal change of temperature instead of the zonal temperature gradient (i.e., one-order change). Climate variability not only in the simultaneous winter but also in the following spring and summer over East Asia is closely related to the variation of the VTI. This study on the vertical tilting of the EAT may enrich knowledge of the East Asian winter monsoon and the climate variability over East Asia and may be helpful in improving the regional climate prediction in East Asia.

  18. Mesozoic evolution of the Valencia trough: Implications for the understanding of the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etheve, Nathalie; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Roca, Eduard; Gorini, Christian; Blanpied, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Western Mediterranean records a multi-stage tectonic evolution characterized by a complex succession of rifting to compressive episodes during the Cenozoic. The Valencia through was formed in this geodynamic framework and is classically interpreted as an aborted Tertiary rift related to back-arc extension. Notably, the Tertiary rifting is superimposed to the Jurassic opening of the Tethys basin, the early Cretaceous opening of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenees basins and the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary inversion of these basins (e.g. Iberian range, Catalan Coastal range). Since the last twenty years, many studies contributed to the understanding of the Tertiary history of this area, whereas the pre-Tertiary evolution of the Valencia trough remains poorly investigated. Therefore, we initiated a research project in the Valencia trough benefiting from the acquisition of high quality seismic surveys allowing a better imaging of the Mesozoic sequences. This PhD project aims to understand the mechanisms and the role of structural inheritance that controlled the evolution of the Valencia trough and its impact on the sedimentary infilling since the Mesozoic. The relation between the sedimentary infilling, subsidence and crustal thinning mechanisms during the Cenozoic are investigated aiming to unravel critical information on rifting processes. This study will be based on correlations between onshore and offshore observations. Structural and stratigraphic evolution will be defined on land and compared with seismic sections and well data at sea. Eventually, these data will enable us to propose coherent land-sea interpretations of the area, providing a better understanding of the tectono-stratigraphic context. Our poster show preliminary results obtained from fieldwork on the western margin of the Valencia trough coupled with seismic interpretations. Eventually, results of this study may lead to better constrain the kinematic reconstruction of the western Mediterranean

  19. LCOE reduction for parabolic trough CSP: Innovative solar receiver with improved performance at medium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollo, A.; Chiarappa, T.; D'Angelo, A.; Maccari, A.; Matino, F.

    2016-05-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) applications represent an effective possibility to gain energy from the Sun; however, the lasting CSP market crisis compels continuous improvements in terms of cost reduction and performance increase. Focused on parabolic trough technology, this paper describes the innovation studied and realized on solar receivers to gain optimized optical performance while increasing the production versatility, hence boosting the solar plant efficiency and finally reducing the estimated LCOE.

  20. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  1. A common origin for ridge-and-trough terrain on icy satellites by sluggish lid convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Amy C.; Hammond, Noah P.

    2015-12-01

    Ridge-and-trough terrain is a common landform on outer Solar System icy satellites. Examples include Ganymede's grooved terrain, Europa's gray bands, Miranda's coronae, and several terrains on Enceladus. The conditions associated with the formation of each of these terrains are similar: heat flows of order tens to a hundred milliwatts per meter squared, and deformation rates of order 10-16-10-12 s-1. Our prior work shows that the conditions associated with the formation of these terrains on Ganymede and the south pole of Enceladus are consistent with vigorous solid-state ice convection in a shell with a weak surface. We show that sluggish lid convection, an intermediate regime between the isoviscous and stagnant lid regimes, can create the heat flow and deformation rates appropriate for ridge and trough formation on a number of satellites, regardless of the ice shell thickness. For convection to deform their surfaces, the ice shells must have yield stresses similar in magnitude to the daily tidal stresses. Tidal and convective stresses deform the surface, and the spatial pattern of tidal cracking controls the locations of ridge-and-trough terrain.

  2. Correction of Tear Trough Deformity With a Cohesive Polydensified Matrix Hyaluronic Acid: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Huber-Vorländer, Jürgen; Kürten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The tear trough or infraorbital hollow is a challenging area to treat, and only a few fillers are suitable for this delicate area. We report on a European case series of six subjects with mild to severe tear troughs who received treatment with cohesive polydensified matrix (CPM®) technology hyaluronic acid gel (Belotero® Balance). The product was injected as small depots (up to ten small boli 0.2 mL maximum each per side) at the supraperiosteal level along or below the orbital rim. Follow-up visits took place at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after injection for independent evaluation of the clinical effect using the Merz Aesthetics Scale™ for infraorbital hollows and the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. Adverse events were also recorded. Mean hollowness scores were considerably improved compared with baseline in all subjects. In all women, the improvements remained throughout the 9-month study, with none reverting to their baseline score. Subjects' satisfaction with treatment was very high throughout the study, and all women stated that they would repeat treatment with the same product. The CPM hyaluronic acid gel was well tolerated. CPM hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective treatment for the tear trough area. PMID:26605822

  3. Correction of tear trough deformity with a cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid: a case series.

    PubMed

    Huber-Vorländer, Jürgen; Kürten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The tear trough or infraorbital hollow is a challenging area to treat, and only a few fillers are suitable for this delicate area. We report on a European case series of six subjects with mild to severe tear troughs who received treatment with cohesive polydensified matrix (CPM(®)) technology hyaluronic acid gel (Belotero(®) Balance). The product was injected as small depots (up to ten small boli 0.2 mL maximum each per side) at the supraperiosteal level along or below the orbital rim. Follow-up visits took place at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after injection for independent evaluation of the clinical effect using the Merz Aesthetics Scale™ for infraorbital hollows and the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. Adverse events were also recorded. Mean hollowness scores were considerably improved compared with baseline in all subjects. In all women, the improvements remained throughout the 9-month study, with none reverting to their baseline score. Subjects' satisfaction with treatment was very high throughout the study, and all women stated that they would repeat treatment with the same product. The CPM hyaluronic acid gel was well tolerated. CPM hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective treatment for the tear trough area. PMID:26170706

  4. Correction of tear trough deformity with a cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Huber-Vorländer, Jürgen; Kürten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The tear trough or infraorbital hollow is a challenging area to treat, and only a few fillers are suitable for this delicate area. We report on a European case series of six subjects with mild to severe tear troughs who received treatment with cohesive polydensified matrix (CPM®) technology hyaluronic acid gel (Belotero® Balance). The product was injected as small depots (up to ten small boli 0.2 mL maximum each per side) at the supraperiosteal level along or below the orbital rim. Follow-up visits took place at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after injection for independent evaluation of the clinical effect using the Merz Aesthetics Scale™ for infraorbital hollows and the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. Adverse events were also recorded. Mean hollowness scores were considerably improved compared with baseline in all subjects. In all women, the improvements remained throughout the 9-month study, with none reverting to their baseline score. Subjects’ satisfaction with treatment was very high throughout the study, and all women stated that they would repeat treatment with the same product. The CPM hyaluronic acid gel was well tolerated. CPM hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective treatment for the tear trough area. PMID:26170706

  5. Energetics and dynamics associated with two typical mobile trough pathways over East Asia in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Cheung, Hoffman Ho-Nam; Zhou, Wen

    2015-03-01

    Two dominant types of East Asian mobile trough (EAMT) are identified by a novel mobile trough detection algorithm. The two major EAMTs likely pass through to the north and the south of Lake Baikal. In this study, both of synoptic and planetary time scales influences on East Asia are studied. For synoptic scale, southern path of mobile trough shows a higher rate of intensification that of northern path. Southern path has stronger impact on Southeast Asia temperature fluctuation because of more southern pathway and stronger magnitude of wave train. But duration of fluctuation is shorter in southern due to the downstream development. For planetary scale, the northern path shows a large warm anomaly over Southeast Asia and a cold anomaly over Northeast Asia, which is associated with the northward shift of the jet stream. The southern path shows a cold anomaly over East Asia due to a northwesterly anomaly. The forcing of high frequency eddy on low frequency eddy is estimated in terms of momentum and energy. The reinforcement of high frequency eddy flux on low frequency variation can be observed in northern path, but not in southern path. The energy difference for two paths is also caused by the variations of barotropic and baroclinic conversion. The energy tendency of interaction between two frequency eddies is only responsible for sustention of energy anomaly over southwestern Japan.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Onondaga Trough, Onondaga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Miller, Todd S.

    2005-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve water quality in Onondaga Lake, New York and its tributaries require an understanding of how the natural, brine-filled aquifer in the Onondaga Trough (valley) affects the freshwater in Onondaga Lake. The city of Syracuse, locally known as 'The Salt City,' was built around the salt springs, which issued from a valley-fill aquifer that contains a highly concentrated brine (up to six times as salty as sea water), but little is known about the source of the brine, its movement within the glacial sediments that partly fill the Onondaga Trough, and the interaction of the aquifer and the lake. This report summarizes initial data-collection and analysis efforts in the 25-mile long Onondaga Trough that extends from near Tully, N.Y., to the outlet of Onondaga Lake and presents results of some initial chemical and geographic analyses that will lead to the development of a mathematical ground-water-flow model of the valley-fill aquifer.

  7. Marine heat flow measurements across subsea permafrost limit in the eastern Mackenzie Trough, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.; Kang, S. G.; Dallimore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Marine heat flow measurements using a 5 m-long Ewing-type heat probe were made during Korean icebreaker R/V Araon's Arctic expeditions (ARA04C in 2013 and ARA05B in 2014) to better know the shallow subsurface thermal structure in the eastern slope of Mackenzie Trough, the Canadian Beaufort Sea, in which associative geological processes of permafrost degradation and gas hydrate dissociation occur because of long-term warming since the Last Glacial Maximum. Heat flow in the continental slope was collected for the first time and is rather higher than those from deep boreholes (up to a few km below the seafloor) in the continental shelf. However, the smaller geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity were observed from sites along a transect line across permafrost limit on the eastern slope of the trough. It is noted that geothermal gradients are relatively constant in the vicinity of permafrost limit but are much smaller (even minus) only at deeper depths with positive bottom water temperature. Reason for such distribution is unclear yet. Based on observed geothermal gradient and bottom water temperature, permafrost table shown in subbottom profile seems to be controlled not by temperature. On the other hand, our finding of permafrost evidence on the other subbottom profile located landward may support that permafrost limit in the trough is along with ~100 m isobath.

  8. Architectural elements of fan-delta complex in Pennsylvanian Taos Trough, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Soegaard, K.

    1989-03-01

    Identification of architectural elements within alluvial-fan and subaqueous fan-delta gravel units is fundamental to resolving depositional processes within fan-delta complexes of the Pennsylvanian Taos trough, New Mexico. Subaqueous fan-delta deposits consist of lenticular gravel-body complexes encased by black, basinal shales. Gravel-body complexes are composed of a series of stacked gravel lenses, each of which is enveloped by fifth-order bounding surfaces. The central portion of individual gravel lenses contains a channel complex. Channels are outlined by third- and fourth-order bounding surfaces and are infilled by high-density gravity flow deposits. The fringe of submarine gravel lenses consists of stacked, laterally continuous Bouma sequences separated by second-order bounding surfaces. Bouma sequences were deposited by dilute turbidity flows during evacuation of submarine channels. Subaqueous channel complexes within gravel lenses represent midfan channels, whereas the fringe of lenticular gravel lenses represent outer-fan lobes. Recognition of depositional processes and architectural elements of fan deltas in the Sandia Formation enables distinction between these and other types of coarse-grained deltas in the Taos trough. This, in turn, has implications for resolving evolution of the trough.

  9. Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of the Benue Trough, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vullo, Romain; Courville, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Selachian and ray-finned fish remains from various Late Cretaceous localities of Nigeria are described. Each locality has yielded only a very few specimens and the diversity is therefore very low. However, some taxa are recorded for the first time in Africa. The Ashaka locality in the Upper Benue Trough (northeastern Nigeria) has yielded a small but interesting late Cenomanian assemblage of microremains, including teeth of “Carcharias” amonensis, Rhombopterygia zaborskii sp. nov., Hamrabatis sp., “Stephanodus” sp., and a possible ionoscopiform. A large prearticular dentition coming from the early Turonian beds of this locality is assigned to the large pycnodontiform Acrotemnus, a poorly known genus here regarded as a senior synonym of Macropycnodon. In the Lower Benue Trough (southeastern Nigeria), several localities ranging in age from the late Cenomanian to the early Maastrichtian have yielded various widespread taxa such as Ptychodus, Scapanorhynchus, Squalicorax, Vidalamiinae indet., cf. Protosphyraena, and Eodiaphyodus. The seaway that occupied the Benue Trough during transgressive episodes (late Cenomanian-early Turonian and Maastrichtian) created opportunities for the dispersal of many marine fish taxa into new areas, such as the proto-South Atlantic.

  10. Dynamics of midlatitude light ion trough and plasmatails. [from data obtained on OGO-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, A. J.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Light ion trough measurements near midnight made by the RF ion mass spectrometer on OGO-4 operating in the high resolution mode in Feb. 1968 reveal the existence of irregular structure on the low latitude side of the midlatitude trough. Using two different relations between the equatorial convection electric field, assumed spatially invariant and directed from dawn to dusk, and Kp (one based on plasmapause measurements, the other on polar cap E field measurements) a model development was made of the outer plasmasphere. The model calculations produced multiple plasmatail extensions of the plasmasphere which compare favorably with the observed irregularities. Due to magnetic local time differences between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere along OGO's orbit, the time dependent irregularity structure observed is not symmetrical about the equator. The model development produces an outer plasmasphere boundary location which varies similarly to the observed minimum density point of the light ion trough. However the measurements are not extensive enough to yield conclusive proof that one of the electric field models is better than the other.

  11. SeaMARC II mapping of transform faults in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosencrantz, Eric; Mann, Paul

    1992-01-01

    SeaMARC II maps of the southern wall of the Cayman Trough between Honduras and Jamaica show zones of continuous, well-defined fault lineaments adjacent and parallel to the wall, both to the east and west of the Cayman spreading axis. These lineaments mark the present, active traces of transform faults which intersect the southern end of the spreading axis at a triple junction. The Swan Islands transform fault to the west is dominated by two major lineaments that overlap with right-stepping sense across a large push-up ridge beneath the Swan Islands. The fault zone to the east of the axis, named the Walton fault, is more complex, containing multiple fault strands and a large pull-apart structure. The Walton fault links the spreading axis to Jamaican and Hispaniolan strike-slip faults, and it defines the southern boundary of a microplate composed of the eastern Cayman Trough and western Hispaniola. The presence of this microplate raises questions about the veracity of Caribbean plate velocities based primarily on Cayman Trough opening rates.

  12. Economic potential and optimum steamflood strategies for trough reservoirs of San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, K.C.; Use, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Many trough reservoirs in the Western San Joaquin Valley, California, remain undeveloped because reserve bases are relatively small and occur in areas where thermal recovery activities have been low. Reservoir models with different configurations and reserve bases were used to compare the economic potential of these reservoirs and to develop guidelines for selecting reservoirs that can be economically exploited. The models were also used for determining the optimum steamflood strategies for the selected reservoirs. The study showed that, for a trough reservoir to be an economical prospect, it should contain a minimum oil-in-place of 300 MSTB per pattern length along the trough between the synclinal axis and the gas-oil contact. Optimum steamflood strategy for such reservoirs includes: (1) placing the injector away from the synclinal axis and gas-oil contact, (2) having a row of producers updip from the injector and another near the synclinal axis, (3) starting the steamflood with an intermediate rate and high quality of steam, and (4) shutting-in steam injection after 5.5 years of continuous injection at a constant rate. This strategy can result in an annual rate of return of 20%.

  13. Strategies and Technologies for In Situ Mineralogical Investigations on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Bratton, C.; Koppel, L.; Hecht, M.; Metzger, E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface landers on Mars (Viking and Pathfinder) have not revealed satisfying answers to the mineralogy and lithology of the planet's surface. In part, this results from their prime directives: Viking focused on exobiology, Pathfinder focused on technology demonstration. The analytical instruments on board the landers made admirable attempts to extract the mineralogy and geology of Mars, as did countless modeling efforts after the missions. Here we suggest a framework for elucidating martian, or any other planetary geology, through an approach that defines (a) type of information required, (b) explorational strategy harmonious with acquisition of these data, (c) interpretation approach to the data, (d) compatible mission architecture, (e) instrumentation for interrogating rocks and soil. (a) Data required: The composition of a planet is ordered at scales ranging from molecules to minerals to rocks, and from geological units to provinces to planetary-scale systems. The largest ordering that in situ compositional instruments can attempt to interrogate is rock type "aggregate" information. This is what the geologist attempts to identify first. From this, mineralogy can be either directly seen or inferred. From mineralogy can be determined elemental abundances and perhaps the state of the compounds as being crystalline or amorphous. Knowledge of rock type and mineralogy is critical for elucidating geologic process. Mars landers acquired extremely valuable elemental data, but attempted to move from elements to aggregates, but this can only be done by making many assumptions and sometimes giant leaps of faith. Data we believe essential are elements, minerals, degree of ordering of compounds, and the aggregate or rock type that these materials compose. (b) Explorational strategy: A lander should function as a surrogate geologist. Of the total landscape, a geologist sees much, but gives detailed attention to an infinitesimally small amount of what is seen. To acquire

  14. The chemistry and mineralogy of Mars soil and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.

    1991-01-01

    A single geological unit consisting of fine, apparently weathered soil material is covering large portions of the surface of Mars. This soil material has been thoroughly homogenized by global dust storms and it is plausible to assume that Mars dust is strongly correlated with it. The chemical-elemental composition of the soil was directly measured by the Viking Landers. Positive detection of Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, S, Cl, and Br was achieved. Analyses of the SNC meteorites, a group of meteorites that has been suggested to be ejected Martian rocks, supply additional elemental-concentration data, broadening considerably the chemical data-base on the surface materials. A composition model for Mars soil, giving selected average elemental concentrations of major and trace elements, was recently suggested. It was constructed by combining the Viking Lander data, the SNC meteorite analyses, and other analyses. The mineralogy of the surface materials on Mars has not been directly measured yet. By use of various indirect approaches, including chemical correspondence to the surface analyses, spectral analogies, simulations of Viking Lander experiments, analyses of the SNC meteorites and various modeling efforts, the mineralogical composition was constrained to some extent. No direct analyses of soil reactivity have been done yet. Indirect evidence, mostly from the Viking biology experimental results, suggests that the soil probably has a slightly acidic reaction and is generally oxidized. Unambiguous identification of the Mars soil minerals by direct mineralogical analyses, and non-disturbed or in-situ measurements of the soil's reactivity, are of primary importance in future Mars research.

  15. Mineralogical Evidence for Subsurface Oxygenation Following the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal trends in Earth's near-surface mineralogy correlate with major events in Earth's geochemical, tectonic, and biological history. The distribution of mineral species, as well as their trace and minor elements, can reveal the timing and extent of subsurface oxygenation. Recent studies on the evolution of minerals containing redox-sensitive elements, including As, C, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, S, and U, suggest a significant delay after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE; 2.4-2.2 Ga) in the appearance of more oxidized species. For example, analyses of molybdenite (MoS2) specimens from 135 localities with known ages from 2.91 billion years to 6.3 million years reveal systematic increases in average and maximum trace concentrations of Re in molybdenite, which suggest progressive oxidative weathering and mobilization of rhenium by subsurface fluids. Similarly, the temporal distribution of carbonate minerals reflects Earth's changing oxygenation, with widespread Fe2+ carbonates prior to the GOE and extensive Cu2+ and Fe3+ after the GOE. Compilations of data on the mineralogy of cobalt and nickel deposits since the Archean Eon reveal that mineral assemblages in the Co-Ni-S-As system may prove to be especially sensitive indicators of changing subsurface oxygen fugacity through Earth history. Finally, significant changes in the patterns of mercury and uranium ore deposits in the Phanerozoic Eon point to interactions with redox gradients related to the terrestrial biosphere. These patterns underscore at least 3 billion years of mineralogical co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere.

  16. The Loop chondrite - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and opaque mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, N. Z.; Kullerud, G.

    1981-03-01

    The petrography, mineral chemistry, and opaque mineralogy of the Loop chondrite, a meteorite found in Gaines County (Texas) in 1962, are discussed. The investigation confirms Mason's (1975) classification of the meteorite as olivine hypersthene chondrite (L6) and proves that the Loop and the Ashmore are distinct chondrites. Tables setting forth representative analyses of silicates and chromite and of metal and troilite are included. It is found that in comparison with the chromite composition of L6 chondrites given by Bunch et al. (1967), the Loop is slightly more enriched in A12O3 and MgO and slightly depleted in Cr2O3.

  17. Mineralogical clues to the origins of asteroid dynamical families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1989-01-01

    Remote-sensing data are the bases of the present tabulation of the mineralogical composition of the asteroid dynamical families' parent bodies, in which correlations are presented between Tholen's (1984) taxonomic types and the family-membership lists of Hirayama (1933), Brouwer (1951), Arnold (1969), Carusi and Massaro (1978), Kozai (1979), and Williams (1979). In conjunction with recently obtained IR and radar data, these tables suggest that most of the smaller proposed families cannot share the origin of the larger, well-defined families as fragments of collisionally disrupted parent bodies.

  18. The mineralogy and petrology of the Luna 20 soil sample.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kridelbaugh, S. J.; Weill, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The lithologic types found in the soil at the Luna site are characterized, and their mineralogical and petrological significance is discussed. Chemically, the Luna 20 and Apollo 16 soil samples are similar, but the Luna 20 soil is slightly depleted in aluminum and calcium and enriched in iron and magnesium relative to the Apollo 16 soils. This slight difference may be a result of the presence of a minor amount of mare material in the Luna 20 soil and its apparent absence in the Apollo 16 soils.

  19. Mineralogy and Petrology of COMET WILD2 Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Bland, Phil; Bradley, John; Brearley, Adrian; Brennan, Sean; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald; Butterworth, Anna; Dai, Zurong; Ebel, Denton

    2006-01-01

    The sample return capsule of the Stardust spacecraft will be recovered in northern Utah on January 15, 2006, and under nominal conditions it will be delivered to the new Stardust Curation Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center two days later. Within the first week we plan to begin the harvesting of aerogel cells, and the comet nucleus samples they contain for detailed analysis. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have been analyzing selected removed grains for more than one month. This presentation will present the first results from the mineralogical and petrological analyses that will have been performed.

  20. CO 2 geological storage: The environmental mineralogy perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, François; Daval, Damien; Dupraz, Sébastien; Martinez, Isabelle; Ménez, Bénédicte; Sissmann, Olivier

    2011-02-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2) is one of the options envisaged for mitigating the environmental consequences of anthropogenic CO 2 increases in the atmosphere. The general principle is to capture carbon dioxide at the exhaust of power plants and then to inject the compressed fluid into deep geological formations. Before implementation over large scales, it is necessary to assess the efficiency of the process and its environmental consequences. The goal of this paper is to discuss some environmental mineralogy research perspectives raised by CO 2 geological storage.

  1. Mineralogical Mapping in the Cuprite Mining District, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Srivastava, V.

    1985-01-01

    The airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) has provided for the first time, the possibility to map mineralogical constituents in the Earth's surface and thus has enormously increased the value of remote-sensing data as a tool in the solution of geologic problems. The question addressed with AIS at Cuprite was how well could the mineral components at the surface of a hydrothermal alteration zone be detected, identified and mapped? The question was answered positively and is discussed. A relatively rare mineral, buddingtonie, that could not have been detected by conventional means, was discovered and mapped by the use of AIS.

  2. The petrographic microscope: Evolution of a mineralogical research instrument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The petrographic microscope, designed to observe and measure the optical properties of minerals as a means of identifying them, has provided a foundation for mineralogical and petrological research for more than 120 years. Much of what is known today in these fields is attributable to this instrument, the development of which paralleled an evolution of fundamental optical theory and its correlation with mineral structure and composition. This instrument and its related accessories have evolved through a range of models and designs, which are in themselves distinctive for their scientific function and elegant construction, and are today prized by collectors of scientific instruments.

  3. Mineralogy and petrology of complex breccia 14063,14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Breccia 14063,14 is a complex, probably pre-Imbrian, unmetamorphosed breccia dominated almost entirely by mineral clasts. Electron-probe and microscope examination showed at least four distinct lithologies in a centimeter-sized thin-section. Examination of each lithology showed or suggested the following contributing rock types or mineralogies: (1) dunite with minor chromite, very high-Mg ilmenite and bronzite; (2) spinel troctolite with olivine and Mg-Al spinel; (3) high-Ti mare-like basalt with high-Mg ilmenite and coarse pyroxene; (4) low-KREEP noritic breccia; (5) anorthosite; (6) very Ni-rich Fe metal.

  4. Prototype Backscatter Moessbauer Spectrometer for Measurement of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelfer, T. D.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Nguyen, T.; Wills, E. L.; Shen, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and successfully tested a prototype of a backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer (BaMS) targeted for use on the Martian surface to (1) determine oxidation states of iron, and (2) identify and determine relative abundances of iron-bearing mineralogies. No sample preparation is required to perform measurements; it is only necessary to bring sample and instrument into physical contact. The prototype meets our projected specification for a flight instrument in terms of mass, power, and volume. A Moessbauer spectrometer on the Martian surface would provide wide variety of information about the current state of the Martian surface, and this information is described.

  5. Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyon, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

  6. Matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Buseck, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of petrographic, SEM, and TEM studies of the matrix minerals in Orgueil. It was found that the matrix consists mainly of Fe-bearing Mg-rich serpentine and saponite, and a poorly crystallized Fe-rich ferrihydrite containing small and varying amounts of S and Ni. The serpentine and saponite, which occur in roughly equal molar proportions, are coherently intergrown and occur mainly in fine phyllosilicates in intimate association with the ferrihydrite. Coarse phylosilicates occur in clusters relatively free of ferrihydrite. The matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil chondrite suggests that Orgueil experienced considerably different alteration conditions than did the CM chondrites.

  7. Trough concentration of voriconazole and its relationship with efficacy and safety: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haiying; Wang, Tiansheng; Falcione, Bonnie A.; Olsen, Keith M.; Chen, Ken; Tang, Huilin; Hui, John; Zhai, Suodi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The optimum trough concentration of voriconazole for clinical response and safety is controversial. The objective of this review was to determine the optimum trough concentration of voriconazole and evaluate its relationship with efficacy and safety. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese literature databases were searched. Observational studies that compared clinical outcomes below and above the trough concentration cut-off value were included. We set the trough concentration cut-off value for efficacy as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/L and for safety as 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 mg/L. The efficacy outcomes were invasive fungal infection-related mortality, all-cause mortality, rate of successful treatment and rate of prophylaxis failure. The safety outcomes included incidents of hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and visual disorders. Results A total of 21 studies involving 1158 patients were included. Compared with voriconazole trough concentrations of >0.5 mg/L, levels of <0.5 mg/L significantly decreased the rate of treatment success (risk ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.29–0.74). The incidence of hepatotoxicity was significantly increased with trough concentrations >3.0, >4.0, >5.5 and >6.0 mg/L. The incidence of neurotoxicity was significantly increased with trough concentrations >4.0 and >5.5 mg/L. Conclusions A voriconazole level of 0.5 mg/L should be considered the lower threshold associated with efficacy. A trough concentration >3.0 mg/L is associated with increased hepatotoxicity, particularly for the Asian population, and >4.0 mg/L is associated with increased neurotoxicity. PMID:26968880

  8. Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport through the Fawn Trough, Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, Frédéric; Park, Young-Hyang; Sekma, Hela; Le Sommer, Julien

    2015-04-01

    The Kerguelen Plateau is a major topographic obstacle to the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). While approximately two-third of the ACC transport is diverted to the North, most of the remaining flow engulfs in the Fawn Trough, the only deep passage across the plateau. As part of the TRACK (TRansport ACross the Kerguelen plateau) project, three mooring lines of current meters were deployed in the Fawn Trough for one year in February 2009, underneath ground-track 94 of the Jason-2 satellite altimeter. Full depth CTD-LADCP casts carried out during the deployment cruise were previously analyzed to provide a comprehensive description of the regional circulation, featuring in particular a volume transport of ~43 Sv across the Fawn Trough (Park et al., 2009). Here we present a time series of the transport in the Fawn Trough estimated from current meter observations, featuring a mean eastward transport of 34 Sv (possibly biased low by at most 5 Sv) and a root mean squared variability of 6 Sv, consistent with LADCP estimates (43 Sv in February 2009 and 38 Sv in January 2010). In addition, we analyze to what extent the transport can be directly monitored from along-track satellite altimeter data, which would enable study of the variability of the Fawn Trough Current from a now 20-year long archive. The ability to reconstruct the flow from a limited set of moored instruments as well as from altimeter-derived surface geostrophic velocity is further assessed from synthetic data extracted from a high-resolution peri-Antarctic simulation. While a canonical method to derive transport from altimetry, previously applied to the Malvinas Current, gives here unsatisfactory comparisons with in situ estimates, an ad hoc approach using only the two northernmost mooring lines yields an estimate well correlated (~0.8) with in situ transport at subseasonal time scales during the one year period of observations. At interannual time scales, however, both methods provide

  9. Geological evidence for historical and older earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Fujiwara, Osamu; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Brückner, Helmut; Garrett, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In the wake of the devastating 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the Central Disaster Management Council of the Japanese Cabinet Office issued new guidance for assessing seismic hazards in Japan. Before 2011, seismic hazard assessment relied on source models developed from knowledge of a small number of well-documented historical earthquakes. Less well-known historical earthquakes, including the AD 869 Jōgan Sanriku earthquake, were largely disregarded as their seismic intensities or tsunami heights could not be reconciled with the chosen seismic sources. Following the unexpectedly large size of the Tōhoku earthquake, the Cabinet Office advocated renewed investigation of earthquake and tsunami occurrence over historical and longer timescales, with a particular focus on defining the largest possible magnitudes. The new guidelines pay close attention to the Nankai Trough, the subduction zone where the Philippine Sea Plate dives beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Nankai Trough faces the densely populated and highly industrialised coastline of south central Japan and harbours a widely-known seismic gap along its eastern Tōkai segment. A full-length rupture of the Nankai Trough, including the Tōkai segment, could produce an earthquake with a magnitude approaching that of the 2011 event, with tsunami travel times to the closest shorelines of less than 30 minutes. We review geological evidence for historical and older earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai Trough. This evidence comes from a wide variety of sources, including uplifted marine terraces, subsided marshes, liquefaction features, turbidites and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. Examining papers published before and after 2011, we investigate the impact of the new Cabinet Office guidelines on attempts to understand the magnitude and recurrence of these events. Additionally, we introduce the Belgian Science Policy Office funded QuakeRecNankai project, a collaboration aiming to supplement

  10. Seismogenic Processes In The Nankai Trough: Results Form Wide-angle Seismic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, S.; Nakanishi, A.; Park, J.-O.; Kaneda, Y.

    Active seismic studies to reveal the seismogenic zone structure have been widely car- ried out in the Nankai trough since the last five years. A subducted seamount colliding to the Japanese island arc crust was successfully imaged off the cape Muroto by an extensive active seismic survey. This subducted seamount is proposed as a barrier preventing a lateral propagation of the co-seismic rupture during the 1946 Nankaido Earthquake. In terms of the rupture process of the 1944 Nankaido Earthquake, both seismic and tsunami data (Kikuchi and Yamanaka, 2001; Tanioka and Satake, 1999) show the co-seismic ruptures were concentrated at the east of the Kii peninsula and did not extend to the Tokai district. Historic earthquake data also show that a recur- rence interval of the mega-thrust earthquakes off the Tokai district is not as regular as at other areas in the Nankai Trough. A key question is, therefore, if there is signifi- cant structural factor to prevent the rupture in this area. Even though it is proposed the Paleo-Zenisu ridge might be subducted in the eastern Nankai trough, no clear seismic image has been obtained. In July to August of 2001, an active seismic study using a super densely deployed OBS array was performed, as a part of an onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic survey, off the Tokai district. Results of first arrival tomography of the wide-angle seismic data show following structures: i) root of the Zenisu ridge ex- tends down to 15-20 km depth consisting of thicker lower crustal body (Vp = 6.6 - 7.4 km/s), ii) slightly thickening of subducted oceanic crust is recognized at immediately landward the Nankai trough suggesting the possible Paleo-Zenisu ridge. But, crustal volume of the Paleo-Zenisu might be significantly smaller than the present day Zenisu ridge, iii) abrupt thickening of middle (Vp =6.0 - 6.4 km/s) and lower (Vp=6.6-7.4 km/s) crust toward the Izu island arc is observed at the southern end of the profile. The structure representing the

  11. Importance of upper-level troughs in Mediterranean precipitating systems from satellite climatology to case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, J.-P.; Argence, S.; Lambert, D.; Richard, E.; Claud, C.; Funatsu, B. M.; Gauthier, N.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2009-09-01

    Heavy precipitating events are rather common in the Mediterranean region, with both local effects and large scale dynamics contributing to their occurrence and severity. Because of the several scale interactions and the inherent non-linearity of the atmospheric dynamics, the predictability of such events is limited at best to a couple of days, and indicating the importance of a precise description of the environment in which they develop. The importance of upper-level troughs is first shown by contrasting the large-scale environment associated with moderate and extreme precipitating systems in the Mediterranean, using 7 years (2001-2007) data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), on board NOAA satellites (Funatsu et al. MWR 2009 in press). Channel 8 of AMSU-A is used to identify upper-level troughs, while combinations of channels 3 to 5 of AMSU-B are used to detect precipitation following Funatsu et al. (JGR 2007). A climatology of precipitation shows that rain occurrence is widespread over the Mediterranean except in the eastern part of the basin in summer. Convective precipitation presents a seasonal migration being more frequent over land from April to August and over the Mediterranean Sea from September to December. A composite analysis was performed for selected regions where the frequency of intense precipitation is relatively high. Two cases were contrasted: rain without convection and extensive areas of deep convection. The composites show that an upper-level trough is present in both moderate and extreme rainfall, but the trough is narrower and deeper in the extreme precipitation events, in all seasons. At low-levels, sea surface temperature composites from ECMWF analyses show that the Mediterranean is often about 1 K warmer for extreme rainfall, and low-level winds much stronger and coming from the sea, suggesting that surface fluxes are essential in the development and maintenance of such heavy rainfall events. The role of upper-level troughs

  12. A dynamic model of extension in the Baltimore Canyon Trough Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Dennis L.; Sawyer, Dale S.

    1992-04-01

    A dynamic model of extension in the Baltimore Canyon trough region of the central North Atlantic indicates that rifting proceeded in two stages and was controlled by laterally offset preexisting weaknesses within the middle crust and upper mantle beneath the Appalachian orogen. The crustal weakness is hypothesized to result from thin-skinned thrust faulting in the Appalachian foreland, and the upper mantle weakness results from crustal thickening beneath the Appalachian hinterland. During the early stages of rifting (225-185 Ma), the loci of extension in the crust and mantle lie within the respective preweakened regions and are connected by a shear zone in the lower crust in a manner similar to whole lithosphere simple shear. Extension and thinning of the upper crust at this time results in the formation of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic rift basins in the Appalachian Piedmont and in the development of a horizontal pressure gradient which drives widespread ductile flow in the lower crust. The pressure gradient may also have influenced magma transport, moving melt generated beneath the eastern Baltimore Canyon trough into the more westerly Triassic basin province. During the late stages of rifting (185-175 Ma), extension in the crust shifts to a position overlying the preexisting upper mantle weakness as a result of thermal weakening by the upwelling asthenosphere in this region. The loci of extension in the crust and mantle are then coincident, and the style of rifting becomes similar to whole lithosphere pure shear. The shift in the locus of crustal extension is accompanied by the cessation of subsidence and volcanism in the Triassic basins, the onset of rapid subsidence in the Baltimore Canyon trough, and the formation of a basement hinge zone separating the highly thinned crust beneath the Baltimore Canyon trough from moderately thinned crust beneath the Triassic basin province. Extension becomes increasingly focused beneath the eastern edge of the Baltimore

  13. IMAGE EUV Observations and Modeling of the Plasmaspheric Density Trough Associated with the 24 May 2000 Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M.L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The IMAGE EUV imager observed a plasmaspheric density trough in association with a geomagnetically active period on 24 May 2000. At EUV wavelengths, this density trough appeared as an Archimedes spiral extending from Earth's shadow to approximately 1800 MLT. We present an analysis of this density trough using simulated EUV images. Observational EUV images are subjected to edge analysis to establish the plasmapause L-shell and the location of the density trough in terms of L-shell, MLT extent, and radial width. The plasmaspheric density distribution is modeled using both static and dynamic models for the plasmasphere. The background plasmasphere is then numerically simulated using the 4-parameter plasmaspheric density model contained within the Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) [Gallagher et al., 20001 and the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model (DGCPM). Simulated EUV images of the model plasmasphere are produced once an artificial density depletion, matching the observed MLT extent and width, has been removed. Once the azimuthal extent and width of the trough have been simulated, the depth of the artificial density depletion is iteratively adjusted to produce simulated EUV images that approximate observation. The results of this analysis and discussion of possible origins for this density trough will be presented.

  14. Exploring Unconventional Hydrocarbons in the Makó Trough, Pannonian basin, Hungary: Results and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Anita; Bada, Gabor; Szafian, Peter; Sztano, Orsolya; Law, Ben; Wallis, Rod

    2010-05-01

    The latest phase exploration in the Makó Trough, which commenced a few years ago, has focused on the utilization of unconventional hydrocarbons. Accumulations are regarded as "unconventional" when they cannot be produced economically except by means of some sort of stimulation, usually hydraulic fracturing. The model we have developed for the evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential indicates a significant gas accumulation in the area of the Makó Trough. The tally of the distinctive attributes of the hydrocarbon system and the combined analysis of the available geological data led to the conclusion that the Makó Trough represents an area of active basin-centered gas accumulation (BCGA), with very significant perspective reserves. In a BCGA, hydrocarbons do not accumulate conventionally, in structural or stratigraphic traps, but rather in cells. Due to the geological setting of the Makó Trough, the hydrocarbon cell here forms a relatively continuous zone marked by considerable internal lithological and petrophysical variability. The most prolific parts, called sweet spots, possess a reservoir potential higher than the average. The identification of these sweet spots constitutes one of the most important, and quite possibly the most challenging task of the entire exploration project. The hemipelagic Endrőd Formation, which acts as the source rock, contains organic-rich marls in a depth delimited by the 170-230 °C isotherms. These marls constitute the still active hydrocarbon "kitchen" of the BCGA in the Makó Trough. The top and bottom boundaries of the cell essentially coincide with the turbidites of the Szolnok Formation and the top of the pre-Neogene basement, respectively. In light of the fact that pressure, temperature, and maturity tests have produced rather similar results in a number of wells in the area, we have reason to believe that the extension of the Makó Trough's BCGA is of regional dimensions (>1000 km2). The thickness and lateral extension of

  15. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical, Hydrogen Peroxide and Fe(II) in the Sea Surface Microlayer (SML) Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaonna, Y.; Tachibana, C.; Kasaba, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) covers upper 1 to 1000 μm deep boundary layer of the ocean, where important biogeochemical processes take place. Photo-chemical reactions are activated by sunlight, so it is assumed that more photo-chemical reactions occur in SML than underlying bulk seawater (bulk). We initiated a study to understand chemical changes occurring in the SML by studying photochemical formation of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical (OH), both of which react with various organic substances and determine their lifetimes. Since OH can be formed by reaction between hydrogen peroxide and Fe(II), Fe(II) photoformation was also studied. We collected SML samples using a widely-used glass plate method and bulk samples by using a polyethylene bottles near the coast of Okinawa Island, Japan. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the SML were about twice those of bulk seawater samples. Hydrogen peroxide formation in the SML samples was ca. 2.8 times faster than the bulk seawater samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) and OH photoformation kinetics was similar for both SML and bulk samples. Although it was predicted that more OH could be formed from reaction between hydrogen peroxide and Fe(II), OH formation kinetics was similar in both SML and bulk, suggesting that either Fe(II) did not react with hydrogen peroxide or reaction is very slow, possibly by forming a complex with organic compounds in the SML and bulk.

  16. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779

  17. A new genus and new species of Paguridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from shallow subtidal waters in Okinawa Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    During a survey on decapod crustacean fauna of shallow coral reefs and nearby environments in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, four specimens of a small but distinctive undescribed species of pagurid hermit crab, which could not be referred to any known genus, were collected. The new taxon, Eutrichopagurus shirakawai n. gen., n. sp., is described and illustrated herein. The new genus is characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of deeply quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills, the third maxilliped with well-developed crista dentata and one or two accessory teeth on the ischium, the presence of unpaired left gonopore in the female, the absence of paired first pleopods in the female, and the telson with prominent tuft of setae on the lateral margin of the posterior lobes; the male is unknown at present. It appears close to Trichopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1968, but the deeply quadriserial gills immediately distinguish Eutrichopagurus from Trichopagurus. The new genus is also compared with other genera characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills and the lack of paired first pleopods in females. PMID:25781092

  18. In Situ Techniques for Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman, G. R.; Webster, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    In situ exploration of planetary surfaces employs multiple techniques that, when used together, yield important information about their formation histories and evolution. Combined geochemistry and mineralogy measurements reveal the phases present, their composition, morphology, and isotope ratios of constituents. Small and primitive bodies often present a special case where little to no compositional information has been obtained from ground-based or remote measurements. For example, Trojan asteroids and other D-type objects as well as Phobos and Deimos exhibit relatively featureless reflectance spectra as obtained by remote measurements. Yet samples of primitive material in the meteorite collection (e.g. Allende) reveal a fine grained structure with many phases and a wealth of chemical information. On-surface measurements are therefore a necessary component for understanding the origins of these solar system bodies. We will present measurement techniques that could provide microscopic mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. We will discuss instrumentation and measurements relevant to small body exploration - focusing more specifically on our recent results from the techniques of microscopic time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and Tunable Laser Spectroscopy (TLS). The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This work was performed in part at the California Institute of Technology for the Keck Institute for Space Studies, which is funded by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. [Meteoritics and mineralogy on possible ancient Martian life].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, A

    1996-12-01

    Possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001 was proposed by McKay et al. (Science, 273, 924-930, 1996). This ancient meteorite of 4.5 billion years old contains abundant carbonates as secondary minerals precipitated from a fluid on the martian surface. They showed the following lines of evidence for the ancient life; (1) unique mineral compositions and biominerals, (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in association with the carbonates, and (3) unique structures and morphologies typical of nanobacteria or microfossils. This review is divided into two parts; one is on the martian meteorites in general and ALH84001, which has many features unlike other martian meteorites, and the other is on mineralogical (biomineralogical) and geochemical features of the carbonates and microfossil-like structures. There is little doubt that ALH84001 is from Mars as well as eleven other SNC meteorites. However, the mineralogical and biomineralogical evidence for martian bacteria given by McKay et al. (1996) is controversial, and could be formed by non-biogenic processes. Thus, further study of ALH84001 and other martian meteorites is required. We also need to consider the future Mars mission especially sample return mission. PMID:11540347

  20. Strategies and Technologies for In Situ Mineralogical Investigations on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Bratton, C.; Koppel, L.; Hecht, M.; Metzger, E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface landers on Mars (Viking and Pathfinder) have not revealed satisfying answers to the mineralogy and lithology of the planet's surface. In part, this results from their prime directives: Viking focused on exobiology, Pathfinder focused on technology demonstration. The analytical instruments on board the landers made admirable attempts to extract the mineralogy and geology of Mars, as did countless modeling efforts after the missions. Here we suggest a framework for elucidating martian, or any other planetary geology, through an approach that defines (a) type of information required, (b) explorational strategy harmonious with acquisition of these data, (c) interpretation approach to the data, (d) compatible mission architecture, (e) instrumentation for interrogating rocks and soil. (a) Data required: The composition of a planet is ordered at scales ranging from molecules to minerals to rocks, and from geological units to provinces to planetary-scale systems. The largest ordering that in situ compositional instruments can attempt to interrogate is rock type "aggregate" information. This is what the geologist attempts to identify first. From this, mineralogy can be either directly seen or inferred. From mineralogy can be determined elemental abundances and perhaps the state of the compounds as being crystalline or amorphous. Knowledge of rock type and mineralogy is critical for elucidating geologic process. Mars landers acquired extremely valuable elemental data, but attempted to move from elements to aggregates, but this can only be done by making many assumptions and sometimes giant leaps of faith. Data we believe essential are elements, minerals, degree of ordering of compounds, and the aggregate or rock type that these materials compose. (b) Explorational strategy: A lander should function as a surrogate geologist. Of the total landscape, a geologist sees much, but gives detailed attention to an infinitesimally small amount of what is seen. To acquire