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1

Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary report is presented of the emission inventory for the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur oxides, partic...

M. J. McGraw

1970-01-01

2

Lower-Division Offerings in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area: Studies and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides information on associate degree and certificate offerings at four two-year institutions in the Oklahoma and Tulsa City metropolitan areas and articulation between baccalaureate degree programs at the University of Central Oklahoma and four metropolitan area two-year institutions. Part I classifies Oklahoma City area

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

3

Tornadoes in the Oklahoma City Area Since 1890.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oklahoma City (OKC), by virtue of its large areal extent and location near the heart of 'tornado alley,' has earned a reputation over the years as one of the tornado-prone cities in the United States. Each of the 93 tornado listings presented in this repo...

M. L. Branick

1994-01-01

4

American Housing Survey for the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area in 1988. Current Housing Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents statistics on housing and household characteristics from the 1988 American Housing Survey Metropolitan Sample (AHS-MS), for the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area. The AHS was designed to provide a current series of information on the siz...

1990-01-01

5

Comprehensive Hosing Market Analysis: Oklahoma City, Oklahome As of October 1, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Housing Market Area (HMA) is coterminous with the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Statistical Area and comprises Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties in central Oklahoma. The HMA includes the st...

2009-01-01

6

Observed winds, turbulence, and dispersion in built-up downtown areas of Oklahoma City and Manhattan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind and tracer data from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) and the Manhattan Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05)\\u000a urban field experiments are being analyzed to aid in understanding air flow and dispersion near street-level in built-up downtown\\u000a areas. The mean winds are separately calculated for groups of anemometers having similar exposures such as “near street level”\\u000a and “on

Steven Hanna; John White; Ying Zhou

2007-01-01

7

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ARTS ON THE OKLAHOMA CITY AREA ECONOMY FOR 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the type and magnitude of economic impacts on the Oklahoma City economy by 34 arts agencies, organizations, festivals, shows, programs, and other events. The direct and secondary impacts on the Oklahoma City economy in terms of spending and employment were significant. Further analysis indicated that the industry was in need of state,

James V. Pinto

1980-01-01

8

Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T. L.; Bergman, D. L.; Patneaude, A. L.

1983-01-01

9

Observed winds, turbulence, and dispersion in built-up downtown areas of Oklahoma City and Manhattan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind and tracer data from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) and the Manhattan Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05) urban field experiments are being analyzed to aid in understanding air flow and dispersion near street-level in built-up downtown areas. The mean winds are separately calculated for groups of anemometers having similar exposures such as “near street level” and “on building top”. Several general results are found, such as the scalar wind speed at street level is about 1/3 of that at building top. Turbulent standard deviations of wind speed components and temperature, and vertical fluxes of momentum and sensible heat, are calculated from sonic anemometers near street level at 20 locations in JU2003 and five locations in MSG05, and from two rooftop locations in MSG05. The turbulence observations are consistent with observations in the literature at other cities, although the JU2003 and MSG05 data are unique in that many data are available near street level. For example, it is found that the local (i.e., at the measuring height) ?w/u_{ast} averages about 1.5 and the local u_{ast}/u averages about 0.25 in the two cities, where ?w is the standard deviation of vertical velocity fluctuations, u_{ast} is the friction velocity, and u is the wind speed. The ratio of temperature fluctuations to temperature scale, ?T/T_{ast} , averages about -3 in both cities, consistent with similarity theory for slightly unstable conditions, where ?T is the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations, and T_{ast} is the temperature scale. The calculated Obukhov length, L, is also consistent with slightly unstable conditions near street level, even at night during JU2003. The SF6 tracer concentration observations from JU2003 are analyzed. Values of uC_{max}/Q for the continuous releases are calculated for each release and arc distance, where C_{max} is the 30-min average arc maximum concentration, Q is the continuous source emission rate, and u is the spatial-averaged wind speed in the downtown area. The basic characteristics of the JU2003 plot of averaged uC_{max}/Q agree reasonably well with similar plots for other urban experiments in Salt Lake City and London (i.e., at x < 1000 m, C_{max}/Q = Ax^{-2}) . A is found to be about 3 during the day and about 10 during the night.

Hanna, Steven; White, John; Zhou, Ying

2007-12-01

10

Researching the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The authors present a literature retrieval strategy for investigators who plan to conduct research on the Oklahoma City bombing. To facilitate a comprehensive review of the scholarly research on disasters, mass emergencies, and terrorism, a multidatabase search strategy is strongly encouraged. Secondly, a wealth of current information and data on the bombing are available on "popular" and "news" files. PMID:8643773

Piotrowski, C; Perdue, B

1995-12-01

11

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA 2001-0496-2866, Oklahoma City Community College, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request for a health hazard evaluation from employees at the Oklahoma City Community College Bookstore on August 13, 2001. Employees were concerned that the temporary location of...

2001-01-01

12

Healthcare Inspection: Review of a Patient with Pulmonary Embolism Oklahoma City VA Medical Center Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The VA Office of Inspector General (OIG) Office of Healthcare Inspections reviewed allegations of misdiagnosis by providers at the Oklahoma City VA Medical Center, (facility) in Oklahoma City, OK. The purpose of the inspection was to determine if the alle...

2011-01-01

13

Building a Learning City: Developing School and Community Coalitions in Oklahoma City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative case study focuses on a district and community relations plan developed in Oklahoma City Public Schools. This article provides a description of the proposal regarding MAPS for KIDS (Metropolitan Area Projects for Keep Improving District Schools) in Oklahoma City from 1998 through November 2001, and it explores the coalitions that…

Garn, Gregg

2005-01-01

14

Granite Monument Plaza Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Granite Monument Plaza - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

15

75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...the licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Griffin requests the substitution of channel...

2010-02-01

16

Typical Raised Planter Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Typical Raised Planter - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

17

Site Plans (1936 and 2001) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plans (1936 and 2001) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

18

Municipal Building Planting Plan Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Municipal Building Planting Plan - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

19

Site Plans (2008 As Built) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plans (2008 As Built) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

20

West Lawn Site and Planting Plans Oklahoma City Civic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West Lawn Site and Planting Plans - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

21

78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek...Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) Rail Division intend to prepare an EIS pursuant...for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

2013-05-28

22

Injuries to rescue workers following the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify and describe physical injuries to rescue workers in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. Data were obtained from medical records from 16 hospital emergency departments and specialty clinics in the Oklahoma City area, and reported visits to medical providers at the bombing site. Participants were rescue personnel from the Oklahoma City Fire Department, the mutual aid fire stations in the Oklahoma City area, the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Urban Search and Rescue teams, and military personnel stationed near Oklahoma City. All participants were involved in the rescue and recovery operation. The two main outcome measures were (1) the number, types, and rates of injuries; and (2) comparisons of case-finding methods, including medical chart review and telephone interview. The most common injuries were strains and sprains (21.4%), foreign bodies in eyes (14.5%), and laceration/crush/puncture wounds (18.4%). Of the four case-finding mechanisms, telephone interviews following the event identified the largest number of cases (84.5%). Most injuries were minor; some injuries such as chemical burns were preventable. The potential utility of other data collection mechanisms is considered. PMID:9131228

Dellinger, A M; Waxweiler, R J; Mallonee, S

1997-06-01

23

Mass casualties in the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was partially destroyed by a terrorist bomb on April 19, 1995. Injuries were sustained by 759 people, 168 of whom died. Fatalities occurred primarily among victims in the collapse zone of the federal building. Only 83 survivors required hospitalization. Twenty-two surviving victims sustained multiple fractures. Most victims arrived at local emergency departments by private vehicle within 2 hours. More severely injured survivors were transported by ambulance. The closer receiving hospitals used emergency department facilities and minor treatment areas. Few survivors were extricated from the bombing site more than 3 hours after the detonation. Mass casualty plans must provide for improved communications, diversion and retriage from facilities nearest the disaster site, and effective coordination of community and hospital resources. PMID:15187837

Teague, David C

2004-05-01

24

Verification of a Mesoscale Data-Assimilation and Forecasting System for the Oklahoma City Area during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command have developed a multiscale, rapid-cycling, real-time, four-dimensional data-assimilation and forecasting system that has been in operational use at five Army test ranges since 2001. This system was employed to provide operational modeling support for the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) Dispersion Experiment, conducted in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during July 2003. To better support this mission, modifications were made to the nonlocal boundary layer (BL) parameterization (known as the Medium Range Forecast scheme) of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University NCAR Mesoscale Model, in order to improve BL forecasts. The NCEP Oregon State University Air Force Hydrologic Research Laboratory land surface model was also improved to better represent urban forcing. Verification of the operational model runs and retrospectively simulated cases show 1) a significantly reduced low bias in the forecast surface wind speed and 2) more realistic daytime BL heights. During JU2003, the forecast urban heat island, urban dry bubble, and urban BL height agree reasonably well with observations and conceptual models. An analysis of three-dimensional atmospheric structures, based on model analyses for eight clear-sky days during the field program, reveals some interesting features of the Oklahoma City urban BL, including complex thermally induced circulations and associated convergence/divergence zones, a nocturnal thermal shadow downwind of the urban area, and the reduction of low-level jet wind speeds by more vigorous nocturnal mixing over the city.

Liu, Yubao; Chen, Fei; Warner, Thomas; Basara, Jeffrey

2006-07-01

25

Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release

Thomas L. Holzer; Joe B. Fletcher; Gary S. Fuis; Trond Ryberg; Thomas M. Brocher; Christopher M. Dietel

1996-01-01

26

Oklahoma city: The storying of a disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bombing in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995 was a massive assault on the meaning?making of survivors and community members. Utilizing a social constructionist perspective, this article explores the evolution of the community's social narrative as it shifted in the immediate wake of the blast to a new framework for understanding the event three months later. It is speculated

James E. Levine

1996-01-01

27

RAPTOR REHABILITATION AT THE OKLAHOMA CITY ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of raptor rehabilitation has been conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in an effort to conserve wildlife, to assist the publid, and to gain knowledge about the care and treatment of injured birds. From October 1973 through December 1974 Red-tailed Hawks and Great Horned Owls constituted 45.3 percent of all birds donated. Donations from the public comprised 89.0

John C. Snelling

1975-01-01

28

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business district (CBD) both prior to and during the field experiment. Among the variables collected were high-resolution observations of air temperature from various instrument sources. Additional observations of air temperature were also collected at Oklahoma Mesonet stations in the rural areas surrounding Oklahoma City. Using an index value, the diurnal cycle of the urban heat island (UHI) for Oklahoma City, with respect to the surrounding rural terrain, was quantified. The results revealed a consistent mean nocturnal UHI greater than 1.5°C at both 2 and 9 m. However, observations at 2 m during JU2003 revealed a significant urban "cool" island during the convective portion of the day. The mean variability of temperature within the urban core of Oklahoma City increased significantly after sunrise, increased to a maximum near solar noon, and decreased following sunset. These results were inconsistent with the rural observations wherein the variability among sites was maximized during the nocturnal period. Finally, the vertical temperature gradient between 2 and 9 m demonstrated a clear and strong diurnal trend at the rural locations, whereas observations from the urban environment were nearly isothermal and consistent with near-neutral conditions throughout JU2003.

Basara, Jeffrey B.; Hall, Peter K.; Schroeder, Amanda J.; Illston, Bradley G.; Nemunaitis, Kodi L.

2008-10-01

29

Psychological response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City was the most devastating terrorist activity that has occurred in America. Prevention of revictimization of persons seriously affected by the bombing was central to the planned response to this tragedy. Coordination and collaboration among local, state, and national agencies promoted effective clinical services provision, research facilitation, and prevention of revictimization. Information gathered from this cooperative effort will contribute to the effort to minimize the potential for such tragedies in the future as well as help to develop prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the effects when the next such disaster occurs. PMID:8682905

Krug, R S; Nixon, S J; Vincent, R

1996-01-01

30

Verification of a Mesoscale Data-Assimilation and Forecasting System for the Oklahoma City Area during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command have developed a multiscale, rapid-cycling, real-time, four-dimensional data-assimilation and forecasting system that has been in operational use at five Army test ranges since 2001. This system was employed to provide operational modeling support for the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) Dispersion Experiment, conducted in Oklahoma City,

Yubao Liu; Fei Chen; Thomas Warner; Jeffrey Basara

2006-01-01

31

75 FR 65524 - United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-71,863] United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...former workers of United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (the subject firm). The determination was...

2010-10-25

32

Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release of this record prompted speculation that each wave train was caused by a different energy source. On May 23, 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the demolition of the bomb-ravaged Federal Building with portable seismographs (Figure 1). Two wave trains were picked up again. The recordings indicate that the wave trains during both the bombing and demolition represent seismic waves traveling at different velocities. We conclude that the two wave trains recorded during the bombing are consistent with a single impulsive energy source.

Holzer, Thomas L.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Fuis, Gary S.; Ryberg, Trond; Brocher, Thomas M.; Dietel, Christopher M.

33

Ground water available in the Davenport area, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum describes the ground-water resources in the vicinity of Davenport, Lincoln County, Oklahoma. It is based on a one-day trip to Davenport made by the writer on February 11, 1948, to obtain information in addition to that in the ground-water files in Norman on the availability of ground water for public supply or other uses in the Davenport area. Davenport is a town of about 1,000 in east-central Lincoln County, Oklahoma, on U.S. Highway 66, about half way between Oklahoma City and Tulsa. It is in an area of undulating to gently rolling topography underlain by rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The area is drained into Deep Fork of the Canadian River, by Dry Creek and its tributary, Chuckaho Creek. (available in photostat copy only)

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

34

Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a

T. L. Holzer

2002-01-01

35

Market Feasibility Study of the Northeast, Park Plaza and Park Estates Shopping Centers, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents research findings related to three shoppings centers in northeast Oklahoma City. The three shopping centers targeted were Northeast Shopping Center, Park Plaza and Park Estates. An analysis of these centers has been divided into sever...

1978-01-01

36

Report for Consultation on the Metropolitan Oklahoma City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Oklahoma).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is intended to provide the basic background information to provide a basis for the adoption of regional air quality standards and the implementation of those standards. It proposes boundaries for the Oklahoma City Intrastate Air Quality Control...

1970-01-01

37

Impact of Configurations of Rapid Intermittent Assimilation of WSR-88D Radar Data for the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Thunderstorm Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various configurations of the intermittent data assimilation procedure for Level-II Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler radar data are examined for the analysis and prediction of a tornadic thunderstorm that occurred on 8 May 2003 near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Several tornadoes were produced by this thunderstorm, causing extensive damages in the south Oklahoma City area. Within the rapidly cycled assimilation system, the

Ming Hu; Ming Xue

2007-01-01

38

75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-395; MB Docket No. 10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY...1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in...

2010-03-19

39

Responding to Terrorism Victims. Oklahoma City and Beyond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City literally brought home the impact of terrorism for Americans. Individuals and agencies responded in extraordinary ways in the aftermath of the bombing and throughout the criminal t...

2000-01-01

40

Feasibility Study - Industrial Park in Northeast Oklahoma City.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report studies the feasibility of establishing an industrial park in the northeast sector of Oklahoma City, with respect to its geographic location, accessibility, size, the community characteristics and the available infrastructure. The analysis pres...

1975-01-01

41

Subsurface geology of the Seminole area. [Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study area includes N. Seminole County and portions of Pottawatomie and Okfuskee counties, which are in the Greater Seminole District of central Oklahoma and in the NW. part of the Arkoma Basin. The subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and conditions of oil accumulation of Desmoinesian and older rocks in the Seminole Area are discussed. Subsurface structure maps, isopach maps, and cross

Cutolo-Lozano

1969-01-01

42

Oklahoma's Ouachita area beginning to stir  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on exploration of Ouachita rocks of southeastern Oklahoma. Wells are completed or planned in the Potato Hills, Moyers, and Atoka areas of the Ouachita Province. Deep and shallow drilling will start soon in a 9 sq mile area in the Potato Hills area of southern Latimer County. The shallow drilling program will consist of eight wells to about 6,000 ft to assess potential in Ordovician Big Fork, Womble, and Mississippian-Devonian Arkansas Novaculite.

Petzet, G.A.

1991-02-18

43

Field applications of CORSIM: I-40 freeway design evaluation, Oklahoma City, OK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of traffic flow is an effective tool for evaluating alternative roadway designs, particularly in congested urban areas. CORSIM, a traffic simulation model with detailed representation of vehicles and their interactions, was used to study the performance of two alternatives for a freeway reconstruction project in Oklahoma City. The simulation identified problem areas in the two freeway design alternatives and

Gene Daigle; Michelle Thomas; Meenakshy Vasudevan

1998-01-01

44

Perceived effects and recovery in Oklahoma City firefighters.  

PubMed

This survey of 325 Oklahoma City Firefighters examined their perceptions of the effect of the bombing, their recovery and their sources of support. Other variables that were considered in this analysis included age, usefulness of the Critical Incidence Stress Management (CISM) procedures, and attitude, an aggregate variable that accounted for job satisfaction. Of particular importance in this analysis was the finding that support from "faith" was a primary predictor of positive outcome and positive attitude over the one-year period. However, the effect of the variable differed for older and younger firefighters. That is, there was a greater proportion of younger firefighters among those reporting greater support from faith. These data suggest that, at least in this geographic area, chaplains, and other spiritual leaders may play a particularly important role in the aftermath of such a disaster. PMID:10213969

Nixon, S J; Schorr, J; Boudreaux, A; Vincent, R D

1999-04-01

45

Case finding and mental health services for children in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1995 Oklahoma City bombing killed 168 people, including 19 children, and injured hundreds more. Children were a major focus of concern in the mental health response. Most services for them were delivered in the Oklahoma City Public Schools where approximately 40,000 students were enrolled at the time of the explosion. Middle and high school students in the Oklahoma City

Betty Pfefferbaum; Guy M. Sconzo; Brian W. Flynn; Lauri J. Kearns; Debby E. Doughty; Robin H. Gurwitch; Sara Jo Nixon; Shajitha Nawaz

2003-01-01

46

Never Again Would We Be the Same: The Oklahoma City Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A terrorist attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City showed the nation that no area of the country was free from the possibility of violence or terrorism. This author describes the day and the aftermath of the tragedy.

Kent Mathers

1996-01-01

47

Evaluation of the 1982-83 Oklahoma City Public Schools Indiana Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma City Public School 1982-83 Indian Education Program served students in two major areas: academic assistance and supplemental guidance and counseling. Specific program objectives included the following: under academic assistance (1) students receiving tutoring will show achievement gains in reading and mathematics; (2) the Title IV-A…

Crawford, John

1983-01-01

48

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business

Jeffrey B. Basara; Peter K. Hall; Amanda J. Schroeder; Bradley G. Illston; Kodi L. Nemunaitis

2008-01-01

49

How a School Coped with the Oklahoma City Bombing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the Oklahoma City bombing, fifth graders at a nearby elementary school coped with ensuing uncertainty, pain, and loss. They wrote appreciative letters to fire and rescue workers; shared personal stories with classmates; compiled an anthology of poems, prayers, and stories; attended an assembly to honor parents participating in rescue…

Aspy, David N.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

1996-01-01

50

Emergency Department Impact of the Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To collect descriptive epidemiologic injury data on patients who suffered acute injuries after the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing and to describe the effect on metropolitan emergency departments. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of victims seen for injury or illness related to the bombing at 1 of the 13 study hospitals from 9:02 AM

David E Hogan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Daniel J Dire; Scott R Lillibridge

1999-01-01

51

Oklahoma city: Disaster challenges mental health and medical administrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health and medical administrators responded to the Oklahoma City bombing with cooperative and overlapping efforts to meet community needs in the wake of terrorism. The major agencies assisted in the immediate rescue response, organized crisis hotlines, prepared mental health professionals to counsel bereaved families and victims, organized debriefing of rescuers, assessed mental health needs of local school children, planned

Phebe Tucker; Betty Pfefferbaum; Robert Vincent; Sharron D. Boehler; Sara Jo Nixon

1998-01-01

52

A paradigm for multidisciplinary disaster research: the oklahoma city experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to describe the creation and operation of a multidisciplinary group to examine the Oklahoma City (OKC) bombing. The OKC bombing presented an opportunity to study a major disaster within 2 days of the incident. The Disaster Health Studies Group (DHSG) was created to facilitate this effort. The creation, organization, and operation of the DHSG

Gary Quick

1998-01-01

53

The impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing on the partners of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing on the spouses and significant others of a volunteer\\u000a sample of Oklahoma City firefighters who participated in the bombing rescue effort. Twenty-seven partners of Oklahoma City\\u000a firefighters participated in this study, conducted 42 to 44 months after the bombing. These partners were assessed using a\\u000a structured diagnostic interview

Betty Pfefferbaum; Carol S. North; Kenneth Bunch; Teddy G. Wilson; Phebe Tucker; John K. Schorr

2002-01-01

54

Oklahoma City's killer tornadoes: how local hospitals responded to yet another extreme disaster.  

PubMed

On the evening of May 3rd, a group of high-powered tornadoes tore through Oklahoma--leaving more than 40 people dead and hundreds injured. The main twister formed about 45 miles south of Oklahoma City and was classified F5, the most severe type of tornado, with winds of more than 260 mph. It cut a path one mile wide; stayed on the ground for more than four hours; and, along with other twisters, demolished 60 miles of countryside. More than 7,000 homes were destroyed or damaged, and more than 5,000 families were left homeless. Oklahoma City was hit the hardest, with about 1,500 homes leveled in the storm. A total of 755 people were injured in Oklahoma City and the surrounding area, testing local hospital disaster plans to the maximum. The same hospitals had been called on in April 1995 to handle the over 500 persons injured in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a terrorist blast that killed 168. The hospitals' latest response to a disaster situation is recorded in this report. PMID:10621277

1999-09-01

55

The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive study of the Emergency Medical Services response to a bombing of a United States Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 19 April 1995. The explosion emanated from a rented truck parked in the front of the building. The force of the explosion destroyed three of the four support columns in the front of the building and resulted in a pancaking effect of the upper floors onto the lower floors. There were three distinct phases of the medical response: 1) Immediately available local EMS ambulances and staff; 2) Additional ambulances staffed by recalled, off-duty personnel; and 3) mutual-aid ambulances and personnel from the surrounding communities. There were 361 persons in the building at the time of the explosion, 163 of these perished. Within the first hour of the explosion, 139 patients were transported to area hospitals. Of these, 32% were in critical condition. During the day of the explosion, 444 persons were treated for physical injuries: 410 of these were related to the explosion and 14, including one with fatal injuries, were sustained during search and rescue attempts. A total of 354 (80%) were treated and released from emergency departments, and 90 (20%) were admitted to hospitals. Six of the transported victims either were dead on arrival to the emergency department or died after admission to the hospital. Of those who died, 95% of the deaths were related to blunt trauma associated with the collapse of the structure. Only three persons were extricated alive after the first five hours following the explosion. The scene became flooded with volunteers who, although their intentions were to provide help and aid to those injured, created a substantial logistical problem for Incident Command. Several other lessons were learned: 1) Telephone lines and cells became overloaded, but the Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio system was operational only in three of the 15 hospitals; 2) Volunteer personnel should have responded to the hospitals and not to the scene; and 3) Training was an essential for the success of such a response. Thus, the success of this operation was a function of the intense training, practice, and coordination between multiple agencies. PMID:10187007

Maningas, P A; Robison, M; Mallonee, S

56

Ground-water in the Beggs area, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum discusses the geology of the Beggs area in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, as it is related to the availability of ground water. Geological reports and unpublished data from the files of the Oklahoma Geological Survey, together with local information furnished by R.W. Steinman, Beggs Water Superintendent, are the basis for the statements that follow. (available as photostat copy only)

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

57

Oklahoma City: disaster challenges mental health and medical administrators.  

PubMed

Mental health and medical administrators responded to the Oklahoma City bombing with cooperative and overlapping efforts to meet community needs in the wake of terrorism. The major agencies assisted in the immediate rescue response, organized crisis hotlines, prepared mental health professionals to counsel bereaved families and victims, organized debriefing of rescuers, assessed mental health needs of local school children, planned for longer term treatment, and coordinated research efforts to learn from the disaster. Implications to mental health administrators responding to significant acts of terrorism are discussed. PMID:9516298

Tucker, P; Pfefferbaum, B; Vincent, R; Boehler, S D; Nixon, S J

1998-02-01

58

Oklahoma City bombing: exacerbation of symptoms in veterans with PTSD.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops following exposure to an extremely traumatic stressor and consists of reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms. Exposure to stimuli reminiscent of the original trauma often causes an exacerbation of symptoms. Models attempting to explain this phenomenon include classical conditioning, emotional network imagery, and memory consolidation. The recent bombing in Oklahoma City caused an exacerbation of symptoms in veterans from World War II, the Korean War, and Vietnam, ranging from images of combat to memories of being called "baby-killer." These various responses to identical stimuli might help to explain the importance of attached meaning to traumatic events. PMID:8904036

Moyers, F

1996-02-01

59

Transmission of employment shocks before and after the Oklahoma City tornado  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the economic impact of the May 3, 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak on the labor markets of Oklahoma City (OK), Wichita (KS), and Kansas City (MO). In particular, this article examines the transmission of shocks to employment growth across these different labor markets. Using monthly employment data from January 1990 to December 2004, we provide empirical evidence on

Bradley T. Ewing; Jamie B. Kruse; Mark A. Thompson

2005-01-01

60

Twister! Employment responses to the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the impact of the 3 May 1999 tornado on the Oklahoma City labour market. We estimated time series models that allow for time-varying variance in employment growth. The models include intervention variables designed to capture the tornado's effect at initial impact as well as over the post-tornado period. In terms of total employment growth, the Oklahoma City

Bradley T. Ewing; Jamie B. Kruse; Mark A. Thompson

2009-01-01

61

Relations among land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1968-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, has collected water-quality samples at the North Canadian River near Harrah, Oklahoma (the Harrah station), since 1968, and the North Canadian River at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (the Britton Road station), since 1988. The North Canadian municipal wastewater-treatment plant, managed by the city of Oklahoma City, is the largest wastewater-treatment plant in the North Canadian River Basin and discharges effluent between the Britton Road and Harrah stations. Water-quality constituent concentrations were summarized, and trends in concentrations and frequencies of detection of selected constituents with time were evaluated to determine if changes in land cover, streamflow, and other potential sources of constituents in water had significant effects on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City.

Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

2011-01-01

62

Boundary-Layer Structure Upwind and Downwind of Oklahoma City during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Study  

SciTech Connect

The Joint Urban 2003 field study in Oklahoma City in July 2003 provided a comprehensive data set that included measurements from sites upwind and downwind of Oklahoma City where sodars, radar wind profilers/RASSes, and radiosondes were deployed. Radiosonde measurements were taken during six daytime intensive observational periods (IOPs) and during four nighttime IOPs, while the sodars and radars operated almost continuously during the entire month of July. The upwind and downwind sites were located approximately 2 km south and 5 km north of downtown Oklahoma City, respectively. Boundary-layer heights and wind and temperature structure at both sites have been investigated and compared to determine effects of the urban area on mean boundary-layer structure. Initial results show that differences in boundary-layer structure between the upwind and downwind location are small, i.e., there is no detectable effect of downtown Oklahoma City on the mean boundary-layer structure 5 km downwind. These measurements are compared with a numerical model and simple analytical models such as those that predict the growth of an internal boundary layer after a roughness change, and an advective thermodynamic model used to determine mixing heights in an urban area.

De Wekker, Stephan; Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Doran, J. C.; Shaw, William J.

2004-08-25

63

Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a government cover up. Preliminary statements by the scientific community also contributed to the uncertainty. A public science organization issued a press release that stated "the location and source of the second surface wave-recording is unknown. Detailed investigations at the building site may offer an explanation as to the cause and origin of the second event." A prominent professional newsletter reported that the "first event was caused by energy from the explosion and the second from the fall of the building." To understand the seismic phases in the April 19 seismograms, the USGS monitored the demolition of the damaged building on May 23, 1995, with a portable seismic array. The array recorded the same 2 wave trains during the demolition and indicated the wave trains were a propagation effect and not the result of multiple sources. Modeling of the waveforms indicated that the 2 wave trains probably resulted from propagation of seismic energy in a near-surface zone with a strong velocity gradient. The first phase appeared to be a packet of scattered body waves and the second was the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave. Timely resolution of the ambiguity of the seismogram and publication of results in a refereed publication, EOS, discouraged a conspiracy defense by the terrorists.

Holzer, T. L.

2002-05-01

64

Personality and posttraumatic stress disorder among directly exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew disaster studies have specifically examined personality in association with exposure to disaster and development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A study of survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing examined PTSD and personality measured after the disaster.

Carol S. North; Anna Abbacchi; C. Robert Cloninger

65

Annotated bibliography of the Anadarko basin area; Kansas - Oklahoma - Texas  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains 118 additional records related to the geology of the Anadarko basin area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; petrology; tectonics; and geochemistry. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area.

McLaughlin, J.E.

1985-01-01

66

Area Wage Survey - Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first A-series tables provide information on wage levels at the time of the survey for selected office clerical, professional and technical, maintenance and powerplant, and custodial and material movement occupations. The last two A-series tables prov...

1973-01-01

67

A paradigm for multidisciplinary disaster research: the Oklahoma City experience.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to describe the creation and operation of a multidisciplinary group to examine the Oklahoma City (OKC) bombing. The OKC bombing presented an opportunity to study a major disaster within 2 days of the incident. The Disaster Health Studies Group (DHSG) was created to facilitate this effort. The creation, organization, and operation of the DHSG is outlined. In addition the mission statement, participants, communications, political empowerment, data preservation and collection, data ownership, patient rights, threats to the DHSG, media interactions, funding, the institutional review board process, and results reporting will be detailed. The 22 projects of the DHSG are listed. In conclusion, four main findings are examined: 1) A multidisciplinary disaster study group is feasible and can be rapidly organized; 2) certain organizations and institutions form a core group for facilitation of the research effort; 3) specific issues must be addressed in order for the group to succeed; and 4) the group leader should have disaster expertise and be committed to the multidisciplinary process. PMID:9696182

Quick, G

68

Ground water in the Anadarko area [Caddo County], Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report offers a preliminary interpretation of the geology and ground-water hydrology of the Anadarko area, Oklahoma. L.V. Davis prepared the accompanying map from aerial photographs and furnished much of the geologic information, and records of the State Mineral Survey (WPA) were used in the preparation of the section on the Rush Springs sandstone. (available as photostat copy only)

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

69

Case finding and mental health services for children in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The 1995 Oklahoma City bombing killed 168 people, including 19 children, and injured hundreds more. Children were a major focus of concern in the mental health response. Most services for them were delivered in the Oklahoma City Public Schools where approximately 40,000 students were enrolled at the time of the explosion. Middle and high school students in the Oklahoma City Public Schools completed a clinical assessment 7 weeks after the explosion. The responses of 2720 students were analyzed to explore predictors of posttraumatic stress symptomatology, functioning, and treatment contact. Posttraumatic stress symptomatology was associated with initial reaction to the incident and to bomb-related television exposure. Functional difficulty was associated with initial reaction and posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Only 5% of the students surveyed had received counseling. There was no relationship between posttraumatic stress symptomatology and counseling contact for students with the highest levels of posttraumatic stress. Implications for school-based services are discussed. PMID:12710374

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sconzo, Guy M; Flynn, Brian W; Kearns, Lauri J; Doughty, Debby E; Gurwitch, Robin H; Nixon, Sara Jo; Nawaz, Shajitha

70

Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Arcadia Lake, Oklahoma: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arcadia Lake is located within the metropolitan area of Oklahoma City and Edmund, in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, about 2.4 km (1.5 miles) southwest of Arcadia, Oklahoma (Figure 1). Construction of the earth-filled dam was authorized by the Flood Control Ac...

G. O. Dick R. M. Smart E. R. Gilliland

2004-01-01

71

Boundary-Layer Structure Upwind and Downwind of Oklahoma City during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Urban 2003 field study in Oklahoma City in July 2003 provided a comprehensive data set that included measurements from sites upwind and downwind of Oklahoma City where sodars, radar wind profilers\\/RASSes, and radiosondes were deployed. Radiosonde measurements were taken during six daytime intensive observational periods (IOPs) and during four nighttime IOPs, while the sodars and radars operated almost

Stephan F. J. De Wekker; Larry K. Berg; K. Jerry Allwine; J. Christopher Doran; William J. Shaw

2004-01-01

72

Geology Fieldnotes: Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Oklahoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the Chickasaw National Recreation Area including geology, park maps, visitor information, photographs, and links for more details. The human attraction to the water found there(streams, lakes, and springs), human history, the old mountains (300 million years old - Carboniferous) formed by the Arbuckle uplift, and sedimentary rock deposits are highlighted.

73

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

74

Teachers' psychological reactions 7 weeks after the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

This study assessed teachers' reactions to the Oklahoma City bombing. Peritraumatic reactions, the interaction of media exposure with stress from media coverage, feelings toward the perpetrators, and worry about safety predicted posttraumatic stress. Twenty percent reported difficulty handling demands; 5% sought counseling. Outreach efforts should assess and assist teachers. PMID:15291703

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Gurwitch, Robin H; Doughty, Debby E; Pynoos, Robert S; Foy, David W; Brandt, Edward N; Reddy, Chandrashekar

2004-07-01

75

Psychosocial adjustment of directly exposed survivors 7 years after the Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term course of psychiatric disorders, symptoms, and functioning among 113 directly exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing systematically assessed at 6 months and again nearly 7 years postbombing.

Carol S. North; Betty Pfefferbaum; Aya Kawasaki; Sungkyu Lee; Edward L. Spitznagel

2011-01-01

76

Information from 1983 Oklahoma City Community College Graduates. Research Monograph I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In May 1984, questionnaires were sent to all students who graduated from Oklahoma City Community College (OCCC) between December 1982 and July 1983. A total of 387 questionnaires were mailed, soliciting information on educational objectives, current educational/employment status, college major, ratings of college services, transfer experiences,…

Shirazi, Annmarie

77

Oklahoma City FILM Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the evaluation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools Even Start Program, also called the Family Intergenerational Literacy Model (FILM), now in its twelfth full year of operation. The evaluation focuses on the total population of adult students, preschoolers, adult graduates, and preschool graduates. The…

Richardson, Donna Castle; Shove, Joanie; Brickman, Sharon; Terrell, Sherry; Shields, Jane

78

A Study of Mental Ability Testing and Its Implications for the Oklahoma City Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study follows a 1980 moratorium on group mental ability testing called by the district's superintendent when questions relating to the informational value and cost-effectiveness of the Otis Lennon Mental Ability Test (OLMA) were raised by the Oklahoma City Public School District. Criticisms of intelligence tests and relevant issues are…

Hall, Janie L.

79

In service to the real: Simulation, ideology, and the Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores how ideology and simulation work side by side, illustrating how the Oklahoma City Bombing is simultaneously deinscribed of and reinscribed with meaning. The thesis shows instances in which the inability to differentiate between the real and the simulated is of no matter to those who are concerned only with the real. First, the thesis explores the strategies

Margaret H Hirschberg

1998-01-01

80

Information from 1983 Oklahoma City Community College Graduates. Research Monograph I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 1984, questionnaires were sent to all students who graduated from Oklahoma City Community College (OCCC) between December 1982 and July 1983. A total of 387 questionnaires were mailed, soliciting information on educational objectives, current educational/employment status, college major, ratings of college services, transfer experiences,…

Shirazi, Annmarie

81

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Plume Dispersion in Urban Oklahoma City  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D computational fluid dynamics study using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes modeling was conducted and validated with field data from the Joint Urban 2003 dispersion study in Oklahoma City. The modeled flow field indicated that the many short buildings in this domain had a relatively small effect on the flow field, while the few tall buildings drove the transport and dispersion

Julia E. Flaherty; David E. Stock; Brian K. Lamb

2007-01-01

82

Preparing for armageddon: Citizen militias, the patriot movement and the Oklahoma city bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating explosion in Oklahoma City on 19 April 1995 has drawn attention to the existence of citizen militias and the Patriot movement of which they are part. Opposed to gun control and taxation and strongly influenced by claims of concealed foreign troops, concentration camps and plans to impose a New World order, Patriots are the inheritors of a radical

Martin Durham

1996-01-01

83

Did fertility go up after the oklahoma city bombing? An analysis of births in metropolitan counties in Oklahoma, 1990–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political and sociocultural events (e.g., Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and the German reunification in 1989) and natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Hugo in 1989) can affect fertility.\\u000a In our research, we addressed the question of whether the Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995, a man-made disaster, influenced\\u000a fertility patterns in Oklahoma. We defined three theoretical orientations—replacement theory, community

Joseph Lee Rodgers; Craig A. St. John; Ronnie Coleman

2005-01-01

84

Sadness, tragedy and mass disaster in Oklahoma City: providing critical incident stress debriefings to a community in crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after 09:00 h on 19 April 1995, the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building, located in downtown Oklahoma City, was devastated with a bomb blast of such gigantic proportions that it was heard 60 miles away in neighbouring Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahomans routinely commuting to work on that sunny Wednesday morning went about their business as usual. A crude bomb chemically

J. A. Davis

1996-01-01

85

Disaster mental health services following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing: modifying approaches to address terrorism.  

PubMed

How did the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing differ from prior disasters and what implications did it have for disaster mental health services and service delivery? The federal disaster mental health approach in this country developed largely out of experiences with natural disasters. The 1995 Oklahoma City bombing differed in several important ways, including the large number of human casualties, higher rates of psychopathology, and an extended period of concern due to the criminal investigation and trials, which suggested the need to consider modifications in the program. Outreach was extensive, but psychiatric morbidity of direct victims was greater than that of victims of natural disasters, emphasizing the need for attention to the triage and referral process. Other concerns that warrant consideration include practices related to record keeping and program evaluation. PMID:15094693

Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Flynn, Brian W; Norris, Fran H; DeMartino, Robert

2002-08-01

86

The Oklahoma City bombing study and methodological issues in longitudinal disaster mental health research.  

PubMed

Several methodological issues may affect the findings of studies of the mental health effects of disasters over time. These issues include analysis of the course of individual disorders over time that may be lost when they are presented embedded in general summary statistics, consideration of assessment of psychiatric disorders versus symptoms, adherence to established criteria in assigning psychiatric diagnoses, and orientation of mental health issues to the type of disaster exposure of the sample. This report will explore these methodological issues in a review of disaster literature and in data obtained from study of survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. Clinical implications of the data obtained from the Oklahoma City bombing study of survivors of the direct bomb blast are presented in the context of these methodological concerns. PMID:16150667

North, Carol S

2005-01-01

87

The course of post-traumatic stress disorder after the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

Oklahoma City bombing survivors (N = 182) were studied 6 months post-bombing and reassessed approximately 1 year later (N = 141) to determine the longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule assessed lifetime, current, predisaster, and post-bombing psychiatric diagnoses at both assessment points. One-third of the Oklahoma City bombing survivors had PTSD at index, and similar rates were diagnosed at follow-up. More recovery from depression was apparent than from PTSD. No delayed onset PTSD was observed, and all PTSD was chronic. Avoidance and numbing symptoms were dominant in defining the development of PTSD. Early onset and chronicity of PTSD indicate need for prompt and long-term intervention after disasters. Focus on avoidance and numbing symptoms may aid in identification of individuals needing intervention and monitoring the course of PTSD. PMID:11778434

North, C S

2001-12-01

88

Measurement of the VOC Environment from an Aircraft Platform during an Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Study Near Oklahoma City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction and relationship between atmospheric aerosols and ambient VOC concentrations is a current area of activity in atmospheric research both in urban and remote environments. Current atmospheric models seriously under predict the amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), highlighting the importance of simultaneous particle and VOC measurements and their importance to climate change models. The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) campaign was conducted in June of 2007 near Oklahoma City to investigate the mutual interaction of anthropogenic aerosols and clouds on each other. An important part of this study was characterizing the temporally and spatially resolved VOC environment in which urban aerosols and cumuliform clouds in the Oklahoma City environment exist. We report results from the proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) aboard the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G1) research aircraft to perform time-resolved measurements of the ambient VOC species and concentrations in conjunction with the suite of aerosol, trace gas and meteorological instruments aboard the G1. Several classes of VOC's were observed. Benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and other species indicative of primary urban emissions were found in the Oklahoma City plume, strongly correlated with CO and other inorganic urban trace gases. Oxygenated species such as methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were observed with no well defined spatial or temporal variation. Finally, species typical of biogenic emissions, isoprene and its oxidation products were seen in broad but definite spatial distributions, not correlated with the urban gas phase products as measured with the PTR-MS and other instrumentation. The concentration levels of these species and possible ground-based sources will be investigated and reported in this presentation. Correlation with aerosol instrumentation such as the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), nephelometer and other optical measurements will also be reported, both within and out of cloud environments. These correlations will be examined for possible influences of the local VOC species on the cloud-aerosol systems under study.

Alexander, M. L.; Newburn, M.; Hubbe, J.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Springston, S.; Senum, G.; Lee, Y.; Andrews, E.

2007-12-01

89

Post-Disaster Stress Following the Oklahoma City BombingAn Examination of Three Community Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study of 472 community members to determine the nature and course of the post-disaster response to the April 19, 1995, bombing in Oklahoma City. It was hypothesized that an individual's post-disaster reaction would resemble a linear function of the degree of exposure experienced, and that this dose-response relationship could be used to differentiate the expression of

GINNY SPRANG

1999-01-01

90

HAEMOPROTEUS AND LEUCOCYTOZOON INFECTIONS IN BIRDS OF THE OKLAHOMA CITY ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRA(:T: A total of 222 birds, captive or free-flying in the Oklahoma City Zoo, were examined for blood parasites; 31 (14%) harbored Haenzoproteus and\\/or Leucocytozoon. While 21% of the indigenous avifauna were infected, only 891 of the exotic bird species harbored haemoproteids and these parasites were also exotic to North America. There was no evidence to indicate that exotic infections

Nancy Halpern; Gordon F. Bennett

91

A comparison of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in Riyadh, Medina, and Oklahoma City.  

PubMed

Many bacteria are known to develop resistance to anti-microbial agents following their clinical use. The resistance pattern varies from one geographic location to another depending upon the patient population and local history of antibiotic use. The bacterial resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents in Oklahoma City was found to be different from two cities in Saudi Arabia, especially amongst Gram-negative bacilli. A total of 13,575 fresh clinical isolates from the Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH), Riyadh; and the King Fahad Hospital (KFH), Medina, Saudi Arabia; were used. There were 6,270 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 2,799 pseudomonads and Acinetobacter, and 4,506 Gram positive strains of staphylococcus bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria from KFH were considerably more resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than at KFSH and VAMC. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus isolated from VAMC exhibited a significantly higher degree of resistance to oxacillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than those at KFSH and KFH. PMID:1744780

Qadri, S M; Ali, S I; Flournoy, D J; Miskeen, A K; Tharwat, J D; Miller, J

1991-10-01

92

The impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing on the partners of firefighters.  

PubMed

This study explored the impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing on the spouses and significant others of a volunteer sample of Oklahoma City firefighters who participated in the bombing rescue effort. Twenty-seven partners of Oklahoma City firefighters participated in this study, conducted 42 to 44 months after the bombing. These partners were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview and a companion interview to examine exposure, rates of psychiatric disorders and symptoms, functioning, health, and relationships. Coping and perception of the firefighter partner's response were also examined. Some of the women were exposed directly; most knew someone who had been involved in the disaster, and all reported exposure through the media. The rate of psychiatric disorders in the women following the disaster was 22%, essentially unchanged from before the incident. One developed bomb-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most were satisfied with their work performance; 15% reported that their health had worsened since the bombing, and more than one third reported permanent changes in relationships as a result of the bombing. Most coped by turning to friends or relatives, with less than 10% seeking professional help. Many described symptoms in their firefighter mate; all reported that their mate had been affected by the experience, and one half said their mate had fully recovered. The mates of these firefighters fared relatively well in terms of psychiatric disorders, symptoms, and ability to function. The prevalence of bomb-related posttraumatic stress disorder was considerably lower in this sample than in samples of individuals more directly exposed to the bombing, although some reported changes in relationships and health. The results suggest the need for further study of the impact of interpersonal exposure in those who provide support for rescue-and-recovery workers in major terrorist incidents. PMID:12200505

Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Bunch, Kenneth; Wilson, Teddy G; Tucker, Phebe; Schorr, John K

2002-09-01

93

The Oklahoma City bombing: the roles of the dental teams ... and the lessons learned.  

PubMed

The Oklahoma City bombing is considered by most historians the worst act of domestic terrorism ever to have occurred in the United States. The response to the disaster, however, is considered by most experts in the field as being the best; creating what is known as the "Oklahoma Standard". The roles of the dental teams in the resolution were pivotal and until now, the recognition of these roles have not been described, due to this being considered a case of mass murder. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the preparations, the initial responses, the roles of the dental teams in the resolution, the preparations for the criminal trials, and some of the lessons that were learned. PMID:10596626

Glass, R T

1998-01-01

94

Did fertility go up after the Oklahoma City bombing? An analysis of births in metropolitan counties in Oklahoma, 1990-1999.  

PubMed

Political and sociocultural events (e.g., Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and the German reunification in 1989) and natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Hugo in 1989) can affect fertility. In our research, we addressed the question of whether the Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995, a man-made disaster, influenced fertility patterns in Oklahoma. We defined three theoretical orientations--replacement theory, community influence theory, and terror management theory--that motivate a general expectation of birth increases, with different predictions emerging from time and geographic considerations. We used two different empirical methodologies. First, we fitted dummy-variable regression models to monthly birth data from 1990 to 1999 in metropolitan counties. We used birth counts to frame the problem and general fertility rates to address the problem formally. These analyses were organized within two design structures: a control-group interrupted time-series design and a difference-in-differences design. In these analyses, Oklahoma County showed an interpretable, consistent, and significant increase in births. Second, we used graphical smoothing models to display these effects visually. In combination, these methods provide compelling support for a fertility response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Certain parts of each theory helped us organize and understand the pattern of results. PMID:16463916

Rodgers, Joseph Lee; St John, Craig A; Coleman, Ronnie

2005-11-01

95

Body handlers after terrorism in Oklahoma City: predictors of posttraumatic stress and other symptoms.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms were assessed in 51 body handlers after Oklahoma City's 1995 terrorist bombing. Although many handlers were inexperienced and knew someone killed, symptoms were low postdisaster and decreased significantly after 1 year. Higher symptomatology and seeking mental health treatment correlated with increases in alcohol use and new physical problems but not with demographics, exposure, or experience. Four respondents with the highest posttraumatic stress symptoms at both time points reported high physical and alcohol use problems and mental health treatment use, suggesting that these should be carefully assessed in body handlers postdisaster. Coping techniques are described, as well as possible reasons for unexpected resilience in the majority. PMID:15792032

Tucker, Phebe; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Doughty, Debby E; Jones, Dan E; Jordan, Fred B; Nixon, Sara Jo

2002-10-01

96

Evidence for New Particle Formation in Isoprene Plumes Near Oklahoma City During the 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IPCC has recognized that a major uncertainty in climate prediction is associated with aerosols. Current climate models are highly dependent on information about the aerosol component of the atmosphere, and in particular, about the size, optical properties and composition of atmospheric aerosols, and how these properties evolve under conditions with various trace-gas precursors. One area of particular uncertainty involves modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the oxidation of VOC species. The ability to distinguish between SOA formed from biogenic and anthropogenic sources is also crucial in assessing the impact of manmade contributions to the global aerosol budget and its impact on climate change. Although a number of laboratory simulations have demonstrated the capacity of biogenic VOC species such as isoprene to form SOA by direct oxidation, the low natural levels of isoprene and other biogenic aerosols make observation of particle formation from these species difficult. During The Department of Energy's Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) , conducted in June of 2007 near Oklahoma City, a Proton transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) flew on the Department of Energy (DOE) Gulfstream 1 (G-1) research aircraft and detected plumes of isoprene and its oxidation products some distance from from the urban plume of Oklahoma City, which in turn was characterized by emissions of CO, benzene, toluene and other anthropogenic emissions. Concentrations within these isoprene plumes were on the order of several parts per billion, much higher than might be expected for biogenic emissions in the Oklahoma City area. Preliminary results were presented at the 2007 AGU Fall meeting indicating that these plumes of isoprene were also correlated with new particle formation as determined by the Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) also aboard the G-1. Here, we report the results of continued investigation into the new particle formation correlated with the isoprene plume. We will present results that include correlations with other observations made on board the G-1, including a newly developed Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS). Back-trajectories and correlations with other aerosol instrumentation including the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), nephelometer, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter and optical instrumentation will also be presented, to identify the source of the isoprene plume and assess its consequence relative to aerosol formation.

Alexander, M. L.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Newburn, M.; Hubbe, J.; Springston, S.; Lee, Y.; Senum, G.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J.; Wang, J.; Olfert, J.

2008-12-01

97

Predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in Oklahoma City: exposure, social support, peri-traumatic responses.  

PubMed

Eighty-five adults seeking mental health assistance six months after the Oklahoma City bombing were assessed to determine which of three groups of variables (exposure, peri-traumatic responses, and social support) predicted development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Variables most highly associated with subsequent PTSD symptoms included having been injured (among exposure variables), feeling nervous or afraid (peri-traumatic responses), and responding that counseling helped (support variables). Combining primary predictors in the three areas, PTSD symptoms were more likely to occur in those reporting counseling to help and those feeling nervous or afraid at the time of the bombing. Implications of these findings are discussed for behavioral health administrators and clinicians planning service delivery to groups of victims seeking mental health intervention after terrorist attacks and other disasters. PMID:11070634

Tucker, P; Pfefferbaum, B; Nixon, S J; Dickson, W

2000-11-01

98

Mental health services for children in the first two years after the 1995 Oklahoma City terrorist bombing.  

PubMed

Nineteen infants and children were killed in the 1995 terrorist bombing in Oklahoma City, and many were injured. More than 200 children lost one or both parents. These casualties focused attention on children in the disaster response efforts. This paper describes the development and implementation of a school-based mental health program that provided accessible services to children affected by the bombing, with an emphasis on normalization. A clinical needs assessment of all children in the Oklahoma City public school system was carried out, and clinicians provided emergency and crisis services, counseling, and support groups. PMID:10402620

Pfefferbaum, B; Call, J A; Sconzo, G M

1999-07-01

99

Ground water in the Blanchard area, McClain County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A letter from Lloyd L. Bowser, City Clerk, dated January 8, 1948, in behalf of the town council and Mayor Walter Casey, indicates that a serious shortage of water is faced by the town of Blanchard, McClain County, Oklahoma. The town is near the eastern boundary of Grady County, where an investigation of the ground-water resources is being made by the Oklahoma Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a State-wide investigation. Information obtained thus far may aid the town by showing where additional ground water for municipal supply may be sought. (available as photostat copy only)

Davis, Leon Virgil; Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

100

Geographic Information Systems Methods for Determining Drainage-Basin Areas, Stream-Buffered Areas, Stream Length, and Land Uses for the Neosho and Spring Rivers in Northeastern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographic Information Systems have many uses, one of which includes the reproducible computation of environmental characteristics that can be used to categorize hydrologic features. The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality are investigating Geographic Information Systems techniques to determine partial drainage-basin areas, stream-buffer areas, stream length, and land uses (drainage basin and stream characteristics) in northeastern Oklahoma. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, documented the methods used to determine drainage-basin and stream characteristics for the Neosho and Spring Rivers above Grand Lake Of the Cherokees in northeastern Oklahoma and calculated the characteristics. The drainage basin and stream characteristics can be used by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to aid in natural-resource assessments.

Masoner, Jason R.; March, Ferrella

2006-01-01

101

An Industrial Access Road in McCurtain County, Oklahoma. From 2.5 Miles East of Wright City North-easterly 3.7 Miles to SH 3, and SH 7, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project recommends development of an adequate industrial access road on new alignment east of Wright City, Oklahoma. Adverse environmental impacts include slightly increased air and noise pollution along the proposed corridor and a slight potential fo...

1971-01-01

102

Impact of Injury on Posttraumatic Stress in Survivors Seeking Counseling After the 1995 Bombing in Oklahoma City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relationship of injury and posttraumatic stress symptoms in victims of the 1995 terrorist bombing in Oklahoma City. Participants for the study were drawn from a sample of 85 individuals receiving bomb-related mental health services six months after the incident. Fourteen injured survivors were matched with 14 noninjured survivors from the same sample. A self-report instrument examining

Betty Pfefferbaum; John A. Call; Debby E. Doughty; Walter T. Traxler; M. Narayana Pai; Gary K. Borrell; Bradley D. Stein

2003-01-01

103

Coping, functioning, and adjustment of rescue workers after the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

Studies have not previously considered postdisaster adjustment in the context of psychiatric disorders. After the Oklahoma City bombing, a volunteer sample of 181 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers was assessed with a structured diagnostic interview. The firefighters had relatively low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and described little functional impairment, positive social adjustment, and high job satisfaction. PTSD was associated with reduced job satisfaction and functional impairment, providing diagnostic validity. Turning to social supports, seeking mental health treatment, and taking medication were not widely prevalent coping responses. Postdisaster alcohol use disorders and drinking to cope were significantly associated with indicators of poorer functioning. Surveillance for problem drinking after disaster exposure may identify useful directions for intervention. PMID:12092908

North, Carol S; Tivis, Laura; McMillen, J Curtis; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Cox, Jann; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bunch, Kenneth; Schorr, John; Smith, Elizabeth M

2002-06-01

104

Increased alcohol use in a treatment sample of Oklahoma City bombing victims.  

PubMed

Research examining alcohol use in disaster victims has yielded conflicting results. This study of 43 acknowledged alcohol users, taken from a nonrandom volunteer sample of Oklahoma City bombing victims receiving support services, revealed relationships between increased alcohol use and a number of variables--injury, retrospectively reported initial reaction to the explosion, grief, and posttraumatic stress symptomatology. The findings suggest that if alcohol use was motivated by an attempt to alleviate symptoms, it was not effective, as evidenced by an association between increased alcohol use and functional impairment. Increased alcohol consumption may present a problem in disaster victims months after exposure to trauma. Therefore, the use of alcohol should be routinely assessed in those who remain symptomatic over time. PMID:11822207

Pfefferbaum, B; Doughty, D E

2001-01-01

105

The impact of the Oklahoma City bombing on children in the community.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of exposure on post-traumatic stress symptomatology in children following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Over 2,000 children were surveyed 7 weeks after the bombing. Initial reaction and emotional exposure were important predictors of post-traumatic stress symptomatology in the full sample. Children who reported no physical or emotional exposure had significantly lower scores than exposed children on television viewing, initial reaction, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology. Within the nonexposed group, those with high television exposure had significantly more post-traumatic stress symptoms. Children with strong initial reactions should be followed over time, and disaster-related television viewing should be carefully monitored. PMID:11778433

Pfefferbaum, B

2001-12-01

106

Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Annual frequencies of detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and bromacil increased with time. Annual frequencies of detection of atrazine, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorprop, and lindane decreased with time. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in water samples collected at the Harrah station than at the Britton Road station, whereas specific conductance was greater at the Britton Road station. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform bacteria were not significantly different between stations. Daily minimum, mean, and maximum specific conductance collected from continuous water-quality monitors were significantly greater at the Britton Road station than in water samples collected at the Harrah station. Daily minimum, maximum, and diurnal fluctuations of water temperature collected from continuous water-quality monitors were significantly greater at the Harrah station than at the Britton Road station. The daily maximums and diurnal range of dissolved oxygen concentrations were significantly greater in water samples collected at the Britton Road station than at the Harrah station, but daily mean dissolved oxygen concentrations in water at those streamflow-gaging stations were not significantly different. Daily mean and diurnal water temperature ranges increased with time at the Britton Road and Harrah streamflow-gaging stations, whereas daily mean and diurnal specific conductance ranges decreased with time at both streamflow-gaging stations from 1988–2009. Daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations collected from continuous water-quality monitors more frequently indicated hypoxic conditions at the Harrah station than at the Britton Road station after 1999. Fecal coliform bacteria counts in water decreased slightly from 1988–2009 at the Britton Road station. The Seasonal Kendall's tau test indicated significant downward trends in

Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

2011-01-01

107

Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area of Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer outcrop. This change in character is not due to the presence of the overlying conglomerate layer, which is quite thin (<100 m) in the area of the park with the springs. The presence of relatively high-density Precambrian basement rocks in a broader region suggests that significant gravity anomalies may arise from variations in basement topography. Understanding of the geological configuration of Chickasaw National Recreation Area can be improved by expanding the study area and by investigating complementary geophysical and borehole constraints of the subsurface.

Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

2006-01-01

108

A prospective study of long-term health outcomes among Oklahoma City bombing survivors.  

PubMed

A follow-up study was conducted to identify long-term physical and emotional outcomes among Oklahoma City bombing survivors. Baseline data were gathered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health in 1995. Follow-up data were gathered by telephone interviews of survivors from 1-1/2 to 3 years after the bombing. The frequency of medical diagnoses, symptoms, medical cost, physical and social life changes, and services utilized since the bombing were assessed. A total of 494 persons were interviewed, 92 percent had been physically injured in the bombing. Seventy-nine percent of persons interviewed rated their general health status as "good," "very good," or "excellent." Overall, one-fourth to one-third of survivors reported being newly diagnosed with audiologic changes, anxiety, and depression since the bombing. One-third of persons reported preexisting medical conditions that had worsened since the bombing including depression (26%) and asthma/bronchitis (22%). The most frequently reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were "being jumpy or easily startled" and "recurring distressful thoughts of the bombing." The most frequently utilized medical services were psychological counseling (63%) and audiology services (48%). Total costs were estimated of $ 5.7 million. Overall, persons who had been hospitalized with bombing injuries reported higher rates of diagnoses, symptoms, and services utilization. These findings suggest that a large proportion of survivors of a terrorist bombing, especially those seriously injured, will experience long-term physical and/or emotional outcomes and increased need for treatment for bombing-related medical conditions. All survivors should be carefully assessed over time for auditory damage, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:10213970

Shariat, S; Mallonee, S; Kruger, E; Farmer, K; North, C

1999-04-01

109

An inter-comparison of three urban wind models using Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 wind field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three wind models are compared to near-surface time-averaged wind measurements obtained in downtown Oklahoma City during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign. The models cover several levels of computational approximation and include in increasing order of computational demand: a mass-consistent empirical-diagnostic code, a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) CFD code. The

Marina Neophytou; Akshay Gowardhan; Michael Brown

2011-01-01

110

Predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in oklahoma city: Exposure, social support, peri-traumatic responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-five adults seeking mental health assistance six months after the Oklahoma City bombing were assessed to determine which of three groups of variables (exposure, peri-traumatic responses, and social support) predicted development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Variables most highly associated with subsequent PTSD symptoms included having been injured (among exposure variables), feeling nervous or afraid (peri-traumatic responses), and responding

Phebe Tucker; Betty Pfefferbaum; Sara Jo Nixon; Warren Dickson

2000-01-01

111

Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing.  

PubMed

Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%); major depression was second in prevalence (21%). Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56%) than without (5%) bombing-related PTSD (P < .001) and those with (72%) than without (14%) predisaster major depression (P < .001). Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress. PMID:23008763

North, Carol S; Cloninger, C Robert

2012-09-13

112

Posttraumatic stress two years after the Oklahoma City bombing in youths geographically distant from the explosion.  

PubMed

This article describes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in 69 sixth-grade youths who resided within 100 miles of Oklahoma City at the time of the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. These youths neither had any direct physical exposure nor personally knew anyone killed or injured in the explosion. A survey conducted two years after the bombing assessed exposure, PTSD symptoms, and functioning. PTSD symptom frequency was measured with the Impact of Event Scale--Revised. Our BCD criteria for defining PTSD caseness was modeled after DSM-IV B, C, and D criteria requiring one reexperiencing, three avoidance/numbing, and two arousal symptoms for diagnosis. Those who met our BCD criteria had significantly higher PTSD symptom scores than those who did not. Both increased mean PTSD symptom score and meeting our caseness definition were associated with increased functioning difficulties. Media exposure and indirect interpersonal exposure (having a friend who knew someone killed or injured) were significant predictors of symptomatology. These findings suggest that children geographically distant from disaster who have not directly experienced an interpersonal loss report PTSD symptoms and functional impairment associated with increased media exposure and indirect loss. PMID:11218559

Pfefferbaum, B; Seale, T W; McDonald, N B; Brandt, E N; Rainwater, S M; Maynard, B T; Meierhoefer, B; Miller, P D

2000-01-01

113

PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF DIRECTLY EXPOSED SURVIVORS SEVEN YEARS AFTER THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively examine the long-term course of psychiatric disorders, symptoms, and functioning among 113 directly exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing systematically assessed at six months and again nearly seven years post-bombing. Methods The Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement was used to assess predisaster and postdisaster psychiatric disorders and symptoms and other variables of relevance to disaster exposure and outcomes. Results Total prevalence of PTSD was 41%. Seven years post-bombing, 26% of the sample still had active PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD and new postdisaster alcohol use disorders were not observed. PTSD non-remission was predicted by the occurrence of negative life events after the bombing. Posttraumatic symptoms among survivors without PTSD decayed more rapidly than for those with PTSD, and symptoms remained at seven years even for many who did not develop PTSD. Those with PTSD reported more functioning problems at index than those without PTSD, but functioning improved dramatically over seven years, regardless of remission from PTSD. No survivors had long-term employment disability based on psychiatric problems alone. Conclusions These findings have potentially important implications for anticipation of long-term emotional and functional recovery from disaster trauma.

North, Carol S.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kawasaki, Aya; Lee, Sungkyu; Spitznagel, Edward L.

2010-01-01

114

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Plume Dispersion in Urban Oklahoma City  

SciTech Connect

A 3D computational fluid dynamics study using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes modeling was conducted and validated with field data from the Joint Urban 2003 dispersion study in Oklahoma City. The modeled flow field indicated that the many short buildings in this domain had a relatively small effect on the flow field, while the few tall buildings drove the transport and dispersion of tracer gas through the domain. Modeled concentrations and wind speeds were compared to observations along a vertical profile located about 500 meters downwind of the source. The isothermal base case using the k-epsilon closure model was within 50% of the field measurements, while a convective case with ground and building surfaces 10 degrees C hotter than ambient temperatures improved the modeled profile to within 30% of observations. Varying wind direction and source location had a significant effect on the plume dispersion due to the irregularity of the urban landscape. The location of the tallest obstacle in this domain with respect to the source position defined the size and shape of tracer plumes in this study. Model results based upon a Reynolds stress closure scheme were also compared to the vertical concentration profiles. For this location, the isothermal case underestimated concentrations; however, the case with thermal buoyancy resulted in concentrations within 25% of the observations.

Flaherty, Julia E.; Stock, David E.; Lamb, Brian K.

2007-12-01

115

Incident-related television viewing and psychiatric disorders in Oklahoma City bombing survivors.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine terrorism media coverage and psychiatric outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. The study used (1) self-report questionnaires to retrospectively assess event-related media behaviors and reactions in a cross sectional design and (2) longitudinal structured diagnostic interviews to assess psychopathologic outcomes. The participants were 99 directly-exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors who were initially studied six months after the 1995 incident. Though a fear reaction to bombing-related television coverage and fear-driven discontinuation of bombing-related media contact were associated with diagnostic outcomes, the number of hours viewing bombing-related television coverage in the first week after the event was not associated with the prevalence of bombing-related posttraumatic stress disorder or post-bombing major depressive disorder during the seven years post event. The results raise doubt about the effects of quantified incident-related television viewing on clinically-significant emotional outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. PMID:23980489

Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Houston, J Brian; Regens, James L

2012-01-01

116

Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing  

PubMed Central

Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%); major depression was second in prevalence (21%). Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56%) than without (5%) bombing-related PTSD (P < .001) and those with (72%) than without (14%) predisaster major depression (P < .001). Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress.

North, Carol S.; Cloninger, C. Robert

2012-01-01

117

Multiple Radar Comparison and Analysis of the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Supercell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper will examine the structure and evolution of the 8 May 2003 Central Oklahoma tornadic ,supercell using two ,different radars: the KTLX WSR-88D and the Central Oklahoma TDWR. Measurements of the vertical vorticity and ,convergence ,of each of three scales of rotation (mesocyclone, tornado cyclone signature [TCS], and tornadic vortex signature [TVS]) were made by ,subjectively choosing ,maximum

Michael E. Charles

2003-01-01

118

The New Canadian Urban Modelling System: Evaluation for Two Cases from the Joint Urban 2003 Oklahoma City Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Canadian numerical urban modelling system has been developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada to represent surface and boundary-layer processes in the urban environment. In this system, urban covers are taken into account by including the Town Energy Balance urban-canopy parameterization scheme in the Global Environmental Multiscale meteorological model. The new modelling system is run at 250-m grid size for two intensive observational periods of the Joint Urban 2003 experiment that was held in Oklahoma City, U.S.A. An extensive evaluation against near-surface and upper-air observations has been performed. The Town Energy Balance scheme correctly simulates the urban micro-climate, more particularly the positive nighttime urban heat island, and also reproduces the “cool” island during the morning but does not succeed in maintaining it during all of the daytime period. The vertical structure of the boundary layer above the city is reasonably well simulated, but the simulation of the nocturnal boundary layer is difficult, due to the complex interaction with the nighttime southerly low-level jet that crosses the domain. Sensitivity tests reveal that the daytime convective boundary layer is mainly driven by dry soil conditions in and around Oklahoma City and that the nighttime low-level jet reinforces the urban heat island in the first 300m through large-scale advection, leading to the development of a less stable layer above the city.

Lemonsu, Aude; Belair, Stephane; Mailhot, Jocelyn

2009-10-01

119

Geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.

Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.

2013-01-01

120

Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is slightly less than that of water from wells and springs. (available as photostat copy only)

Fairchild, R. W.; Hanson R. L.; Davis R. E.

1982-01-01

121

City Air or City Markets: Productivity Gains in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent productivity gains to rural-urban migrants have been documented by a number of researchers. One interpretation of this result is that individuals learn higher value skills in cities than they would have learned in less dense areas. Another explanation for this result, however, is that thicker urban labor markets allow for better matches, which are realized slowly through a process

Douglas J. Krupka

2007-01-01

122

Determinants of exposure to volatile organic compounds in four Oklahoma cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To begin to develop generalized models for estimating personal exposure to ambient air pollutants within diverse populations, the design of the Oklahoma Urban Air Toxics Study incorporated eight dichotomous macroenvironmental and household factors that were hypothesized to be potential determinants of exposure. Personal, indoor, and outdoor samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected over 24-h monitoring periods in 42

Margaret L Phillips; Nurtan A Esmen; Thomas A Hall; Robert Lynch

2005-01-01

123

The Effect of Loss and Trauma on Substance Use Behavior in Individuals Seeking Support Services After the 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the effect of trauma exposure on substance use behaviors, specifically tobaccoand alcohol use, in a group of 84 individuals who sought supportive services after the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. A self-report instrument was used to assess demographics, sensory exposure, injury,interpersonal exposure through relationship with victims, peritraumatic reaction, grief, posttraumaticstress, worry about safety, functional impairment, and

Betty Pfefferbaum; Shreekumar S. Vinekar; Richard P. Trautman; S. Jay Lensgraf; Chandrashekar Reddy; Nilam Patel; Andria L. Ford

2002-01-01

124

Mass traumatic terror in Oklahoma City and the phases of adaptational coping, part I: Possible effects of intentional injury\\/harm on victims' post-traumatic responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bombing in Oklahoma City shook the entire nation from sea to shining sea. This tremendous collective sensation was made even worse when available evidence revealed that this act of terrorism had not been committed by some terrorist from the Middle East but one from Middle America. The blast stunned the nation's sense of collective safety, while it raised serious

Erwin Randolph Parson

1995-01-01

125

Exposure and peritraumatic response as predictors of posttraumatic stress in children following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between exposure and posttraumatic stress, but one's subjective appraisal of danger and threat at the time of exposure may be a better predictor of posttraumatic stress than more objective measures of exposure. We examined the role of peritraumatic response in posttraumatic stress reactions in over 2,000 middle school children 7 weeks after the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing. While many children reported hearing and feeling the blast and knowing direct victims, most were in school at the time of the explosion and therefore were not in direct physical proximity to the incident. Physical, interpersonal, and television exposure accounted for 12% of the total variance in our measure of posttraumatic stress when peritraumatic response was ignored. Peritraumatic response and television exposure accounted for 25% of the total variance, and physical and interpersonal exposure were not significant in this context. These findings suggest the importance of peritraumatic response in children's reactions to terrorism. These early responses can be used to help determine which children may experience difficulty over time. PMID:12200504

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Doughty, Debby E; Reddy, Chandrashekar; Patel, Nilam; Gurwitch, Robin H; Nixon, Sara Jo; Tivis, Rick D

2002-09-01

126

Vicarious stress: patterns of disturbance and use of mental health services by those indirectly affected by the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

This study explored the intermediate psychological effects of terrorism on adults not directly affected by the Oklahoma City bombing by examining the course of PTSD and subthreshold PTSD symptoms over time and whether treatment affected this course. The respondents were interviewed at 3-mo. intervals for 18 mo. following an initial 6-mo. survey. Analysis suggested avoidance, re-experiencing, and increased arousal symptoms in this population were limited over time, declining with or without treatment between 6 and 9 mo. Conversely, victimization symptoms remained high without mental health intervention for the first year after the disaster. The study also examined the nature and occurrence of comorbidity in groups seeking and not seeking treatment. PMID:11783558

Sprang, G

2001-10-01

127

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following elements submitted to EPA in Oklahoma's program application for final...Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State...

2009-07-01

128

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following elements submitted to EPA in Oklahoma's program application for final...Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State...

2010-07-01

129

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following elements submitted to EPA in Oklahoma's program application for final...Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State...

2012-07-01

130

Remote Sensor Application Studies Progress Report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969. RemoteSensing Reconnaissance, Mill Creek Area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infrared data for the Mill Creek area in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma reveal significant stratigraphic and structural information. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites in this area can be differentiated in the nighttime infrared images, and the ...

L. C. Rowan T. W. Offield K. Watson P. J. Cannon R.D. Watson

1970-01-01

131

Mass traumatic terror in Oklahoma City and the phases of adaptational coping, part II: Integration of cognitive, behavioral, dynamic, existential and pharmacologic interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of the present contribution focuses on issues of prevention and post-traumatic disaster intervention. Prevention of\\u000a chronic post-traumatic stress disorder after the Oklahoma City bombing is a critical objective by debriefers and mental health\\u000a providers engaged in victim assistance programs. As the first major contribution on the traumatic sequelae of the blast on\\u000a individuals, families, and on the community

Erwin Randolph Parson

1995-01-01

132

The Prehistory of the Proposed Clayton Lake Area, Southeast Oklahoma. Phase I Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes archaeological field work conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Latimer, Pushmataha, and Pittsburg Counties) between July and September 1978 for the Tulsa District. Excavations were undertaken at seven sites that will be directly impacted...

R. Vehik J. R. Galm

1979-01-01

133

15. WILEY CITY LINE PINE STREET RESIDENTIAL AREA, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. WILEY CITY LINE - PINE STREET RESIDENTIAL AREA, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OVERHEAD WIRING CONSTRUCTION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

134

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section...THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND THE FEDERAL...13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...

2013-04-01

135

Devitrification of the Carlton Rhyolite in the Blue Creek Canyon area, Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Cambrian Carlton Rhyolite is a sequence of lava flows and ignimbrites extruded in association with rifting in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Rhyolite exposed in the Blue Creek Canyon area consists of a single, originally glassy, porphyritic lava flow > 300 m thick. Abundant flow banding is deformed by variably oriented flow folds present on both outcrop and thin-section scales. A variety of complex texture record the cooling, degassing, and devitrification history of the flow. Acicular Fe, Ti-oxide crystallites aligned in the flow banding document nucleation and limited crystal growth during flow. Spherical microvesicles and larger lithophysal cavities up to 10 cm long crosscut flow banding, showing that degassing continued after flow had ceased. Pseudomorphs of quartz after cristobalite and tridymite are present on cavity walls and are products of high-T vapor-phase crystallization. Devitrification textures overprint the flow banding and developed in two stages. Primary devitrification occurred during initial cooling and formed spherulitic intergrowths in distinct areas bound by sharp devitrification fronts. Spherulites nucleated on phenocrysts, vesicles, and flow bands and show evidence of multiple episodes of growth. Rhyolite outside of the devitrification fronts initially remained glassy but underwent later, low-T hydration to form perlitic texture, which was followed by prolonged secondary devitrification to form extremely fine-grained, equigranular quartzofeldspathic mosaics. Snowflake texture (micropoikilitic quartz surrounding randomly oriented alkali feldspar) developed during both primary and secondary devitrification. Spherical bodies up to 30 cm across are present in discrete horizons within the flow and weather out preferentially from the host rhyolite.

Bigger, S.E. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology); Hanson, R.E. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-02-01

136

Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Blocker area, Pittsburg County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bedrock in the Blocker area of southeastern Oklahoma consists principally of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the Boggy and Savanna Formations of Pennsylvanian age. These rocks have been folded to form the Panther Mountain syncline on the south and the Kinta anticline on the north. Alluvium along streams is less than 15 feet thick and consists mainly of sandy silt. Water in bedrock is under artesian conditions. Well depths range from 11 to 213 feet and average 75 feet. In 86% of the wells measured, the water level was less than 30 feet below the land surface. Because the rocks have minimal permeability, well yields probably are less than 5 gallons per minute. Ground water is commonly a mixed cation bicarbonate type with dissolved solids ranging from about 300 to 2,000 milligrams per liter. No relationship between water chemistry and well depth or geographic distribution is apparent. Streams in the area are ephemeral and there are extended periods of no flow. Blue Creek was dry 30% of the time during 1976-80 and had flows of less than 0.1 cubic foot per second for at least 80 consecutive days. Stream water is generally a mixed cation sulfate type. The maximum dissolved-solids concentration determined in stream water was 3670 milligrams per liter. Maximum suspended sediment discharge, in tons per day, was about 235 for Blue Creek, 40 for Blue Creek tributary, and 630 for Mathuldy Creek. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) are the dominant sediment size. Surface mining for coal undoubtedly will have some effect on the environment. The most likely deleterious effects are increased sediment loads in streams and increased mineralization of stream waters. However, these effects should be of only limited extent and duration if appropriate mining and reclamation practices are followed. (USGS)

Marcher, Melvin V.; Bergman, D. L.; Stoner, J. D.; Blumer, S. P.

1981-01-01

137

A simple urban dispersion model tested with tracer data from Oklahoma City and Manhattan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple urban dispersion model is tested that is based on the Gaussian plume model and modifications to the Briggs urban dispersion curves. An initial dispersion coefficient (?o) of 40m is assumed to apply in built-up downtown areas, and the stability is assumed to be slightly unstable during the day and slightly stable during the night. Observations from tracer experiments

Steven Hanna; Emmanuel Baja

2009-01-01

138

CITY/TOWN AREAS FOR ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Census place codes were dissolved & combined into state city or census Designated Place (CDP) areas. The total 1990 population was also calculated & attached to the Census place. Each state file may have multiple polygons and/or doughnut holes in an area for a city/CDP. A loca...

139

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G. P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C. J.

1997-01-01

140

Oklahoma Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Oklahoma Historical Society is "to preserve and perpetuate the history of Oklahoma and its people by collecting, interpreting and disseminating knowledge of Oklahoma and the Southwest." The Society maintains over 20 museums and historic sites, and they are also responsible for maintaining this website. On the homepage, visitors can learn about the sites they maintain, including the Pawnee Bill Ranch and the Pioneer Woman Museum. In the "Publications" area, visitors can read back issues of "The Chronicles of Oklahoma" dating from 1921 to 1962, and they can also find the "Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". The Society's "Found in Collections" blog is a great way to learn about their current archival work, and visitors can read about textile preservation techniques and the Civil War. Also, the site includes podcasts created to profile various aspects of the state's history. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive email updates on new additions, programs, and exhibits.

141

Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area  

SciTech Connect

In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

1982-01-01

142

Water supplies of East Central and Southeastern Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To plan effectively for future growth in East Central and Southeastern Oklahoma, sound information on public water systems is imperative. This report evaluates the 229 public water systems in 24 counties in East Central and Southeastern Oklahoma. Areas included are: the Central Oklahoma Economic Development District, the Kiamichi Economic Development District of Oklahoma, and the Southern Oklahoma Development Authority. Quantity,

J. W. Ferrell; J. B. Perry; W. F. Harris

1984-01-01

143

77 FR 5710 - Federal Implementation Plans for Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin either significantly...Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin that required...Columbia Circuit (EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA...Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin. Because...

2012-02-06

144

75 FR 9895 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Monday through Friday, at the following offices: Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, 707 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73101-1677; and the EPA Region 6, Drinking...

2010-03-04

145

40 CFR 272.1851 - Oklahoma State-administered program: Final authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Statutes and Regulations. (1) The Oklahoma statutes and regulations cited...You may obtain copies of the Oklahoma regulations that are incorporated...of State, P.O. Box 53390, Oklahoma City, OK 73152-3390; Phone...

2010-07-01

146

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation...plan are available at: (a) Oklahoma Conservation Commission, 2800 N. Lincoln Blvd., Suite 160, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (b) Office...

2009-07-01

147

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation...plan are available at: (a) Oklahoma Conservation Commission, 2800 N. Lincoln Blvd., Suite 160, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (b) Office...

2010-07-01

148

77 FR 21154 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Oklahoma County, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Oklahoma County, OK BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed...between milepost 541.69 and milepost 542.91 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, Okla. (the Line).\\1\\ The Line...

2012-04-09

149

Relation of lower morrow sandstone and porosity trends to chester paleogeomorphology, Persimmon Creek field area, Northwestern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Thickness and porosity trends of several lower Morrow sandstone units were strongly influenced by the paleogeomorphology of the subjacent Mississippian Chester limestone in a study area near Persimmon Creek field in T20N, R22W, southwestern Woodward County, Oklahoma. PrePennsylvanian streams flowing south-southwest across the Anadarko basin shelf had created a dendritic drainage pattern with paleogradients of about 40 ft/mi(7.5 m/km), and intervening stream divides were 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m) above the valley floors. As the sea transgressed the area in the Early Pennsylvanian, cyclic transgressions and regressions led to deposition of four prominent lower Morrow sandstone members separated by shale units which are approximately parallel lithologic time markers.

Webster, R.E.

1983-11-01

150

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section Oklahoma ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

151

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...responsibility for enforcing its underground storage tank program...may be obtained from the Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma...Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City...reference as part of the underground storage tank program...

2013-07-01

152

Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Summer (NASM2002)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Summer of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

Shirah, Greg; Williams, James; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2002-09-24

153

Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Fall (NASM2002)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Fall of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

Shirah, Greg; Williams, James; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2002-09-24

154

Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Spring (NASM2002)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Spring of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

Shirah, Greg; Williams, James; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2002-09-24

155

Small Cities Can Help to Revitalize Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades the United States increasingly has experienced an unbalanced pattern of settlement. The nation's population has become proportionally more and more concentrated into a relatively few large metropolitan areas. Rural areas have lost population as the number of jobs in farming and other activities declined. Thus, at the same time that urban congestion has aggravated big-city problems, many

Robert L. Wrigley

1973-01-01

156

Ethical and methodological issues in academic mental health research in populations affected by disasters: the Oklahoma City experience relevant to September 11, 2001.  

PubMed

Empirical data from research studies are vital to guiding mental health interventions following disasters. However, few data are available for this purpose. Important advances in policy and procedures for the conduct of organized research emerged from the Oklahoma City bombing, yielding cooperative working relationships among researchers and culminating in the ethical attainment of informative research data. However, the academic community was again caught off guard after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Suggestions to surmount these obstacles include incorporating research infrastructures into disaster preparedness plans in advance; organizing the community of researchers; and working closely with major funding organizations. Methodological issues pertaining to measurement of psychopathology include the importance of obtaining diagnostic data; interpreting the meaning of symptoms in the absence of a psychiatric disorder; differentiating preexisting symptoms from those that emerged after the disaster, and optimal timing of postdisaster assessment. PMID:15094694

North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe

2002-08-01

157

The effect of loss and trauma on substance use behavior in individuals seeking support services after the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effect of trauma exposure on substance use behaviors, specifically tobacco and alcohol use, in a group of 84 individuals who sought supportive services after the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. A self-report instrument was used to assess demographics, sensory exposure, injury, interpersonal exposure through relationship with victims, peritraumatic reaction, grief, posttraumatic stress, worry about safety, functional impairment, and changes in smoking and drinking. Those who reported increased smoking had higher scores on peritraumatic reaction, grief, posttraumatic stress, worry about safety, and trouble functioning. Those who reported increased alcohol intake had higher scores on injury, peritraumatic reaction, grief, posttraumatic stress, worry about safety, and trouble functioning. Sensory exposure and interpersonal exposure were not significantly different between those with and without increased smoking or drinking. Although no causal relationship can be assumed, our findings indicate an association of grief and posttraumatic stress with increased substance use behaviors in disaster victims. PMID:12238739

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Vinekar, Shreekumar S; Trautman, Richard P; Lensgraf, S Jay; Reddy, Chandrashekar; Patel, Nilam; Ford, Andria L

2002-06-01

158

No evidence of suicide increase following terrorist attacks in the United States: an interrupted time-series analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of September 11 and the Oklahoma City bombing on monthly suicide counts at the local, state, and national level. Unlike prior studies that provided conflicting evidence, rigorous time series techniques revealed no support for an increase or decrease in suicides following these events. We conclude that while terrorist attacks produce subsequent psychological morbidity and may affect self and collective efficacy well beyond their immediate impact, these effects are not strong enough to influence levels of suicide mortality. PMID:20121329

Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B

2009-12-01

159

Relationship Between Green Areas and Urban Conservation in Historical Areas and Its Reflections: Case of Diyarbakir City, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

City planning is essential for providing physical environment for better community life and for providing green areas, while conserving historical heritage is an important achievement in city planning, particularly for historical cities such as Diyarbakir city. The focus of this paper is to outline how increasing the ratio of green area in the city centre of Diyarbakir, Turkey, with a

M. Oguz Sinemillioglu; Can Tuncay Akin; Nese Karacay

2010-01-01

160

Estimating particle exposure in the Mexico City metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study question: We examined whether methods for measuring exposure to airborne particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in the Mexico City metropolitan area give different estimates of PM10 levels, and the nature of these differences, and developed a model for estimating missing PM10 data for one measurement method. Methods: Government PM10 measurements using two different technologies at

MARIE S O'NEILL; DANA LOOMIS; VICTOR TORRES MEZA; ARMANDO RETAMA; DIANE GOLD

2002-01-01

161

Census of Housing: 1970. Block Statistics. Oklahoma City, Okla. Urbanized Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reports present statistics from the 1970 Census, by blocks, on general characteristics of housing units and population. The statistical data concern occupancy, plumbing, structural, utilization, and financial characteristics of housing units. Most of ...

1971-01-01

162

Fire protection review, Western Area Power Administration, Miles City converter station, Miles City, Montana. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes findings of a fire protection review conducted February 19, 1986 at the Western Area Power Administration's Miles City Converter Station. This facility would not be considered a Highly Protected Risk. Major physical deficiencies include lack of automatic sprinkler protection, an inadequate water supply, and an inadequate fire wall around the Valve Hall. Major human element deficiencies include

Earley

1986-01-01

163

76 FR 42723 - Land Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...known as ``OMDE Ponca City,'' into trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma on July 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER...trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma under the authority of...

2011-07-19

164

NEEDS FOR BASIC RESEARCH IN LIMNOLOGY AND FISHERY BIOLOGY IN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago the total surface area of the lakes in Oklahoma was less than 10.000 acrea. At that time 79 small reservoirs had been built by municipal governmenta for city water supplies, or by the federal government for water conservation and wildlife use. Between 1930 and 1940, 92 more lakes were buUt. In the past ten years the rate

CARL D. RIGGS; HOWARD P. CLEMENS

165

Development and Application to Oklahoma City of a New Mass, Energy, Vorticity, and Potential Enstrophy Conserving Scheme for 3D Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Flows with Complex Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a generalization of a mass, energy, vorticity, and potential enstrophy conserving numerical scheme for the 2D shallow water equations (SWEs) in domains with rigid boundaries (e.g. islands) to the governing equations for 3D nonhydrostatic atmospheric flows expressed in the altitude coordinate (as opposed to a terrain-following vertical coordinate). The scheme for the 2D SWEs consists of the scheme of Arakawa and Lamb (1981) (AL81) away from boundaries and the boundary scheme of Ketefian and Jacobson (2009) (KJ09) at boundaries. We generalize the combined AL81/KJ09 scheme to 3D atmospheric flows with rigid boundaries (e.g. hills and buildings) in such a way that, like the continuous equations governing these flows, the generalized 3D scheme conserves mass, energy, vorticity, and potential enstrophy in the special case of 2D barotropic flow. We perform 2D numerical simulations in a vertical plane to demonstrate the scheme's conservation properties. We also perform 3D simulations of flows in a domain with building-scale topography from Oklahoma City, and we use the velocity fields from these simulations to model the transport of an inert tracer around this topography. The generalized 3D scheme is useful because it conserves several important domain-summed quantities in atmospheric models that use the altitude coordinate, thereby avoiding the large errors in pressure-gradient calculations often found in models that use a terrain-following vertical coordinate.

Ketefian, G. S.; Jacobson, M. Z.

2010-12-01

166

Development of a Data Management System for Assistance in Conducting Area of Reviews (AORS) on Class II Injection Wells in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to provide the resources and capabilities necessary to permit the State of Oklahoma to conduct Area of Review (AOR) variance analysis on a statewide level. The project allows for the analysis and identification of areas which may qualify for AOR variances, the correlation of information from various databases and automated systems to conduct AORs in area which do not qualify for variances, the evaluation of the risk of pollution, during permitting and monitoring, using risk-based data analysis, and the ability to conduct spatial analysis of injection well data in conjunction with other geographically referenced information.

Battles, Michael S.

2002-06-17

167

A Reassessment of Certain Archeological Sites in the Candy Lake Area, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three sites were investigated in the proposed Candy Creek Lake Area. One, Os-155, was excavated; two others, Os-149 and Os-153, were tested. The work was done under a contract with the Tulsa District Corps of Engineers. The two tested sites did not contri...

J. Saunders C. D. Cheek F. Nials A. L. Cheek

1980-01-01

168

Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Red Oak area, Latimer County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed rock in the Red Oak area consists of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the McAlester and Savanna Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Water in bedrock occurs in bedding planes, joints, and fractures and is confined. The potentiometric surface generally is less than 20 feet below the land surface. Wells yield enough water for domestic and stock use, but larger amounts of ground water are not available. Ground water commonly is a sodium or mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 321 to 714 milligrams per liter. Although variable in quality, ground water generally is suitable for domestic use. No relationship between water chemistry and well depth or location is apparent. Brazil Creek, the principal stream in the area, has no flow 15 percent of the time, and flow is less than 1 cubic foot per second about 25 percent of the time. Water in Brazil Creek is a mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Brazil Creek upstream from areas of old and recent mining ranged from 31 to 99 milligrams per liter with a mean of 58 milligrams per liter, whereas concentrations downstream from the mine areas ranged from 49 to 596 milligrams per liter with a mean of 132 milligrams per liter. Water in Brazil and Rock Creeks had concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury that exceeded maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at least once during the 1979-81 water years. Maximum suspended-sediment discharge, in tons per day, was 2,500 for Brazil Creek and 3,318 for Rock Creek. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) were the dominant sediment size. A significant hydrologic effect of surface mining is creation of additional water storage in mine ponds; one such pond supplies water for the town of Red Oak. Other effects or potential effects of surface mining include changes in rock permeability and ground-water storage, changes in drainage patterns, and changes in the chemical quality and sediment loads of streams.

Marcher, M. V.; Bergman, D. L.; Stoner, J. D.; Blumer, S. P.

1983-01-01

169

Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14?) part of the spectrum

Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T. W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P. J.; Watson, R.D.

1970-01-01

170

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2012-07-01

171

Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly tuffaceous sandstone, shale, mudstone and sandstone. Thick alluvium is overlain on Palryeongsan tuff (Samjung Engineering Co., 1999; Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co., 2000; Kim and Lee, 1964). The alluvium is composed of sand, sandy gravel and weathered zone from the surface (Table 1, Fig. 3). The aquifer is sandy gravel layer (Samjung Engineering Co., 1999). The gravel layer is thicker near the wells of PW1, PW2, PW3, and PW4 (13.5-17.5m), whereas is thinner near the wells of PW5, PW6, and PW7 (6.3-10.5m). The pumping data obtained were analyzed to determine hydraulic parameters (transmissivity and storativity) using various models of pumping test analysis. The appropriate models for the study area were found from several models. The selected model for observation well is Theis model using corrected drawdown and the selected model for pumped well is Papadopulos-Cooper model using corrected drawdown. As a result, alluvial aquifer in the study area behaviors as confined aquifer rather than phreatic aquifer. Thus, infiltration amount from the river to the aquifer in the study area is lower than that from river to phreatic aquifer for the same water level change. And also storativity of the aquifer is represented by elastic storativity rather than specific yield. Transmissivity obtained by the models ranges from 4.54x10-4 to 1.79x10-1 m2/s with arithmetic mean 2.92x10-2 m2/s. Storativity ranges from 2.59x10-4-5.54x10-1 with arithmetic mean 6.36x10-2. Frequency distribution of hydraulic parameters was determined from statistical analyses. The distribution of transmissivity values does not follow normal distribution showing skewness 2.36 and kurtosis 5.085. Aquifer heterogeneity was found by hydraulic parameters and subsurface geology data in the study area. Furthermore, hydraulic parameters obtained at a well that serves as both pumping well and observation well were compared, and the correlation equation was determined to evaluate hydraulic parameters considering aquifer loss. Transmissivity values obtained by the two cases do not show distinct correlati

Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

2003-04-01

172

Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong. Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the overburden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and loadadded effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explesion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquatienal effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

Chen, Jian

1988-08-01

173

Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index

Rosa Puigpinós-Riera; Marc Marí-Dell’Olmo; Mercè Gotsens; Carme Borrell; Gemma Serral; Carlos Ascaso; Montse Calvo; Antonio Daponte; Felicitas M Domínguez-Berjón; Santiago Esnaola; Ana Gandarillas; Gonzalo López-Abente; Carmen M Martos; Miguel A Martínez-Beneito; Agustín Montes-Martínez; Imanol Montoya; Andreu Nolasco; Isabel M Pasarín; Maica Rodríguez-Sanz; Marc Sáez; Pablo Sánchez-Villegas

2011-01-01

174

Oklahoma Healthy Homes Initiative  

PubMed Central

Compelling scientific evidence suggests that a strong association exists between housing-related hazards and the health and safety of their residents. Health, safety, and environmental hazards (such as asthma and allergy triggers), unintentional injury hazards, lead-based paint hazards, and poor indoor air quality are interrelated with substandard housing conditions. This article describes a Healthy Homes initiative to address these hazards in a coordinated fashion in the home, rather than taking a categorical approach, even in the presence of multiple hazards. It also provides an overview of Oklahoma's Healthy Homes initiative and its pilot project, the Tulsa Safe and Healthy Housing Project, which is currently administered in Tulsa in collaboration with Children First, Oklahoma's Nurse-Family Partnership program. This pilot project seeks to open new areas of research that can lead to a greater understanding of environmental health issues related to substandard housing in the United States, which will eventually make homes safer and healthier.

Khan, Fahad

2011-01-01

175

Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities  

PubMed Central

Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment.

2011-01-01

176

Water management for a megacity: Mexico City Metropolitan Area.  

PubMed

The paper presents an overview of the present situation of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The analysis indicates an urgent need to radically improve the current water supply and wastewater management practices, to become sustainable. The MCMA is one of the most rapidly growing urban centers of the world, with a population of about 21 million people, a very high rate of immigration and numerous illegal settlements. In order to meet the increasing water demand, successive governments have focused almost exclusively on supply management and engineering solutions, which have resulted in investments of hundreds of millions of USD and the construction of major infrastructure projects for interbasin water transfer. Environmental, economic and social policies associated with water management are mostly inadequate and insufficient, which is resulting in increasing deterioration in the environment, health and socioeconomic conditions of a population living in one of the largest urban agglomerations of the world. Surprisingly, however, no long-term strategies on demand-management, reuse, conservation, and improved water-management practices have been developed so far. PMID:12733797

Tortajada, Cecilia; Castelán, Enrique

2003-03-01

177

Study on city area traffic coordination control based on linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traffic network of a city area is considered in this paper. This paper presents a linear program which is based on optimization from a purely mathematical point of view to solve the problem of optimizing city area traffic control. The phase sequence of each intersection is known. The identification of the optimal phase relationship between all intersections and duration

Xi-rui Yang; Dian-hai Wang

2009-01-01

178

33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin...Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin...area: All waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at...

2013-07-01

179

Lessons from the first two years of Project Heartland, Oklahoma's mental health response to the 1995 bombing.  

PubMed

On April 19, 1995, a terrorist bombing in Oklahoma City killed 168 people and injured 853 others. The Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services was the lead agency in crafting a community mental health response to reduce impairment of those affected. The Project Heartland program, which opened on May 15, 1995, was the first community mental health program in the U.S. designed to intervene in the short to medium term with survivors of a major terrorist event. The authors describe lessons learned in the areas of planning and service delivery, as well as the types and extent of services provided in the project's first two years. PMID:10402619

Call, J A; Pfefferbaum, B

1999-07-01

180

Development of a data management system for assistance in conducting Area of Reviews (AORs) on Class II injection wells in Oklahoma. Quarterly report, July--September, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Project objectives are to provide the resources and capabilities to permit the State of Oklahoma to conduct Area of Review (AOR) variance analysis on a statewide level including: (1) the analysis and identification of areas which may qualify for AOR variances; (2) the correlation of information from various databases and automation systems to conduct AORs in areas that do not qualify for variances; (3) the evaluation of the risk of pollution, during permitting and monitoring, using risk based data analysis; and (4) the ability to conduct spatial analysis of injection well data in conjunction with other geographically referenced information. The division successfully converted its mainframe computer surety system to the new client server network and implemented it on September 29, 1995. The division currently lacks sufficient storage space to bring the existing oil and gas spatially referenced data systems in-house and fully integrate the systems for use in the determination of AORs or AOR variances. The second installment of the awarded grant allows for the purchase of the developmental server that will provide the minimum computer storage space to convert the remainder of the mainframe computer systems.

Schmidt, M.W.

1995-10-25

181

Wind-energy resources in the area of the City of Buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of wind energy resources found in the area of the City of Buffalo is presented. Wind speed and direction data from three sites within the City have been collected and subjected to computer processing for identification of candidate sites for wind energy conversion applications. A detailed assessment of wind turbine performance at the three sites is carried out

P. M. Sforza; M. J. Smorto

1981-01-01

182

Environmental Assessment of General Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Western has formulated a General Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects (Criteria), which will be the principles for marketing of power from the Boulder Canyon Project, the Parker-Davis Project, and the Central...

1983-01-01

183

Feasibility of Intermodal Goods Movement Facilities in Small and Medium Cities and Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes conditions under which intermodal goods movement facilities may be feasible in small-to-medium cities and rural areas. Profiles are presented of sixteen TOFC/COFC facilities and seventeen bulk transfer facilities. Issues related to go...

E. S. Neuman C. L. Barry

1990-01-01

184

Salt Lake City, Provo, and Ogden Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is presented of the emission inventory for the Salt Lake City Metropolitan area, Utah. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur oxides, partic...

D. V. Mason

1970-01-01

185

Iranians in Oklahoma: Learning the Hard Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general frustration among Iranian students at Southwestern College and other colleges in Oklahoma City were revealed last February in an angry confrontation at the College. Political tensions, racial prejudice of Americans, language barriers, and problems of cultural adjustment are some causes of their frustration. (JMD)

Honey, Charles

1978-01-01

186

The Development of “Sports-City” Zones and Their Potential Value as Tourism Resources for Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several cities have constructed new sports facilities in concentrated areas or supplemented existing facilities to create a themed sport zone. Some have branded these areas as “sports cities” to give them visibility and coherence. This research assesses the rationale for these projects, in particular, their potential value as new tourist areas for cities. Although the relationship between

Andrew Smith

2010-01-01

187

CITIZEN-SCIENCE MONITORING OF LANDBIRDS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TWIN CITIES IMPORTANT BIRD AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urbanization alters undeveloped landscapes, conservation of remnant native habitats is increasingly important. Citizen science has emerged as a powerful tool in monitoring these devel- oped areas. The Mississippi River Twin Cities Important Bird Area (IBA) covers nearly 14 751 ha of bird habitat along the Mississippi River between Minneapolis and Hastings. While we know this area's value to waterbirds,

TANIA Z. HOMAYOUN; ROBERT B. BLAIR

188

Improving the Living Environment of Khulna City Slum Areas, Bangladesh: Impact of Basic Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population growth in urban areas of Bangladesh ,including Khulna the third largest city, caused by a heavy influx of migrants from rural areas, has led to mushrooming of slums and squatters in urban areas without any basic service facilities. As a part of urban poverty reduction and to improve the living environment of the urban poor basic services have

Bushra Shamsad; Sadah Shamsad

189

Four Possible Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Ada, Oklahoma  

EPA Science Inventory

An overview of federal, state, and city initiatives on climate change are presented. Specific steps for the City of Ada, Oklahoma, are presented. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy....

190

Chronicles of Oklahoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed through a partnership between the Oklahoma Historical Society and the Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center, this site makes 20 volumes of the Chronicles of Oklahoma available for researchers and the general public. Originally published by the Oklahoma State Historical Society, the available volumes range in date from 1921 to 1942. Users may search the volumes indices provided online, or search by keyword. The volumes contain a number of compelling articles on Oklahoma history, such as "Oklahoma as a Part of the Spanish Dominion, 1763-1803" and "My Experience with the Cheyenne Indians." The table of contents for each volume is a helpful way to browse through the different volumes. Along with the volumes currently available online, more volumes will be added in the future, time and money permitting.

191

77 FR 66217 - Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Union Pacific Railroad...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rail lines. See Arkansas-Oklahoma R.R.--Trackage Rights...General Counsel, Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc., P.O...UP, rather than with Kansas City Southern (KCS). The shippers...arrangement. See Arkansas-Oklahoma R.R.--Trackage...

2012-11-02

192

Boston: City and Cities. A Study of Bunker Hill Community College's Primary Service Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from 1970 census data and other sources of information, this report provides a socio-economic profile of the service area of Bunker Hill Community College (BHCC). Following an introduction, Part I analyzes the total service area in terms of population growth and density; racial composition; ethnicity; age and sex distribution;…

Leipzig, Gloria

193

75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area...to revise the Class B airspace area at Salt Lake City, UT. The purpose of these meetings...Executive Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The...

2010-11-30

194

Planning Educational Services for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The report showed ways of providing rural youths with quality schooling while keeping costs down. An Oklahoma survey of student needs measured quality differences between rural and urban areas. Students from farms, ranches, and small towns consistently ranked below students in middle and large cities on achievement tests in each grade level…

White, Fred; Tweeten, Luther

195

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Oklahoma: Canadian County, Cleveland County, Grady County, Lincoln County, Logan County, Kingfisher County, McClain County, Oklahoma County, Pottawatomie...

2010-07-01

196

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Oklahoma: Canadian County, Cleveland County, Grady County, Lincoln County, Logan County, Kingfisher County, McClain County, Oklahoma County, Pottawatomie...

2009-07-01

197

Flood of May 26-27, 1984 in Tulsa, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The greatest flood disaster in the history of Tulsa, Oklahoma occurred during 8 hours from 2030 hours May 26 to 0430 hours May 27, 1984, as a result of intense rainfall centered over the metropolitan area. Storms of the magnitude that caused this flood are not uncommon to the southern great plains. Such storms are seldom documented in large urban areas. Total rainfall depth and rainfall distribution in the Tulsa metropolitan area during the May 26-27 storm were recorded by 16 recording rain gages. This report presents location of recording rain gages with corresponding rainfall histograms and mass curves, lines of equal rainfall depth (map A), and flood magnitudes and inundated areas of selected streams within the city (map B). The limits of the study areas (fig. 1) are the corporate boundaries of Tulsa, an area of about 185 square miles. Streams draining the city are: Dirty Butter, Coal, and Mingo Creeks which drain northward into Bird Creek along the northern boundary of the city; and Cherry, Crow, Harlow, Joe Haikey, Fry, Vensel, Fred, and Mooser Creeks which flow into the Arkansas River along the southern part of the city. Flooding along Haikey, Fry, Fred, Vensel, and Mooser Creeks was not documented for this report. The Arkansas River is regulated by Keystone Dam upstream from Tulsa (fig. 1). The Arkansas River remained below flood stage during the storm. Flooded areas in Tulsa (map B) were delineated on the topographic maps using flood profiles based on surveys of high-water marks identified immediately after the flood. The flood boundaries show the limits of stream flooding. Additional areas flooded because of overfilled storm drains or by sheet runoff are not shown in this report. Data presented in this report, including rainfall duration and frequency, and flood discharges and elevations, provide city officials and consultants a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions.

Bergman, DeRoy L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

1988-01-01

198

Oklahoma Tribes: A History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

Gover, Kevin

1977-01-01

199

Oklahoma Tribes: A History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

Gover, Kevin

1977-01-01

200

URBAN AIR TRANSECT STUDY TO INVESTIGATE URBAN AREAS AS SOURCES OF PCDDS AND PCDFS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An urban air transect study was undertaken in Oklahoma City, OK, to investigate whether urban areas represent sources of dioxin-like compounds to the rural environment. This study proposed the hypothesis that the collective human activities characteristic of cities cause urban a...

201

Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa an...

2009-01-01

202

Business Use of Small Computers in the Salt Lake City, Utah Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In July 1981, Utah Technical College (UTC) conducted a survey of businesses in the Salt Lake City area to gather information for the development of a curriculum integrating computer applications with business course instruction. The survey sought to determine the status and usage of current micro/mini computer equipment, future data processing…

Homer, Michael M.

203

A technique for using composite DMSP\\/OLS “City Lights” satellite data to map urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Tresholding technique was used to convert a prototype “city lights” data set from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NOAAINGDC) into a map of “urban areas” for the continental United States. Thresholding was required to adapt the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSPIOLS)-based NGDC data set into an urban map because the values

Marc L. Imhoff; William T. Lawrence; David C. Stutzer; Christopher D. Elvidge

1997-01-01

204

SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USCG SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The chrome source area is located beneath an old electroplating shop at the United States Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC . This electroplating shop was in use for approximately 30 years until 1984 and was the source of discharges of chromic and sulfuric...

205

Applied on geophysical exploration methods in overburden karst area—A case study of Jiangshan city  

Microsoft Academic Search

The karst collapse is the main geologic disaster in the overcast type karst development area which ruined land, polluted the water resource, destroyed the living environment of human beings and also been harmful to the sustainable development of the economic. Via to analysis the anomalies features of the karst collapse from the geophysical exploration of Jiangshan city by the transient

Dong Shaogang; Ning Libo

2010-01-01

206

Photochemical Air Pollution: Transport from the New York City Area into Connecticut and Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical air pollution resulting from primary emissions in the New York City metropolitan area is transported by prevailing winds on a 300-kilometer northeast trajectory through Connecticut and as far as northeastern Massachusetts. As a result, southwestern Connecticut has the highest ozone concentrations in the region and there is a substantial increase in ozone concentrations in Massachusetts. The ozone concentrations of

W. S. Cleveland; B. Kleiner; J. E. McRae; J. L. Warner

1976-01-01

207

Inserting renewable fuels and technologies for transport in Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes three future scenarios for the potential reduction of CO2 emissions and associated costs when biogenic ethanol blends and oxygenates are substituted for gasoline, and hybrid, flex fuel and fuel cell technologies are introduced in passenger automobiles (including pickups and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs)) in the densely populated Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), analyzed up to the year 2030.

Fabio Manzini

2006-01-01

208

Child health and child care in Okelele: An indigenous area of the city of Ilorin, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a detailed analysis of the survival rates and health problems of a cohort of children born during a 5-yr period in part of the city of Ilorin, Nigeria. The findings are linked to a demographic and environmental study which indicates that the study area was relatively stable in terms of family structure and population turnover. Most people

Michael A. Adedoyin; Susan J. Watts

1989-01-01

209

Perceptions of Neighbourhood Disorder and Reputation: Qualitative Findings from Two Contrasting Areas of an Australian City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within Australian cities, social and economic inequalities manifest themselves spatially. Perceived neighbourhood disorder and neighbourhood reputation are relevant to considering the ways in which social and economic inequalities translate into place-based inequalities. This article explores the ways in which residents of two socio-economically contrasting urban areas describe and explain neighbourhood disorder and neighbourhood reputation. It draws upon qualitative data from

Katy Osborne; Anna Ziersch; Fran Baum

2011-01-01

210

Impacts of Combined Sea Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence, New York City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future sea level rise due to global warming will lead to more frequent flooding of low-lying coastal areas and wetlands, increased land submergence, and enhanced beach erosion. Coastal subsidence exacerbates these overall impacts. In the New York City metropolitan area, rates of relative sea level rise for the last 100 years range between 2-4 mm\\/yr, to which ongoing glacial isostatic

J. Liu; R. Horton

2007-01-01

211

Hydrogeological aspects of groundwater drainage of the urban areas in Kuwait City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential areas in Kuwait City have witnessed a dramatic rise in subsurface water tables over the last three decades. This water rise phenomenon is attributed mainly to over irrigation practices of private gardens along with leakage from domestic and sewage networks. This paper presents a comprehensive study for urban drainage in two selected areas representing the two hydrogeological settings encountered in Kuwait City. In the first area, a vertical drainage scheme was applied successfully over an area of 1 km2. The system has been under continuous operation and monitoring for more than 4 years without problems, providing a permanent solution for the water rise problem in this area. The hydrogeological system has approached steady state conditions and the water levels have dropped to about 3·5 m below the ground surface. In the second area a dual drainage scheme, composing of horizontal and vertical elements, is proposed. Horizontal elements are suggested in the areas where the deep groundwater contains hazardous gases that may pose environmental problems. The proposed drainage scheme in the second area has not yet been implemented. Field tests were conducted to assess the aquifer parameters in both areas and a numerical model has been developed to predict the long-term response of the hydrogeological system in the two areas under consideration.

Al-Rashed, Muhammad F.; Sherif, Mohsen M.

2001-04-01

212

Martin Van Buren Elementary School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the title building, including educational context and design goals. Includes a general description; information on the architect, construction team, and manufacturers and suppliers; and a case study of costs and specifications. (EV)|

Design Cost Data, 2003

2003-01-01

213

Construction of a Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project contemplates the construction of a Federal building, to provide space for multi-agency use on a site to be acquired. The facility will include approximately 441,000 gross square feet, 331,000 net square feet, 142,800 square feet will be used a...

1973-01-01

214

Oklahoma Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oklahoma Geological Survey is a state agency dedicated to geological research and public service. This site contains information on earthquakes, geographic names, general Oklahoma geology, and the mountains and water resources of the state. There are educational materials available to order, many of which are free. Geologic maps indicate rock types and ages, as well as the geologic provinces of the state. Links are provided for more resources.

215

Atmospheric Oxidation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during April 2003  

SciTech Connect

The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) study in April 2003 provided a unique opportunity to examine atmospheric oxidation in a megacity that has more pollution than US and European cities. Most atmospheric constituents that are important for atmospheric oxidation, including the free radicals hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2), were measured. OH typically reached 7x106 cm-3, comparable to amounts observed in US cities, but HO2 reached 40 pptv in the early afternoon, substantially more than observed in most US cities. A steady-state chemistry model was able to simulate the measured OH and HO2 to within well within measurement and model errors bars except for nighttime, when measured OH was 5 times modeled and measured HO2 was 2.5 times modeled, and during morning rush hour, when measured HO2 was ~5 times modeled. We observed similar comparisons in US cities. The agreement between the measured and calculated OH reactivity to within uncertainties indicates that the volatile organic compounds important for atmospheric oxidation are known. The high calculated instantaneous ozone production rate from HO2 measurements is consistent with the high ozone levels typically observed in MCMA.

Shirley, T.; Brune, W. H.; Ren, Xinrong; Mao, J.; Lesher, R.; Cardenas, B.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Lamb, Brian K.; Velasco, E.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

2006-07-07

216

33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay...

2013-07-01

217

75 FR 68755 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Oklahoma Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Oklahoma Advisory Committee Notice is hereby given...FACA), that a planning meeting of the Oklahoma Advisory Committee to the Commission will...400 State Avenue, Suite 908, Kansas City, Kansas 66101. Comments may be...

2010-11-09

218

The Oklahoma bombing. Lessons learned.  

PubMed

The Oklahoma City bombing experience in April of 1995 provided a unique opportunity to test the effectiveness of an existing disaster plan. The critical care nurses at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital learned valuable lessons about managing intense activity, equipment and supplies, staffing resources, and visitor issues. The degree to which the bombing affected the emotional state of personnel was unanticipated, and leaders learned that critical stress management interventions should be included in every emergency preparedness plan. Additionally, recommendations include using runners for communication; assigning specific roles (supplies, staffing, triage); keeping additional staff in reserve for shift relief; ensuring ample hospital staff members are available to coordinate visitors and media; and setting up record systems to preserve continuity. The unique lessons learned as a result of this terrorist attack can be used by other critical care nurses to understand and refine disaster plans. PMID:9214891

Anteau, C M; Williams, L A

1997-06-01

219

[Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].  

PubMed

Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion of the population to surrounding municipios. Planning for the city of Puebla must metropolitan zone. PMID:12317226

Barbosa Prieto, A

1991-12-01

220

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer in central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Cleveland, Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. The Central Oklahoma aquifer includes the alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. The Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Permian-age Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations consist of sandstone with interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Permian-age Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups consist of sandstone, shale, and thin limestone. The Central Oklahoma aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma where the aquifer is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. Most of the usable ground water within the aquifer is from the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations. Substantial quantities of usable ground water also are present in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and in alluvial and terrace deposits associated with the major streams. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity and recharge values, and ground-water level elevation contours are from previously published reports.

Runkle, D. L.; Christenson, S. C.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

221

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

222

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

223

Composition of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrocarbon compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city have been studied to assess the different pollution levels. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler (Hi-Vol), extracts were prepared and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic compounds. High-resolution gas chromatography and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) were used for the analysis of

Débora de Almeida Azevedo; Larissa Silveira Moreira; Denilson Soares de Siqueira

1999-01-01

224

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

225

Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable

K. Baumanns; M.-O. Löwner

2009-01-01

226

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (Area 29 - Fire Training and Area K - storage area near area 29), Altantic County, Atlantic City International Airport, NJ, September 20, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Area 29, the Fire Training Area and Area K, a former drum and tank storage area located adjacent to Area 29 at the FAA Technical Center, Atlantic City International Airport, New Jersey. The selected remedy for Areas 29 and K address the principal threat by controlling the migration of and treating dissolved chemicals in ground water. Contaminated soils will be excavated and disposed of offsite.

NONE

1996-10-01

227

Eco-service enhancement in peri-urban area of coal mining city of Huaibei in East China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 50 years of coal mining, Huaibei Mine, located at 50km southeast of Xuzhou City in East China, has grown to a middle-size city of 600,000 people from a small village of 2000 farmers. The Zhahe Valley, with 400km2 of a built-up area and more than 100km2 of subsided peri-urban wetland at the city center, is surrounded by eight exhausted

Rusong Wang; Feng Li; Wenrui Yang; Xiaofei Zhang

2009-01-01

228

75 FR 6404 - Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...I have determined that the emergency conditions in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter storm beginning on January 28, 2010, and continuing, are of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant an emergency...

2010-02-09

229

Oklahoma Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, the Oklahoma Climate Data Web site offers information on various weather topics for the state that include normals and extremes, a rainfall update, monthly summaries, climate event summaries, and a weather timeline. The data is presented in tables, charts, illustrations, or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) files (e.g., the timeline that goes back to 1900). A very interesting collection of facts, this site is a great example of a public agency offering quality information of their work to the public.

1996-01-01

230

Oklahoma Biological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Associated with the state of Oklahoma and the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Oklahoma, this Web site provides a wealth of information on the flora, fauna, and ecological communities found throughout the state. The site offers a variety of databases and literature collections on a variety of subjects including rare species, woody plants, breeding birds, and much more. The site is easy to navigate, and most searches can be executed simply. Some general information on biodiversity and tips on information sources for the non-specialist make this site valuable to a broader audience.

1969-12-31

231

An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas  

SciTech Connect

As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of the City of North Las Vegas along with the gross-count-based exposure rate and man-made count contour maps and GIS shape files in electronic format on a compact disk.

Piotr Wasiolek

2008-06-01

232

Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil--currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation--is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved. PMID:21590670

Santana, Karine de Souza O; Bavia, Maria Emília; Lima, Artur Dias; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina S; Soares, Enio Silva; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Mendonça, Jorge; Martin, Moara de Santana

2011-05-01

233

Oklahoma DOE EPSCoR Trainees. Final Report for the Period September 30, 1991 to March 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the State of Oklahoma DOE EPSCOR Traineeship program. The program was carried out at the three major research universities in the state: the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Tulsa. Each of the three universities selected a central thrust area for the DOE EPSCOR traineeships that was in keeping with

Knox

2000-01-01

234

[Causation of Oncomelania snail recurrence in water-net areas of Jiaxing City].  

PubMed

From 2004 to 2012, fourteen Oncomelania snail remaining spots with an area of 31.954 hm2 were found in the historical snail areas of Xiuzhou District, Jiaxing City. The recurrence time of snails was 5-39 years. These spots were mainly distributed in the complex breeding environments, such as paddy fields (37.15%), nursery stock fields (36.93%), mulberry fields (16.09%), and ditches (6.82%). A total of 8 370 snails were dissected and no infected ones were found. It suggests that the nursery stock fields should be included in the key points for snail surveillance in water-net areas where schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted. PMID:23593854

Xu, Hui-Qing; Zhu, Pei-Hua; Mo, Gen-Qiang

2012-12-01

235

Flow-System Analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota: Conceptual Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual model of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area synthesizes the physical geography, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow components of these important aquifers. The Madison hydrogeologic unit includes the karstic M...

A. J. Long L. D. Putnam

2002-01-01

236

School Finance: Per-Pupil Spending Differences between Selected Inner City and Suburban Schools Varied by Metropolitan Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focused on per-pupil spending, factors influencing spending, and other similarities and differences between selected high-poverty inner city schools and selected suburban schools in seven metropolitan areas: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Forth Worth...

2002-01-01

237

75 FR 38979 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 204, Tri-Cities Area, TN/VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1691] Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 204, Tri-Cities Area...Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18,...

2010-07-07

238

75 FR 12731 - Foreign-Trade Zone 204-Tri-Cities Area, Tennessee/Virginia; Application for Expansion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 13-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 204--Tri-Cities Area, Tennessee...application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by...

2010-03-17

239

Oklahoma Forest Industries, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oklahoma supplied 73 million cu ft of roundwood to forest industries in 1978, an increase of 13 percent since 1972, and 35 percent since 1975 (fig. 1). Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 81 ...

J. G. Jones V. A. Rudis

1978-01-01

240

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

Not Available

1994-02-01

241

[Total water pollution load determining on Tianxi catchment area in Shenyang city].  

PubMed

This paper analysed and determined the total water pollution load of Tianxi catchment area in Shenyang city systematically; by giving the reliability measurement to the total pollution load, put forward the suggestions to improve the system information reliability. It was found that to strengthen monitoring and investigation for the pumping station is of great advantage to control the pollutants of heavy metals, moreover, by adding monitoring to the Huanglatuozi section of Xi river, not only can the pollution load be identified clearly but also organic pollutants can be controlled more accurately and timely. PMID:11507903

Yang, Y; Fu, G

2001-05-01

242

Comparative analysis of the urban noise between two different areas in the city of Curitiba, PR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to analyze the urban noise perception comparatively in the inhabitants of a residential area (neighborhood) and a mixed area (center), in the city of Curitiba, PR, in order to characterize two different situations: (1) acoustically ideal urban environment; and (2) acoustically polluted urban environment. For that, subjective and objective evaluations were accomplished, where an aleatory sample of each area was submitted to a survey. In the objective evaluation, the medium equivalent sound levels calculated were 53.50 dB(A) and 72.90 dB(A) for the neighborhood and center, respectively. The parameters used for comparison of the calculated medium equivalent sound levels where the values of 55.00 dB(A) (Municipal Law No. 10.625) and 65.00 dB(A) (WHO), in the period of the day for residential areas. The interpretation of the subjective results verified that the central zone inhabitants have an annoyance perception bigger than the residential zone inhabitants. The interpretation of the objective results classified the neighborhood and center areas as acoustically control zone and acoustically polluted zone, respectively, according to the adopted parameters. Starting from the comparison between these two areas, it was defined that both can be classified as reference factor for other evaluations.

Paz, Elaine C.; Ferreira, Andressa C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

2001-05-01

243

Fluoride concentration in potable groundwater in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran.  

PubMed

Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm-the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples. PMID:23022871

Amouei, A I; Mahvi, A H; Mohammadi, A A; Asgharnia, H A; Fallah, S H; Khafajeh, A A

2012-10-01

244

Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

2003-03-01

245

Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in an urban area of Beijing city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in an urban area of Beijing city Huizhi Liu and Jianwu Feng LAPC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 Abstract Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance (EC) system were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in an urban environment of Beijing city. The EC measurements were made at the height of 47 m above the canopy on a 325 m tower. Stationarity test and cospectral analyses of the turbulence measurements met the requirement of EC assumptions. Analyses of the data revealed a clear annual cycle of CO2 fluxes with the maximum in the winter and the minimum in the summer. The positive fluxes of CO2 demonstrated that the urban surface was consistently a net source of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The mean daily CO2 fluxes were 0.48 ± 0.17 mg m-2 s-1 and 0.78 ± 0.28 mg m-2 s-1 (mean ± std) in the summer and the winter respectively, indicating that vehicle emissions and residential heating both contributed to the higher magnitude of CO2 fluxes in winter time. Diurnal pattern of CO2 fluxes were largely associated with traffic volumn. Two distinct peaks were observed in the morning and evening traffic peak hours, with the winter morning peak averaging up to 1.3 mg m-2 s-1. Minimum CO2 fluxes usually occurred before sunrise. The two peaks of CO2 fluxes in the weekend were a little lower than in the weekday all the year around. In summer time, the two peaks occurred about 2 hour later in the weekend compared to the weekday, but this phenomenon was not obvious in the winter. Restricted driving and other related measures to reduce CO2 emission during the time of Olympic Games (July 20 to September 20, 2008) had significant impact on the magnitude of CO2 fluxes, resulting in a mean daily value of 0.39 ± 0.13 mg m-2 s-1 (mean ± std). This research in Beijing city aims at furthering the understanding of the level and dynamics of CO2 fluxes in mega cities in China. Keywords: Carbon dioxide fluxes, eddy covariance, urban area, Beijing

Liu, H.; Feng, J.

2009-12-01

246

77 FR 26598 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00059  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 13069 and 13070] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00059 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes...Counties: Woodward. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma: Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Major,...

2012-05-04

247

Oklahoma DOE EPSCoR Trainees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the State of Oklahoma DOE EPSCOR Traineeship program. The program was carried out at the three major research universities in the state: the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Tulsa...

R. C. Knox

2000-01-01

248

76 FR 24555 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00045  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...24555-24556] [FR Doc No: 2011-10490... 12536 and 12537] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00045...disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1970-DR...Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma: Bryan, Choctaw...Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-10490...

2011-05-02

249

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

250

Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine radioactivity concentrations in surface soil samples of the city of Tehran and associated potential radiological hazards. The natural radionuclide ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) contents were determined for 50 locations throughout the geological surface formations in a representative area in the city of Tehran, Iran, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometric analysis. The range of activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 30.5±0.6 to 45.4±0.9, 27.3±0.5 to 57.1±1.1 and 328.0±4.6 to 768.5±13.4 Bq kg(-1) with overall mean values of 38.8±0.7, 43.4±0.8 and 555.1±8.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index to quantify the internal exposure to radon and its daughter products, as well as the gamma activity concentration index for each sample are 143.6±4.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.39, 0.49 and 0.53, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent is comparable with reported values for many countries in the world. Therefore, these areas may not pose radiological risks to the inhabitants due to harmful effects of the ionising radiation from the natural radioactivity in soil. The calculated average external and internal hazard indexes were found to be less than unity, as a recommended safe level. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for calculating the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air at 1 m above the ground level. The absorbed dose rates resulting from those concentrations ranged from 48.1 to 88.7 nGy h(-1). Assuming a 20 % occupancy factor proposed by UNSCEAR, 2000, the corresponding effective dose rates in outdoor air equivalent to the population were calculated to be between 0.06 and 0.11 mSv y(-1). The measurement results and calculated values obtained from this study indicate that the dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran, have background radioactivity levels within natural limits. PMID:24014681

Asgharizadeh, F; Ghannadi, M; Samani, A B; Meftahi, M; Shalibayk, M; Sahafipour, S A; Gooya, E S

2013-01-01

251

USGS Water Resources of Oklahoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Water Resources of Oklahoma contains hydrologic data; information on current state water-resource projects; USGS maps and aerial photo images; USGS publications and presentations; technical resources; and information on the general climate and water quality monitoring programs. There is also a form for making water data requests; a drought watch for Oklahoma; analysis of daily and monthly water conditions for Oklahoma; and a Water Science for Schools site.

252

Seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha Uplift in Oklahoma. Part V. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Nemaha Ridge is composed of a number of crustal blocks typically 3 to 5 miles (5 to 8 km) wide and 5 to 20 miles (8 to 32 km) long. Structure-contour maps prepared of the top of the Viola Formation (Ordovician), the base of the Pennsylvanian, and the top of the Oswego Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) reveal a complex fault pattern associated with the Nemaha Uplift. This fault pattern is dominated by several discontinuous uplifts, such as the Oklahoma City, Lovell, Garber, and Crescent Uplifts. A detailed study of the Oklahoma City Uplift suggests that a number of the Nemaha-related faults were developed in pre-Mississippian time. Many of these faults exhibit both increasing and decreasing displacements from early to late Paleozoic time. However, the displacement for most of the Oklahoma City faults took place between the end of Oswego time and the end of Hunton time. A lineament map was prepared for north-central Oklahoma. A detailed gravity map was prepared for the Kingfisher and Medford maxima. A total-intensity aeromagnetic map for the Enid and Oklahoma City 1/sup 0/ by 2/sup 0/ Quadrangles was prepared. A regional seismograph network was established to supplement existing seismological capability. A local earthquake-location program, named HYPERCUBE, was developed. From 1897 through 1976, Oklahoma has had approximately 128 known earthquakes. After the network became operational in late 1977, 255 additional earthquakes were detected in Oklahoma (through 1981). A study of earthquake distribution and intensity values in Oklahoma led to the development of a seismic-source map for Oklahoma and parts of the adjacent states. Six seismic-source zones were identified. For each zone except one, a magnitude-frequency relationship was determined.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr.

1983-02-01

253

Nutrient Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. Taste and odor problems in the water attributable to blue-green algae have increased in ...

R. L. Tortorelli

2008-01-01

254

Nutrient Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in the Eucha-Spavianaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. Taste and odor problems in the water attributable to blue-green algae have increased in ...

R. L. Tortorelli

2006-01-01

255

Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA\\/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An

T. D. Veselka; S. Folga; L. A. Poch

1995-01-01

256

THREATENED FISHES OF OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of museum coUecdoos aod recent inteDSive c:ollectiq throqbout Oklahoma have revealed a Dumber of fish species to be threateD.ed by mao·, aetiYities. AD lUUlOCated list of the 34 forms c:oosidered threatened in the ._ is presented. Five species are believed to be rare and endaqered. Hopefallyz dariJicaeion of the scatus of these 34 forms will aid in their

Henry W. Robison; George A. Moore; Rudolph J. Miller

257

78 FR 31998 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00071  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage and Economic Injury Loans): Cleveland, Lincoln, McClain, Oklahoma, Pottawatomie. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma:...

2013-05-28

258

75 FR 47650 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00042  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Oklahoma. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma: Canadian, Cleveland, Kingfisher, Lincoln, Logan, Pottawatomie. The Interest Rates are: [[Page...

2010-08-06

259

Variation of oil composition in vicinity of Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen oils in an 8-county area in the vicinity of the Arbuckle Mountains were classified into 6 oil types: stable platform type, Mill Creek syncline type, Joiner City field type, Gloeocapsamorpha type, Hoover field A-type; and Fitts field type. The stable platform, Mill Creek syncline, and Joiner City field types have a common element (diminished C/sub 32/ hopane) and are thought to be derived from distinctly different facies of the Woodford Formation. The Viola Limestone oil is typical of oil generated from Ordovician rocks. The Hoover field A-type has an element of Ordovician composition and is thought to have been derived from an Arbuckle Group shale. The Fitts field oil has a unique composition and has not been assigned to a source. The variation of oil composition in the vicinity of the Arbuckle Mountains is attributed to (1) the large number of potential source rocks, (2) the variety of facies going from the stable platform into the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, and (3) biodegradation of oils in shallow reservoirs.

Zemmels, I.; Walters, C.C.

1987-08-01

260

A cohort study of infant feeding practices in city, suburban and rural areas in Zhejiang Province, PR China  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding is the basis for appropriate nutrition for infants and is strongly supported by the Ministry of Health in China. However, there are differences in infant feeding practices in different areas of the country. The aim of this study was to compare the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of determinants of initiation and continuing to breastfeed until six months of age in city, suburb and rural areas in Zhejiang Province, PRC. Methods A longitudinal cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in city, suburban and rural areas in 2004/2005. Mothers were recruited and interviewed before discharge from hospitals. A total of 1520 mothers were recruited into the study. Follow-up interviews were administered at 1, 3 and 6 months after birth to obtain details of infant feeding practices. Results 'Any breastfeeding' rates were high before discharge at all three locations, 96.5% in city, 96.8% in suburb and 97.4% in the rural area. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in the city, suburban and rural areas before discharge were 38.0%, 63.4% and 61.0% respectively. By sixth months the 'any breastfeeding' rates had declined to 62.8%, 76.9% and 83.6% and the 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates had fallen to 0.2%, 0.5% and 7.2% in city, suburb and rural areas respectively. There were differences in feeding practices between the three locations, including the use of prelacteal feeds and the introduction of supplementary feeds. Conclusion Mothers who lived in the city were least likely to be 'exclusive breastfeeding' at discharge. At six months the city infants also had lower rates of 'any breastfeeding' and 'exclusive breastfeeding'.

Qiu, Liqian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H; Xie, Xing

2008-01-01

261

Development of Agricultural Recycle Economy in Arid Areas of Hexi Corridor-A Case Study of Zhangye city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Zhangye City as an example, the thesis analyzes the restricted factors of resources and environment confronted by the agriculture in arid area of Hexi Corridor: the first is the agricultural natural resources. The area of cultivated land decreases year by year, and there are sharp decrease of biological diversity as well as the shortage and waste of water resources;

Yu Chen

2010-01-01

262

Passive electrical measurements from three Oklahoma tornados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive electrical measurement of three tornados in the Oklahoma area have been made and are being reported upon. The measurements made include point discharge current, 18.5-kc\\/s sferics, along with 10-, 50-, 100-, and 175-kc\\/s, and 30-Mc\\/s sferics. The preceding measurements of tornados are compared with a typical local thunderstorm. In this comparison, it is shown that the electrical discharges within

P. A. Silberg

1965-01-01

263

Multiple scattering of waves in random media: Application to the study of the city-site effect in Mexico City area.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-duration, amplifications and spatial response's variability of the seismic records registered in Mexico City during the September 1985 earthquake cannot only be explained by the soil velocity model. We will try to explain these phenomena by studying the extent of the effect of buildings' diffracted wave fields during an earthquake. The main question is whether the presence of a large number of buildings can significantly modify the seismic wave field. We are interested in the interaction between the incident wave field propagating in a stratified half- space and a large number of structures at the free surface, i.e., the coupled city-site effect. We study and characterize the seismic wave propagation regimes in a city using the theory of wave propagation in random media. In the coupled city-site system, the buildings are modeled as resonant scatterers uniformly distributed at the surface of a deterministic, horizontally layered elastic half-space representing the soil. Based on the mean-field and the field correlation equations, we build a theoretical model which takes into account the multiple scattering of seismic waves and allows us to describe the coupled city-site system behavior in a simple and rapid way. The results obtained for the configurationally averaged field quantities are validated by means of 3D results for the seismic response of a deterministic model. The numerical simulations of this model are computed with MISS3D code based on classical Soil-Structure Interaction techniques and on a variational coupling between Boundary Integral Equations for a layered soil and a modal Finite Element approach for the buildings. This work proposes a detailed numerical and a theoretical analysis of the city-site interaction (CSI) in Mexico City area. The principal parameters in the study of the CSI are the buildings resonant frequency distribution, the soil characteristics of the site, the urban density and position of the buildings in the city, as well as the type of incident wave. The main results of the theoretical and numerical models allow us to characterize the seismic movement in urban areas.

Ishizawa, O. A.; Clouteau, D.

2007-12-01

264

Vehicle Traffic as a Source of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

PubMed Central

Surface properties of aerosols in the Mexico City metropolitan area have been measured in a variety of exposure scenarios related to vehicle emissions in 2002, using continuous, real-time instruments. The objective of these experiments is to describe ambient and occupational particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with vehicular traffic and facilities using diesel vehicles. Median total particulate PAH concentrations along Mexico City’s roadways range from 60 to 910 ng m?3, averaged over a minimum of 1 h. These levels are approximately 5 times higher than concentrations measured in the United States and among the highest measured ambient values reported in the literature. The ratio of particulate PAH concentration to aerosol active surface area is much higher along roadways and in other areas of fresh vehicle emissions, compared to ratios measured at sites influenced more by aged emissions or noncombustion sources. For particles freshly emitted by vehicles, PAH and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations are correlated because they both originate during the combustion process. Comparison of PAH versus EC and active surface area concentrations at different locations suggests that surface PAH concentrations may diminish with particle aging. These results indicate that exposure to vehicle-related PAH emissions on Mexico City’s roadways may present an important public health risk.

MARR, LINSEY C.; GROGAN, LISA A.; WOHRNSCHIMMEL, HENRY; MOLINA, LUISAT.; MOLINA, MARIO J.; SMITH, THOMAS J.; GARSHICK, ERIC

2005-01-01

265

Oklahoma Pediatric Injury Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Oklahoma Pediatric Injury Control Project was to increase the functional capacity of the Maternal and Child Health Service of the Oklahoma State Department of Health to address the problem of pediatric injuries. The objectives of the pr...

M. L. Brown

1994-01-01

266

Backtalk: Adult Services in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes projects of Oklahoma libraries designed to combat the problem of illiteracy among adults and explains Oklahoma Image, a humanities effort aimed at attracting out-of-school adults to public libraries by focusing on the state's multicultural heritage. Column also reports adult service news from other states. (JD)|

Giblon, Della L.; Henke, Esther Mae

1980-01-01

267

Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 ?g m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 ?g m-3 (with maxima up to 11 ?g m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 ?g m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 ?g m-3 potassium, 1 ?g m-3 magnesium, 2 ?g m-3 sodium, and 3 ?g m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 ?g m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 ?g m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 ?g m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 ?g m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 ?g m-3, 3.6 ?g m-3, 2.1 ?g m-3, and 0.35 ?g m-3 respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 ?g m-3, 2.8 ?g m-3, 1.7 ?g m-3, and 0.25 ?g m-3. Additional improvements are possible by (i) using a day-dependent emission inventory, (ii) improving the performance of the model regarding the oxidant levels, and (iii) revising the emissions and the chemical composition of the fugitive dust. Sensitivity tests indicate that sulfate concentration in Tula decreases by up to 0.5 ?g m-3 after a 50 % reduction of SO2 emissions while it can increase by up to 0.3 ?g m-3 when NOx emissions are reduced by 50 %. Nitrate concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3 after the 50 % reduction of NOx or NH3 emissions. Ammonium concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3, 0.3 ?g m-3, and 0.1 ?g m-3 after the 50 % reduction of NH3, NOx, and SO2 emissions respectively.

Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

2011-08-01

268

Proposal for mars express: detailed dds-test in the "inca city" and "csontváry" areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyis of Mars Global Surveyor MOC images taken in Martian winter and spring has revealed a peculiar spotting phenomenon on the dark dunes in the polar region of Mars [1]. These spots are named Dark Dune Spots (DDSs) and various hypotheses have been put forward for their origin and formation process, which fall into two main groups: geophysical and biological [2, 3, 4, 5 and 6]. Because the high-resolution images by MGS-MOC have shown well-developed and recurrent DDSs on some dark dune fields since the Southern winter of 1999 [5, 6 and 7], we have selected two areas of them. They are many dozen kilometers in size in the Southern polar region. Namely: the "Inca City" area (?=295.3^oE, ?=81.5^oS) and the Northern part of Pityusa Patera (?=37^oE, ?=66^oS), which we call "Csontváry" area. These two areas could be excellent test areas for Mars Express in order to reveal the mechanism of the formation, development and annual recurrence of the DDSs. For this we propose, that different instruments (HRSC, spectrometers, etc.) of the orbiter of the ESA Mars Express Mission should produce high-resolution images and spectral measurements of the frosted surface of the dark dunes of the "Inca City" and the Pityusa Patera from the second half of the Southern winter till the end of spring, with weekly regularity, because this may be sufficient to choose between the abiogenic and the biogenic origin of DDSs. Referenes [1] Malin, M. C. and Edgett, K. S.: 2000, Frosting and defrosting of Martian polar dunes, LPS XXXI, #1056, Houston-CD. [2] Horváth, A., Gánti, T., Gesztesi, A., Bérczi, Sz., Szathmáry, E., 2001, Probable evidences of recent biological activity on Mars: appearance and growing of dark dune spots in the south polar region. LPS XXXII, # 1543, Houston-CD. [3] Malin, M. C. and Edgett, K. S.: 2001, The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera: Interplanetary Cruise through Primary Mission. J. Geophys. Res. 106 E10, p. 23,429-23,570. [4] Gánti, T., Horváth, A., Gesztesi, A., Bérczi, Sz., Szathmáry E.: 2002, Defrosting and Melting, not Defrosting Alone, Lunar Planetary Science XXXIII, #1221, Houston-CD. [5] Horváth, A., Bérczi, Sz., Gánti, T., Gesztesi, A., Szathmáry E.: 2002, The “Inca City” Region of Mars: Test field for Dark Dune Spots Origin, LPS XXXIII, #1109, Houston-CD. [6] Gánti, T., Horváth, A., Gesztesi, A., Bérczi, Sz., Szathmáry, E., 2003, Dark dune spots: possible biomarkers on Mars? OLEB in print. [7] Horváth, A., Gánti, T., Bérczi, Sz., Gesztesi, A., Szathmáry, E., 2003, Morphological analysis of annual recurrence of dark dune spots on Southern Polar Region, LPS XXXIV.

Horvath, A.; Manrubia, S. C.; Ganti, T.; Berczi, S.; Gesztesi, A.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Prieto Ballesteros, O.; Szathmary, E.

2003-04-01

269

Public Health Assessment for National Zinc Company, Bartlesville, Washington County, Oklahoma, Region 6. CERCLIS No. OKD000829440.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed National Zinc Company (NZC) National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in the City of Bartlesville in Washington and Osage Counties, Oklahoma. Based on the available information, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR...

1995-01-01

270

Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been undertaken with key institutions focusing on environmental, health and urban development issues. The survey was conducted in order to identify the local authorities' perception and needs on climate change information and the importance of climate services for the city and institution's activity. Generally, the results suggest that the selected institutions are poorly aware of the potential impacts of climate change and associated extremes in the area, but they showed a real interest for future climate estimations necessary to undertake reliable adaptation measures. At institutional level, do not exist specialized departments (job positions) to tackle or manage climate information and climate-related aspects, this not being a pressing or priority issue for the city. The climate services aspects are seen with interest mainly in supplying climate scenarios and models for a relatively short term (next 10 or 15 years), the climate information being in this way included in the local planning strategies.

Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

2013-04-01

271

Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban sites. V and Ni showed the same evolution at all sites and fractions, being alternatively higher at the three sites. In order to identify the sources of the studied pollutants, a statistical analysis has been carried out. Crustal, regional and industrial sources were identified at the three sites. Moreover, traffic and fuel combustion sources were found at the urban sites. Finally, a metallurgy source was detected at T1 and CENICA. Nevertheless these results must be considered as indicative of the possible sources but not completely definitive due to the relative low number of samples.

Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

2007-05-01

272

Hydrochemical profile for assessing the groundwater quality of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining area.  

PubMed

Quality assessment of water is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of it for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. For the same purpose the study was conducted for the samples of water of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining areas. The standard methods of APHA were used to analysis 15 samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells of the specified area. The analytical results show higher concentration of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and fluoride, which indicate signs of deterioration but values of pH, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, and carbonate are within permissible limits as per WHO standards. From the Hill-piper trilinear diagram, it is observed that the majority of groundwater from sampling stations are sodium-potassium-chloride-sulfate type water. The values of sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity of the groundwater were plotted in the US salinity laboratory diagram for irrigation water. Only the one sample fall in C(3)S(1) quality with high salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Other samples fall in high salinity hazard and high sodium hazard. Chemical analysis of groundwater shows that mean concentration of cation is in order sodium > magnesium > calcium > potassium while for the anion it is chloride > bicarbonate > nitrate > sulfate. PMID:20559718

Joshi, Anita; Seth, Gita

2010-06-18

273

Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar Radiation Atlas. After identifying the shadow free area of the roof we recognize manufacturer dependent device sizes as well as lifetime of the building. While more and more CityGML data will be available in future or approach is a valuable contribution for decision makers and private households to estimate the return on invest of solar energy plants.

Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

2009-04-01

274

Pedological Investigations of Three Areas along the Santa Fe National Historic Trail in the Kansas City Metro Area, Jackson County, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Pedological investigations were conducted at three locations along the Santa Fe National Historic Trail corridor within the Kansas City Metro Area. The first of these, Minor Park, exhibits preserved trail ruts and accordingly was used to demonstrate the use of the pedological approach and to correlate those data with the companion geophysical investigation. The other two sites, Hickman Mills

William C. Johnson; Dane G. Bailey; Terri L. Woodburn

275

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

276

Industrial Migration: A Case Study of Destination by City-Surburban Origin within the New York Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early stages of industrial development, the outflow of jobs from central city to suburb has been discernable. This intrametropolitan dispersion process, slowed by depression and war, gained impetus following World War II and accelerated during the ensuing decades. By the 1970s, however, a new dimension had been added to the dispersion process-especially in the mature urban areas of

Marilyn Rubin; Ilene Wagner; Pearl Kamer

1978-01-01

277

Open-path Emission Factors Derived from DOAS and FTIR Measurements in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile sources are responsible for about 50% of VOC (volatile organic compounds) and about 70% of NOx emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). A novel approach has been developed to derive emission factors for mobile sources that are representative of the overall vehicle fleet, using collocated open-path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic

E. Flores; M. Grutter; B. Galle; J. Mellqvist; J. Samuelsson; B. Knighton; B. T. Jobson; R. Volkamer; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

2004-01-01

278

WIND ENVIRONMENT EVALUATION IN NEIGHBORHOOD RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN MALAYSIA A Case Study of Johor Bahru Metropolitan City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses planning guidelines at the neighborhood residential areas in consideration of wind flow in Malaysia. It aims to reduce the energy consumption particularly from the usage of home air conditioners. Natural wind flow is one of the most effective methods to help achieve the energy saving objectives in large cities especially under the tropical climate like Malaysia. This

Tetsu Kubota; Supian Ahmad

279

Selected Vital and Health Statistics in Poverty and Nonpoverty Areas of 19 Large Cities - United States, 1969-71.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of the differentials in selected vital and health statistics associated with residence in poverty and nonpoverty areas in 19 of the largest cities in the U.S. is provided. The analysis is based on 11 significant indexes of natality and mortali...

S. J. Ventura

1975-01-01

280

Acanthamoeba spp. in domestic tap water in houses of contact lens wearers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in the metropolitan area of Mexico City to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the tap water of houses of contact lens wearers. Water samples were taken from the mains water entry, bathroom sinks and storage containers (roof tanks, cisterns) of 27 houses; and from the solution contained in the contact lens cases. Samples were

Patricia Bonilla-Lemus; Gerardo A. Ramírez-Bautista; Claudia Zamora-Muñoz; María del Rocío Ibarra-Montes; Elizabeth Ramírez-Flores; María Dolores Hernández-Martínez

2010-01-01

281

Low-Flow Characteristics of the Mississippi River Upstream from the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 1932-2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council, conducted a study to characterize regional low flows during 1932-2007 in the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities metropolitan area in Minnesota and to describe the low-f...

D. L. Lorenz E. Kessler

2010-01-01

282

Cervical screening in an inner city area: response to a call system in general practice.  

PubMed Central

To determine whether a cervical screening call system based in general practice in a deprived inner city area would increase the numbers of women who came forward for cervical smears the response to letters of invitation for screening was monitored for one year in one general practice in the Paddington and North Kensington district of London. Women aged 20-64 were identified from the computerised age-sex register. Only 16% of these women had had a smear test. A total of 750 call letters was sent out. Initially the response was poor (57 women; 22%), and 85 (32%) letters were returned marked "address unknown." After the age-sex register was updated the response to call was 330 women (44%). The response of women aged over 35 was better than the response of women aged 35 and under (229 (53%) v 101 (32%)). In the year of the study the number of women aged 20-64 on the revised register who had been screened rose by 330 (14%). A general practice based call system can improve uptake of cervical screening even in a highly mobile, socially underprivileged population.

Shroff, K. J.; Corrigan, A. M.; Bosher, M.; Edmonds, M. P.; Sacks, D.; Coleman, D. V.

1988-01-01

283

Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City.  

PubMed

Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at the University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. PMID:19026476

Rodolfo Sosa, E; Humberto Bravo, A; Violeta Mugica, A; Pablo Sanchez, A; Emma Bueno, L; Krupa, Sagar

2008-11-20

284

Cities Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Economist, their Cities Guide offers practical information ranging from accommodations to insider tips on getting around various US and world cities. A very nice touch are areas like the City Briefing section (top news stories, history pieces, and other tidbits) and the Being There area (subtopics include how to kill an hour and gifts to take home). City Guide also contains sections on cultural events, shopping, history, facts, and much more. [REB].

2001-01-01

285

An approach to mitigation of landslide hazards in a slum area in São Paulo city, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents engineering geology studies for landslide hazard assessment and to support the project of the mitigation civil works in the Jaguaré slum, located in São Paulo city, São Paulo State, southeastern region of Brazil. These studies are part of a landslide hazard mitigation program of the city government comprising a total of 192 slums located in São Paulo

OSWALDO AUGUSTO FILHO

286

The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised

Laura Macdonald; Anne Ellaway; Sally Macintyre

2009-01-01

287

Heat flow and heat production in the Arkoma Basin and Oklahoma Platform, southeastern Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface temperature and thermal gradients along a north-south cross section through the Arkoma Basin and the Oklahoma Platform in southeastern Oklahoma were estimated from 345 bottom hole temperatures from 199 oil and gas wells. The average geothermal gradient in the southern part of the basin near the Ouachita Front is 20°C/km, exceeds 30°C/km in the middle part of the basin, and is 24°C/km on the Oklahoma Platform to the north. Drill cuttings obtained from 11 oil and gas wells were used for 843 thermal conductivity measurements. Thermal conductivity data, corrected to in situ conditions, were used to estimate heat flow. Estimated heat flow (±20%) in the deep part of the Arkoma Basin near the Ouachita Front is 35-40 mW/m2 and increases systematically northward to 60-65 mW/m2 on the Oklahoma Platform. Average heat production, estimated from gamma ray logs, is 2.3 ± 0.2 ?W/m3 for basement rocks underlying the Arkoma Basin and 2.8 ± 0.1 ?W/m3 for basement rocks in the Oklahoma Platform area. Numerical models show that heat refraction from the less conductive sedimentary rocks (˜1.6 W/m°K) of the Arkoma Basin to the more conductive crystalline rocks (˜3.0 W/m°K at 25°C) of the Oklahoma Platform and the Ouachita Mountains accounts for about 5-10 mW/m2 of the observed 20-30 mW/m2 decrease in heat flow from north to south. Changes in crustal heat production related to compositional changes and crustal thinning account for another 5-15 mW/m2 of the observed heat flow change. If the remaining 0-20 mW/m2 difference in heat flow is attributed to heat transport by topographically driven groundwater flow, the average basin-scale permeability of the Arkoma Basin and the Oklahoma Platform can be no greater than 10-15 m2. Results of this study are not generally supportive of theories which invoke topographically driven regional groundwater flow from the Arkoma Basin in Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time (˜290 Ma) to explain the genesis of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, paleothermal anomalies, and regional diagenesis in the North American midcontinent.

Lee, Youngmin; Deming, David; Chen, Kevin F.

1996-11-01

288

Promoting School Readiness in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the research, conducted on Oklahoma's universal Pre-kindergarten (Pre-k) program, on children of Tulsa Public Schools (TPS), the largest school district in the state to increase the school readiness are presented.

Gormley, William T., Jr.; Gayer, Ted

2005-01-01

289

Fast-growing plantation area extracting based on satellite images: a case of Leizhou City in Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast-growing plantation planting is especially prevalent in the late 10 years in Southeast China, going with the debate on its positive and negative influence. Mastering the status of non-natural fast-growing plantations is essential for both national and local government's decision-makers. This paper presents the methodology used to detect fast-growing plantation in the extent of Leizhou city in southeast China based on CCD/CBERS time-series images. This methodology is on the basis of the assumption that fast-growing plantation's rotation period is 5 years. NDVI differencing as a change detection method is selected to detect the bald land period, which will be considered to be fast-growing plantation. The result indicates that NDVI differencing method is feasible in extracting fast-growing plantation. The area of fast-growing plantation in Leizhou city is 225.54 square kilometers, distributed all over the city. Plantation scale in west coast and northern part connected with Suixi city is larger than southern part connected with Xuwen city. East coast has the least amount of distribution. The paper proposes that texture and shape analysis will help improving extraction precision.

Wen, Qingke; Zhang, Zengxiang; Xiao, Luxiang

2007-11-01

290

Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System  

PubMed Central

In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply.

Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-Leon, Sergio; Calva, Juan Jose; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

2005-01-01

291

Water conservation as a long-range strategy in municipal water supply planning: the case of Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with Oklahoma water managers' attitudes toward the adoption or rejection of long-term water conservation options in small and medium sized cities under 50,000 in population. In focusing upon Oklahoma water managers' attitudes, the following questions are addressed: (1) What factors influence Oklahoma water managers' attitudes toward the adoption or rejection of long-term water conservation measures. (2) What are the major incentives or disincentives that may encourage or discourage the adoption and implementing of long-term water conservation alternatives at the municipal level in Oklahoma. (3) What are the distinct geographical variations in attitudes toward adopting water conservation policies. To address these and related questions, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the water managers in the selected Oklahoma towns and cities. Results of the study indicated that local water managers considered local governments as the most appropriate body to deal with water management issues. Local water managers in Oklahoma also place heavy reliance upon traditional structural solutions. If these solutions prove to be inadequate, long-term water conservation alternatives become more appealing. However, Oklahoma water managers in the selected cities and towns expressed their profound concerns about the potential revenue loss if long-term water conservation measures were to be adopted and implemented.

Abdallah, A.L.

1985-01-01

292

Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2000 to September 30, 2000. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Since this is the first Quarterly report, much of the work done is of a preliminary nature. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The selection of the pilot test area has been completed. The drilling of the test well is waiting on rig availability. Phillips has begun sonic core testing of offset cores, waiting on the core from the well to be drilled. Design work is progressing for the tool, which will be built to fit the test well. Installation of monitoring equipment and the downhole vibration tool will occur after the well is drilled. Technical transfer efforts have begun with the submission of an abstract for a technical paper for the Oklahoma City Society of Petroleum Engineers meeting in March 2001.

J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

2000-09-30

293

SH 33 in Mayes and Delaware Counties, From US 69 at Chouteau in Mayes County, Easterly 31.8 Miles to SH 10 Near Kansas in Delaware County, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed project recommends development of a Primary State Highway, SH 33, on a new alignment from Chouteau, Oklahoma, east 31.8 miles bisecting the Ft. Gibson Hunting area to its termination at Kansas, Oklahoma. Adverse effects include: displacement ...

1971-01-01

294

Application of chemometric techniques in the assessment of groundwater pollution in a suburban area of Chennai city, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemometric techniques such as factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to the groundwater quality data in a tan- nery-polluted area of Chennai city, India. Groundwater samples were collected from 65 dug wells during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analysed for 25 para- meters. FA applied to the datasets pertaining to the pre- and post-monsoon

A. Ramesh Kumar; P. Riyazuddin

2008-01-01

295

Factors influencing the uptake of nutrients in streams within the New York City water-supply source areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of nutrients was measured in each of ten streams within the water supply source areas for New York City, once each year between 2000 and 2002. Uptake lengths were estimated from the conservative-tracer-corrected downstream attenuation of short-term (1-2 h) nutrient releases. Uptake lengths correlated with stream size and were converted to uptake velocities (Vf) for further analysis. Vf

D. Newbold; L. Kaplan; T. Bott; J. Jackson; A. Aufdenkampe; C. Dow

2005-01-01

296

40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interstate Unclassifiable/Attainment McCurtain County AQCR 184 Central Oklahoma Intrastate...Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment McCurtain County AQCR 184 Central Oklahoma Intrastate...022Shreveport-Texarkana-Tyler Intrastate: McCurtain County...

2009-07-01

297

40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interstate Unclassifiable/Attainment McCurtain County AQCR 184 Central Oklahoma Intrastate...Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment McCurtain County AQCR 184 Central Oklahoma Intrastate...022Shreveport-Texarkana-Tyler Intrastate: McCurtain County...

2010-07-01

298

76 FR 34799 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00050  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage and Economic Injury...Kingfisher, Logan, Mcclain, Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma...Oklahoma, Ottawa, Payne, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Stephens. Arkansas: Benton....

2011-06-14

299

University of Oklahoma: School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Oklahoma offers information on research in the areas of bioengineering, polymers science and engineering, environmental engineering, and energy studies. Examples include the Engineering Virtual Library and the Chemical Engineering Virtual Library, related government research labs, discipline-specific groupings of Chemical Engineering online resources, and selected corporate Web pages.

300

A Multilayer Aquifer Model of the Ogallala Formation in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of layering on an aquifer were studied to obtain a better definition of the properties of the Ogallala Formation in the panhandle of Oklahoma. Two sand models simulated the conditions found in this area. Laboratory analyses of sand samples fro...

J. T. Chowning

1973-01-01

301

78 FR 25462 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter storm and snowstorm during the period of February 24-26, 2013, is of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a...

2013-05-01

302

75 FR 15450 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter storm during the period of January 28-30, 2010, is of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster...

2010-03-29

303

National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Oklahoma. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

304

76 FR 55157 - Public Meeting in Midwest City, OK, for the Proposed Keystone XL Project; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Midwest City, OK, for the Proposed Keystone XL Project; Correction AGENCY: Department...City, Oklahoma for the proposed Keystone XL project...public meetings for the proposed Keystone XL project was published in the...

2011-09-06

305

Assessment of Impacts Produced by Anthropogenic Sources in a Little City near an Important Industrial Area (Modugno, Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches.

de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

2013-01-01

306

Exploratory Investigation of Concentrations of Total Gaseous Mercury in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in ambient air at several locations within Mexico Valley Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, ZMVM, in Spanish) was measured during the Fall of 2002 and the first quarter of 2003. Among these locations were Tecamachalco (19°26'N; 99°13'W), San Agustín (19°31'N; 99°01'W), Xalostoc (19°31'N; 99°04'W) and Iztapalapa (19°21'N; 99°04'W). San Agustín and Xalostoc border the State of Mexico. Iztapalapa contains CENICA's monitoring station, and Mercury was one of the parameters measured here during the MCMA-2003 field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in ZMVM in April of 2003. This last site was used to monitor Mercury during three different seasons. The reported concentrations of Mercury vapor were measured continuously using cold vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Tekran 2537A analyzer), with a detection limit of 0.10 ng·m-3 and a monitoring frequency of five minutes. The average TGM concentrations reported were 13.42, 10.22, 8.46 and 34.2 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa in the months of September, October and November of 2002 and April of 2003 during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, respectively. For Tecamachalco, a concentration of 49.67 ng·m-3 was reported in January, 11.3 ng·m-3, for San Agustín in February and 31.99 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc in March of 2003.The daily maximums, 24 hourly average, for the same periods are 223.5, 78.2, 31.4 and 503.75 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa, 118.62 ng·m-3 for Tecamachalco, 83.4 ng·m-3 for San Agustín and 261.2 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc. According to Ontario's air quality standards, the threshold value for mercury vapor in ambient air is 2 mg·m-3 on a 30 day average (Mercury situation in Canada, Report # 2, Environment Canada, May 2002). According to these criteria, then, the data reported for Mexico City are within the allowed limits for ambient air, but still 22 times higher than those reported as background concentrations at pristine locations (de la Rosa D.A., Volke-Sepúlveda T., Solorzano G., Green C., Tordon R., and Beauchamp S., (2004), Survey of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Mexico, Atmospheric Environment 38, 4839-4846). These TGM concentrations, measured during the different seasons occurring in the ZMVM, that is, rainy, cold dry and warm dry seasons, will allow us to establish through the integration of time series, block diagrams and the application of basic descriptive statistics, the temporal profile of TGM concentrations at the Iztapalapa, CENICA station during a seasonal year. Likewise, data from the other sites will let us compare the concentration levels among different areas in the ZMVM.

Hernandez, S.; de La Rosa, D. A.; Márquez, C.; Solórzano, G.; Martínez, A.

2004-12-01

307

Inequalities in mortality in small areas of eleven Spanish cities (the multicenter MEDEA project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to identify inequalities in mortality among census tracts of 11 Spanish cities in the period 1996–2003 and to analyse the relationship between these geographical inequalities and socioeconomic deprivation. It is a cross-sectional ecological study where the units of analysis are census tracts. We obtained an index of socioeconomic deprivation and estimated SMR by each

Carme Borrell; Marc Marí-Dell’Olmo; Gemma Serral; Miguel Martínez-Beneito; Mercè Gotsens

2010-01-01

308

The IMADA-AVER Boundary Layer Experiment in the Mexico City Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boundary layer field experiment in the Mexico City basin during the period 24 February-22 March 1997 is described. A total of six sites were instrumented. At four of the sites, 915-MHz radar wind profilers were deployed and radiosondes were released five times per day. Two of these sites also had sodars collocated with the profilers. Radiosondes were released twice

J. C. Doran; X. Bian; S. F. J. de Wekker; S. Edgerton; J. D. Fast; J. M. Hubbe; W. J. Shaw; C. D. Whiteman; S. Abbott; C. King; J. Leach; M. Mulhearn; C. Russell; B. Templeman; D. Wolfe; J. Archuleta; S. Elliott; A. Fernandez; D. Langley; J. T. Lee; W. Porch; L. Tellier; J. Chow; J. G. Watson; R. L. Coulter; T. J. Martin; J. D. Shannon; R. White; D. Martinez; J. L. Martinez; V. Mora; G. Sosa; G. Mercado; J. L. Pena; R. Salas; R. Petty

1998-01-01

309

Impacts of sea level rise in the New York City metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greater New York City region, with over 2400 km of shoreline, will be vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise (SLR) due to anticipated climate warming. Accelerated SLR would exacerbate historic trends of beach erosion and attrition of highly productive coastal salt marshes. Coastal populations in the region have swelled by around 17% (av.) and over 100% in some localities

Vivien Gornitz; Stephen Couch; Ellen K Hartig

2001-01-01

310

SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USGS SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Chromic and sulfuric acid wastes had discharged through a hole in the concrete floor of a chrome-plating shop located within a hangar at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, North Carolina and infiltrated the soils and groundwater beneath the shop. Following i...

311

Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for

Dieu TT Huynh; Michael J Dibley; David W Sibbritt; Hanh TM Tran

2008-01-01

312

PARTICULATE ORGANIC SOURCE MARKERS IN THE NEW YORK CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A sampling network of four sites was established for the Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM2.5 (SOAP) project during 2002-2003 to investigate composition, seasonal and spatial variability, and source contributions to particulate organic matter in the New York City met...

313

Impacts of sea level rise in the New York City metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greater New York City region, with over 2400 km of shoreline, will be vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise (SLR) due to anticipated climate warming. Accelerated SLR would exacerbate historic trends of beach erosion and attrition of highly productive coastal salt marshes. Coastal populations in the region have swelled by around 17% (av.) and over 100% in some localities

Vivien Gornitz; Stephen Couch; Ellen K. Hartig

2002-01-01

314

DETERIORATION OF MARBLE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TOMBSTONE MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEW YORK CITY AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A data base of tombstone thickness and depth of emblem inscription at Veterans Administration cemeteries has been compiled by New York University. A subset of measurements for two cemeteries in the vicinity of New York City was selected for analysis in this study. For comparable ...

315

Part-Time Faculty Compensation and Staff Development in Three Kansas City Area Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine compensation packages and staff development provisions at Johnson County Community College (JCCC), Kansas City Kansas Community College (KCKCC), and Penn Valley Community College (PVCC). Interviews were conducted at each school with the administrators responsible for compensation and staff development and were…

Peterson, Tim

316

STRATIGRAPHY, STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY, AND DUCTILE AND BRITTLE FAULTS OF THE NEW YORK CITY AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystalline rocks of New York City are largely obscured by urbanization and surface sediment deposits which inhibit direct examination of bedrock. Over the last 15 years, my studies of New York's bedrock have involved examination of over 500 natural exposures, site visits to roughly 100 open-pit construction sites during the building boom of the 1980s, subsurface study during ongoing

Charles Merguerian

317

Oklahoma's Federally-Recognized Indian Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document compiles lesson plans, classroom activities, and facts from previous Oklahoma state publications about Oklahoma's American Indian peoples. "Oklahoma's Indian People: Images of Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow" contains brief presentations and related class activities and writing assignments about the histories of approximately 29…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Indian Education Section.

318

76 FR 23522 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OK-033-FOR; Docket ID: OSM-2011-0001] Oklahoma Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of...receipt of a proposed amendment to the Oklahoma regulatory program under the Surface...Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA or the Act). Oklahoma proposes revisions to its program...

2011-04-27

319

Gender, Crime and Incarceration in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Why is Oklahoma ranked No. 1 in the rate of incarcerating its female population. Senate Bill No. 810 of the 2003 Legislature created the Special Task Force for Women Incarcerated in Oklahoma to answer that question. The Oklahoma Criminal Justice Resource ...

D. Simpson M. Boling N. Warren L. Byrum

2004-01-01

320

40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79...

2013-07-01

321

40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.123 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123...

2013-07-01

322

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2013-07-01

323

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.125 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125...

2013-07-01

325

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant ...

D. K. Olsen W. I. Johnson

1993-01-01

326

Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS)/DOE Annual Workshop in Oklahoma City May 8,9 2001 has been submitted for publication to the OGS. A technical paper draft has been submitted for the ASME/ETCE conference (Feb 2002) Production Technology Symposium. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors. In addition, a proposed technical paper has been submitted for this meeting.

J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

2001-09-30

327

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

1993-08-01

328

Dengue Outbreaks in High-Income Area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, 2003-2009  

PubMed Central

Kaohsiung City, a modern metropolis of 1.5 million persons, has been the focus of dengue virus activity in Taiwan for several decades. The aim of this study was to provide a temporal and spatial description of dengue virus epidemiology in Kaohsiung City by using data for all laboratory-confirmed dengue cases during 2003–2009. We investigated age- and sex-dependent incidence rates and the spatiotemporal patterns of all cases confirmed through passive or active surveillance. Elderly persons were at particularly high risk for dengue virus–related sickness and death. Of all confirmed cases, ?75% were detected through passive surveillance activities; case-patients detected through active surveillance included immediate family members, neighbors, and colleagues of confirmed case-patients. Changing patterns of case clustering could be due to the effect of unmeasured environmental and demographic factors.

Schi?ler, Karin L.; Jepsen, Martin R.; Ho, Chi-Kung; Li, Shu-Hua; Konradsen, Flemming

2012-01-01

329

Large-city district-heating studies for the Minneapolis--St. Paul area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy, Minnesota Energy Agency, Northern States Power Company, and other local government and private organizations are cooperatively performing an in-depth application study to determine the feasibility of district heating for a large northern-U.S. city. Over 90% of the space- and water-heating requirements are currently supplied by oil and gas. Hence, district heating can potentially replace large quantities

M. A. Karnitz; A. M. Rubin

1978-01-01

330

Determinants of Small-Area Water Consumption for the City of Phoenix, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population growth in the face of an uncertain climate future challenges the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona to consume\\u000a water more prudently. To better understand the demand side of this important issue, we identified the determinants of water\\u000a consumption for detached single-family residential units using ordinary least squares regression (OLS). We compared the results\\u000a from the OLS model to

Elizabeth A. Wentz; Patricia Gober

2007-01-01

331

Sources, distribution and variability of airborne trace metals in La Plata City area, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne particulate trace metals have been measured bimonthly during day and night hours in four permanent stations located in residential, industrial and commercial sectors of La Plata City region, to characterize the sources and variability of atmospheric inputs. Airborne trace metal regional averages (Pb 64±62, Cu 30±27, Mn 26±20, Zn 273±227, Fe 1183±838, Ca 5343±3614, Mg 1472±967, Cr 4.3±2.4, Ni

C Bilos; J. C Colombo; C. N Skorupka; M. J Rodriguez Presa

2001-01-01

332

Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A. [and others

1995-03-01

333

Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

1993-11-01

334

POLICY EVALUATION FOR THE EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION MEASURES OF EXTENSIVE USED SPACES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF KUMAMOTO CITY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, The Open-air Parkin g increases in city center. Therefore, the decline of th e central area is caused as a results and the number of those who visit th e town has decreased. Purposes of research are as follows. It clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use. It examines that support plan that the administration should do to straighten out that problem. Various support plans are examined from the cost benefit analysis, revenue, and value of support plan. The composition is as follows. In Chapte r 2, it clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use from "Land use intention investigation". In Chapter 3, the effective profit use usage selection model is presumed. In Chapter 4, the simulation analysis that measures the effect and the value of the support plan is done.

Mizokami, Shoshi; Egawa, Taichi

335

Corporate Responses to Claims of Environmental Misconduct: The Case of Phelps Dodge and Blackwell, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from fieldwork and thematic content analysis, we examine corporate responses to allegations of environmental misconduct surrounding a decommissioned zinc smelter plant in Blackwell, Oklahoma. Environmental grievances center on health effects associated with exposures to lead, cadmium, and arsenic and local activists charge the responsible company, Phelps Dodge, with pandering to local city officials and state regulatory agencies. Local citizens

Chris M. Messer; Thomas E. Shriver

2009-01-01

336

Building the Future: From Stone Age to Space Age in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourth-graders in Oklahoma City used the Internet to find an expert to identify a 75-pound Pleistocene-Era mammoth femur they found in a nearby river. A superintendent explains how his technologically backward district wired its schools for Internet learning and facilitated genuine instructional improvement. (MLH)|

Kitchens, Joe

2000-01-01

337

The Diurnal Wind Variation in the Lowest 1500 ft in Central Oklahoma: June 1966-May 1967.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One year of wind data from a television tower in northern Oklahoma City has been analyzed on a diurnal basis. The annual mean speeds below the third level at 296 ft are lowest at night and highest during the day, and conversely the speeds up to the sevent...

K. C. Crawford H. R. Hudson

1972-01-01

338

Oklahoma Commercial Fishing Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contract commercial fisheries were established in two small recreational and industrial impoundments in Oklahoma to remove over abundant commercial species and evaluate the use of the experimental whip-set trammel net and the 1.2 meter trap net by commerc...

D. L. Combs

1977-01-01

339

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

340

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

341

Clayton Lake, Jackfork Creek, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed Clayton damsite is located at mile 2.8 on Jackfork Creek in Pushmataha County, Oklahoma, about 6 miles northwest of Clayton. The project consists of construction of a flood control, water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife lake located...

1971-01-01

342

Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h -1 on motorways in a large city by using a novel methodology combining traffic assimilation data and modelling systems implemented in a supercomputing facility. Albeit the methodology has been non-specifically developed and can be extrapolated to any large city or megacity, the case study of Barcelona is presented here. Hourly simulations take into account the entire year 2008 (when the 80 km h -1 limit has been introduced) vs. the traffic conditions for the year 2007. The data has been assimilated in an emission model, which considers hourly variable speeds and hourly traffic intensity in the affected area, taken from long-term measurement campaigns for the aforementioned years; it also permits to take into account the traffic congestion effect. Overall, the emissions are reduced up to 4%; however the local effects of this reduction achieve an important impact for the adjacent area to the roadways, reaching 11%. In this sense, the speed limitation effects assessed represent enhancements in air quality levels (5-7%) of primary pollutants over the area, directly improving the welfare of 1.35 million inhabitants (over 41% of the population of the Metropolitan Area) and affecting 3.29 million dwellers who are potentially benefited from this strategy for air quality management (reducing 0.6% the mortality rates in the area).

Baldasano, José M.; Gonçalves, María; Soret, Albert; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

2010-08-01

343

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

Not Available

1994-02-01

344

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

Not Available

1994-02-01

345

Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

2007-12-01

346

[Surveillance of echinococcosis in high risk areas of Yixing City from 2008 to 2009].  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted retrospectively for echinococcosis (hydatid disease) in Yixing City from 2008 to 2009, the serum or fecal samples of suspected patients during the past 5 years and host animals were assessed by ELISA. There were 2 cases reported by network and 4 confirmed patients by investigation, and among the total 6 cases, 5 cases may be infected in the locality. The positive rates were 0.52%, 0.14% and 1.08% in adults aged over 20 years, children aged 7 to 12 years (by serum tests) and dogs (by fecal tests) respectively. PMID:22379844

Zou, Wei-Fei; Tan, Wen-Wen; Xue, Zhi-Qiang

2011-12-01

347

[Study of Hantavirus seoul in a human and rodent population from a marginal area in Buenos Aires City].  

PubMed

A sero-epidemiological survey was conducted to detect evidence of the circulation of Hantavirus seoul. This virus of worldwide distribution is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. A total of 106 samples from people who live in a marginal area in Buenos Aires City and 29 Rattus norvegicus captured in the surroundings of their houses were tested for specific antibodies. Thirty five samples from hypertensive patients undergoing a follow up health program, living in the same neighbourhood, were also tested. The antibody prevalence in rodents was 31% while no evidence of infection was found in the human samples. PMID:12876901

Seijo, Alfredo; Pini, Noemí; Levis, Silvana; Coto, Héctor; Deodato, Bettina; Cernigoi, Beatriz; de Bassadoni, Diana; Enría, Delia

2003-01-01

348

Quantification of NO2 and SO2 emissions from the Houston Ship Channel and Texas City industrial areas during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August–September 2006, as part of the Second Texas Air Quality Study, NO2 and SO2 emissions from the Houston Ship Channel and Texas City industrial areas were quantified using mobile mini-differential optical absorption spectroscopy instruments. The measured NO2 emissions from the Houston Ship Channel and Texas City industrial areas were 2542 and 452 kg h?1, respectively, yielding NOx emissions 70%

Claudia Rivera; Johan Mellqvist; Jerker Samuelsson; Barry Lefer; Sergio Alvarez; Monica R. Patel

2010-01-01

349

Determination of a NMHC Signature for U.S. Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seven-year study (1999 through 2005) has been conducted in United States cities in order to determine volatile organic compound abundance and sources. In total, 29 cities were studied (one to six cities were sampled each August). Air samples were collected in stainless steel canisters and analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Sampling sites were located in parks and open spaces throughout the urban area. This was done in order to decrease the contribution of any point sources. Measurements of methane, carbon monoxide (CO), and 21 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are used here to provide a U.S. signature for urban sources. Key ratios of certain NMHC to CO and to each other are used to determine source contribution, air mass age, and emission factors. The predominant source of most NMHCs was found to be vehicular exhaust. However, in five of the cities studied an additional regional source of light alkanes was present. Elevated levels of C2-C5 alkanes present in Oklahoma City, El Paso, and Baton Rouge have been identified as being from oil production and storage. These cities are characterized by an ethane to CO ratio in excess of 18 pptv/ppbv which is three times that seen in cities without a regional ethane source (6 pptv/ppbv). Charleston and Pittsburgh also exhibited enhanced C2-C5 alkanes with ethane to CO ratios above 35 pptv/ppbv. Possible sources of these compounds in this region of the country will be discussed.

Beyersdorf, A. J.; Baker, A. K.; Doezema, L. A.; Katzenstein, A. S.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

2005-12-01

350

Integration of geospatial techniques in the assessment of vulnerability of trees to ice storms in Norman, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, natural hazards such as hurricanes, floods, wild fires, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and ice storms destroy millions of trees across the World and cause extensive damage to their species composition, structure, and dynamics. Recently within the last decade, ice storms has caused catastrophic damage to trees, infrastructures, power lines in Oklahoma, and has taken over several dozen human lives. However, studies pertaining to the vulnerability and assessment of tree damage from ice storms in Oklahoma are almost non-existent. This study aims to fulfill that gap by first integrating remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess and estimate tree damage caused by the December 8-11, 2007 ice storm that struck the north-central part of Oklahoma. It also explores the factors that contributed to the tree damage and created multiple regression models based on the factors. Finally, it examines the vulnerability of trees to ice storms by creating an ice storm tree damage vulnerability index for the City of Norman, Oklahoma. The integrated RS and GIS method assessed tree height and crown damage with high degree of accuracy. The thickness of ice accumulation has emerged as the most important predictor, followed by tree branch angle and pre-storm crown, wind, stem, and branch diameters for tree damage from ice storms. Results indicate that the vulnerability index accurately predicted several areas that are highly vulnerable. Results from this study are significant from both theoretical, and methodological and implication perspectives. The present study contributes significantly by identifying the geographic conditions of the City of Norman that make its urban forestry vulnerable to ice storm damage. In doing so, it initiates steps for future tree vulnerability research. Methodologically, the study contributes significantly to geospatial technology paradigm in geography by integrating RS and GIS to assess tree damage not only on a change/no change basis, but also by quantifying the damage. Finally, the methods and techniques developed in this study can not only assess damage from future ice storms, but can also quantify damage from other natural disasters in other parts of the world as well.

Rahman, Muhammad Tauhidur

351

Detecting areas disturbed by mining activities through Landsat images, San Luis Potosi City, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining history in San Luis Potosí (Mexico) goes back to more than four centuries, and the accumulation of mining waste poses an important problem to ecological risk prevention. Epithermal deposits are the most common in this region and the impact of mining exploitation must be evaluated to propose sustainable development of the natural resources, which have a strong contribution of the national economy. The state San Luis Potosi is situated in the central part of Mexico between parallels 21°11' and 24°34' of north latitude and 98°23' and 102°14' of west longitude, 424 km northeast from Mexico City. Today is a sprawling city with more than half a million residents. The aim of this study was to analyse land cover and vegetation changes between 1972 and 2000 in San Luis Potosi Valley, using satellite image data. Since large changes in land cover and vegetation are taking place in the Valley and there is a lack of good data, such as maps, statistics and aerial photographs, it was appropriate to use satellite data for assessment of land cover and vegetation to estimate the environmental impact of the mining industry. Field data samples were used to evaluate the change results obtained with the multispectral satellite images. The results show that land cover change in the San Luis Potosi Valley has occurred in the past decade as a result of both natural forces and human activities, which have in turn impacted on the regional sustainable development of the mining resources.

Torres-Vera, M.-A.

2009-04-01

352

Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Urban, Semi Urban and Rural Areas in and around Chennai City, India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. Methods A survey of 7510 individuals aged >?=?15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban), Ambattur (semi-urban) and Sriperumbudur (rural) taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. Results The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7%) compared to semi-urban (20.9%) and urban (19.4%) areas (P value <0.001) Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms) was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1) those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2) those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3) those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. Conclusions Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

Chockalingam, Kolappan; Vedhachalam, Chandrasekaran; Rangasamy, Subramani; Sekar, Gomathi; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Swaminathan, Soumya; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan

2013-01-01

353

City Mayors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

354

Monitoring of heavy metals content in soil collected from city centre and industrial areas of misurata, libya.  

PubMed

The present paper deals with the assessment of heavy metals in soil and roadside dust around Misurata City Centre and industrial areas/roads in the period of October 2011-May 2012. The levels of Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu in settled dust samples collected near small streets, playgrounds, gas stations and main streets in the Misurata Area have been determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Also, the levels of same heavy metals in industrial areas have been determined. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around different sites on each road/area. The overall mean concentration for main streets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for other small streets, where Misurata has been the centre of fierce fighting and is located in a frontline battle zone in the Libyan war; therefore most of metal concentrations in surface soil in the fighting area Tripoli Street and Benghazi Street were higher than those from the other sites (outside fighting area). PMID:23762061

Elbagermi, M A; Edwards, H G M; Alajtal, A I

2013-05-24

355

Environmental Characteristics and Geographic Information System Applications for the Development of Nutrient Thresholds in Oklahoma Streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency has developed nutrient criteria using ecoregions to manage and protect rivers and streams in the United States. Individual states and tribes are encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to modify or improve upon the ecoregion approach. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board uses a dichotomous process that stratifies streams using environmental characteristics such as stream order and stream slope. This process is called the Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter15. The Use Support Assessment Protocols can be used to identify streams threatened by excessive amounts of nutrients, dependant upon a beneficial use designation for each stream. The Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter 15 uses nutrient and environmental characteristic thresholds developed from a study conducted in the Netherlands, but the Oklahoma Water Resources Board wants to modify the thresholds to reflect hydrologic and ecological conditions relevant to Oklahoma streams and rivers. Environmental characteristics thought to affect impairment from nutrient concentrations in Oklahoma streams and rivers were determined for 798 water-quality sites in Oklahoma. Nutrient, chlorophyll, water-properties, and location data were retrieved from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET database including data from the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, and Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Drainage-basin area, stream order, stream slope, and land-use proportions were determined for each site using a Geographic Information System. The methods, procedures, and data sets used to determine the environmental characteristics are described.

Masoner, Jason R.; Haggard, Brian E.; Rea, Alan

2002-01-01

356

Composition and Sourcing of Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and Multivariate Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter <2.5 ? m in diameter (PM2.5) is a serious concern in megacity air pollution for its possible effects on human health and climate, and potential role in heterogeneous chemical processes. Determining the chemical composition of PM2.5 is essential in assessing their effects, and the various aerosol emission sources must be identified in order to develop effective pollution control strategies. Samples of PM2.5 were collected in a southeastern site in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 campaign between April 3 - May 4, 2003 with a 3-stage IMPROVED Cascade DRUM Impactor in size ranges 0.07 - 0.34 ? m (Stage C), 0.34 - 1.15 ? m (Stage B), and 1.15 - 2.5 ? m (Stage A). Analyses by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) were performed to provide 6-hr averaged concentrations of elements > Na, H, and total aerosol mass, respectively, for each size range. Multivariate analysis including Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to group elements by common factors to identify possible aerosol emission sources within each size range. Sudden increases in elements characteristic of industrial emissions and fuel oil suggest manufacturing sources to the north of the city whereas soil aerosols originate from more rural areas to the south. Sulfur contributes to a significant fraction of PM2.5, in agreement with complementary aerosol measurements taken during the campaign. Additional trends and diurnal profiles observed for Mexico City aerosol are presented.

Zuberi, B.; Johnson, K. S.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Disselkamp, R.; Jimenez, J.; Dzepina, K.; Salcedo, D.

2004-12-01

357

Ozone and aerosol distribution above Mexico City measured with a DIAL/elastic lidar system during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone and aerosol vertical distribution and their time evolution were measured with a combined UV DIAL / 532-nm elastic lidar during the MCMA 2003 field campaign held in April-May 2003 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The DIAL transmitter is based on a N2 Raman converter, pumped by the IVth harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The residual second harmonic radiation from the laser is used for aerosol measurements. In the DIAL part of the receiver a dual-telescope configuration ("Long" and "Short" range) is employed to reduce the dynamic range of the signals and a single 20 cm F/4 Newtonian type telescope is used for the aerosol observations at 532 nm. The DIAL wavelengths are transmitted coaxially to the long range telescope and the 532 nm beam is transmitted coaxially to the "aerosol" telescope. The DIAL receiver is equipped with a grating polychromator for spectral separation and the 532 nm receiver uses a narrowband (0.4 nm) interference filter. "Hamamatsu" 5783-06 photosensor modules detect all signals. Ozone concentration was measured to altitudes of up to 6 km AGL and aerosol to 14 km AGL. The height of the PBL was estimated from the aerosol measurements. The diurnal evolution of the PBL and ozone were studied during the campaign. Formation of a residual layer containing elevated ozone concentrations at nighttime, as well as detachment of the PBL in the late afternoon hours were observed.

Simeonov, Valentin; Ristori, Pablo; Taslakov, Marian; Dinoev, Todor; Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; van den Bergh, Hubert

2005-10-01

358

Neighborhood Segregation in Single-Race and Multirace America: A Census 2000 Study of Cities and Metropolitan Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the first time, the Census 2000 questionnaire allowed persons to identify with more than one racial group. As a result, demographers had the opportunity to examine segregation indices between mixed raced groups and persons who identify with a single race. Written by William H. Frey of the University of Michigan and Dowell Myers of the University of Southern California, "Neighborhood Segregation in Single-Race and Multirace America: A Census 2000 Study of Cities and Metropolitan Areas" analyzes and compares residential segregation of persons who identify with two or more racial groups versus persons identifying with a single racial group. Available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, this 45-page report includes all individual cities with Census 2000 populations exceeding 25,000, as well as all US metropolitan areas. One of the findings of the report reveals that persons of mixed race are more likely to live in integrated neighborhoods rather than persons identifying with one race alone. This report, provided by the FannieMae Foundation, is accompanied by racial segregation indices designed by CensusScope (last mentioned in the May 24, 2002 Scout Report).

Myers, Dowell.; Frey, William H.

2002-01-01

359

Quality of Water Wells in an Agricultural Area in the City of La Plata, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of the water from 62 home wells in a section (with no sewerage system) of the agricultural-industrial area of La Plata, was analyzed. The measurement of the studied parameters concentrations were compared with those obtained in seventeen water wells located in another area of town, with commercial characteristics. The pH, total dissolved salts (TDS), nitrates, chlorides, total hardness

Silvia A. Marteau; Juan C. Alberino; Jorge L. Ripoli; Mario E. Rosato

1998-01-01

360

STUDY ON THE SOIL LQUEFACTION AT HINODE AREA IN ITAKO CITY CAUSED BY THE 2011 TOUHOKU-PACIFIC OCEAN EARTHQUAKE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Touhoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake caused severe liquefaction in a wide area of Kanto district. Many timber houses, buried pipes, roads, river dikes and port facilities were severely damaged due to liquefaction. Of them, serious damage to houses and lifelines occurred at Hinode area in Itako City, where a hosing lot had been constructed by filling a river. Many houses severely settled and tilted due to liquefaction. Then the authors collected the data on soil condition and settlement and inclination of houses, and studied the mechanism of the damage. Results show that a loose sand layer is deposited and ground water table is shallow. Though many houses suffered damage, the houses with pile foundations did not settle. On more remarkable thing is that the houses constructed on the ground by banking soil with 1 m high did not settle though surrounding houses settled.

Hashimoto, Takao; Yasuda, Susumu

361

Oklahoma v. FERC: the waning of cooperative federalism  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma v. FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) is an important decision in the development of constitutional interpretations of the tenth amendment after the Supreme Court decision in National League of Cities v. Usery. Even though the legislative provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act impinge upon state regulatory decision making to a greater degree than earlier environmental legislation, the federal interest in energy price regulation was held to justify the use of state administrative agencies to further federal goals. The extension of federal control over state regulatory machinery narrows the scope of state sovereignty as a limitation on the commerce power. 55 references.

Melton, T.M.

1983-01-01

362

Changes in flow in the upper North Canadian river basin of western Oklahoma, pre-development to 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels have declined in the southern part of the High Plains aquifer of the central USA since the mid-1960s in response to extensive irrigation development. The North Canadian River originates in western Oklahoma, and most of the basin is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. Average river flow in the headwaters near Guymon, Oklahoma, has decreased from about 0.9 m3/s before 1970 to near zero at present. Canton Lake, on the North Canadian River near Seiling, about 250 km downstream from Guymon, is a source of water supply for Oklahoma City. Precipitation data and streamflow data for gages upstream from Canton Lake were divided into an "early" period ending in 1971 and a "recent" period that begins in 1978. The early period represents conditions before ground-water levels had declined appreciably in the High Plains aquifer, and the recent period reflects the current condition, including the effects of storage reservoirs. Tests for trend and comparisons of flows between the early and recent periods show that the total annual volume of flow and the magnitudes of instantaneous annual peak discharges measured at most locations in the North Canadian River basin have decreased. Precipitation records for the area, however, show no corresponding changes. The decreases in average annual flow, expressed as a percentage of the average flows for the early period, ranged from 91 percent near Guymon to 37 percent near Canton Lake. A major contributing factor in the decreased flows appears to be the large declines in water levels in the High Plains aquifer.

Wahl, K. L.

2001-01-01

363

Aerial radiological survey of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Spring City, Tennessee. Date of survey: April 1982  

SciTech Connect

An aerial survey of terrestrial gamma radiation was performed during the period April 10 through April 20, 1982 over a 16-kilometer by 16-kilometer (10-mile by 10-mile) area approximately centered on the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant near Spring City, Tennessee. Gamma radiation spectral data were collected while flying a helicopter over a regular pattern of parallel lines spaced 150 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 90 meters (300 feet). All radiation measurements taken at flight altitude are corrected for altitude variations, cosmic radiation, and helicopter background in order to generate exposure rates from terrestrial sources extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level. The data are presented as isoradiation contour maps and show a strong correlation with geological features of the area. The terrestrial radiation levels fall between 3 and 10 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h) except for one isolated area measuring between 10 and 20 ..mu..R/h over the bottom-ash pile of the coal-fired power plant at Watts Bar which is adjacent to the nuclear plant. All gamma radiation detected within the survey area, including the ash pile, was associated with naturally occurring radionuclides. Direct ground-based measurements at 1 meter height were also taken at four scattered sites within the survey area. These values agree with the contour intervals determined from the aerial measurements and differ from the mean value of adjacent contours by no more than 20%.

Jobst, J.E.; Semmler, R.A.

1982-09-01

364

75 FR 32821 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12194 and 12195] Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038 AGENCY...of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA--1917--DR), dated 05...disaster declaration for the State of Oklahoma, dated 05/24/2010 is hereby...

2010-06-09

365

77 FR 56608 - Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation...UT Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA...Mitchell, Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. [FR...

2012-09-13

366

Precipitation Characteristics of the Northern New Jersey, New York City Metropolitan Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The precipitation process in the New York metropolitan area has been studied from physical and synoptic points of view. Influences of topography and urban growth have been considered. Relevant synoptic conditions include extra tropical cyclones and air ma...

A. R. Greenway

1972-01-01

367

Jimson weed abuse in an Oklahoma teen.  

PubMed

Jimson weed, a plant often abused by teenagers and young adults, grows wild throughout Oklahoma. It is best known for its hallucinogenic properties; however intoxication can lead to anticholinergic manifestations that are potentially dangerous. Over the past six years, sixty-three individuals in Oklahoma have been hospitalized for jimson weed intoxication, including this Oklahoma teen. Importance lies in proper identification, understanding, and management in persons presenting with jimson weed poisoning. PMID:20131730

Honey, Brooke L; Hagemann, Tracy M; Lobb, Kelley M; McGoodwin, Lee

2009-12-01

368

What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase II State Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phase II provides a more detailed examination of classroom variables important to achievement in Oklahoma schools. Where Phase I addressed all nine of the Oklahoma essential elements using survey data, Phase II focuses on what occurs in Oklahoma classrooms primarily using data from principal interviews, classroom observations (on-site), and video…

Marzano Research Laboratory, 2010

2010-01-01

369

Comparison of trace element concentrations in ambient air of industrial and residential areas in Tehran city.  

PubMed

Tehran is densely populated possessing unhealthy and polluted air. There are 22 municipality districts in Tehran, and considerable numbers of industries are located within each district. Due to adverse environmental and health effects of trace elements in urban air, this study has been carried out to measure and compare concentration of trace elements including Ag, As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Mn, Hf, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn in industrial (district 21) and residential (district 22) areas. For this purpose, total suspended particles were collected in two different time intervals in the year 2008. As a result, maximum and minimum concentrations in residential area associated with Mn (2.9 ?g/m(3)) and Hf (2.92?×?10(-4) ?g/m(3)), respectively. Also, in industrial sites, these concentrations are higher for Mn (4.79?×?10(-1) ?g/m(3)) and Hf (6.65?×?10(-4) ?g/m(3)). The concentrations of Mn (2.07 ?g/m(3)) and Hf (7.46?×?10(-4) ?g/m(3)) in traffic zone are close to residential values. General, concentrations of Ce, Co, Cs, La, Sc, Sm, Th, Br, and Hf in industrial area were higher than in residential area. The source of these elements in Tehran's air is mainly anthropogenic. According to the achieved results, the concentration levels of As, Cr, and Zn were close together in both residential and industrial zones. Therefore, these elements could have been originated from natural sources. Also, results show that levels of Ag, Mn, Sb, and Cu in residential area were higher than in industrial area. Finally, obtained data indicated that the trends of average concentration of trace elements in industrial area (from low to high) follow as Hfarea, are in order of Hf

Sekhavatjou, Mohammad Sadegh; Hosseini Alhashemi, Azamalsadat; Rostami, Ali

2011-03-08

370

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

371

[Influence of season change on the level of heavy metals in outdoor settled dusts in different functional areas of Guiyang City].  

PubMed

To study the influence of season change on the level of heavy metal in outdoor settled dusts at both city and functional area scale, dust samples were collected in July 2010 and February 2011 from different functional areas in the Guiyang City. The results showed that among all heavy metal elements involved, Pb and As were most significantly affected by season change, with a significantly higher amount in winter than in summer, mostly accumulated in smaller particles of dust. Functional areas where heavy metal concentrations were most significantly affected by seasons were city square and school area, and followed by residential area. Elements that showed the greatest difference in distribution pattern in different fractions between summer and winter were As and Pb, while the functional areas that were most severely influenced were city square and school area, followed by residential area. The isotopic ratio analysis showed that the Pb in the outdoor settled dust in Guiyang was partly contributed by Diesel exhaust dust, paint chip and soil. Summer precipitation, coal-burning in winter and temperature difference between summer and winter may contribute to the seasonal change of the level of Pb and As in the dusts. PMID:23947063

Li, Xiao-Yan

2013-06-01

372

On-road measurements of volatile organic compounds in the Mexico City metropolitan area using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was redesigned and deployed to monitor selected hydrocarbon emissions from in-use vehicles as part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign. This modified PTR-MS instrument provides the necessary time response (<2 s total cycle time) and sensitivity to monitor the rapidly changing hydrocarbon concentrations, within intercepted dilute exhaust emission plumes. Selected hydrocarbons including methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), benzene and toluene were among the vehicle exhaust emission components monitored. A comparison with samples collected in canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography provides validation to the interpretation of the ion assignments and the concentrations derived using the PTR-MS. The simultaneous detection of multiple hydrocarbons in dilute vehicle exhaust plumes provides a valuable tool to study the impact of driving behavior on the exhaust gas emissions.

Rogers, T. M.; Grimsrud, E. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Kolb, C. Ee; Allwine, E.; Westberg, H.; Lamb, B. K.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Knighton, W. B.

2006-05-01

373

Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area  

SciTech Connect

This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

Not Available

1995-01-01

374

PAHs in airborne particles from center area of city in heating period  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract-Total suspended particles (TSP) samples from 7 stations of various functional areas in the center region of Shanghai were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during 2008 winter, and the source of the PAHs was also distinguished. The results show that TSP concentrations were higher than the value World Health Organization recommended(Value of Average daily<0.12mg\\/m 3 ),

Zucheng Wang; Min Liu; Tao Li; Yi Yang; Yushan Xie

2011-01-01

375

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Clinton Quadrangle, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Uranium resources of the Clinton Quadrangle, west-central Oklahoma, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Uranium occurrences reported in previously published literature were located, sampled, and described in detail. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, which were interpreted from aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys, were also investigated. Five areas of uranium favorability were delineated within the quadrangle. Delineation was based on both surface and subsurface data. Two of these areas include coastal-plain facies of the Upper Permian Doxey Shale. Two other areas include the marginal basin facies of the Cloud Chief and Rush Springs Formations (Late Permian). The fifth area, in the southern part of the quadrangle, is characterized by arkosic alluvial-fan and fluvial facies of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian age. Geologic units considered to be unfavorable include all pre-Upper Pennsylvanian rocks, most Permian rocks, the Pliocene Ogallala Formation, Pleistocene sediments, and parts of the Upper Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian rocks.

Bloch, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Eutsler, R.L.; Myers, J.J.

1982-09-01

376

Red Fork sandstone of Oklahoma: depositional history and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of progradation across eastern Kansas and most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems) developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes, together with varying subsidence, were dominant factors controlling the general stratigraphic (correlative) characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the more active part of the basin during lower sea level stands and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. A map of Red Fork sand trends reveals an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northernmost part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope basinal-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock and log data. Logs need to be calibrated to cores in order to estimate depositional environments accurately and to make a reasonable assessment of diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, and a significant amount of oil is in channel sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. In some areas, secondary clay, in particular chloritic clay, has resulted in microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities in oil reserves.

Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C.

1989-03-01

377

Geohelminth egg contamination of children's play areas in the city of Lodz (Poland).  

PubMed

The contamination of soil and sand with helminth eggs in children's play areas in Lodz (Poland) was assessed over two seasons using the flotation method with saturated sodium nitrate solution. A total of 88 samples were examined from 7 children's playgrounds from various public parks, 6 sandpits situated in school or kindergarten areas and 9 school sports fields. The differences in the number of positive samples from these sites were significant (?(2)=21.83, d.f.=2 and p<0.0001). The highest rate of contamination was found in the area around sports fields. (15.7%). There was a significant difference between the frequencies of positive samples from the surface and from the deeper layers of the examined sites (?(2)=11.41, d.f.=1, and p=0.0007). The average density of geohelminth eggs in 100g of soil or sand was 1.1 from sports fields, 0.4 from playgrounds and 0.07 from fenced sandpits. Throughout the study, 4 genera of nematode eggs (Toxocara, Uncinaria/Ancylostoma, Ascaris, Trichuris) and 1 genus (Cystoisospora spp.) of oocysts were detected. A total of 62 eggs were recovered, and 43.5% were fully developed to embryonated egg stages. The contamination rate was different in autumn 2010 and spring 2011, but there was no significant difference in the number of positive findings between these seasons. The helminth eggs were found in 10.9% and 7.6% of samples collected in the spring and in the autumn, respectively. The most frequently seen eggs were from Toxocara sp., which were the most prevalent in both seasons. PMID:23084538

Blaszkowska, Joanna; Wojcik, Anna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Szwabe, Katarzyna

2012-10-01

378

Indoor dust fall and its composition in two public areas of a city in India  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports the estimates of dust fall and its chemical composition in certain indoor areas of Hyderabad - Secunderabad Railway Station and a big domestic mess. The quantity of dust fall; percentage of living matter in aerosols; and the pH, SO{sub 4}, Cl, Fe, Co, Zn, Mn, and Cu contents of dust were analyzed. The deposition of airborne dust particles was 102 to 180 mg/m{sup 2} {times} d in the railway station, while in the mess it was 52 to 97 mg/m{sup 2} {times} d.

Raza, S.H.; Nirmala, B.; Murthy, M.S.R. (Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India))

1990-01-01

379

Quantitative analysis between spatial extents and spatial aggregation levels of urban built-up area using Landsat data and Aggregation Index: A case study of Nagoya City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows a quantitative relationship between spatial extents and spatial aggregation levels of urban built-up area using Landsat data and Aggregation Index (AI) for the final goal of facilitating decision-making in urban planning. Two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired in 1985 and 1997 were used to map urban built-up areas, and AI were calculated to evaluate the spatial aggregation and dispersion levels of urban built-up areas quantitatively. Nagoya City, the fourth largest city in Japan and located in the central Japan, was selected as our study area. The spatial extent and AI of the urban built-up, forest, open field, and water classes were calculated in the entire study area and also ward levels (political districts in Nagoya City). The results showed that both values of urban built-up area increased between 1985 and 1997, but values of open field areas decreased during the same period. We found that most of open field areas loss was attributed to the creation of urban built-up areas. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation between the spatial extent and the AI values for urban built-up areas in all wards was found from our study result.

Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Sensing Specialist Yukihiro Suzuoki, Remote; Toyoshima, Shigemichi; Asaka, Tomohito; Iwashita, Keishi; Kudou, Katsuteru

380

The Oklahoma Territorial Election System: 1890 - 1905  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oklahoma's first Territorial election, administered under the 1890 Organic Act, was typical of the early Nineteenth Century. By today's standards it was primitive. By, the end of the Territorial period in 1907, Oklahoma had a modern election system. The shape this election system took was a product of Territorial political struggles.

R. Darcy

2002-01-01

381

76 FR 59766 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00056  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 09/21/2011. Incident: Oklahoma County Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/30/2011 through 09/01/2011. Effective Date: 09/21/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-09-27

382

Hazardous air pollutants from mobile sources in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.  

PubMed

Environmental agencies are currently in the process of implementing a new air management program, which includes the improvement of fuel quality. In this work, exhaust emissions data and estimated relative risk for various fuels testing in-use vehicles, equipped with three different exhaust emission control technologies, are presented. Aromatics, sulfur, and olefins contents; type of oxygenated compound; and Reid vapor pressure were varied. The aim also includes calculating the ozone (O3) forming potential and a relative cancer risk of emissions from current and formulated gasoline blends in Mexico. The proposed gasoline decreases carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitrogen oxides emissions by 18 and 14%, respectively, when compared with gasoline sold in the rest of the country and within ozone nonattainment metropolitan areas in Mexico, respectively. PMID:16259424

Schifter, Isaac; Díaz, Luis; López-Salinas, Esteban

2005-09-01

383

The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years of higher health risk for the population living under the plume. Additionally, time series analysis helps us to disregard any seasonal effect of certain pathologies and to derive a 12-year risk trend. For 2004-2010, our results are compared to SO2 gas emission rates and plume location data measured by using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopic (DOAS) sensors located around Nyiragongo volcano. Finally, the areas identified as more hazardous are highlighted through a geographical approach (using GIS tools), to generate maps and other relevant information that can be of direct use for risk assessment authorities. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the impact of SO2 emissions doesn't seem to be severe, being its most important effect an increase of ARI in the area surrounding the volcanoes (up to 50km). Our on-going study will help us to better determine the magnitude and geographical extent of the impact of volcanic plumes on the health of the population, as well as locate the areas that are most affected. This will contribute to provide the appropriate sanitation recommendations (water treatment, early warning system, etc.) and lead to a more effective volcanic impact reduction on human health.

Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

2012-04-01

384

Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements of Pollutant Gases in the Mexico City Urban Area: a Useful Technique to Evaluate Emissions inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of emissions of pollutant gases that include all major and minor emissions sources in urban areas are a missing requirement to improve and evaluate emissions inventories. The quality of an urban emissions inventory relies on the accuracy of the information of anthropogenic activities, which in many cases is not available, in particular in urban areas of developing countries. As part of the MCMA-2003 field campaign, we demonstrated the feasibility of using eddy covariance (EC) techniques coupled with fast-response sensors to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2 from a residential district of Mexico City. Those flux measurements demonstrated to be also a valuable tool to evaluate the emissions inventory used for air quality modeling. With the objective to confirm the representativeness of the 2003 flux measurements in terms of magnitude, composition and diurnal distribution, as well to evaluate the most recent emissions inventory, a second flux system was deployed in a different district of Mexico City during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign. This system was located in a busy district surrounded by congested avenues close to the center of the city. In 2003 and 2006 fluxes of olefins and CO2 were measured by the EC technique using a Fast Isoprene Sensor calibrated with a propylene standard and an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA), respectively. Fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs were analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique. In 2006 the number of VOCs was extended using a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site by gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In both studies we found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns were similar, but the 2006 fluxes showed higher magnitudes. This difference was due to the different characteristics of the monitored sites rather than an increment of the emissions over a 3-year period. The diurnal patterns of VOCs and CO2 fluxes were strongly related to vehicular traffic. Toluene and methanol fluxes also exhibited a strong influence from non-mobile sources; in particular the 2006 flux measurements were influenced on some days by the application of a resin to the sidewalks in the neighborhood near the flux tower. The fluxes of individual hydrocarbons measured by DEA showed good agreement with the fluxes measured by EC and DEC which demonstrates that the DEA method is valuable for flux measurements of additional individual species. Finally, the comparisons between the measured fluxes of VOCs and the emissions reported by the emissions inventory for the monitored sector of the city showed that these last were within the observed variability of the measured fluxes.

Velasco, E.; Grivicke, R.; Pressley, S.; Allwine, G.; Jobson, T.; Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Ramos, R.; Molina, L.

2007-12-01

385

Land-Surface Subsidence in the Area of Moses Lake Near Texas City, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Removal of water, oil, and gas from the subsurface in Harris and Galveston Counties has caused declines in fluid pressures, which in turn have resulted in subsidence of the land surface. Subsidence of the land surface at Moses Lake in due principaly to the removal of ground water in adjacent areas. Significant subsidence of the land surface at Moses Lake began after 1900, and as much as 1.8 feet of subsidence had occurred in the ara by 1973. Probably future subsidence was calculated by two methods for two loading situations. In the first loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand (Rose, 1943), and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1980 and then cease. In the second loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand, and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1990 and then cease. (Woodard-USGS)

Gabrysch, R. K.; Bonnet, C. W.

1976-01-01

386

Characterizing ozone production in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case study using a chemical transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An episodic simulation is conducted to characterize ozone (O3) photochemical production and investigate its sensitivity to emission changes of ozone precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). High Ox (O3+NO2) photochemical production rates of 10-80 ppb/h are predicted due to the high reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in which alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics exert comparable contributions. The predicted ozone production efficiency is between 4-10 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized, and increases with VOC-to-NO2 reactivity ratio. Process apportionment analyses indicate significant outflow of pollutants such as O3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from the urban area to the surrounding regional environment. PAN is not in chemical-thermal equilibrium during the photochemically active periods. Sensitivity studies of O3 production suggest that O3 formation in the MCMA urban region with less chemical aging (NOz/NOy<0.3) is VOC-limited. Both the simulated behavior of O3 production and its sensitivities to precursors suggest that midday O3 formation during this episode is VOC sensitive in the urban region on the basis of the current emissions inventory. More episodic studies are needed to construct a comprehensive and representative picture of the O3 production characteristics and its response to emission controls.

Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Zavala, M.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.

2006-08-01

387

Characterizing ozone production in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case study using a chemical transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An episodic simulation is conducted to characterize midday (12:00-17:00 CDT) ozone (O3) photochemical production and to investigate its sensitivity to emission changes of ozone precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during an "O3-South" meteorological episode using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). High Ox (O3+NO2) photochemical production rates of 10-80 ppb/h are predicted due to the high reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in which alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics exert comparable contributions. The predicted ozone production efficiency is between 4-10 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized, and increases with VOC-to-NO2 reactivity ratio. Process apportionment analyses indicate significant outflow of pollutants such as O3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from the urban area to the surrounding regional environment. PAN is not in chemical-thermal equilibrium during the photochemically active periods. Sensitivity studies of O3 production suggest that O3 formation in the MCMA urban region with less chemical aging (NOz/NOy<0.3) is VOC-limited. Both the simulated behavior of O3 production and its sensitivities to precursors suggest that midday O3 formation during this episode is VOC-sensitive in the urban region on the basis of the current emissions inventory estimates, and current NOx levels depress the O3 production.

Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Zavala, M.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.

2007-02-01

388

Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

2004-12-01

389

Post-Subduction Pleistocene Volcanism in Tahoe City Area, Northern Sierra Nevada, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and isotopic analyses of Pleistocene volcanic rocks in the northwestern part of the Lake Tahoe basin are used to define sources and triggering mechanism(s) of post-subduction magmatism. From field and geochronologic data the volcanic rocks include an older (2.0 Ma to 2.3 Ma) set of trachybasalts and trachybasaltic andesites and a set of ~0.92 Ma trachyandesites. The 2.0-2.3 Ma set shows a range of wt% SiO2 from 48.7 to 55.5, high wt% K2O (1.3-2.3), and high Ni and Cr contents (31-207 ppm and 80-350 ppm respectively). The 0.92 Ma trachyandesites have 56.4-61.3 wt% SiO2; high Al2O3 (17.4-18.7 wt%), Na2O (4.2-4.7 wt%), Sr (907-1950 ppm), La (39.2-48.2 ppm) and other LREE; and low Y (10.6-16.9 ppm), and Yb (1.0-1.6 ppm). Both sets of volcanic rocks have high LILE/HFSE ratios, and higher (La/Yb)N and Sr/Y ratios than older, subduction related "calc-alkaline" volcanic rocks in this region. Chemical data preclude direct derivation of the 0.92 Ma trachyandesite from 2.0-2.3 Ma trachybasaltic andesites, and it is difficult to link the two sets of volcanic rocks to a common parental magma by fractional crystallization alone. Trace and rare earth element data for both sets of volcanic rocks indicate melting of the source in the presence of garnet and amphibole and in the absence of plagioclase. Compositionally similar volcanic rocks occur in other post-subduction continental margin settings, including Baja California, where "bajaites" overlap the compositions of older basaltic andesites and low-Si adakites. Bajaite is typically interpreted as the product of melting of asthenospheric mantle wedge metasomatized by high Sr/Y melts of underlying oceanic crust, prior to cessation of subduction. However, both sets of volcanic rocks discussed here have low ?Nd (+2 to -4.0), and samples with the highest Sr/Y have the lowest ?Nd(0) values. These data suggest that melt could not have been derived from recently subducted oceanic lithosphere. Instead, mafic and ultramafic source rocks may be part of the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada lithosphere. Migration of Basin and Range extension into the Tahoe area within the last 3 Ma, possibly combined with removal of deep Sierran lithosphere ("delamination"), may have triggered lithospheric thinning and melting within the deep lithosphere.

Kortemeier, W. T.; Farmer, G.; Schweickert, R. A.

2011-12-01

390

Flow-system analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota--conceptual model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The conceptual model of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area synthesizes the physical geography, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow components of these important aquifers. The Madison hydrogeologic unit includes the karstic Madison aquifer, which is defined as the upper, more permeable 100 to 200 ft of the Madison Limestone, and the Madison confining unit, which consists of the lower, less permeable part of the Madison Limestone and the Englewood Formation. Overlying the Madison hydrogeologic unit is the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, which includes the Minnelusa aquifer in the upper, more permeable 200 to 300 ft and the Minnelusa confining unit in the lower, less permeable part. The Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units outcrop in the study area on the eastern flank of the Black Hills where recharge occurs from streamflow losses and areal recharge. The conceptual model describes streamflow recharge, areal recharge, ground-water flow, storage in aquifers and confining units, unsaturated areas, leakage between aquifers, discharge from artesian springs, and regional outflow. Effective transmissivities estimated for the Madison aquifer range from 500 to 20,000 ft2/d and for the Minnelusa aquifer from 500 to 10,000 ft2/d. Localized anisotropic transmissivity in the Madison aquifer has tensor ratios as high as 45:1. Vertical hydraulic conductivities for the Minnelusa confining unit determined from aquifer tests range from 1.3x10-3 to 3.0x10-1 ft/d. The confined storage coefficient of the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units was estimated as 3x10-4 ft/d. Specific yield was estimated as 0.09 for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers and 0.03 for the Madison and Minnelusa confining units. Potentiometric surfaces for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers have a general easterly gradient of about 70 ft/mi with local variations. Temporal change in hydraulic head in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers ranged from about 5 to 95 ft in water years 1988-97. The unconfined areas were estimated at about 53 and 36 mi2 for the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units, respectively, in contrast to an aquifer analysis area of 629 mi2. Dye-tracer tests, stable isotopes, and hydrogeologic features were analyzed conjunctively to estimate generalized ground-water flowpaths in the Madison aquifer and their influences on the Minnelusa aquifer. The western Rapid City area between Boxelder Creek and Spring Creek was characterized as having undergone extensive tectonic activity, greater brecciation in the Minnelusa Formation, large transmissivities, generally upward hydraulic gradients from the Madison aquifer to the Minnelusa aquifer, many karst springs, and converging flowpaths. Water-budget analysis included: (1) a dry-period budget for declining water levels; October 1, 1987, to March 31, 1993; (2) a wet-period budget for rising water levels, April 1, 1993, to September 30, 1997; and (3) a full 10-year period budget for water years 1988-97. By simultaneously balancing these water budgets, initial estimates of recharge, discharge, change in storage, and hydraulic properties were refined. Inflow rates for the 10-year budget included streamflow recharge of about 45 ft3/s or 61 percent of the total budget and areal recharge of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Streamflow recharge to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was about 86 percent of the total streamflow recharge. Outflow for the 10-year budget included springflow of 31 ft3/s or 42 percent of the total budget, water use of about 10 ft3/s or 14 percent, and regional outflow of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Ground-water storage increased 9 ft3/s during the 10-year period, and net ground-water movement from the Madison to Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit was about 8 ft3/s.

Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

2002-01-01

391

Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

Peace, H.W. (Oryx Energy, Inc., Midland, TX (United States)); Forgotson, J.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

1991-08-01

392

TEACHERS’ INQUIRY-BASED MATHEMATICS IMPLEMENTATION IN RAPID CITY AREA SCHOOLS: EFFECTS ON ATTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT WITHIN AMERICAN INDIAN ELEMENTARY STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project PRIME (Promoting Reflective Inquiry in Mathematics Education), was funded by the National Science Foundation in October 2002. Implementation subsequently began in 2003 and focused upon K-12 mathematics education within Rapid City, South Dakota Area Schools (RCAS). One goal of the project has been to reduce the achievement gap between Native American and non-native students enrolled in RCAS. At the

Jamalee Bussinger-Stone

2009-01-01

393

Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (?26000tonday?1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of

D. A. de la Rosa; A. Velasco; A. Rosas; T. Volke-Sepúlveda

2006-01-01

394

Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

NONE

1991-11-17

395

Depositional environment of the downdip Queen City (Eocene) Sandstone, Mestena Grande Field Area, Jim Hogg and Duval Counties, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The downdip Queen City sandstone interval in the Mestena Grande field area of the south Texas Gulf Coast basin comprises two sandstone depositional units, referred to in this paper as A Lobe and B Lobe. A total of 583 ft (179 m) of conventional core from 11 wells containing predominantly B Lobe deposits were examined macroscopically. The A Lobe is a thin (6-34 ft; 1.8-10.4 m) fine- to very fine-grained, mostly bioturbated, well-sorted sandstone. The B Lobe is composed of fine to very fine, well-sorted sandstone interbedded with siltstone and mudstone. The trace fossil assemblage of the B Lobe indicates that sediments were deposited in the cruziana ichnofacies. Trace fossils and authigenic minerals also suggest oxygen stratification during deposition. B Lobe contains five subunits, each up to 13.5 ft (4 m) net sand thickness. These units were deposited as part of a highstands systems tract during the early Lutetian Stage (lower middle Eocene). B Lobe is a primarily aggradational unit composed of storm-generated sandstone and heterolithic deposits of the lower shoreface to inner shelf environment. A Lobe is a coarsening upward unit and represents progradation of the shoreface during late highstand systems tract development. An interlobal mudstone, which separates the units, marks the transition from early to late highstand systems tract development.

McCormack, J. [SSOE, Inc., Flint, MI (United States)

1994-09-01

396

On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

2004-12-01

397

The Economic Feasibility of a Manufacturing Plant Utilizing Wood Residues in McCURTAIN County, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the economic feasibility of a plant to be located in McCurtain County, Oklahoma, which will manufacture products from the saw mill residue of the area. The area has a number of saw mills, ample supplies of forest ...

1965-01-01

398

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (Area B Navy Fire Test Facility), Atlantic County, Atlantic City International Airport, NJ, September 20, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Area B, the Navy Fire Test Facility, at the FAA Technical Center, Atlantic City Internatioal Airport, New Jersey. The selected remedy for Area B includes: Installation of additional monitoring wells; Continued ground water and surface water monitoring; Installation and operation of air sparging wells, vapor extraction wells and monitoring probes; On-site vapor treatment (if necessary); and Five year reviews.

NONE

1996-10-01

399

Influence of coal mining on regional karst groundwater system: a case study in West Mountain area of Taiyuan City, northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karstic limestone formations in the West Mountain area are important water resources for Taiyuan City in Shanxi Province,\\u000a northern China, which is also known for its large-scale coal mining production. In this study area, groundwater is not only\\u000a exploited for water supply purposes but also drained because of coal mining. The process of coal mining changes both the quantity\\u000a of

Xiaojuan QiaoGuomin; Guomin Li; Ming Li; Jinlong Zhou; Jie Du; Chengyuan Du; Zhonghui Sun

400

Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students

T. M. Niemi; J. Adegoke; E. Stoddard; L. Odom; D. Ketchum

2007-01-01

401

Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water with acceptably low concentrations of dissolved Fe could be extracted than was injected. Scenarios with larger amounts of pyrite in aquifer sediments generally resulted in less goethite precipitation, increased acidity, and increased concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water. In these pyritic scenarios, the lower amounts of goethite precipitated and the lower pH during the extraction phase resulted in decreased sorption of Fe2+ and a decreased amount of extractable water with acceptably low concentrations of dissolved Fe (5.4??10-6M). A linear decrease in recovery efficiency with respect to dissolved Fe concentrations is caused by pyrite dissolution and the associated depletion of dissolved O2 (DO) and increase in acidity. Simulations with more than 0.0037M of pyrite, which is the maximum amount dissolved in the baseline scenario, had just over a 50% recovery efficiency. The precipitation of ferric hydroxide minerals (goethite) at the well screen, and a possible associated decrease in specific capacity of the ASR well, was not apparent during the extraction phase of ASR simulations, but the model does not incorporate the microbial effects and biofouling associated with ferric hydroxide precipitation.The host groundwater chemistry in calcite-poor Cretaceous aquifers of the NYC area consists of low alkalinity and moderate to low pH. The dissolution of goethite in scenarios with unbuffered injectate indicates that corrosion of the well could occur if the injectate is not buffered. Simulations with buffered injectate resulted in greater precipitation of goethite, and lower concentrations of dissolved Fe, in the extracted water. Dissolved Fe concentrations in extracted water were highest in simulations of aquifers (1) in which pyrite and siderite in the aquifer were in equilibrium, and (2) in coastal areas affected by saltwater intrusion, where high dissolved-cation concentrations provide a greater exchange of Fe2+ (FeX2). Results indicate that ASR in pyrite-beari

Brown, C. J.; Misut, P. E.

2010-01-01

402

Investigations in organic vegetable production in Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A demonstration plot to provide technology transfer on best management practices in organic production was established in a cooperative effort between scientists of the South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory and Oklahoma State University Wes Watkins Agricultural Research and Extension Center...

403

PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma drilling  

SciTech Connect

Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, drilling on mud motors, drilling in oil base mud, drilling cement, sidetracking, coring and some rotary drilling in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud drilling hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.

Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.

1983-02-01

404

75 FR 45679 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00043  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1926-DR), dated 07/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident...

2010-08-03

405

Standards for Accreditation of Oklahoma Schools, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oklahoma schools have the responsibility of meeting the educational needs of all students, providing equitable educational opportunities, and fostering lifelong learning as they prepare to participate in a democratic society. In order to establish priorit...

S. Garrett

2002-01-01

406

76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 12/07/2011. Incident: Earthquakes. Incident Period: 11/05/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 12/07/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-12-13

407

77 FR 61651 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00067  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 10/01/2012. Incident: Multiple Wildfires. Incident Period: 07/30/2012 Through 08/12/2012. Effective Date: 10/01/2012. Physical Loan...

2012-10-10

408

76 FR 31670 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00048  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1970-DR), dated 05/06/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-06-01

409

75 FR 30871 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1917-DR), dated 05/24/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-02

410

75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1917-DR), dated 06/11/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-21

411

78 FR 23622 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00070  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 4109-DR), dated 04/08/2013. Incident: Severe Winter Storm and Snowstorm. Incident Period: 02/24/2013 through 02/26/2013. Effective Date: 04/08/2013....

2013-04-19

412

76 FR 30224 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00047  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-- 1985--DR), dated 05/13/2011. Incident: Severe Winter Storm and Snowstorm. Incident Period: 01/31/2011 through 02/05/2011. Effective Date: 05/13/2011....

2011-05-24

413

75 FR 10330 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00034  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1876-DR), dated 02/25/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm. Incident Period: 12/24/2009 through 12/25/2009. DATES: Effective Date: 02/25/2010. Physical...

2010-03-05

414

75 FR 11949 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00035  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1883-DR), dated 03/05/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm. Incident Period: 01/28/2010 through 01/30/2010. Effective Date: 03/05/2010. Physical Loan...

2010-03-12

415

76 FR 38263 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00052  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notices] [Pages 38263-38264] [FR Doc No: 2011-16242...Disaster Declaration 12647 and 12648] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00052 AGENCY: U...Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-16242 Filed...

2011-06-29

416

Archeological Testing in Atoka County, Southeastern Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proposed Impoundment 20 of the Lower Clear Boggy Creek Watershed Project is a single purpose floodwater retarding structure on Birch Creek in Atoka County, Oklahoma. Three archeological sites in the direct impact zone of the maximum flood pool were tested...

D. T. Hughes

1977-01-01

417

78 FR 42147 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00073  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Atoka, Canadian, Cleveland, Coal, Hughes, Latimer...McClain, Nowata, Okfuskee, Oklahoma, Okmulgee, Pittsburg, Pottawatomie, Pushmataha, Seminole. The Interest Rates...

2013-07-15

418

The separation of the Hartland Formation and Ravenswood Granodiorite from the Fordham Gneiss at Cameron's Line in the New York City area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent study of the rocks in City Water Tunnel Number 3 between Roosevelt Island and beneath 34th Street and the 63rd Street subway-rail tunnels at 41st Avenue in Long Island City, as well as study of drill core from other sites in western Queens, establishes that this area of New York City is underlain by the Ravenswood Granodiorite and the Hartland Formation. The Fordham Gneiss does not appear east of the East River at these sites. Cameron's Line can be traced down the east side of the East River, as learned from observations in the tunnels, separating the Middle Proterozoic Fordham Gneiss to the west from the Cambrian and Ordovician Hartland Formation and related Ravenswood Granodiorite to the east. The older, adequately defined, Ravenswood Granodiorite, Hartland Formation, and the Fordham Gneiss, are the rock units that make up the poorly defined Brooklyn gneiss or Brooklyn Injection Gneiss and thus appropriately should supercede these later classifications. -from Authors

Baskerville, C. A.; Mose, D. G.

1989-01-01

419

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria.

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

420

Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter (PM10) in a sugarcane farming area (Araraquara city, southeast Brazil).  

PubMed

Brazil contains 25% of the total land planted with sugarcane in the world and is thus one of the major producers. The annual burning of sugarcane fields prior to harvesting emits huge amounts of pyrogenic particles. Biomass burning is an important primary and secondary source of aerosol particles. The presence of carbonaceous particles in the inhalable size range makes it important to study this fraction in view of the possible effects on human health and the climate. In this study, the mutagenic activity associated with inhalable airborne particulate matter (PM(10)) collected on air filters in a sugarcane-growing area near the city of Araraquara (SE Brazil) was determined. The extracts were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and tested for mutagenicity by the Ames plate incorporation test with Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 in the presence and absence of the S9 mixture. To assess the association between mutagenicity and PM(10), samples were collected in sugarcane harvesting and non-harvesting periods of the year. Significant mutagenicity was detected in organic solvent extracts of all samples, with differences between the two periods. The highest values of mutagenic potency (13.45 and 5.72 revertants/m(3) of air in the absence and presence of the S9 mixture, respectively) were observed during the harvest. In this period, a Teflon™-coated glass-fiber air filter trapped 67.0 ?g of particulate matter per m(3) of air. In the non-harvest period, on the same type of filter, only 20.9 ?g of particulate matter was found per m(3). The mutagenic potencies at this time were 1.30 and 1.04 revertants/m(3) of air, in the absence and presence of the S9 mixture, respectively. Period, concentration of PM(10) and mutagenicity were associated with each other. For routine monitoring of mutagenicity in the atmosphere, the use of YG1024 tester strain without metabolic activation (S9) is recommended. PMID:21481367

de Andrade, Sandro José; Varella, Soraya Duarte; Pereira, Gener Tadeu; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

2011-04-09

421

Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 2): FAA Technical Center, Area 20a, Salvage Yard Area, Atlantic City International Airport, NJ, June 18, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is to explain modifications to the soil remedy selected in the Record of Decision (ROD), signed on September 28, 1990 (PB91-921425), for Area 20A, the Salvage Yard Area of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center at Atlantic City International Airport, New Jersey. This ESD modifies the ROD to require landfilling of a substantial portion of PCB-contaminated soil instead of incineration of all PCB-contaminated soils.

NONE

1995-10-01

422

Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies the special measures needed to protect the rights and meet the needs of victims of a large-scale terrorist attack involving mass casualties. In particular, it demonstrates efforts required to ensure an effective response to victims' rights and their short- and long-term emotional and psychological needs as an integral part…

Dinsmore, Janet

423

Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, eval- uation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early

Sue Mallonee

424

Ground-water hydrology of the Dade City area, Pasco County, Florida : with emphasis on the hydrologic effects of pumping from the Floridan aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dade City area, northeast Pasco County, Florida, is an area of about 260 square miles. Of the approximately 32 million gallons per day pumped from the Floridan aquifer in the area in 1975, about 16 million gallons per day were pumped from an area of about 0.25 square miles by a citrus processing plant. There are essentially two producing zones in the Floridan aquifer in the Dade City area. The upper zone is from about 10 feet above to about 150 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 , and the lower zone from about 300 to about 500 feet below NGVD of 1929. There is evidence of hydraulic interconnection of the upper and lower zones of the Floridan aquifer. This appears to be highly significant in terms of the geohydrology of the Floridan aquifer in the area, particularly with regard to its ground-water flow pattern, water quality, and aquifer hydraulic characteristics. In the immediate vicinity of the citrus processing plant, aquifer transmissivity may range from 200,000 to as much as 400,000 feet squared per day. It is probable the Floridan is only semiconfined in the immediate vicinity of the citrus processing plant. High aquifer transmissivity in the area is the reason why there are only a few feet of drawdown of the Floridan 's potentiometric level even near the center of the well field. (USGS)

Tibbals, C. H.; Anderson, Warren; Laughlin, Charles P.

1980-01-01

425

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

2008-10-31

426

Child and elderly victims in forensic autopsy during a recent 5 year period in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To outline the recent features of child and elderly victims from the medico-legal perspective with special reference to abuse and neglect, a retrospective investigation of forensic autopsy cases over a 5 year period (1994–1998) in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas (a population of 1.57 million) was undertaken. Among 646 autopsy cases, there were 53 child cases

Bao-Li Zhu; Shigeki Oritani; Kaori Ishida; Li Quan; Shigeki Sakoda; Masaki Q Fujita; Hitoshi Maeda

2000-01-01

427

Environment impact of heavy metals on urban soil in the vicinity of industrial area of Baoji city, P.R. China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals in soils are of great environmental concern, in order to evaluate heavy metal contents and their relationships\\u000a in the surface soil of industrial area of Baoji city, and also to investigate their influence on the soils. Soil samples were\\u000a collected from 50 sites, and the concentration of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni heavy metals and the contents of

Xiaoping Li; Chunchang Huang

2007-01-01

428

Characterization and treatment of water used for human consumption from six sources located in the Cameron\\/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was the characterization and improvement of the quality of water used for human consumption of unregulated\\/regulated water sources located in the Cameron\\/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area (NE Arizona, western edge of the Navajo Nation). Samples were collected at six water sources which included regulated sources: Wind Mill (Tank 3T-538), Badger Springs and Paddock Well

Visnja Orescanin; Robert Kollar; Karlo Nad; Ivanka Lovrencic Mikelic; Iris Kollar

2011-01-01

429

Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the association between rurality and health in Scotland, after adjusting for differences in individual and practice characteristics. Methods Design: Mortality and hospital record data linked to two cross sectional health surveys. Setting: Respondents in the community-based 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Survey who consented to record-linkage follow-up. Main outcome measures: Hypertension, all-cause premature mortality, total hospital stays and admissions due to coronary heart disease (CHD). Results Older age and lower social class were strongly associated with an increased risk of each of the four health outcomes measured. After adjustment for individual and practice characteristics, no consistent pattern of better or poorer health in people living in rural areas was found, compared to primary cities. However, individuals living in remote small towns had a lower risk of a hospital admission for CHD and those in very remote rural had lower mortality, both compared with those living in primary cities. Conclusion This study has shown how linked data can be used to explore the possible influence of area of residence on health. We were unable to find a consistent pattern that people living in rural areas have materially different health to that of those living in primary cities. Instead, we found stronger relationships between compositional determinants (age, gender and socio-economic status) and health than contextual factors (including rurality).

2012-01-01

430

The stable carbon isotope composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sources and distribution of carbon in ambient suspended particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10) of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) air were traced using stable carbon isotopes ( 13C/ 12C). Tested potential sources included rural and agricultural soils, gasoline and diesel, liquefied-petroleum gas, volcanic ash, and street dust. The complete combustion of LP gas, diesel and gasoline yielded the lightest ?13C values (-27 to -29‰ vs. PDB), while street dust (PM 10) represented the isotopically heaviest endmember (-17‰). The ?13C values of rural soils from four geographically separated sites were similar (-20.7 ± 1.5‰). ?13C values of particles and soot from diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions and agricultural soils varied between -23 and -26‰. Ambient PM samples collected in November of 2000, and March and December of 2001 at three representative receptor sites of industrial, commercial and residential activities had a ?13C value centered around -25.1‰ in both fractions, resulting from common carbon sources. The predominant carbon sources to MCMA atmospheric particles were hydrocarbon combustion (diesel and/or gasoline) and particles of geological origin. The significantly depleted ?13C values from the industrial site reflect the input of diesel combustion by mobile and point source emissions. Based on stable carbon isotope mass balance, the carbon contribution of geological sources at the commercial and residential sites was approximately 73% for the PM 10 fraction and 54% for PM 2.5. Although not measured in this study, biomass-burning emissions from nearby forests are an important carbon source characterized by isotopically lighter values (-29‰), and can become a significant contributor (67%) of particulate carbon to MCMA air under the prevalence of southwesterly winds. Alternative sources of these 13C-depleted particles, such as cooking fires and municipal waste incineration, need to be assessed. Results show that stable carbon isotope measurements are useful for distinguishing between some carbon sources in suspended particles to MCMA air, and that wind direction has an impact on the distribution of carbon sources in this basin.

López-Veneroni, D.

431

The Viper Marsh Site (Mc-205) McCurtain County, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 1975, archaeological salvage operations were conducted at the Viper Marsh site, which is located in southeast Oklahoma. The site was situated in the dam and emergency spillway area of Impoundment No. 12 for the Waterfall-Gilford Creek...

S. J. Bobalik

1978-01-01

432

Aquatic Habitats and Fish Distribution in a Large Oklahoma River, the Cimarron, From 1976 to 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes of the Cimarron River, a large Oklahoma river, were sampled from 1976 to 1986 with seines and gill nets. Ten stations were established and a 200-meter area was sampled two or three times yearly. A total of 50 species and 347,902 specimens were used to compare the four major ecoregions and the ten sampling sites. The composition, abundance, seasonal

Jimmie Pigg

1988-01-01

433

Rock and soil discrimination by low altitude airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in Payne County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to identify and discriminate rock and soil types from the ; air using gamma spectrometry was investigated in Payne County, Oklahoma. The ; data, which were reduced to concentration values for K, U, and Th, were obtained ; from a helicopter at an average altitude of 75 feet above the ground. The area ; investigated was underlain by

T. F. Schwarzer; J. A. S. Adams

1973-01-01

434

A CONTROL THEORY APPROACH TO OPTIMAL IRRIGATION SCHEDULING IN THE OKLAHOMA PANHANDLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic conditions in semiarid regions like MODEL DEVELOPMENT the Oklahoma Panhandle result in wide fluctuations in rainfall, dryland crop yields, Optimal control has gained acceptance by and returns to agricultural producers in the economists as a tool for deriving optimal time area. Irrigated crop production increases per- path strategies in solving dynamic economic acre yields and significantly reduces fluctua- problems.

Thomas R. Harris; Harry P. Mapp Jr.

1980-01-01

435

Hydrogeologic Investigation of the Ogallala Aquifer in Roger Mills and Beckham Counties, Western Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ogallala aquifer underlies portions of 10 counties in western Oklahoma. Regionally, it is part of the High Plains aquifer that underlies 174,000 square miles in eight states in the central United States. The study area for this investigation, defined ...

M. Belden N. I. Osborn

2002-01-01

436

Groundwater quality assessment in different land-use areas of Faridabad and Rohtak cities of Haryana using deviation index.  

PubMed

Physico-chemical parameters were analysed to evaluate the groundwater quality of the two important cities of Haryana, Faridabad and Rohtak, and the pollution status of groundwater was compared using deviation index (DI). Groundwater of both the cities had high alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity. The groundwater of Faridabad showed low fluoride concentration whereas in 74% of groundwater samples of Rohtak the fluoride levels were high. Land use and waste disposal practices were found to have an important effect on groundwater pollution. PMID:15529875

Kaushik, A; Kumar, K; Sharma, I S; Sharma, H R

2004-04-01

437

Regional impacts of coal mining in eastern Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies the impacts of an expansion in Oklahoma coal mining, specifically in promoting economic growth in a rural and economically depressed region. Also, the study examined factors preventing Oklahoma coal-fired electric power plants from using Oklahoma coal and conditions that may induce them to use Oklahoma coal. The economic impacts of three coal production scenarios (5.0, 6.25, and

Martinez-Salazar

1985-01-01

438

Preschool Child Development Program (Head Start) in Disadvantaged Areas of New York City-Summer 1967. Evaluation of New York City Title I Educational Projects 1966-67.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This program evaluation of the 1967 summer Head Start Program examines data in these areas: (1) program functioning; (2) student gains and school readiness; (3) parent involvement; and (4) ancillary services. The report evaluates 720 classrooms which contained 23,000 children and utilized 51 supervisors, 260 head teachers, 728 group teachers, and…

Chaplan, Abraham A.; Platoff, Joan

439

An economic assessment of the application of superconductor technology to magnetic-levitation trains in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Specific objectives were to: (1) develop and refine a methodology that can be used to evaluate the feasibility of MAG-LEV trains; (2) apply this methodology to the state of Oklahoma. The methodology is based on an aggregate econometric demand model and mathematical programming. A city-pair network is constructed to evaluate alternative MAG-LEV routes between Oklahoma City and nine other cites in and out of the state of Oklahoma. Results obtained from the aggregate econometric demand model indicates that MAG-LEV trains would attract significant ridership along different types of origin-destination routes. All nine corridors exhibit induced demand for MAG-LEV trains as well as attracting riderships from other modes. Based on the results of both single and multiobjective LP models, fixed-capital-cost requirements and annual operating cost for each of the above corridors are estimated, and by using different scenarios for discount rates, both costs and revenue were converted to annual figures using an annual-cost method.

Sabbagh Kermani, M.

1991-01-01

440

76 FR 42723 - Land Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs Land Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...into trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma on July 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...land into trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma under the authority of the Indian...

2011-07-19

441

76 FR 9040 - Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-3316-EM; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations...declaration of an emergency for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-3316-EM), dated February...emergency conditions in the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter...

2011-02-16

442

Muriel Wright: Telling the Story of Oklahoma Indian Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Wright family, descended from the patriarch Allen Wright, who arrived in the new Choctaw Nation after surviving the "Trail of Tears," played an important role in Oklahoma politics and society. Following removal to Oklahoma, Allen went on to become Principal Chief of the Choctaw Nation and gave the name, Oklahoma, to the southwest territory.…

Cesar, Dana; Smith, Joan K.; Noley, Grayson

2004-01-01

443

Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come…

Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

2004-01-01

444

Higher incidence of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergy in children of Taipei city than in children of rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: House dust mites are the most common cause of sensitization in wheezing children in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of sensitization and the levels of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) in wheezing children in Taipei city and central rural Taiwan. Methods: A total of

Jei-Wen Chang; Ching-Yuang Lin; Woan-Ling Chen; Ching-Tung Chen

445

Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene\\/toluene

Humberto Bravo; Rodolfo Sosa; Pablo Sánchez; Emma Bueno; Laura González

2002-01-01

446

Evaluating Bicycling Commuter Experiences at Texas A&M University and Adjacent Areas in the City of College Station, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The university-oriented community of College Station, Texas offers a great opportunity for bicycle commuting. Both the City of College Station and Texas A&M University (TAMU) have taken steps to add facilities for pedestrians and bicycles in and around ca...

R. Rabinowitz D. Spillane

2005-01-01

447

Defining health catchment areas in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia: an example demonstrating the utility of geographi- cal information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tool, based on a geographical information system (GIS) approach, has been developed for the location and organization of public health care centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The potential of GIS for visualizing and mod- eling available information on health-care has been utilized to produce a \\

Abdulkader A. Murad

2008-01-01

448

Using robust kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation to delineate the copper- and lead-contaminated areas of a rapidly industrialized city in Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 540 topsoil samples (0-15 cm), 188 subsoil samples (20-40 cm), and four individual soil profiles were collected in this study for mapping the Cu- and Pb-contaminated areas in soils of Zhangjiagang city, an industrialized city in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. Robust geostatistical methods were applied for identifying possible spatial outliers of Cu and Pb data, and then a sequential Gaussian simulation was employed for delineating the potential areas where Cu or Pb concentration was affected by diffuse pollution. The results showed that the spatial outliers of Cu and Pb were strongly associated with various types of factories. The anthropogenic input of Cu to soils at local hotspots was closely related to emissions of printing and dyeing, metallurgical, and chemical factories, whereas a lead oxide factory and a chemical factory resulted in a considerable increase of Pb in the topsoil of the study area. Approximately 30% of the total land area of the study was at potential risk from the Cu or Pb diffuse pollution resulting from rapid industrialization of the area over the past 20 years.

Zhao, Yongcun; Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Biao; Sun, Weixia; Shao, Xuexin; Shi, Xuezheng; Ruan, Xinling

2007-07-01

449

Correlation between meteorological conditions and mutagenicity of airborne particulate samples in a tropical monsoon climate area from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Kaohsiung is a city of 1.5 million located in the southern part of Taiwan. It has a serious air pollution problem mainly attributable to much industrial and commercial activity. In order to estimate the effects of traffic, season, and meteorological conditions on the mutagenicity of Kaohsiung City`s urban ambient particulate matter, 624 airborne particulate samples were collected on a weekly basis from 12 locations for an entire year. The mutagenic potential of acetone extracts of air samples was evaluated by the Salmonella/microsomal test with S. typhimurium TA98 in the presence and absence of S9 mixtures. The air samples from November 1990 showed the highest direct and indirect mutagenicity among the 12 months, whereas those from June and July 1991 had the lowest direct and indirect mutagenic activity, respectively. The mutagenicity showed a good correlation with amounts of the acetone extractable matter of airborne particulates. The meteorological conditions, monthly mean precipitation, and wind speed also showed a good correspondence with mutagenicity. Wind direction and temperature had a moderate relationship. The major mutagenic fractions of air samples that had the highest mutagenic activity in a month were purified using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and the contents of PAHs, 1-NP, and DNPs were analyzed by HPLC. The characteristic concentration ratios of PAHs indicated that, for the main pollution sources of airborne particulates from Kaohsiung city, the mobile sources were more important than the stationary ones. The total amounts of 1-NP and DNPs in airborne particulates seemed to correspond to their mutagenicity. Although the total amounts of 1-NP and DNPs in the air samples correlated with their mutagenicity, the major mutagenic chemicals in the airborne particulate samples from Kaohsiung City need further investigation.

Lee, H.; Su, S.Y.; Liu, K.S.; Chou, M.C. [Chung Shan Medical and Dental College, Taiwan (China)

1994-12-31

450

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Oklahoma. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The value of Oklahoma nonfuel mineral production was nearly $252.6 million in 1992, a decrease of $22.9 million from that reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by State mineral producers in 1991. The value of the top three commodities produced, crushed stone, portland cement, and construction sand and gravel, exceeded $168.8 million and comprised almost 67% of the State's total nonfuel mineral value. Although rebounding from the recessionary period, the growth curve for several minerals produced in the State was minimal, and for several others it moved downward. Oklahoma ranked 35th nationally in total nonfuel mineral value. The State ranked 26th nationally in the production of industrial minerals, contributing about 1.38% of the $20.7 billion revenues received. Oklahoma ranked first in the Nation in crude gypsum production, second in the production of tripoli, and was the only domestic source of iodine.

Zelten, J.E.; Arndt, R.H.

1994-03-01

451

City Lore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York, the City Lore organization is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting the cultural heritage of the city through a variety of programs and events. Two online exhibits dealing with the Puerto Rican Day parade and the making of lace highlight some of their more recent work. A resources link on the site leads to several helpful articles that highlight the study of urban culture and folklore, along with a list of related links. One of the best parts of the site is an area dealing with New York Favorites, which is essentially a list of places and sights that local New Yorkers have submitted to the site. Finally, the site contains City Lore's online People's Hall of Fame, which recognizes the life-long contributions of persons who have dedicated themselves to the maintenance and practice of a number of folkways and traditions.

452

Formation of Land Use Order in Hamamatsu City under the Original Criteria of the Farm Land Exclusion from the Agricultural Promotion Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While zoning has been practiced to prevent sprawling development and to preserve collective farmland under the Agriculture Promotion Act, The Agricultural Promotion Area (APA) has been reduced in area by the action of the Farm Land Exclusion from the APA (EAPA) aiming at urban-uses. Since the EAPA has a great impact on the regional land use, appropriate criteria application techniques ought to be formulated at the transaction level. However, most local governments seem to have no strategic measure so far. Hamamatsu city, meanwhile, has introduced a unique standard upon which approval of the EAPA aptitude is based in 2003. Since the number of EAPA registration was relatively large in Hamamatsu city owing to the zone bordering on the line of land which a building has erected the officials' willingness to establish an objective standard was high. In this research, we verified the effect of the criteria application over the land use ordering, and made proposals for improvement of the present state through the examination of the EAPA criterion application of Hamamatsu city.

Arita, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Shingo

453

A Legal Analysis of Litigation against Oklahoma Educators and School Districts under the Oklahoma Governmental Tort Claims Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 Section 151 et…

Lacefield, Kevin Lee

2010-01-01

454

Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenic from rice would be much less. PMID:19534157

Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

2009-05-01

455

Assessing income-wise household environmental conditions and disease profile in urban areas: Study of an Indian city  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objectives of the present study are: (i) to assess the income-wise household environmental conditions of the sampled\\u000a households in Aligarh city, (ii) to examine income-wise disease profile of the population, (iii) to assess the relationship\\u000a between income and four most occurring diseases, (iv) draw out inter-relationship between income, non-ideal household environmental\\u000a conditions and environment related diseases. The quality

Atiqur Rahman

2006-01-01

456

Business establishment mobility behavior in urban areas: a microanalytical model for the City of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a microanalytical firm mobility model for the City of Hamilton, Canada, developed with data from the Statistics\\u000a Canada Business Register. Contributing to the scarce literature on firm migration behavior, we explore and model the determinants\\u000a of mobility among small and medium size firms who retained less than 200 employees between 1996 and 1997. Our exploratory\\u000a results suggest that

Hanna Maoh; Pavlos S. Kanaroglou

2007-01-01

457

Health Manpower in Oklahoma. Chiropractic: A Statistical Investigation of Practice Patterns and Service Characteristics in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of the chirpractic physician (D.C.) in Oklahoma are described statistically. A questionnaire was mailed to all 262 active, full-time chiropractic physicians; 163 (62 percent) returned the questionnaires. The questionnaire contained que...

W. W. Edmundson

1976-01-01

458

An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas: Date of survey: March--April 1988  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10/mu/R/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Thompson, J.M.

1988-12-01

459

Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators Journal 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators 2009 Journal includes the following four peer reviewed articles: (1) The Changing Role of Grandparents (Fred D. Hammond, III, Terry E. Spigner, Charolette Myles-Nixon, and Pauline Holloway); (2) Pedagogical Agent Instructional Design Challenges (Jon Martens); (3) Differences in Relatedness across…

Green, Malinda Hendricks, Ed.

2009-01-01

460

Oklahoma Handbook: Child Nutrition Programs. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

461

Confirmation of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single female collected in 1971 confirms the presence of Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) in Oklahoma. This species was also collected from inland localities in Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas. During the 1971 Venezuelan equine encephalitis epizootic in Texas a U. S. Army sponsored surveillance program resulted in the collection, identification and processing of 501,992 mosquitoes comprising 51 species from Arkansas, Louisiana,

Bruce A. Harrison; John F. Reinertl; Edward S. Saugstad; Joseph E. Farlow

462

Migrant Education Handbook, 1975 [State of Oklahoma].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national goal of migrant education is "to establish programs and projects which are designed to meet the special educational needs of migratory children of migratory agricultural workers or migratory fishermen and to coordinate these programs and projects with similar programs in other states". In Oklahoma, the major objectives for migrant…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

463

JOM Rip-Off in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report by the Department of the Interior on the misuse of Johnson-O'Malley funds in Oklahoma is reprinted in its entirety. The questionable costs total over $400 thousand, and the report recommends that the Bureau of Indian Affairs seek compensation and adjustment for the misspent funds. (KM)

Education Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1973

1973-01-01

464

Field Evaluation of Drainable Bases in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) Research and Development Division (R&D) installed field data acquisition systems in 1992 on five test pavement sections with a view to evaluate the performance of the drainable base and edge drain systems i...

M. Rahman M. Zaman T. Curtis

1996-01-01

465

ASPECTS OF COWBIRD PARASITISM IN SOUTHERN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPECTS of the parasitic breedin, u habits of the Brown-headed Cowbird (IMoZothrus ater) have been documented extensively by Friedmann (1929)) Laskey (1950)) Berger (1951)) Norris (1947), and others. It was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the major aspects of such parasitism in the breeding avifauna of southern Oklahoma. Particular em- phasis was placed on observation of

JOHN A. WIENS

466

77 FR 53247 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00063  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4078-DR), dated 08/22/2012. Incident: Freedom Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/03/2012 through 08/14/2012. Effective Date: 08/22/2012. Physical Loan Application...

2012-08-31

467

77 FR 61652 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00066  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 10/01/2012. Incident: Luther Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/03/2012 Through 08/10/2012. Effective Date: 10/01/2012. Physical Loan Application...

2012-10-10

468

76 FR 60959 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00055  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 09/21/2011. Incident: Pawnee County Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/07/2011 through 08/14/2011. Effective Date: 09/21/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-09-30

469

75 FR 42173 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00041  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 07/13/2010. Incident: Tornadoes, Severe Storms, Straight Line Winds and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/13/2010 through 06/15/2010. DATES:...

2010-07-20

470

Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for

Mary N. Hill Kutz

1998-01-01