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1

Lower-Division Offerings in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area: Studies and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on associate degree and certificate offerings at four two-year institutions in the Oklahoma and Tulsa City metropolitan areas and articulation between baccalaureate degree programs at the University of Central Oklahoma and four metropolitan area two-year institutions. Part I classifies Oklahoma City area

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

2

Tornadoes in the Oklahoma City Area Since 1890.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oklahoma City (OKC), by virtue of its large areal extent and location near the heart of 'tornado alley,' has earned a reputation over the years as one of the tornado-prone cities in the United States. Each of the 93 tornado listings presented in this repo...

M. L. Branick

1994-01-01

3

Needs Assessment of Low Incidence Handicapped Children in the Oklahoma City Metro Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general service delivery needs assessment was conducted in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area to determine a need for a cooperative inter-district delivery system for low incidence handicapped students. Secondary hearing impaired students were the primary focus of the study. Data obtained via needs assessment questionnaires from 20 school…

Hollingshead, Maybelle C.

4

Indochina Refugee Physician ECFMG Preparatory Course, Area III, Oklahoma City.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on the ECFMG Preparatory Course for the Vietnamese Refugee Physicians under the contract number 231-76-0006 between the Department of Health, Education and Welfare and the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. The course ...

1976-01-01

5

Observed winds, turbulence, and dispersion in built-up downtown areas of Oklahoma City and Manhattan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind and tracer data from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) and the Manhattan Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05)\\u000a urban field experiments are being analyzed to aid in understanding air flow and dispersion near street-level in built-up downtown\\u000a areas. The mean winds are separately calculated for groups of anemometers having similar exposures such as “near street level”\\u000a and “on

Steven Hanna; John White; Ying Zhou

2007-01-01

6

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ARTS ON THE OKLAHOMA CITY AREA ECONOMY FOR 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the type and magnitude of economic impacts on the Oklahoma City economy by 34 arts agencies, organizations, festivals, shows, programs, and other events. The direct and secondary impacts on the Oklahoma City economy in terms of spending and employment were significant. Further analysis indicated that the industry was in need of state,

James V. Pinto

1980-01-01

7

Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T. L.; Bergman, D. L.; Patneaude, A. L.

1983-01-01

8

A Needs Assessment Survey of Hispanic Oklahoma City Residents in High Density Areas. A Report of Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of Hispanic residents of Oklahoma City assessed their knowledge of and need for health, social, and educational services. Home interviews were conducted with 212 Hispanic households in areas identified as having a high density of Hispanics. One adult was interviewed in each household. Interviewee characteristics included 28% under age 25,…

Curiel, Herman; And Others

9

Observed winds, turbulence, and dispersion in built-up downtown areas of Oklahoma City and Manhattan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind and tracer data from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) and the Manhattan Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05) urban field experiments are being analyzed to aid in understanding air flow and dispersion near street-level in built-up downtown areas. The mean winds are separately calculated for groups of anemometers having similar exposures such as “near street level” and “on building top”. Several general results are found, such as the scalar wind speed at street level is about 1/3 of that at building top. Turbulent standard deviations of wind speed components and temperature, and vertical fluxes of momentum and sensible heat, are calculated from sonic anemometers near street level at 20 locations in JU2003 and five locations in MSG05, and from two rooftop locations in MSG05. The turbulence observations are consistent with observations in the literature at other cities, although the JU2003 and MSG05 data are unique in that many data are available near street level. For example, it is found that the local (i.e., at the measuring height) ?w/u_{ast} averages about 1.5 and the local u_{ast}/u averages about 0.25 in the two cities, where ?w is the standard deviation of vertical velocity fluctuations, u_{ast} is the friction velocity, and u is the wind speed. The ratio of temperature fluctuations to temperature scale, ?T/T_{ast} , averages about -3 in both cities, consistent with similarity theory for slightly unstable conditions, where ?T is the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations, and T_{ast} is the temperature scale. The calculated Obukhov length, L, is also consistent with slightly unstable conditions near street level, even at night during JU2003. The SF6 tracer concentration observations from JU2003 are analyzed. Values of uC_{max}/Q for the continuous releases are calculated for each release and arc distance, where C_{max} is the 30-min average arc maximum concentration, Q is the continuous source emission rate, and u is the spatial-averaged wind speed in the downtown area. The basic characteristics of the JU2003 plot of averaged uC_{max}/Q agree reasonably well with similar plots for other urban experiments in Salt Lake City and London (i.e., at x < 1000 m, C_{max}/Q = Ax^{-2}) . A is found to be about 3 during the day and about 10 during the night.

Hanna, Steven; White, John; Zhou, Ying

2007-12-01

10

Digital geologic map of Oklahoma City Quadrangle, central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation of the surficial geology of the 1:250,000-scale Oklahoma City quadrangle, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Geologic Map, sheet 1 of 4, included in the Oklahoma Geological Survey publication, 'Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Oklahoma City quadrangle, central Oklahoma', Hydrologic Atlas 4, Bingham and Moore, 1975. The geology was compiled by R.H. Bingham and R.O. Fay, in 1973.

Cederstrand, J. R.

1997-01-01

11

Child and Family Resource Program (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma). Program Description.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma site of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), a Head Start-affiliated program designed to elicit community and family involvement in fostering optimum development of preschool children and their families. The Oklahoma City site, serving a rural black community, is one of 11 demonstration…

Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

12

Oklahoma City, Canadian River, OK, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of Oklahoma City, OK (35.5N, 97.5W) surrounded by the grasslands of the central plains, is detailed enough to use as a map of the major highways and throughfares within the city and surrounding area. Tinker Air Force Base and Will Rogers International Airport as well as Lakes Hefner, Stanley Draper and nearby recreation areas. The smaller community of Norman, on the banks of the Canadian River to the south, is home to the University of Oklahoma.

1991-01-01

13

A Study of Public Higher Education in the Oklahoma City Area with Special Focus on Community College Services. Report on the Delivery of Comprehensive Community College Services in Metropolitan Oklahoma City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a legislative mandate, a study was conducted to identify and address the basic factors which should be considered in the expansion of postsecondary educational opportunities in metropolitan Oklahoma City, with specific focus on the steps to be taken by Oklahoma City Community College (OCCC). Study findings, based on demographic…

Priest, Bill J.; And Others

14

A Study on the Delivery of Lower Division Collegiate Programs and Services in the Metropolitan Oklahoma City Region for the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education authorized a study of lower-division education services offered by Central State University, El Reno Junior College, Oklahoma City Community College, Oklahoma State University Technical Branch, and Rose State College--all operating in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. Special attention…

Parnell, Dale; Philips, Al

15

Building a Learning City: Developing School and Community Coalitions in Oklahoma City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study focuses on a district and community relations plan developed in Oklahoma City Public Schools. This article provides a description of the proposal regarding MAPS for KIDS (Metropolitan Area Projects for Keep Improving District Schools) in Oklahoma City from 1998 through November 2001, and it explores the coalitions that…

Garn, Gregg

2005-01-01

16

West Lawn Site and Planting Plans Oklahoma City Civic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West Lawn Site and Planting Plans - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

17

Site Plans (1936 and 2001) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plans (1936 and 2001) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

18

Municipal Building Planting Plan Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Municipal Building Planting Plan - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

19

Typical Raised Planter Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Typical Raised Planter - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

20

Granite Monument Plaza Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Granite Monument Plaza - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

21

Site Plans (2008 As Built) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plans (2008 As Built) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

22

78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek...Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) Rail Division intend to prepare an EIS pursuant...for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

2013-05-28

23

Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

2004-01-01

24

Proceedings of Department of Defense Industrial Symposium (1ST) on Numerical Control Data 3-6 October 1966. Host Oklahoma City Air Materiel Area Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report of the first Department of Defense-Industy Symposium on Numerical Control Data held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 3-6 October 1966. The purpose of the symposium was, 'to review the commonality of numerical control systems and to determine capabilit...

1966-01-01

25

Mass casualties in the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was partially destroyed by a terrorist bomb on April 19, 1995. Injuries were sustained by 759 people, 168 of whom died. Fatalities occurred primarily among victims in the collapse zone of the federal building. Only 83 survivors required hospitalization. Twenty-two surviving victims sustained multiple fractures. Most victims arrived at local emergency departments by private vehicle within 2 hours. More severely injured survivors were transported by ambulance. The closer receiving hospitals used emergency department facilities and minor treatment areas. Few survivors were extricated from the bombing site more than 3 hours after the detonation. Mass casualty plans must provide for improved communications, diversion and retriage from facilities nearest the disaster site, and effective coordination of community and hospital resources. PMID:15187837

Teague, David C

2004-05-01

26

Did the Oklahoma City Bombers Succeed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worst case of domestic terrorism in our country's history, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, led to the enactment of a landmark antiterrorism statute. Not surprisingly, several of the statute's provisions strengthen federal power in extraordinary and unprecedented ways to counter the threat of terrorism. But other provisions radically restrict the ability of

Jordan Steiker

2001-01-01

27

Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release

Thomas L. Holzer; Joe B. Fletcher; Gary S. Fuis; Trond Ryberg; Thomas M. Brocher; Christopher M. Dietel

1996-01-01

28

Disaster nursing in the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The Oklahoma City Federal Building disaster quickly changed a routine day of eye surgical procedures into a chaotic trauma center for the victims with not only eye injuries, but multiple deep lacerations and other injuries. The devastating and disruptive effect of the bombing was stressful for the nursing staff who became disaster survivors of the emotional trauma involved. PMID:7594916

Atkinson, R; Keylon, K; Odor, P S; Walker, G; Hunt, L

1995-10-01

29

Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

1990-01-01

30

RAPTOR REHABILITATION AT THE OKLAHOMA CITY ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of raptor rehabilitation has been conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in an effort to conserve wildlife, to assist the publid, and to gain knowledge about the care and treatment of injured birds. From October 1973 through December 1974 Red-tailed Hawks and Great Horned Owls constituted 45.3 percent of all birds donated. Donations from the public comprised 89.0

John C. Snelling

1975-01-01

31

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business district (CBD) both prior to and during the field experiment. Among the variables collected were high-resolution observations of air temperature from various instrument sources. Additional observations of air temperature were also collected at Oklahoma Mesonet stations in the rural areas surrounding Oklahoma City. Using an index value, the diurnal cycle of the urban heat island (UHI) for Oklahoma City, with respect to the surrounding rural terrain, was quantified. The results revealed a consistent mean nocturnal UHI greater than 1.5°C at both 2 and 9 m. However, observations at 2 m during JU2003 revealed a significant urban "cool" island during the convective portion of the day. The mean variability of temperature within the urban core of Oklahoma City increased significantly after sunrise, increased to a maximum near solar noon, and decreased following sunset. These results were inconsistent with the rural observations wherein the variability among sites was maximized during the nocturnal period. Finally, the vertical temperature gradient between 2 and 9 m demonstrated a clear and strong diurnal trend at the rural locations, whereas observations from the urban environment were nearly isothermal and consistent with near-neutral conditions throughout JU2003.

Basara, Jeffrey B.; Hall, Peter K.; Schroeder, Amanda J.; Illston, Bradley G.; Nemunaitis, Kodi L.

2008-10-01

32

Psychological response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City was the most devastating terrorist activity that has occurred in America. Prevention of revictimization of persons seriously affected by the bombing was central to the planned response to this tragedy. Coordination and collaboration among local, state, and national agencies promoted effective clinical services provision, research facilitation, and prevention of revictimization. Information gathered from this cooperative effort will contribute to the effort to minimize the potential for such tragedies in the future as well as help to develop prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the effects when the next such disaster occurs. PMID:8682905

Krug, R S; Nixon, S J; Vincent, R

1996-01-01

33

Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release of this record prompted speculation that each wave train was caused by a different energy source. On May 23, 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the demolition of the bomb-ravaged Federal Building with portable seismographs (Figure 1). Two wave trains were picked up again. The recordings indicate that the wave trains during both the bombing and demolition represent seismic waves traveling at different velocities. We conclude that the two wave trains recorded during the bombing are consistent with a single impulsive energy source.

Holzer, Thomas L.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Fuis, Gary S.; Ryberg, Trond; Brocher, Thomas M.; Dietel, Christopher M.

34

Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a

T. L. Holzer

2002-01-01

35

Ground water available in the Davenport area, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum describes the ground-water resources in the vicinity of Davenport, Lincoln County, Oklahoma. It is based on a one-day trip to Davenport made by the writer on February 11, 1948, to obtain information in addition to that in the ground-water files in Norman on the availability of ground water for public supply or other uses in the Davenport area. Davenport is a town of about 1,000 in east-central Lincoln County, Oklahoma, on U.S. Highway 66, about half way between Oklahoma City and Tulsa. It is in an area of undulating to gently rolling topography underlain by rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The area is drained into Deep Fork of the Canadian River, by Dry Creek and its tributary, Chuckaho Creek.

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

36

Report for Consultation on the Metropolitan Oklahoma City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Oklahoma).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is intended to provide the basic background information to provide a basis for the adoption of regional air quality standards and the implementation of those standards. It proposes boundaries for the Oklahoma City Intrastate Air Quality Control...

1970-01-01

37

Impact of Configurations of Rapid Intermittent Assimilation of WSR-88D Radar Data for the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Thunderstorm Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various configurations of the intermittent data assimilation procedure for Level-II Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler radar data are examined for the analysis and prediction of a tornadic thunderstorm that occurred on 8 May 2003 near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Several tornadoes were produced by this thunderstorm, causing extensive damages in the south Oklahoma City area. Within the rapidly cycled assimilation system, the

Ming Hu; Ming Xue

2007-01-01

38

Image crustal structure of eastern Oklahoma City with TOMODD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a dramatic increase in earthquake activity in Oklahoma since 2009. This dramatic increase was also matched by a marked increase in the number of operating seismic stations within the region. The additional stations include the Earthscope Transportable Arrays and temporary stations provided by the U. S. Geological Survey. The additional seismic stations and earthquakes provide the ability to do local travel time tomography of the crust within the region. For this study we are focusing on the area near the Jones earthquake swarm, that occurred just east of Oklahoma City, and the M5.6, November 2011 Prague earthquake. Major structures are already known in the area, but little is known about crustal structure below the top of the Precambrian basement. We used regionally available and temporary seismic stations along with more than 2000 earthquakes within the region to develop a 3D tomographic model of the crust using TOMODD. The major structures within the area are the Nemaha Ridge, Wilzetta Fault, and Seminole Uplift, and they and other structures as well are expressed within the tomographic model. We are working on determining the resolution and interpretation of the tomographic images.

Chen, C.; Holland, A. A.; Keller, R. G.

2012-12-01

39

Assessing the need for diabetes self-management education in the Oklahoma city vietnamese community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  To assess the diabetes self-management educational (DSME) needs of the Vietnamese diabetic population in the Oklahoma City\\u000a metropolitan area.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants in this explorative study included 50 Vietnamese adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes recruited from the offices\\u000a of four primary care physicians in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. Participants completed a culturally sensitive survey\\u000a focused on their diabetes

Teresa Truong; Mark Britton; Donald Harrison; Nancy Letassy; Becky Armor; Darryl Tonemah; Ann Nguyen

2011-01-01

40

Field applications of CORSIM: I-40 freeway design evaluation, Oklahoma City, OK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of traffic flow is an effective tool for evaluating alternative roadway designs, particularly in congested urban areas. CORSIM, a traffic simulation model with detailed representation of vehicles and their interactions, was used to study the performance of two alternatives for a freeway reconstruction project in Oklahoma City. The simulation identified problem areas in the two freeway design alternatives and

Gene Daigle; Michelle Thomas; Meenakshy Vasudevan

1998-01-01

41

Case finding and mental health services for children in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1995 Oklahoma City bombing killed 168 people, including 19 children, and injured hundreds more. Children were a major focus of concern in the mental health response. Most services for them were delivered in the Oklahoma City Public Schools where approximately 40,000 students were enrolled at the time of the explosion. Middle and high school students in the Oklahoma City

Betty Pfefferbaum; Guy M. Sconzo; Brian W. Flynn; Lauri J. Kearns; Debby E. Doughty; Robin H. Gurwitch; Sara Jo Nixon; Shajitha Nawaz

2003-01-01

42

Never Again Would We Be the Same: The Oklahoma City Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A terrorist attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City showed the nation that no area of the country was free from the possibility of violence or terrorism. This author describes the day and the aftermath of the tragedy.

Kent Mathers

1996-01-01

43

Personal Touches Warm up Oklahoma City U.'s Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma City University prides itself on treating its faculty and staff members like family. It is the kind of place where new employees are welcomed in the president's house, staff members kick in to raise money when a colleague faces hard times, and promising young workers are offered flexible work schedules and free tuition to help them…

Mangan, Katherine

2009-01-01

44

Emergency Department Impact of the Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To collect descriptive epidemiologic injury data on patients who suffered acute injuries after the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing and to describe the effect on metropolitan emergency departments. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of victims seen for injury or illness related to the bombing at 1 of the 13 study hospitals from 9:02 AM

David E Hogan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Daniel J Dire; Scott R Lillibridge

1999-01-01

45

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business

Jeffrey B. Basara; Peter K. Hall; Amanda J. Schroeder; Bradley G. Illston; Kodi L. Nemunaitis

2008-01-01

46

Oklahoma City - Central State University Cooperative Program in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma City-Central State University Cooperative Program in Teacher Education is designed to provide student teachers preparing for middle school careers with a more realistic opportunity to integrate educational theories of learning and behavior with day-to-day public school experiences. A maximum of 25 students spend a full semester in an…

Central State Univ., Edmond, OK. Coll. of Education.

47

How a School Coped with the Oklahoma City Bombing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the Oklahoma City bombing, fifth graders at a nearby elementary school coped with ensuing uncertainty, pain, and loss. They wrote appreciative letters to fire and rescue workers; shared personal stories with classmates; compiled an anthology of poems, prayers, and stories; attended an assembly to honor parents participating in rescue…

Aspy, David N.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

1996-01-01

48

Oklahoma city: Disaster challenges mental health and medical administrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health and medical administrators responded to the Oklahoma City bombing with cooperative and overlapping efforts to meet community needs in the wake of terrorism. The major agencies assisted in the immediate rescue response, organized crisis hotlines, prepared mental health professionals to counsel bereaved families and victims, organized debriefing of rescuers, assessed mental health needs of local school children, planned

Phebe Tucker; Betty Pfefferbaum; Robert Vincent; Sharron D. Boehler; Sara Jo Nixon

1998-01-01

49

Oklahoma City: A Working Partnership in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma City arts-in-education program uses community arts and educational organizations as resources for a program in which all offerings are carefully related to the curriculum, curriculum themes provide the arts with access to other subjects, and everything is designed to meet the objectives of the school system. (Author/IRT)

Frates, Mary Y.

1976-01-01

50

Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

Mallonee, Sue

2000-01-01

51

A paradigm for multidisciplinary disaster research: the oklahoma city experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to describe the creation and operation of a multidisciplinary group to examine the Oklahoma City (OKC) bombing. The OKC bombing presented an opportunity to study a major disaster within 2 days of the incident. The Disaster Health Studies Group (DHSG) was created to facilitate this effort. The creation, organization, and operation of the DHSG

Gary Quick

1998-01-01

52

Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect

A major field experiment, Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003), was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect meteorological and tracer data sets for evaluating dispersion models in urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency were the primary sponsors of JU2003. Investigators from five Department of Energy national laboratories, several other government agencies, universities, private companies, and international agencies conducted the experiment. Observations to characterize the meteorology in and around the urban area complemented the observation of the dispersion of SF6, an inert tracer gas. Over one hundred threedimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence fluxes during releases of SF6. Sonic deployment locations included a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane less than 1 km north of the central business district (CBD). Using data from these and other sonic anemometers deployed in the urban area, we can quantify the effect of the urban area on atmospheric turbulence and compare results seen in OKC to those in other urban areas to assess the parameters typically used in parameterizations of urban turbulence.

Lundquist, J; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

2004-06-24

53

The impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing on the partners of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing on the spouses and significant others of a volunteer\\u000a sample of Oklahoma City firefighters who participated in the bombing rescue effort. Twenty-seven partners of Oklahoma City\\u000a firefighters participated in this study, conducted 42 to 44 months after the bombing. These partners were assessed using a\\u000a structured diagnostic interview

Betty Pfefferbaum; Carol S. North; Kenneth Bunch; Teddy G. Wilson; Phebe Tucker; John K. Schorr

2002-01-01

54

Oklahoma City's killer tornadoes: how local hospitals responded to yet another extreme disaster.  

PubMed

On the evening of May 3rd, a group of high-powered tornadoes tore through Oklahoma--leaving more than 40 people dead and hundreds injured. The main twister formed about 45 miles south of Oklahoma City and was classified F5, the most severe type of tornado, with winds of more than 260 mph. It cut a path one mile wide; stayed on the ground for more than four hours; and, along with other twisters, demolished 60 miles of countryside. More than 7,000 homes were destroyed or damaged, and more than 5,000 families were left homeless. Oklahoma City was hit the hardest, with about 1,500 homes leveled in the storm. A total of 755 people were injured in Oklahoma City and the surrounding area, testing local hospital disaster plans to the maximum. The same hospitals had been called on in April 1995 to handle the over 500 persons injured in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a terrorist blast that killed 168. The hospitals' latest response to a disaster situation is recorded in this report. PMID:10621277

1999-09-01

55

The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive study of the Emergency Medical Services response to a bombing of a United States Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 19 April 1995. The explosion emanated from a rented truck parked in the front of the building. The force of the explosion destroyed three of the four support columns in the front of the building and resulted in a pancaking effect of the upper floors onto the lower floors. There were three distinct phases of the medical response: 1) Immediately available local EMS ambulances and staff; 2) Additional ambulances staffed by recalled, off-duty personnel; and 3) mutual-aid ambulances and personnel from the surrounding communities. There were 361 persons in the building at the time of the explosion, 163 of these perished. Within the first hour of the explosion, 139 patients were transported to area hospitals. Of these, 32% were in critical condition. During the day of the explosion, 444 persons were treated for physical injuries: 410 of these were related to the explosion and 14, including one with fatal injuries, were sustained during search and rescue attempts. A total of 354 (80%) were treated and released from emergency departments, and 90 (20%) were admitted to hospitals. Six of the transported victims either were dead on arrival to the emergency department or died after admission to the hospital. Of those who died, 95% of the deaths were related to blunt trauma associated with the collapse of the structure. Only three persons were extricated alive after the first five hours following the explosion. The scene became flooded with volunteers who, although their intentions were to provide help and aid to those injured, created a substantial logistical problem for Incident Command. Several other lessons were learned: 1) Telephone lines and cells became overloaded, but the Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio system was operational only in three of the 15 hospitals; 2) Volunteer personnel should have responded to the hospitals and not to the scene; and 3) Training was an essential for the success of such a response. Thus, the success of this operation was a function of the intense training, practice, and coordination between multiple agencies. PMID:10187007

Maningas, P A; Robison, M; Mallonee, S

1997-01-01

56

Ground water in the Beggs area, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum discusses the geology of the Beggs area in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, as it is related to the availability of ground water. Geological reports and unpublished data from the files of the Oklahoma Geological Survey, together with local information furnished by R.W. Steinman, Beggs Water Superintendent, are the basis for the statements that follow.

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

57

After the bomb. Oklahoma City rescuers talk about their experiences.  

PubMed

Rather than trying to write a second-hand description of the response to the April 19 bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City, we thought we'd let some of the people who were there caring for patients and searching for victims share their experiences in their own words. Marion Angell Garza, JEMS editorial/news coordinator, spoke at length with six responders, including paramedics, the triage and treatment officer, a firefighter/EMT-1 and an emergency physician. The following excerpts are from those interviews. PMID:10143265

Robinson, M; Kernes, R; Lindsay, W; Webster, M

1995-06-01

58

A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four

Michael J. Brown; Austin Ivey; Timothy N. McPherson; David Boswell; Eric R. Pardyjak

2004-01-01

59

Cities Service solves urban-area waterflood problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-range planning is paying off for Cities Service Oil Co. in its Prue Sand waterflood in the SE. sector of Oklahoma City. Not too far from downtown, the flood covers 518 acres in an area comprised of light industrial and residential tracts. The flooded area lies on both sides of 2 interstate highways, encompasses land with potential value for warehousing

Bleakley

1971-01-01

60

Relations among land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1968-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, has collected water-quality samples at the North Canadian River near Harrah, Oklahoma (the Harrah station), since 1968, and the North Canadian River at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (the Britton Road station), since 1988. The North Canadian municipal wastewater-treatment plant, managed by the city of Oklahoma City, is the largest wastewater-treatment plant in the North Canadian River Basin and discharges effluent between the Britton Road and Harrah stations. Water-quality constituent concentrations were summarized, and trends in concentrations and frequencies of detection of selected constituents with time were evaluated to determine if changes in land cover, streamflow, and other potential sources of constituents in water had significant effects on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City.

Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

2011-01-01

61

Boundary-Layer Structure Upwind and Downwind of Oklahoma City during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Study  

SciTech Connect

The Joint Urban 2003 field study in Oklahoma City in July 2003 provided a comprehensive data set that included measurements from sites upwind and downwind of Oklahoma City where sodars, radar wind profilers/RASSes, and radiosondes were deployed. Radiosonde measurements were taken during six daytime intensive observational periods (IOPs) and during four nighttime IOPs, while the sodars and radars operated almost continuously during the entire month of July. The upwind and downwind sites were located approximately 2 km south and 5 km north of downtown Oklahoma City, respectively. Boundary-layer heights and wind and temperature structure at both sites have been investigated and compared to determine effects of the urban area on mean boundary-layer structure. Initial results show that differences in boundary-layer structure between the upwind and downwind location are small, i.e., there is no detectable effect of downtown Oklahoma City on the mean boundary-layer structure 5 km downwind. These measurements are compared with a numerical model and simple analytical models such as those that predict the growth of an internal boundary layer after a roughness change, and an advective thermodynamic model used to determine mixing heights in an urban area.

De Wekker, Stephan; Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Doran, J. C.; Shaw, William J.

2004-08-25

62

Never Again Would We Be the Same: The Oklahoma City Bombing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school principal describes the day of the terrorist attack on the federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. After meeting with assistant principals and the school nurse to make plans for dealing with possible repercussions, he told students what had happened, monitored TV broadcasts, evacuated the building during bomb scares, and…

Mathers, Kent

1996-01-01

63

Equal Educational Opportunity for Hispanic Students in the Oklahoma City Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report results from a community forum on educational equity in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, at which knowledgeable persons and school district personnel provided their perspectives on issues related to educational equity. Data from this forum reveal a serious problem in the large numbers of student suspensions at both the elementary and secondary…

Hernandez, Ascension

64

75 FR 65524 - United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,863] United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated January 20, 2010,...

2010-10-25

65

Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a government cover up. Preliminary statements by the scientific community also contributed to the uncertainty. A public science organization issued a press release that stated "the location and source of the second surface wave-recording is unknown. Detailed investigations at the building site may offer an explanation as to the cause and origin of the second event." A prominent professional newsletter reported that the "first event was caused by energy from the explosion and the second from the fall of the building." To understand the seismic phases in the April 19 seismograms, the USGS monitored the demolition of the damaged building on May 23, 1995, with a portable seismic array. The array recorded the same 2 wave trains during the demolition and indicated the wave trains were a propagation effect and not the result of multiple sources. Modeling of the waveforms indicated that the 2 wave trains probably resulted from propagation of seismic energy in a near-surface zone with a strong velocity gradient. The first phase appeared to be a packet of scattered body waves and the second was the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave. Timely resolution of the ambiguity of the seismogram and publication of results in a refereed publication, EOS, discouraged a conspiracy defense by the terrorists.

Holzer, T. L.

2002-05-01

66

Estimated flood peak discharges on Twin, Brock, and Lightning creeks, Southwest Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flash flood in southwestern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993, was the result of an intense 3-hour rainfall on saturated ground or impervious surfaces. The total precipitation of 5.28 inches was close to the 3-hour, 100-year frequency and produced extensive flooding. The most serious flooding was on Twin, Brock, and Lightning Creeks. Four people died in this flood. Over 1,900 structures were damaged along the 3 creeks. There were about $3 million in damages to Oklahoma City public facilities, the majority of which were in the three basins. A study was conducted to determine the magnitude of the May 8, 1993, flood peak discharge in these three creeks in southwestern Oklahoma City and compare these peaks with published flood estimates. Flood peak-discharge estimates for these creeks were determined at 11 study sites using a step-backwater analysis to match the flood water-surface profiles defined by high-water marks. The unit discharges during peak runoff ranged from 881 cubic feet per second per square mile for Lightning Creek at SW 44th Street to 3,570 cubic feet per second per square mile for Brock Creek at SW 59th Street. The ratios of the 1993 flood peak discharges to the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood peak discharges ranged from 1.25 to 3.29. The water-surface elevations ranged from 0.2 foot to 5.9 feet above the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500-year flood water-surface elevations. The very large flood peaks in these 3 small urban basins were the result of very intense rainfall in a short period of time, close to 100 percent runoff due to ground surfaces being essentially impervious, and the city streets acting as efficient conveyances to the main channels. The unit discharges compare in magnitude to other extraordinary Oklahoma urban floods.

Tortorelli, R. L.

1996-01-01

67

Annotated bibliography of the Anadarko basin area; Kansas - Oklahoma - Texas  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains 118 additional records related to the geology of the Anadarko basin area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; petrology; tectonics; and geochemistry. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area.

McLaughlin, J.E.

1985-01-01

68

Area Wage Survey - Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first A-series tables provide information on wage levels at the time of the survey for selected office clerical, professional and technical, maintenance and powerplant, and custodial and material movement occupations. The last two A-series tables prov...

1973-01-01

69

Ground water in the Anadarko area [Caddo County], Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report offers a preliminary interpretation of the geology and ground-water hydrology of the Anadarko area, Oklahoma. L.V. Davis prepared the accompanying map from aerial photographs and furnished much of the geologic information, and records of the State Mineral Survey (WPA) were used in the preparation of the section on the Rush Springs sandstone. (available as photostat copy only)

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

70

Boundary-Layer Structure Upwind and Downwind of Oklahoma City during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Urban 2003 field study in Oklahoma City in July 2003 provided a comprehensive data set that included measurements from sites upwind and downwind of Oklahoma City where sodars, radar wind profilers\\/RASSes, and radiosondes were deployed. Radiosonde measurements were taken during six daytime intensive observational periods (IOPs) and during four nighttime IOPs, while the sodars and radars operated almost

Stephan F. J. De Wekker; Larry K. Berg; K. Jerry Allwine; J. Christopher Doran; William J. Shaw

2004-01-01

71

Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Arcadia Lake, Oklahoma: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arcadia Lake is located within the metropolitan area of Oklahoma City and Edmund, in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, about 2.4 km (1.5 miles) southwest of Arcadia, Oklahoma (Figure 1). Construction of the earth-filled dam was authorized by the Flood Control Ac...

G. O. Dick R. M. Smart E. R. Gilliland

2004-01-01

72

Variability of wind power near Oklahoma City and implications for siting of wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

Data from five sites near Oklahoma City were examined to assess wind power availability. Wind turbines of identical manufacture were operated at three of the sites, one of which was also equipped with anemometers on a 100-ft tower. Comprehensive anemometric data were available from the other two sites. The study indicates that the average wind speed varies substantially over Oklahoma's rolling plains, which have often been nominally regarded as flat for purposes of wind power generation. Average wind differences may be as much as 5 mph at 20 ft above ground level, and 7 mph at 100 ft above ground level for elevation differences of about 200 ft above mean sea level, even in the absence of substantial features of local terrain. Local altitude above mean sea level seems to be as influential as the shape of local terrain in determining the average wind speed. The wind turbine used at a meteorologically instrumented site in the study produced the power expected from it for the wind regime in which it was situated. The observed variations of local wind imply variations in annual kWh of as much as a factor of four between identical turbines located at similar heights above ground level in shallow valleys and on hilltops or elevated extended flat areas. 17 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

Kessler, E.; Eyster, R.

1987-09-01

73

Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

1990-01-01

74

BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

Miller, Mary, H.

1984-01-01

75

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

76

Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, Oklahoma City Public Schools: A National Diffusion Network Approved Program, Family Intergenerational-Interaction Literacy Model 1993-94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Even Start Family Literacy Program, in its fourth year of operation, provides a literacy environment based on the Family Intergenerational-Interaction Literacy Model (FILM) in the southwest area of Oklahoma City. The FILM model is designed to provide a family literacy education program for parents, extended family, and their preschool children…

Oklahoma City Univ., OK.

77

Information from 1989 and 1990 Oklahoma City Community College Graduates. Research Monograph VIII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1990 and June 1991, the Office of Institutional Research at Oklahoma City Community College (OKCCC) conducted follow-up studies of December 1988 and July 1990 OKCCC graduates, respectively. Questionnaires were sent to 365 graduates in 1990 and to 398 graduates in 1991. Survey findings, based on a 20.8% response rate in 1990 and 17.6%…

Oklahoma City Community Coll., OK. Office of Institutional Research.

78

Oklahoma City Alcohol Safety Action Project: Effectiveness and Efficiency; Analytic Study No. I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the progress and performance of the Oklahoma City Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP) during the five-year period 1972 - 1976. The findings of this study include: (1) ASAP enforcement personnel effected 17,187 DUI arrests in Oklahom...

R. F. Krenek

1977-01-01

79

Literacy Patterns of Production Workers in Small Manufacturing Companies in the Oklahoma City Metroplex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Screening Battery of the Adult Basic Learning Examination and a demographic questionnaire were completed by 65 employees in small manufacturing firms in Oklahoma City. Despite overall educational attainment of 11.5 years, grade equivalents of scores were 7.6 for reading comprehension, 8.9 for problem solving; 21.5% were classified as…

Green, Gary; Sloan, Bobby R.

1994-01-01

80

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Plume Dispersion in Urban Oklahoma City  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D computational fluid dynamics study using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes modeling was conducted and validated with field data from the Joint Urban 2003 dispersion study in Oklahoma City. The modeled flow field indicated that the many short buildings in this domain had a relatively small effect on the flow field, while the few tall buildings drove the transport and dispersion

Julia E. Flaherty; David E. Stock; Brian K. Lamb

2007-01-01

81

Preparing for armageddon: Citizen militias, the patriot movement and the Oklahoma city bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating explosion in Oklahoma City on 19 April 1995 has drawn attention to the existence of citizen militias and the Patriot movement of which they are part. Opposed to gun control and taxation and strongly influenced by claims of concealed foreign troops, concentration camps and plans to impose a New World order, Patriots are the inheritors of a radical

Martin Durham

1996-01-01

82

Oklahoma City FILM Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the evaluation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools Even Start Program, also called the Family Intergenerational Literacy Model (FILM), now in its twelfth full year of operation. The evaluation focuses on the total population of adult students, preschoolers, adult graduates, and preschool graduates. The…

Richardson, Donna Castle; Shove, Joanie; Brickman, Sharon; Terrell, Sherry; Shields, Jane

83

Coping, Functioning, and Adjustment of Rescue Workers After the Oklahoma City Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have not previously considered postdisaster adjustment in the context of psychiatric disorders. After the Oklahoma City bombing, a volunteer sample of 181 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers was assessed with a structured diagnostic interview. The firefighters had relatively low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and described little functional impairment, positive social adjustment, and high job

Carol S. North; Laura Tivis; J. Curtis McMillen; Betty Pfefferbaum; Jann Cox; Edward L. Spitznagel; Kenneth Bunch; John Schorr; Elizabeth M. Smith

2002-01-01

84

Deaths in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado from a Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado was the deadliest in the United States in over 20 years, with 36 direct fatalities. To understand how this event fits into the historical context, the record of tornado deaths in the United States has been examined. Almost 20 000 deaths have been reported associated with more,than 3600 tornadoes in the United

Harold E. Brooks; Charles A. Doswell III

2002-01-01

85

Did fertility go up after the oklahoma city bombing? An analysis of births in metropolitan counties in Oklahoma, 1990–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political and sociocultural events (e.g., Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and the German reunification in 1989) and natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Hugo in 1989) can affect fertility.\\u000a In our research, we addressed the question of whether the Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995, a man-made disaster, influenced\\u000a fertility patterns in Oklahoma. We defined three theoretical orientations—replacement theory, community

Joseph Lee Rodgers; Craig A. St. John; Ronnie Coleman

2005-01-01

86

Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic feet per second for the North Canadian River from Lake Overholser to a measuring station above Eufaula Lake. Estimated recharge rates to the alluvial and terrace aquifer in the basin range from 1.7 inches at the west edge of the study area to 7.0 inches at the east edge. Total permitted withdrawal from the aquifer, according to records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, ranged from 2,107 acre-feet per year in 1942 to about 21,415 acre-feet per year in 1982. Simulations of the alluvial and terrace aquifer from Lake Overholser to Eufaula Lake were made using a finite-difference model developed by McDonald and Harbaugh (1984). The area of the aquifers was subdivided into a finite-difference grid having 30 rows and 57 columns with cells measuring 1 mile in the north-south direction and 2 miles in the east-west direction. The model was calibrated in two steps: A steady-state calibration simulated head distribution prior to extensive pumping of the aquifer in 1942, and a transient calibration simulated head distribution after extensive pumpage. The final horizontal hydraulic conductivity used for the alluvial and terrace aquifer was 0.0036 feet per second (310 feet per day) at all locations. The recharge rate for the alluvial and terrace aquifer ranged from 1.7 inch per year in the west to 7.0 inches per year in the east, and averaged about 3.3 inches per year. A specific yield of 15 percent was used for the transient simulation. Permitted pumpage for 1942 through 1982 was used in the digital model to estimate the annual volume of water in storage in the alluvial and terrace aquifer for the years for this time period. The 1982 permitted pumpage rates were used for projections for 1983 to 2020. The estimated volume of water in storage was 1,940,000 acre-feet in 1982. Because the estimated recharge rate is equal to the allowed pumpage rate in 1982, the projected volume of water in storage in both 1993 and 2020 was 1,890,000 acre-feet.

Havens, J. S.

1989-01-01

87

Sadness, tragedy and mass disaster in Oklahoma City: providing critical incident stress debriefings to a community in crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after 09:00 h on 19 April 1995, the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building, located in downtown Oklahoma City, was devastated with a bomb blast of such gigantic proportions that it was heard 60 miles away in neighbouring Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahomans routinely commuting to work on that sunny Wednesday morning went about their business as usual. A crude bomb chemically

J. A. Davis

1996-01-01

88

Florida Cities and Metro Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise for an Urban Sociology course provides a look at demographics in Florida Metropolitan Area. This activity uses The Statistical Abstract of the United States, The County and City Data Book and The State and Metropolitan Area Data Book.

Wright, Jim

89

76 FR 15290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 106-Oklahoma City, OK Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 20-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 106--Oklahoma City, OK Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative Site Framework An application has been submitted to the...

2011-03-21

90

Measurement of the VOC Environment from an Aircraft Platform during an Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Study Near Oklahoma City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction and relationship between atmospheric aerosols and ambient VOC concentrations is a current area of activity in atmospheric research both in urban and remote environments. Current atmospheric models seriously under predict the amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), highlighting the importance of simultaneous particle and VOC measurements and their importance to climate change models. The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) campaign was conducted in June of 2007 near Oklahoma City to investigate the mutual interaction of anthropogenic aerosols and clouds on each other. An important part of this study was characterizing the temporally and spatially resolved VOC environment in which urban aerosols and cumuliform clouds in the Oklahoma City environment exist. We report results from the proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) aboard the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G1) research aircraft to perform time-resolved measurements of the ambient VOC species and concentrations in conjunction with the suite of aerosol, trace gas and meteorological instruments aboard the G1. Several classes of VOC's were observed. Benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and other species indicative of primary urban emissions were found in the Oklahoma City plume, strongly correlated with CO and other inorganic urban trace gases. Oxygenated species such as methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were observed with no well defined spatial or temporal variation. Finally, species typical of biogenic emissions, isoprene and its oxidation products were seen in broad but definite spatial distributions, not correlated with the urban gas phase products as measured with the PTR-MS and other instrumentation. The concentration levels of these species and possible ground-based sources will be investigated and reported in this presentation. Correlation with aerosol instrumentation such as the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), nephelometer and other optical measurements will also be reported, both within and out of cloud environments. These correlations will be examined for possible influences of the local VOC species on the cloud-aerosol systems under study.

Alexander, M. L.; Newburn, M.; Hubbe, J.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Springston, S.; Senum, G.; Lee, Y.; Andrews, E.

2007-12-01

91

HAEMOPROTEUS AND LEUCOCYTOZOON INFECTIONS IN BIRDS OF THE OKLAHOMA CITY ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRA(:T: A total of 222 birds, captive or free-flying in the Oklahoma City Zoo, were examined for blood parasites; 31 (14%) harbored Haenzoproteus and\\/or Leucocytozoon. While 21% of the indigenous avifauna were infected, only 891 of the exotic bird species harbored haemoproteids and these parasites were also exotic to North America. There was no evidence to indicate that exotic infections

Nancy Halpern; Gordon F. Bennett

92

Post-Disaster Stress Following the Oklahoma City BombingAn Examination of Three Community Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study of 472 community members to determine the nature and course of the post-disaster response to the April 19, 1995, bombing in Oklahoma City. It was hypothesized that an individual's post-disaster reaction would resemble a linear function of the degree of exposure experienced, and that this dose-response relationship could be used to differentiate the expression of

GINNY SPRANG

1999-01-01

93

Seismicity of the salt areas of Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a seismicity study of the salt deposit areas of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Louisiana are presented. The study was conducted using some of the short-period seismic data recorded on film at the Wichita Mountain Observatory (WMSO), located in southern Oklahoma, during the years 1961 through 1968. Only data recorded on Sundays were analyzed to minimize the confusion

D. Racine; P. Klouda

1980-01-01

94

A simple urban dispersion model tested with tracer data from Oklahoma City and Manhattan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple urban dispersion model is tested that is based on the Gaussian plume model and modifications to the Briggs urban dispersion curves. An initial dispersion coefficient ( ?o) of 40 m is assumed to apply in built-up downtown areas, and the stability is assumed to be slightly unstable during the day and slightly stable during the night. Observations from tracer experiments during the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study in Oklahoma City and the Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05) field study in Manhattan are used for model testing. The tracer SF 6 was released during JU2003 near ground level in the downtown area and concentrations were observed at over 100 locations within 4 km from the source. Six perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gases were released near ground level during MSG05 and sampled by about 20 samplers at the surface and on building roofs. The evaluations compare concentrations normalized by source release rate, C/ Q, for each sampler location and each tracer release, where data were used only if both the observed and predicted concentrations exceeded threshold levels. At JU2003, for all samplers and release times, the fractional mean bias (FB) is about 0.2 during the day (20% mean underprediction) and 0.0 during the night. About 45 -50% of the predictions are within a factor of two (FAC2) of the observations day and night at JU2003. The maximum observed C/ Q is about two times the maximum predicted C/ Q both day and night. At MSG05, for all PFTs, surface samplers, and release times, FB is 0.14 and FAC2 is about 45%. The overall 60 min-averaged maximum C/ Q is underpredicted by about 40% for the surface samplers and is overpredicted by about 25% for the building-roof samplers.

Hanna, Steven; Baja, Emmanuel

95

Nocturnal Low-Level-Jet-Dominated Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observed by a Doppler Lidar over Oklahoma City during JU2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boundary layer wind data observed by a Doppler lidar and sonic anemometers during the mornings of three intensive observational periods (IOP2, IOP3, and IOP7) of the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment are analyzed to extract the mean and turbulent characteristics of airflow over Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A strong nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) dominated the flow in the boundary layer

Yansen Wang; Cheryl L. Klipp; Dennis M. Garvey; David A. Ligon; Chatt C. Williamson; Sam S. Chang; Rob K. Newsom; Ronald Calhoun

2007-01-01

96

75 FR 40820 - City of Broken Bow, Oklahoma; Project No. 12470-001-Oklahoma Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preservation Office (Oklahoma SHPO) that the Caddo Nation be included in the development of...and the Oklahoma SHPO on behalf of the Caddo Nation have identified an interest in issues...Tribal Historic Preservation Officer, Caddo Nation, P.O. Box 487, Binger,...

2010-07-14

97

Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by households but may have high concentrations of trace elements, including uranium, in some areas where groundwater pH is above 8.0. Well yields vary and are dependent on aquifer characteristics and well-completion practices. Well yields in the unconsolidated alluvial and terrace aquifers generally are higher than yields from bedrock aquifers but are limited by the thickness and extent of these river deposits. Well yields in the alluvium and terrace aquifers commonly range from 50 to 150 gallons per minute and may exceed 300 gallons per minute, whereas well yields in the bedrock aquifers commonly range from 25 to 50 gallons per minute in the western one-third of study area (Oklahoma County) and generally less than 25 gallons per minute in the eastern two-thirds of the study area (Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties).

Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

98

Nocturnal Low-Level-Jet-Dominated Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observed by a Doppler Lidar Over Oklahoma City during JU2003  

SciTech Connect

Boundary layer wind data observed by a Doppler lidar and sonic anemometers during the mornings of three intensive observational periods (IOP2, IOP3, and IOP7) of the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment are analyzed to extract the mean and turbulent characteristics of airflow over Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A strong nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) dominated the flow in the boundary layer over the measurement domain from midnight to the morning hours. Lidar scans through the LLJ taken after sunrise indicate that the LLJ elevation shows a gradual increase of 25-100 m over the urban area relative to that over the upstream suburban area. The mean wind speed beneath the jet over the urban area is about 10%-15% slower than that over the suburban area. Sonic anemometer observations combined with Doppler lidar observations in the urban and suburban areas are also analyzed to investigate the boundary layer turbulence production in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer. The turbulence kinetic energy was higher over the urban domain mainly because of the shear production of building surfaces and building wakes. Direct transport of turbulent momentum flux from the LLJ to the urban street level was very small because of the relatively high elevation of the jet. However, since the LLJ dominated the mean wind in the boundary layer, the turbulence kinetic energy in the urban domain is correlated directly with the LLJ maximum speed and inversely with its height. The results indicate that the jet Richardson number is a reasonably good indicator for turbulent kinetic energy over the urban domain in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer.

Wang, Yansen; Klipp, Cheryl L.; Garvey, Dennis M.; Ligon, David; Williamson, Chatt C.; Chang, Sam S.; Newsom, Rob K.; Calhoun, Ron

2007-12-01

99

Ground water in the Blanchard area, McClain County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A letter from Lloyd L. Bowser, City Clerk, dated January 8, 1948, in behalf of the town council and Mayor Walter Casey, indicates that a serious shortage of water is faced by the town of Blanchard, McClain County, Oklahoma. The town is near the eastern boundary of Grady County, where an investigation of the ground-water resources is being made by the Oklahoma Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a State-wide investigation. Information obtained thus far may aid the town by showing where additional ground water for municipal supply may be sought.

Davis, Leon Virgil; Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

100

Geographic Information Systems Methods for Determining Drainage-Basin Areas, Stream-Buffered Areas, Stream Length, and Land Uses for the Neosho and Spring Rivers in Northeastern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographic Information Systems have many uses, one of which includes the reproducible computation of environmental characteristics that can be used to categorize hydrologic features. The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality are investigating Geographic Information Systems techniques to determine partial drainage-basin areas, stream-buffer areas, stream length, and land uses (drainage basin and stream characteristics) in northeastern Oklahoma. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, documented the methods used to determine drainage-basin and stream characteristics for the Neosho and Spring Rivers above Grand Lake Of the Cherokees in northeastern Oklahoma and calculated the characteristics. The drainage basin and stream characteristics can be used by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to aid in natural-resource assessments.

Masoner, Jason R.; March, Ferrella

2006-01-01

101

The Competency-Based Degree Program at Oklahoma City University: The Program and the People It Serves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Competency-Based Degree Program (CBDP) at Oklahoma City University is an effort by a traditional university to serve a new and expanded group of students while maintaining a high level of quality in the services it provides. The CBDP is unique in that it is truly a nontraditional program operating within a traditional university with well…

Westerheide, W. J.; Krueger, Reynold J.

102

THE OKLAHOMA MESONET  

EPA Science Inventory

The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

103

Special report. The Oklahoma City bombing: mass casualties and the local hospital response.  

PubMed

A morning blast at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, OK, on April 19, 1995, killed 168 persons and injured more than 500 in the worst terrorist attack in U.S. history. Hospital workers, physicians, and volunteers at nine hospitals there mobilized, put their disaster emergency plans into operation, and treated 466 persons in emergency rooms--many of them later being admitted as patients. To complicate matters, two of the hospitals received bomb threats called in after the disaster. This report will look at the security plans put into force by each of the nine hospitals; the handling of the great influx of persons, including victims, relatives, friends, concerned persons, volunteers, and the news media; and the lessons hospital officials learned from their experiences. PMID:10151262

1995-09-01

104

Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Annual frequencies of detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and bromacil increased with time. Annual frequencies of detection of atrazine, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorprop, and lindane decreased with time. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in water samples collected at the Harrah station than at the Britton Road station, whereas specific conductance was greater at the Britton Road station. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform bacteria were not significantly different between stations. Daily minimum, mean, and maximum specific conductance collected from continuous water-quality monitors were significantly greater at the Britton Road station than in water samples collected at the Harrah station. Daily minimum, maximum, and diurnal fluctuations of water temperature collected from continuous water-quality monitors were significantly greater at the Harrah station than at the Britton Road station. The daily maximums and diurnal range of dissolved oxygen concentrations were significantly greater in water samples collected at the Britton Road station than at the Harrah station, but daily mean dissolved oxygen concentrations in water at those streamflow-gaging stations were not significantly different. Daily mean and diurnal water temperature ranges increased with time at the Britton Road and Harrah streamflow-gaging stations, whereas daily mean and diurnal specific conductance ranges decreased with time at both streamflow-gaging stations from 1988–2009. Daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations collected from continuous water-quality monitors more frequently indicated hypoxic conditions at the Harrah station than at the Britton Road station after 1999. Fecal coliform bacteria counts in water decreased slightly from 1988–2009 at the Britton Road station. The Seasonal Kendall's tau test indicated significant downward trends in

Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

2011-01-01

105

Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.  

PubMed

Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument. PMID:18974901

Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

2008-11-01

106

Gravity Investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, South-Central Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian we...

D. S. Scheirer A. H. Scheirer

2006-01-01

107

Seismicity of the Salt Areas of Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a seismicity study of the salt deposit areas of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Louisiana are presented. The study was conducted using some of the short-period seismic data recorded on film at the Wichita Mountain Observatory (WMSO), located in...

D. Racine P. Klouda

1980-01-01

108

Groundwater Quality and Water-Well Characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, Central Oklahoma, 1948-2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Countie...

C. J. Becker

2013-01-01

109

An inter-comparison of three urban wind models using Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 wind field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three wind models are compared to near-surface time-averaged wind measurements obtained in downtown Oklahoma City during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign. The models cover several levels of computational approximation and include in increasing order of computational demand: a mass-consistent empirical-diagnostic code, a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) CFD code. The

Marina Neophytou; Akshay Gowardhan; Michael Brown

2011-01-01

110

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Plume Dispersion in Urban Oklahoma City  

SciTech Connect

A 3D computational fluid dynamics study using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes modeling was conducted and validated with field data from the Joint Urban 2003 dispersion study in Oklahoma City. The modeled flow field indicated that the many short buildings in this domain had a relatively small effect on the flow field, while the few tall buildings drove the transport and dispersion of tracer gas through the domain. Modeled concentrations and wind speeds were compared to observations along a vertical profile located about 500 meters downwind of the source. The isothermal base case using the k-epsilon closure model was within 50% of the field measurements, while a convective case with ground and building surfaces 10 degrees C hotter than ambient temperatures improved the modeled profile to within 30% of observations. Varying wind direction and source location had a significant effect on the plume dispersion due to the irregularity of the urban landscape. The location of the tallest obstacle in this domain with respect to the source position defined the size and shape of tracer plumes in this study. Model results based upon a Reynolds stress closure scheme were also compared to the vertical concentration profiles. For this location, the isothermal case underestimated concentrations; however, the case with thermal buoyancy resulted in concentrations within 25% of the observations.

Flaherty, Julia E.; Stock, David E.; Lamb, Brian K.

2007-12-01

111

Posttraumatic stress two years after the Oklahoma City bombing in youths geographically distant from the explosion.  

PubMed

This article describes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in 69 sixth-grade youths who resided within 100 miles of Oklahoma City at the time of the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. These youths neither had any direct physical exposure nor personally knew anyone killed or injured in the explosion. A survey conducted two years after the bombing assessed exposure, PTSD symptoms, and functioning. PTSD symptom frequency was measured with the Impact of Event Scale--Revised. Our BCD criteria for defining PTSD caseness was modeled after DSM-IV B, C, and D criteria requiring one reexperiencing, three avoidance/numbing, and two arousal symptoms for diagnosis. Those who met our BCD criteria had significantly higher PTSD symptom scores than those who did not. Both increased mean PTSD symptom score and meeting our caseness definition were associated with increased functioning difficulties. Media exposure and indirect interpersonal exposure (having a friend who knew someone killed or injured) were significant predictors of symptomatology. These findings suggest that children geographically distant from disaster who have not directly experienced an interpersonal loss report PTSD symptoms and functional impairment associated with increased media exposure and indirect loss. PMID:11218559

Pfefferbaum, B; Seale, T W; McDonald, N B; Brandt, E N; Rainwater, S M; Maynard, B T; Meierhoefer, B; Miller, P D

2000-01-01

112

Earthquake activity in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb)

K. V. Luza; J. E. Jr. Lawson

1989-01-01

113

The New Canadian Urban Modelling System: Evaluation for Two Cases from the Joint Urban 2003 Oklahoma City Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Canadian numerical urban modelling system has been developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada to represent surface and boundary-layer processes in the urban environment. In this system, urban covers are taken into account by including the Town Energy Balance urban-canopy parameterization scheme in the Global Environmental Multiscale meteorological model. The new modelling system is run at 250-m grid size for two intensive observational periods of the Joint Urban 2003 experiment that was held in Oklahoma City, U.S.A. An extensive evaluation against near-surface and upper-air observations has been performed. The Town Energy Balance scheme correctly simulates the urban micro-climate, more particularly the positive nighttime urban heat island, and also reproduces the “cool” island during the morning but does not succeed in maintaining it during all of the daytime period. The vertical structure of the boundary layer above the city is reasonably well simulated, but the simulation of the nocturnal boundary layer is difficult, due to the complex interaction with the nighttime southerly low-level jet that crosses the domain. Sensitivity tests reveal that the daytime convective boundary layer is mainly driven by dry soil conditions in and around Oklahoma City and that the nighttime low-level jet reinforces the urban heat island in the first 300m through large-scale advection, leading to the development of a less stable layer above the city.

Lemonsu, Aude; Belair, Stephane; Mailhot, Jocelyn

2009-10-01

114

Seismicity of the salt areas of Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The results of a seismicity study of the salt deposit areas of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Louisiana are presented. The study was conducted using some of the short-period seismic data recorded on film at the Wichita Mountain Observatory (WMSO), located in southern Oklahoma, during the years 1961 through 1968. Only data recorded on Sundays were analyzed to minimize the confusion of quarry blasts. All major quarries within 400 km of WMSO were located and some of the known blasts were studied for distinguishing characteristics. Inquiries were made to the appropriate state agencies for data to produce a list of historical seismic events which occurred during the 1961 to 1968 period. A salt deposit composite map of the areas was also produced and all historical and previously unreported events, as well as the known quarries, were plotted on this base map.

Racine, D.; Klouda, P.

1980-02-01

115

Geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.

Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.

2013-01-01

116

Determinants of exposure to volatile organic compounds in four Oklahoma cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To begin to develop generalized models for estimating personal exposure to ambient air pollutants within diverse populations, the design of the Oklahoma Urban Air Toxics Study incorporated eight dichotomous macroenvironmental and household factors that were hypothesized to be potential determinants of exposure. Personal, indoor, and outdoor samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected over 24-h monitoring periods in 42

Margaret L Phillips; Nurtan A Esmen; Thomas A Hall; Robert Lynch

2005-01-01

117

Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010  

EPA Science Inventory

Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

118

Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the FourCorners Area and Eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A.  

EPA Science Inventory

Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma from August, 2009?August, 2011. Using data from a six site area network, a characterization of the magnitude and spatia...

119

Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethenes Under Oxidation-Reduction Conditions and Potentiometric Surfaces in Two Trichloroethene-Contaminated Zones at the Double Eagle and Fourth Street Superfund Sites in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Double Eagle Refining Superfund site and the Fourth Street Abandoned Refinery Superfund site are in northeast Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, adjacent to one another. The Double Eagle facility became a Superfund site on the basis of contamination from lead and volatile organic compounds; the Fourth Street facility on the basis of volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and acid-base neutral compounds. The study documented in this report was done to investigate whether reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes under oxidation-reduction conditions is occurring in two zones of the Garber-Wellington aquifer (shallow zone 30?60 to 75 feet below land surface, deep zone 75 to 160 feet below land surface) at the sites; and to construct potentiometric surfaces of the two water-yielding zones to determine the directions of ground-water flow at the sites. The presence in some wells of intermediate products of reductive dechlorination, dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, is an indication that reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene is occurring. Dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.5 milligram per liter) indicate that consumption of dissolved oxygen likely had occurred in the oxygen-reducing microbial process associated with reductive dechlorination. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (generally less than 2.0 and 0.06 milligrams per liter, respectively) indicate that nitrate reduction probably is not a key process in either aquifer zone. Concentrations of ferrous iron greater than 1.00 milligram per liter in the majority of wells sampled indicate that iron reduction is probable. Concentrations of sulfide less than 0.05 milligram per liter in all wells indicate that sulfate reduction probably is not a key process in either zone. The presence of methane in ground water is an indication of strongly reducing conditions that facilitate reductive dechlorination. Methane was detected in all but one well. In the shallow zone in the eastern part of the study area, ground water flowing from the northwest and south coalesces in a potentiometric trough, then moves westward and ultimately northwestward. In the western part of the study area, ground water in the shallow zone flows northwest. In the deep zone in the eastern part of the study area, ground water generally flows northwestward; and in the western part of the study area, ground water in the deep zone generally flows northward.

Braun, Christopher L.

2004-01-01

120

Chemical analyses of water samples from the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses are presented for 169 water samples from Tar Creek drainage and the Picher lead-zinc mining area of northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas. Water samples were taken from November 1983 through February 1986 from the abandoned mines, from points of mine-water discharge, and from surface-water locations upstream and downstream from mine discharge area. The pH, temperature, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were measured in the field. Laboratory analyses routinely included the major ions plus aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Non-routine analyses of dissolved gases and tritium are presented. Stable carbon-isotope ratios for 11 mine-water samples and three carbonate-rock samples are reported. Miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements made at the time of sampling or taken from gaging-station records are included in the report.

Parkhurst, David L.

1987-01-01

121

Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

2009-01-01

122

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following elements submitted to EPA in Oklahoma's program application for final...Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following elements submitted to EPA in Oklahoma's program application for final...Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State...

2009-07-01

124

Remote Sensor Application Studies Progress Report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969. RemoteSensing Reconnaissance, Mill Creek Area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infrared data for the Mill Creek area in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma reveal significant stratigraphic and structural information. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites in this area can be differentiated in the nighttime infrared images, and the ...

L. C. Rowan T. W. Offield K. Watson P. J. Cannon R.D. Watson

1970-01-01

125

Proceedings of Annual Oklahoma Conference on Education, "Public Education: Time to Speak Up!" (3rd, Oklahoma City, OK, September 8-9, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speeches, panel discussions, and a debate from the 1981 Oklahoma Conference on Education are presented. The topics of the speeches are: (1) administrative decision making in institutions of higher education and the effects of state legislation (Barbara Uehling); (2) experiences of an American hostage in Iran and subsequent feelings about the…

Brown, Diane, Ed.; And Others

126

Mass traumatic terror in Oklahoma City and the phases of adaptational coping, part II: Integration of cognitive, behavioral, dynamic, existential and pharmacologic interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of the present contribution focuses on issues of prevention and post-traumatic disaster intervention. Prevention of\\u000a chronic post-traumatic stress disorder after the Oklahoma City bombing is a critical objective by debriefers and mental health\\u000a providers engaged in victim assistance programs. As the first major contribution on the traumatic sequelae of the blast on\\u000a individuals, families, and on the community

Erwin Randolph Parson

1995-01-01

127

Health Systems Plan. Health Service Area 1 Oklahoma. Volume 5, Chapters 1-4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oklahoma Health Systems Agency compiled this data supplement to accompany its health systems plan. Contents: Demograph Data--presents general population characteristics and growth trends and a socioeconomic profile of the State; Target Populations--sp...

1978-01-01

128

Public Disclosure, January 22, 2008, Community Reinvestment Act Performance Evaluation: Shattuck National Bank, Charter Number 9987, Oklahoma City, OK.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SNB is a community bank headquartered in Shattuck, Oklahoma. SNB is wholly-owned by Shattuck Bancshares, Inc., a one-bank holding company. The main bank with a drive-thru facility is located at 503 South Main Street in Shattuck, Oklahoma. A 24-hour ca...

2008-01-01

129

Hydrologic and climatologic data for the Lehigh area, southeastern Oklahoma, May 1977 and January 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and climatologic data were collected in the Lehigh area in southeastern Oklahoma during an investigation of the hydrologic effects of coal strip-mining. The purpose of the study was to assess the probable effects of surface mining for coal and subsequent reclamation on the hydrologic characteristics of the basin. This report presents all the data collected between 1977 and 1982. The data include: (1) greater than four years of daily and selected unit streamflow, daily suspended-sediment discharge, analyses of periodic samples for chemical quality, and daily temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen at the Coal Creek near Lehigh gaging stations; (2) partial record discharge data and analyses of periodic samples for chemical quality and sediment for two tributaries of Coal Creek; (3) climatologic data for four sites; (4) soil moisture at 13 measurements sites; (5) continuous record of the water level in one well; (6) periodic record of water level in a second well; (7) water-level records for 43 wells and springs including on-site measurement of physical parameters; and (8) complete chemical analyses of water samples from eleven wells and one spring.

Blumer, S. P.; Scott, J. C.

1984-01-01

130

Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Stigler area, Haskell County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed rock in the Stigler area of southeastern Oklahoma consists principally of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the McAlester, Savanna, and Boggy Formations of Pennsylvanian age. These rocks have been folded to form the Stigler syncline on the north and the Antioch anticline on the south. An area of several square miles is underlain by terrace deposits, mostly sandy silt, as much as 25 feet thick. Alluvium along the streams is 5 to 10 feet thick and consists mainly of sandy silt. Neither the terrace deposits nor the alluvium are hydrologically significant. Water in the bedrock is under artesian conditions. Well depths range from 34 to 235 feet and average 95 feet. The water level in most wells is less than 30 feet below the land surface. Because the rocks have minimal permeability, well yields probably are less than 5 gallons per minute. Much of the area is provided with water by a rural water district. Based on specific-conductance measurements, dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water are estimated to range from 200 to 2,500 milligrams per liter. Nor relationship between variations in specific conductance and well depth, geographic distribution, or geologic formation is apparent. Streams in the area are ephemeral and extended periods of no flow can be expected. During much of the period of record, streamflow in Taloka Creek was maintained by water pumped from an active coal mine. Water upstream from the mine area had a mean dissolved-solids concentration of 72 milligrams per liter whereas water downstream from the mine area had a mean concentration of 1,323 milligrams per liter. At times, downstream concentrations of some toxic metals exceeded the standards for drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Samples of water collected from Taloka Creek since mining ceased did not have excessive concentrations of toxic metals. Maximum suspended-sediment discharge of Taloka Creek was about 1,660 tons per day. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) were the dominant grain size. Observed and measured effects of surface mining for coal on the hydrologic system include (1) creation of additional water storage in the surface mine pond, (2) disruption of drainage in an area of about 1 square mile, and (3) increased mineralization of water in Taloka Creek. Other possible effects include (4) changes in permeability and storage of water in mine spoil, (5) minor changes in streamflow and runoff characteristics, and (6) temporary increase in the sediment load of Taloka Creek.

Marcher, M. V.; Huntzinger, t. L.; Stoner, J. D.; Blumer, S. P.

1983-01-01

131

Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Blocker area, Pittsburg County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bedrock in the Blocker area of southeastern Oklahoma consists principally of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the Boggy and Savanna Formations of Pennsylvanian age. These rocks have been folded to form the Panther Mountain syncline on the south and the Kinta anticline on the north. Alluvium along streams is less than 15 feet thick and consists mainly of sandy silt. Water in bedrock is under artesian conditions. Well depths range from 11 to 213 feet and average 75 feet. In 86% of the wells measured, the water level was less than 30 feet below the land surface. Because the rocks have minimal permeability, well yields probably are less than 5 gallons per minute. Ground water is commonly a mixed cation bicarbonate type with dissolved solids ranging from about 300 to 2,000 milligrams per liter. No relationship between water chemistry and well depth or geographic distribution is apparent. Streams in the area are ephemeral and there are extended periods of no flow. Blue Creek was dry 30% of the time during 1976-80 and had flows of less than 0.1 cubic foot per second for at least 80 consecutive days. Stream water is generally a mixed cation sulfate type. The maximum dissolved-solids concentration determined in stream water was 3670 milligrams per liter. Maximum suspended sediment discharge, in tons per day, was about 235 for Blue Creek, 40 for Blue Creek tributary, and 630 for Mathuldy Creek. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) are the dominant sediment size. Surface mining for coal undoubtedly will have some effect on the environment. The most likely deleterious effects are increased sediment loads in streams and increased mineralization of stream waters. However, these effects should be of only limited extent and duration if appropriate mining and reclamation practices are followed. (USGS)

Marcher, Melvin V.; Bergman, D. L.; Stoner, J. D.; Blumer, S. P.

1981-01-01

132

A simple urban dispersion model tested with tracer data from Oklahoma City and Manhattan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple urban dispersion model is tested that is based on the Gaussian plume model and modifications to the Briggs urban dispersion curves. An initial dispersion coefficient (?o) of 40m is assumed to apply in built-up downtown areas, and the stability is assumed to be slightly unstable during the day and slightly stable during the night. Observations from tracer experiments

Steven Hanna; Emmanuel Baja

2009-01-01

133

CITY/TOWN AREAS FOR ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Census place codes were dissolved & combined into state city or census Designated Place (CDP) areas. The total 1990 population was also calculated & attached to the Census place. Each state file may have multiple polygons and/or doughnut holes in an area for a city/CDP. A loca...

134

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G. P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C. J.

1997-01-01

135

Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area  

SciTech Connect

In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

1982-01-01

136

Restoration of One-Room School Facilities in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last 4 years, four one-room school houses have been restored for use as educational museum facilities. These include the Pleasant Valley School in Stillwater, Oklahoma; the Rose Hill School at Perry, Oklahoma; the old school located on the grounds of the Harn Homestead Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the Old Roll School, located…

McKinley, Kenneth H.

137

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation...plan are available at: (a) Oklahoma Conservation Commission, 2800 N. Lincoln Blvd., Suite 160, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (b) Office...

2010-07-01

138

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation...plan are available at: (a) Oklahoma Conservation Commission, 2800 N. Lincoln Blvd., Suite 160, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (b) Office...

2009-07-01

139

40 CFR 272.1851 - Oklahoma State-administered program: Final authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Statutes and Regulations. (1) The Oklahoma statutes and regulations cited...You may obtain copies of the Oklahoma regulations that are incorporated...of State, P.O. Box 53390, Oklahoma City, OK 73152-3390; Phone...

2010-07-01

140

New York City Metropolitan Area Retail Motor Gasoline Supply Report  

EIA Publications

Final report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) emergency survey, which was started on Friday, November 2, 2012, to monitor the vehicle fuel supply conditions in the New York City metropolitan area on a temporary basis after Hurricane Sandy.

2012-11-09

141

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section Oklahoma ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

142

Hydrologic data for selected streams in the coal area of southeastern Oklahoma, July 1978 to September 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic data on quantity and quality of surface waters were collected in the coal resource area of southeastern Oklahoma during an investigation of the effects of coal surface mining on the hydrology of the area. The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of the regional hydrologic system and to detect and document changes in the system that may occur as the result of coal surface mining. This report presents data which were collected at 13 sites in 4 counties between July 1978 and September 1982. The data include: (1) mean daily stream discharge; (2) physical properties, selected field constituents, and concentration of suspended sediment of water samples; (3) concentration of selected common constituents, nutrients, and trace elements of water samples; (4) mean daily specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen; and (5) analyses of biological samples.

Blumer, S. P.; Alf, L. A.

1987-01-01

143

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from the Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State statutes and regulations . (i) The provisions cited in this paragraph are incorporated by...

2013-07-01

144

Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Spring (NASM2002)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Spring of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

Shirah, Greg; Williams, James; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2002-09-24

145

Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Fall (NASM2002)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Fall of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

Shirah, Greg; Williams, James; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2002-09-24

146

Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Summer (NASM2002)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Summer of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

Shirah, Greg; Williams, James; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2002-09-24

147

View of the Salt Lake City, Utah area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An oblique view of the Salt Lake City, Utah area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. Approximately two-thirds of the Great Salt Lake is in view. The smaller body of water south of Salt Lake City is Utah Lake. The Wasatch Range is on the east side of the Great Salt Lake.

1973-01-01

148

Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses are presented for 47 sediment samples from the Tar Creek drainage in the Picher mining area of northeast Oklahoma. The samples were taken in December 1983, June 1984, and June 1985. All of the samples were taken downstream from mine-water discharge points of abandoned lead and zinc mines. The 34 samples taken in December 1983 and June 1984 were analyzed semiquantitatively by emission spectrography for 64 elements and quantitatively for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, zinc, and organic carbon. The 13 samples taken in June 1985 were analyzed quantitatively for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, lead, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zinc, and organic carbon.

Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn, Paul P., Jr.

1988-01-01

149

33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies...

2010-07-01

150

33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies...

2009-07-01

151

Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area  

PubMed Central

Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3?ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2?ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

2014-01-01

152

Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area.  

PubMed

Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3?ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2?ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

2014-01-01

153

Oklahoma Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published since the 1950s, Oklahoma Today is a production of several state agencies, and it is designed to showcase various cultural, historical, and social aspects of Oklahoma. Over the past several years, Oklahoma State University has digitized back issues of the magazine, and visitors can now read all the way back to the first issue from 1956. Visitors can browse back issues by decade, and they can also perform key-word searches. First-time visitors should start by reading through the spring 1960 issue, which contains pieces on rattlesnakes, Oklahoma wildflowers, and the Washington Irving Trail. While the name Washington Irving may not be commonly associated with Oklahoma, the author spent part of 1832 wandering through the state with a Native American guide. More recent issues feature profiles of singer Vince Gill and Route 66.

154

Records of ground-water levels and effects of pumping in the Ardmore well-field area, Carter County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to outline the results of work done by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Ardmore well-field area, near Newport, Carter County. The work, completed in two periods between April 1964 and June 1965, was done as part of the ground-water program carried out by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The study in the report area included: (1) a physical inventory of wells in the vicinity of the Ardmore well field (fig. 1); (2) information on depths, perforated intervals, ground-water levels, and water use (table 1); (3) records of water-level fluctuations in deep and shallow wells (table 2) to determine if there is a hydraulic connection between the deep zones tapped by Ardmore's wells and the shallow and intermediate zones tapped by domestic and stock wells in the surrounding area; and (4) general information on the geologic and hydrologic features that may be of use in evaluating the ground-water potential of the Wichita Formation, the principal aquifer in the area. (available as photostat copy only)

Wood, P. R.

1965-01-01

155

Salt Lake City Architectural/Historical Survey, Southwestern Survey Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Southwestern Architectural/Historical Survey covers the areas on the western and southern fringes of Salt Lake City which have not been a part of previous architectural/historical surveys. In addition to this report, another important product of the s...

1985-01-01

156

NEW YORK CITY WOODLANDS AND THE SPECIAL NATURAL AREA DISTRICTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

New York City woodlands have been studied for many years but until recently formal management was not undertaken. Current developments in planning and urban forestry have led to intensified woodland management and the establishment of Special Natural Area Districts. The new management techniques strive to preserve the diversity and integrity of woodlands in the private and public domain.

George V. Profous; Robert E. Loeb

1986-01-01

157

Census of Housing: 1970. Block Statistics. Oklahoma City, Okla. Urbanized Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reports present statistics from the 1970 Census, by blocks, on general characteristics of housing units and population. The statistical data concern occupancy, plumbing, structural, utilization, and financial characteristics of housing units. Most of ...

1971-01-01

158

Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area  

EPA Science Inventory

Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

159

76 FR 42723 - Land Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...known as ``OMDE Ponca City,'' into trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma on July 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER...trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma under the authority of...

2011-07-19

160

Investigation of nocturnal low-level jet-generated gravity waves over Oklahoma City during morning boundary layer transition period using Doppler wind lidar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level jet (LLJ)-generated gravity waves were observed over Oklahoma City by a scanning Doppler wind lidar during the transition periods of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from stable to convective conditions in the mornings after sunrise. The temperature profiles had a multilayer structure with a shallow neutral layer immediately above the ground and a stable cap layer above the neutral layer. The wind profiles exhibited a typical shape of a LLJ with nearly linear growth of wind speed with respect to height, and maximum wind speed occurred at the top of the stable cap layer. The average wavelength and its relation with mean wind and temperature profiles are characterized with data from Doppler wind lidar, radiosonde, and wind profiler. A linear stability analysis was performed to check the stratification conditions for wave occurrence. The wind signals from sonic anemometers near the ground were separated into waves and turbulence parts using a wavelet decomposition method, and the momentum fluxes due to the wave motions and turbulence were computed. The downward gravity wave momentum flux was 1.5 to 3.0 times of turbulent momentum flux. The analysis indicated that gravity wave momentum transport from the stable cap layer downward is one of the mechanisms of stable-to-convective transition in the LLJ-dominated ABL.

Wang, Yansen; Creegan, Edward; Felton, Melvin; Ligon, David; Huynh, Giap

2013-01-01

161

Development and Application to Oklahoma City of a New Mass, Energy, Vorticity, and Potential Enstrophy Conserving Scheme for 3D Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Flows with Complex Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a generalization of a mass, energy, vorticity, and potential enstrophy conserving numerical scheme for the 2D shallow water equations (SWEs) in domains with rigid boundaries (e.g. islands) to the governing equations for 3D nonhydrostatic atmospheric flows expressed in the altitude coordinate (as opposed to a terrain-following vertical coordinate). The scheme for the 2D SWEs consists of the scheme of Arakawa and Lamb (1981) (AL81) away from boundaries and the boundary scheme of Ketefian and Jacobson (2009) (KJ09) at boundaries. We generalize the combined AL81/KJ09 scheme to 3D atmospheric flows with rigid boundaries (e.g. hills and buildings) in such a way that, like the continuous equations governing these flows, the generalized 3D scheme conserves mass, energy, vorticity, and potential enstrophy in the special case of 2D barotropic flow. We perform 2D numerical simulations in a vertical plane to demonstrate the scheme's conservation properties. We also perform 3D simulations of flows in a domain with building-scale topography from Oklahoma City, and we use the velocity fields from these simulations to model the transport of an inert tracer around this topography. The generalized 3D scheme is useful because it conserves several important domain-summed quantities in atmospheric models that use the altitude coordinate, thereby avoiding the large errors in pressure-gradient calculations often found in models that use a terrain-following vertical coordinate.

Ketefian, G. S.; Jacobson, M. Z.

2010-12-01

162

Development of a Data Management System for Assistance in Conducting Area of Reviews (AORS) on Class II Injection Wells in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to provide the resources and capabilities necessary to permit the State of Oklahoma to conduct Area of Review (AOR) variance analysis on a statewide level. The project allows for the analysis and identification of areas which may qualify for AOR variances, the correlation of information from various databases and automated systems to conduct AORs in area which do not qualify for variances, the evaluation of the risk of pollution, during permitting and monitoring, using risk-based data analysis, and the ability to conduct spatial analysis of injection well data in conjunction with other geographically referenced information.

Battles, Michael S.

2002-06-17

163

Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Red Oak area, Latimer County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed rock in the Red Oak area consists of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the McAlester and Savanna Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Water in bedrock occurs in bedding planes, joints, and fractures and is confined. The potentiometric surface generally is less than 20 feet below the land surface. Wells yield enough water for domestic and stock use, but larger amounts of ground water are not available. Ground water commonly is a sodium or mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 321 to 714 milligrams per liter. Although variable in quality, ground water generally is suitable for domestic use. No relationship between water chemistry and well depth or location is apparent. Brazil Creek, the principal stream in the area, has no flow 15 percent of the time, and flow is less than 1 cubic foot per second about 25 percent of the time. Water in Brazil Creek is a mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Brazil Creek upstream from areas of old and recent mining ranged from 31 to 99 milligrams per liter with a mean of 58 milligrams per liter, whereas concentrations downstream from the mine areas ranged from 49 to 596 milligrams per liter with a mean of 132 milligrams per liter. Water in Brazil and Rock Creeks had concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury that exceeded maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at least once during the 1979-81 water years. Maximum suspended-sediment discharge, in tons per day, was 2,500 for Brazil Creek and 3,318 for Rock Creek. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) were the dominant sediment size. A significant hydrologic effect of surface mining is creation of additional water storage in mine ponds; one such pond supplies water for the town of Red Oak. Other effects or potential effects of surface mining include changes in rock permeability and ground-water storage, changes in drainage patterns, and changes in the chemical quality and sediment loads of streams.

Marcher, M. V.; Bergman, D. L.; Stoner, J. D.; Blumer, S. P.

1983-01-01

164

Hydrology and Water Quality near Bromide Pavilion in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bromide Pavilion in Chickasaw National Recreation Area drew many thousands of people annually to drink the mineral-rich waters piped from nearby Bromide and Medicine Springs. Periodic detection of fecal coliform bacteria in water piped to the pavilion from the springs, low yields of the springs, or flooding by adjacent Rock Creek prompted National Park Service officials to discontinue piping of the springs to the pavilion in the 1970s. Park officials would like to resume piping mineralized spring water to the pavilion to restore it as a visitor attraction, but they are concerned about the ability of the springs to provide sufficient quantities of potable water. Pumping and sampling of Bromide and Medicine Springs and Rock Creek six times during 2000 indicate that these springs may not provide sufficient water for Bromide Pavilion to supply large numbers of visitors. A potential problem with piping water from Medicine Spring is the presence of an undercut, overhanging cliff composed of conglomerate, which may collapse. Evidence of intermittent inundation of the springs by Rock Creek and seepage of surface water into the spring vaults from the adjoining creek pose a threat of contamination of the springs. Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcal bacteria were detected in some samples from the springs, indicating possible fecal contamination. Cysts of Giardia lamblia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum protozoa were not detected in the creek or the springs. Total culturable enteric viruses were detected in only one water sample taken from Rock Creek.

Andrews, William J.; Burrough, Steven P.

2002-01-01

165

Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than in more urbanized areas. Much of the water in the area is of good quality, though some parts of this area have water quality impaired by very hard surface water and groundwater; large chloride concentrations in some smaller streams; relatively large concentrations of nutrients and counts of fecal-indicator bacteria in the North Canadian River; and chloride, iron, manganese, and uranium concentrations that exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards in water samples collected from small numbers of wells. Substantial amounts of hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected in much of this area, but there are gaps in those data caused by relatively few streamflow-gaging stations, uneven distribution of surface-water quality sampling sites, lack of surface-water quality sampling at high-flow and low-flow conditions, and lack of a regularly measured and sampled groundwater network. This report summarizes existing water-use, climatic, geographic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and describes several means of filling gaps in hydrologic data for this area.

Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

166

33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas... § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

2013-07-01

167

Convective weather hazards in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the frequency and intensity of severe convective storms, and their associated hazards, in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minnesota. Using public severe weather reports databases and high spatial density rain gauge data, annual frequencies and return-periods are calculated for tornadoes, damaging winds, large hail, and flood-inducing rainfall. The hypothesis that severe thunderstorms and tornadoes are less likely in the central TCMA than in surrounding areas also is examined, and techniques for estimating 100-year rainfall amounts are developed and discussed. This research finds that: (i) storms capable of significant damage somewhere within the TCMA recur annually (sometimes multiple times per year), while storms virtually certain to cause such damage recur every 2-3 years; (ii) though severe weather reports data are not amenable to classical comparative statistical testing, careful treatment of them suggests all types and intensity categories of severe convective weather have been and should continue to be approximately as common in the central TCMA as in surrounding areas; and (iii) applications of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistics and areal analyses of rainfall data lead to significantly larger (25-50%) estimates of 100-year rainfall amounts in the TCMA and parts of Minnesota than those currently published and used for precipitation design. The growth of the TCMA, the popular sentiment that downtown areas somehow deter severe storms and tornadoes, and the prior underestimation of extreme rainfall thresholds for precipitation design, all act to enhance local susceptibility to hazards from severe convective storms.

Blumenfeld, Kenneth A.

168

Evidence for New Particle Formation in Isoprene Plumes Near Oklahoma City During the 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IPCC has recognized that a major uncertainty in climate prediction is associated with aerosols. Current climate models are highly dependent on information about the aerosol component of the atmosphere, and in particular, about the size, optical properties and composition of atmospheric aerosols, and how these properties evolve under conditions with various trace-gas precursors. One area of particular uncertainty involves modeling

M. L. Alexander; L. Berg; C. Berkowitz; M. Newburn; J. Hubbe; S. Springston; Y. Lee; G. Senum; E. Andrews; J. Ogren; J. Wang; J. Olfert

2008-01-01

169

Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14?) part of the spectrum

Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T. W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P. J.; Watson, R.D.

1970-01-01

170

Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly tuffaceous sandstone, shale, mudstone and sandstone. Thick alluvium is overlain on Palryeongsan tuff (Samjung Engineering Co., 1999; Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co., 2000; Kim and Lee, 1964). The alluvium is composed of sand, sandy gravel and weathered zone from the surface (Table 1, Fig. 3). The aquifer is sandy gravel layer (Samjung Engineering Co., 1999). The gravel layer is thicker near the wells of PW1, PW2, PW3, and PW4 (13.5-17.5m), whereas is thinner near the wells of PW5, PW6, and PW7 (6.3-10.5m). The pumping data obtained were analyzed to determine hydraulic parameters (transmissivity and storativity) using various models of pumping test analysis. The appropriate models for the study area were found from several models. The selected model for observation well is Theis model using corrected drawdown and the selected model for pumped well is Papadopulos-Cooper model using corrected drawdown. As a result, alluvial aquifer in the study area behaviors as confined aquifer rather than phreatic aquifer. Thus, infiltration amount from the river to the aquifer in the study area is lower than that from river to phreatic aquifer for the same water level change. And also storativity of the aquifer is represented by elastic storativity rather than specific yield. Transmissivity obtained by the models ranges from 4.54x10-4 to 1.79x10-1 m2/s with arithmetic mean 2.92x10-2 m2/s. Storativity ranges from 2.59x10-4-5.54x10-1 with arithmetic mean 6.36x10-2. Frequency distribution of hydraulic parameters was determined from statistical analyses. The distribution of transmissivity values does not follow normal distribution showing skewness 2.36 and kurtosis 5.085. Aquifer heterogeneity was found by hydraulic parameters and subsurface geology data in the study area. Furthermore, hydraulic parameters obtained at a well that serves as both pumping well and observation well were compared, and the correlation equation was determined to evaluate hydraulic parameters considering aquifer loss. Transmissivity values obtained by the two cases do not show distinct correlati

Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

2003-04-01

171

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2013-07-01

172

33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763... § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area is bounded by a line...

2013-07-01

173

Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China  

SciTech Connect

Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

Jian Chen (Inst. of Karst Geology, Guangxi (China))

1988-08-01

174

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of

C. Cranganu; D. Deming

1996-01-01

175

Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in dominant processes and solute pathways.

van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

2014-05-01

176

Oklahoma Healthy Homes Initiative  

PubMed Central

Compelling scientific evidence suggests that a strong association exists between housing-related hazards and the health and safety of their residents. Health, safety, and environmental hazards (such as asthma and allergy triggers), unintentional injury hazards, lead-based paint hazards, and poor indoor air quality are interrelated with substandard housing conditions. This article describes a Healthy Homes initiative to address these hazards in a coordinated fashion in the home, rather than taking a categorical approach, even in the presence of multiple hazards. It also provides an overview of Oklahoma's Healthy Homes initiative and its pilot project, the Tulsa Safe and Healthy Housing Project, which is currently administered in Tulsa in collaboration with Children First, Oklahoma's Nurse-Family Partnership program. This pilot project seeks to open new areas of research that can lead to a greater understanding of environmental health issues related to substandard housing in the United States, which will eventually make homes safer and healthier.

Khan, Fahad

2011-01-01

177

Statistics of Oklahoma's petroleum industry, 1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory wells were drilled in all but 9 counties of Oklahoma during 1966. The concentration of discoveries, extensions, outposts, and new pay horizons was in NW. Oklahoma in Beaver, Ellis, Roger Mills, Woods, and Woodward Counties. This area had a 40% success ratio, whereas the state-wide success ratio was 28% for exploratory wells. Tonkawa completions were the most numerous, followed

1967-01-01

178

Insights into Oklahoma's Increased Seismicity Aided by Incorporation of the Transportable Array in Regional Earthquake Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity rates within Oklahoma increased more than an order of magnitude since 2009 roughly concurrent with the arrival of the Earthscope US Array Transportable Array (TA). It can be demonstrated the increased seismicity is not because of increased monitoring capability, but rather a marked increase in earthquake occurrence rates. This unique confluence of additional monitoring and additional seismicity has lead to new insights about the continuing earthquakes within Oklahoma. The additional seismic stations improved event detection within the region but also dramatically improved accuracy in earthquake locations and enabled the determination of 154 first-motion and moment tensor focal mechanisms throughout Oklahoma. Prior to the passage of the TA few if any focal mechanisms had been determined for earthquakes occurring within Oklahoma. These focal mechanisms show primarily strike-slip faulting on steeply dipping faults with strikes between 40-60° and 130-150°. Focal mechanisms associated with the Jones earthquake swarm, occurring just east of Oklahoma City, have clearly different orientations from those outside of the swarm area. The Jones earthquake swarm has a b-value of 1.3 while the remaining portions of Oklahoma continue to have a b-value near 1, even with the increased seismicity rates. The Jones earthquake swarm continues to average nearly 2 earthquakes each day with characteristics that clearly separate it from the rest of the observed earthquakes in Oklahoma. The additional seismic monitoring that the TA provided also helped to identify and more accurately quantify cases of possibly triggered seismicity throughout Oklahoma. The wells identified in possible cases of triggered seismicity represent a small fraction of all oil and gas activities within Oklahoma, but understanding these cases may help to mitigate such occurrences in the future. Accurately identifying cases of triggered seismicity helps to quantify the potential earthquake hazard induced seismicity may pose both in Oklahoma and throughout the country. The effect on the earthquake hazard for Oklahoma is demonstrated by comparing different probabilistic seismic hazard assessments based on the different observed seismicity rates.

Holland, A. A.

2012-12-01

179

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

2008-01-01

180

75 FR 12731 - Foreign-Trade Zone 204-Tri-Cities Area, Tennessee/Virginia; Application for Expansion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...consists of the following sites in the Tri-Cities Area of Tennessee and...1 (977 acres)--within the Tri-Cities Regional Airport complex, Blountville (Sullivan County...Business Park, adjacent to the Tri-Cities Regional Airport,...

2010-03-17

181

76 FR 70940 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Infrastructure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Central Oklahoma Early Action Compact (EAC) Area \\38\\ incorporated a Memorandum of Agreement...pollution control measures for the Central Oklahoma EAC area. The Attainment Demonstration for the Tulsa EAC Area \\39\\ incorporated a MOA between the...

2011-11-16

182

Feasibility Assessment for Implementing a Geologic Solution for Arsenic Mitigation in Small Public Water Systems in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003 the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC), in collaboration with the Association of Central Oklahoma Governments (ACOG), and the cities of Edmond, Nichols Hills and Piedmont, Oklahoma completed a project to investigate the geological and geochemi...

2009-01-01

183

Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 147 micrograms per liter. Both samples had alkaline pH values, 8.0 and 8.4, respectively. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 383 micrograms per liter with 5 of 20 samples exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter; the five wells with uranium concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and gross alpha-particle activity showed a positive relation to pH, with the highest concentrations and activity in samples having pH values of 8.0 or above. The groundwater samples contained dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of bicarbonate; these characteristics are also factors in increasing uranium solubility. Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 (combined) ranged from 0.03 to 1.7 picocuries per liter, with a median concentration of 0.45 picocuries per liter for all samples. Radon-222 concentrations ranged from 95 to 3,600 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 261 picocuries per liter. Eight samples having pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.7 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter for radon-222. Eight samples exceeded the 15 picocuries per liter Maximum Contaminant Level for gross alpha-particle activity at 72 hours (after sample collection) and at 30 days (after the initial count); those samples had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Gross beta-particle activity increased in 15 of 21 samples during the interval from 72 hours to 30 days. The increase in gross beta-particle activity over time probably was caused by the ingrowth and decay of uranium daughter products that emit beta particles. Water-quality data collected for this study indicate that pH values above 8.0 are associated with potentially high concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and high gross alpha-particle activity in the study area. High pH values also are associated with potentially high concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in groundwater when these elements oc

Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

184

Texas-Oklahoma  

... Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered and grassy plains, rolling hills, and prairies, the Red River and the Canadian River are ... formats available at JPL March 12, 2000 - Plains, rivers, and smoke plumes along the Texas-Oklahoma border. ...

2013-04-19

185

Development of a data management system for assistance in conducting Area of Reviews (AORs) on Class II injection wells in Oklahoma. Quarterly report, July--September, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Project objectives are to provide the resources and capabilities to permit the State of Oklahoma to conduct Area of Review (AOR) variance analysis on a statewide level including: (1) the analysis and identification of areas which may qualify for AOR variances; (2) the correlation of information from various databases and automation systems to conduct AORs in areas that do not qualify for variances; (3) the evaluation of the risk of pollution, during permitting and monitoring, using risk based data analysis; and (4) the ability to conduct spatial analysis of injection well data in conjunction with other geographically referenced information. The division successfully converted its mainframe computer surety system to the new client server network and implemented it on September 29, 1995. The division currently lacks sufficient storage space to bring the existing oil and gas spatially referenced data systems in-house and fully integrate the systems for use in the determination of AORs or AOR variances. The second installment of the awarded grant allows for the purchase of the developmental server that will provide the minimum computer storage space to convert the remainder of the mainframe computer systems.

Schmidt, M.W.

1995-10-25

186

Evaluation of Sources of Odor Pollution in an Area of Kansas City, Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an evaluation of potential odor sources in an area of Kansas City, Missouri. The evaluation was accomplished by collecting background and source samples to obtain a 'fingerprint' for each potential odor source. The source 'fingerprint...

1974-01-01

187

20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

2009-04-01

188

20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

2010-04-01

189

Digital atlas of Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This compact disc contains 25 digital map data sets covering the State of Oklahoma that may be of interest to the general public, private industry, schools, and government agencies. Fourteen data sets are statewide. These data sets include: administrative boundaries; 104th U.S. Congressional district boundaries; county boundaries; latitudinal lines; longitudinal lines; geographic names; indexes of U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000, and 1:250,000-scale topographic quadrangles; a shaded-relief image; Oklahoma State House of Representatives district boundaries; Oklahoma State Senate district boundaries; locations of U.S. Geological Survey stream gages; watershed boundaries and hydrologic cataloging unit numbers; and locations of weather stations. Eleven data sets are divided by county and are located in 77 county subdirectories. These data sets include: census block group boundaries with selected demographic data; city and major highways text; geographic names; land surface elevation contours; elevation points; an index of U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles; roads, streets and address ranges; highway text; school district boundaries; streams, river and lakes; and the public land survey system. All data sets are provided in a readily accessible format. Most data sets are provided in Digital Line Graph (DLG) format. The attributes for many of the DLG files are stored in related dBASE(R)-format files and may be joined to the data set polygon attribute or arc attribute tables using dBASE(R)-compatible software. (Any use of trade names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.) Point attribute tables are provided in dBASE(R) format only, and include the X and Y map coordinates of each point. Annotation (text plotted in map coordinates) are provided in AutoCAD Drawing Exchange format (DXF) files. The shaded-relief image is provided in TIFF format. All data sets except the shaded-relief image also are provided in ARC/INFO export-file format.

Rea, A. H.; Becker, C. J.

1997-01-01

190

The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK.We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score.

191

CITIZEN-SCIENCE MONITORING OF LANDBIRDS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TWIN CITIES IMPORTANT BIRD AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urbanization alters undeveloped landscapes, conservation of remnant native habitats is increasingly important. Citizen science has emerged as a powerful tool in monitoring these devel- oped areas. The Mississippi River Twin Cities Important Bird Area (IBA) covers nearly 14 751 ha of bird habitat along the Mississippi River between Minneapolis and Hastings. While we know this area's value to waterbirds,

TANIA Z. HOMAYOUN; ROBERT B. BLAIR

192

Improving the Living Environment of Khulna City Slum Areas, Bangladesh: Impact of Basic Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population growth in urban areas of Bangladesh ,including Khulna the third largest city, caused by a heavy influx of migrants from rural areas, has led to mushrooming of slums and squatters in urban areas without any basic service facilities. As a part of urban poverty reduction and to improve the living environment of the urban poor basic services have

Bushra Shamsad; Sadah Shamsad

193

Simpson-Arbuckle contact revisited in Northwest Oklahoma County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Joins Formation, the lowermost formation of the Simpson Group, is traditionally the least studied or understood of the Simpson formations. The Joins, not known to produce hydrocarbons in central Oklahoma, is frequently overlooked by those more interested in the productive Simpson formations above and the Arbuckle carbonates below. In a study of the lower Simpson to upper Arbuckle interval in northwestern Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, the Joins Formation was found to be present. The central Oklahoma section consists of interbedded gray, olive gray and green splintery moderately waxy shale, cream to light gray homogeneous microcrystallin dolomite, and microcrystalline to fine crystalline fossiliferous slightly glauconitic well cemented sandstones are also noted. The entire Joins Formation is moderately to very fossiliferous; primarily consisting of crinoids, ostracods, brachiopods, and trilobites. The ostracod fauna closely resembles and correlates with the Arbuckle Mountain section, which has been extensively studied over the years by such authors as Taff, Ulrich and Harris. Beneath the Joins in this area is a normal section of Arbuckle dolomites. Due to the absence of a basal sand in the Joins the separation of the Joins and Arbuckle, utilizing electric logs only, is frequently tenuous. In comparison with the Arbuckle, the Joins tends to have higher gamma ray and S.P. values. Other tools, such as resistivity, bulk density and photoelectric (PE), are frequently inconclusive. For geologists studying the Simpson-Arbuckle contact in central Oklahoma, the presence or absence of the Joins Formation is best determined through conventional lithologic and palenontologic sample identification techniques. Once this has been done, correlation of electric logs with this type log is possible for the local area.

Allison, M.D.; Allen, R.W. [Kabodi Inc., Ardmore, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

194

Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants.

2014-01-01

195

Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO\\/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial

E. C. Apel; L. K. Emmons; T. Karl; F. Flocke; A. J. Hills; S. Madronich; J. Lee-Taylor; A. Fried; P. Weibring; J. Walega; D. Richter; X. Tie; L. Mauldin; T. Campos; B. Sive; L. Kleinman; S. Springston; R. Zaveri; J. Ortega; P. Voss; D. Blake; A. Baker; C. Warneke; D. Welsh-Bon; J. de Gouw; J. Zheng; R. Zhang; J. Rudolph; W. Junkermann; D. D. Riemer

2009-01-01

196

Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO\\/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial

Eric Apel; L. K. Emmons; Thomas G. Karl; Frank M. Flocke; A. J. Hills; Sasha Madronich; J. Lee-Taylor; A. Fried; P. Weibring; J. Walega; Dirk Richter; X. Tie; L. Mauldin; Teresa Campos; Andrew J. Weinheimer; David Knapp; B. Sive; Lawrence I. Kleinman; S. Springston; Rahul A. Zaveri; John V. Ortega; Paul B. Voss; D. R. Blake; Angela K. Baker; Carsten Warneke; Daniel Welsh-Bon; Joost A. de Gouw; J. Zheng; Renyi Zhang; Jochen Rudolph; W. Junkermann; D. D. Riemer

2010-01-01

197

Profiling a City: Information Resources on Chicago's 77 Community Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the 77 community areas of Chicago, and provides information resources available for compiling community profiles. Discusses uses of a community profile and issues in creating one. Highlights include maps, historical information, census figures, planning and development statistics, and aerial photographs. Appendices provide a list of…

Kelly, Maurie Caitlin

1996-01-01

198

Pride in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

199

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 [sup 0]C/km (average 31.2 [sup 0]C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

1996-01-01

200

URBAN AIR TRANSECT STUDY TO INVESTIGATE URBAN AREAS AS SOURCES OF PCDDS AND PCDFS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An urban air transect study was undertaken in Oklahoma City, OK, to investigate whether urban areas represent sources of dioxin-like compounds to the rural environment. This study proposed the hypothesis that the collective human activities characteristic of cities cause urban a...

201

Ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Enid, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum summaries matter discussed at a meeting of the City Commission of Enid, Oklahoma, on Thursday, January 15, 1948, at which the write presented a brief analysis of the ground-water resources available to the City of Enid and answered questions brought up by the commissioners.

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

202

Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996-2007  

PubMed Central

Background While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996–99, 2000–2003 and 2004–2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). Methods All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson’s Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Results Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Conclusions Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system, associated with areas of greater deprivation. Action must be taken in these areas of greater inequality in order to reduce the health inequalities detected. The causes behind socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality must be studied in depth.

2014-01-01

203

Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa an...

2009-01-01

204

Geometry of thrusting in the Wilburton gas field and surrounding areas, Arkoma Basin, Oklahoma: Implications for gas exploration in the Spiro Sandstone reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature located in southern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. It is recognized as a foreland basin of the Ouachita fold and thrust belt and is one of the most prolific gas producing basins in North America. The Choctaw fault is the leading-edge thrust of the Ouachita frontal belt. The Wilburton gas field is located

C. Ibrahim; A. S. Zuhair; H. Forrest

1995-01-01

205

Barriers to the enterprise culture: new firm formation in the merchant city area of glasgow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the study of a group of twenty?two new firm founders in the retail sector, in the Merchant City, an historic part of inner Glasgow that has recently undergone a miraculous revitalisation in a vein similar to that of the Docklands areas of London and Liverpool. The principal aim is to indicate how far the long term unemployed

Maryanne Heafey

1989-01-01

206

78 FR 67333 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Application for Reorganization Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Board [B-93-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 15--Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Application...Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 15, requesting authority to reorganize the...framework (ASF) adopted by the FTZ Board (15 CFR 400.2(c)). The ASF is an...

2013-11-12

207

Photochemical air pollution: transport from the New York City area into Connecticut and Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical air pollution resulting from primary emissions in the New York City metropolitan area is transported by prevailing winds on a 300-kilometer northeast trajectory through Connecticut and as far as northeastern Massachusetts. As a result, southwestern Connecticut has the highest ozone concentrations in the region and there is a substantial increase in ozone concentrations in Massachusetts. The ozone concentrations of

W. S. Cleveland; B. Kleiner; J. E. McRae; J. L. Warner

1976-01-01

208

SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USCG SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The chrome source area is located beneath an old electroplating shop at the United States Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC . This electroplating shop was in use for approximately 30 years until 1984 and was the source of discharges of chromic and sulfuric...

209

SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USCG SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC: SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-ADA-02113 Paul*, C.J., Khan*, F.A., and Puls*, R.W. Site Characterization of a Chromium Source Area at the USCG Support Center, Elizabeth City, NC. 2002 Intl. Ground Water Symposium, IAHR, & IAHS, ASCE, and AGU., Berkeley, CA, 03/01/2002. 2002, 364-367. 12/16/2001 The...

210

A Temporal Comparison of Drought Impacts and Responses in the New York City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate impact analyses seldom examine temporal changes in the impacts and responses associated with climate anomalies. Newspaper reports, quantitative agricultural and water resource data and a survey of drought sensitive segments of society are used to compare the impacts and responses of a 1995 drought in the New York City metropolitan area to those experienced during five previous droughts. Impacts

Arthur T. DeGaetano

1999-01-01

211

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban topsoils from the metropolitan area of Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the degree of heavy metal pollution (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and V) in 135 urban topsoil samples from the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Pollution indices (PI) were calculated to identify the metal accumulation with respect to the background values. The levels of heavy metals in the analyzed samples show a wide range of variation. Lead,

O. Morton-Bermea; E. Hernández-Álvarez; G. González-Hernández; F. Romero; R. Lozano; L. E. Beramendi-Orosco

2009-01-01

212

Moving around the city: discourses on walking and cycling in English urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There remains only limited understanding of perceptions of travel behaviour in relation to short journeys in urban areas and, in particular, the perceived role that walking and cycling for personal travel can realistically play in contemporary society. This paper reveals discourses surrounding the practice, performance, identity, conflicts, and visions relating to walking and cycling in English cities. These were derived

Tim Jones; Colin G Pooley; Griet Scheldeman; Dave Horton; Miles Tight; Caroline Mullen; Ann Jopson; Anthony Whiteing

2012-01-01

213

Evaluation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 2010-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflows, springs, and wetlands are important natural and cultural resources to the Caddo Nation. Consequently, the Caddo Nation is concerned about the vulnerability of the Rush Springs aquifer to overdrafting and whether the aquifer will continue to be a viable source of water to tribal members and other local residents in the future. Interest in the long-term viability of local water resources has resulted in ongoing development of a comprehensive water plan by the Caddo Nation. As part of a multiyear project with the Caddo Nation to provide information and tools to better manage and protect water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. The Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is located in southwestern Oklahoma, primarily in Caddo County. Underlying the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is the Permian-age Rush Springs aquifer. Water from the Rush Springs aquifer is used for irrigation, public, livestock and aquaculture, and other supply purposes. Groundwater from the Rush Springs aquifer also is withdrawn by domestic (self-supplied) wells, although domestic use was not included in the water-use summary in this report. Perennial streamflow in many streams and creeks overlying the Rush Springs aquifer, such as Cobb Creek, Lake Creek, and Willow Creek, originates from springs and seeps discharging from the aquifer. This report provides information on the evaluation of groundwater and surface-water resources in the Caddo Nation Jurisdictional Area, and in particular, information that describes the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. This report also includes data and analyses of base flow, evidence for groundwater and surface-water interactions, locations of springs and wetland areas, groundwater flows interpreted from potentiometric-surface maps, and hydrographs of water levels monitored in the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area from 2010 to 2013. Flow in streams overlying the Rush Springs aquifer, on average, were composed of 50 percent base flow in most years. Monthly mean base flow appeared to maintain streamflows throughout each year, but periods of zero flow were documented in daily hydrographs at each measured site, typically in the summer months. A pneumatic slug-test technique was used at 15 sites to determine the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of streambed sediments in streams overlying the Rush Springs aquifer. Converting horizontal hydraulic conductivities (Kh) from the slug-test analyses to vertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) by using a ratio of Kv/Kh = 0.1 resulted in estimates of vertical streambed hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 8.6 feet per day. Data obtained from a hydraulic potentiomanometer in streambed sediments and streams in August 2012 indicate that water flow was from the streambed sediments to the stream (gaining) at 6 of 15 sites, and that water flow was from the stream to the streambed sediments (losing) at 9 of 15 sites. The groundwater and surface-water interaction data collected at the Cobb Creek near Eakly, Okla., streamflow gaging station (07325800), indicate that the bedrock groundwater, alluvial groundwater, and surface-water resources are closely connected. Because of this hydrologic connection, large perennial streams in the study area may change from gaining to losing streams in the summer. The timing and severity of this change from a gaining to a losing condition probably is affected by the local or regional withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation in the summer growing season. Wells placed closer to streams have a greater and more immediate effect on alluvial groundwater levels and stream stages than wells placed farther from streams. Large-capacity irrigation wells, even those completed hundreds of feet below land surface in the bedrock aquifer, can induce surface-water flow from nearby streams by lowering alluvial groundwater levels below the stream altitude. Twenty-five ne

Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

2014-01-01

214

Martin Van Buren Elementary School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the title building, including educational context and design goals. Includes a general description; information on the architect, construction team, and manufacturers and suppliers; and a case study of costs and specifications. (EV)

Design Cost Data, 2003

2003-01-01

215

Construction of a Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project contemplates the construction of a Federal building, to provide space for multi-agency use on a site to be acquired. The facility will include approximately 441,000 gross square feet, 331,000 net square feet, 142,800 square feet will be used a...

1973-01-01

216

Washita Basin Project, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Located adjacent to Americas arid west/humid east division line known as the 100th meridian, western Oklahomas rolling uplands are susceptible to unpredictable weather cycles. Erratic best describes seasonal and annual rainfall patterns, with periods of p...

J. M. Bailey

2008-01-01

217

75 FR 68755 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Oklahoma Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Oklahoma Advisory Committee Notice is hereby given...FACA), that a planning meeting of the Oklahoma Advisory Committee to the Commission will...400 State Avenue, Suite 908, Kansas City, Kansas 66101. Comments may be...

2010-11-09

218

[Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].  

PubMed

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution. PMID:23233965

Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

2012-10-01

219

Occurrence of THMs and HAAs in experimental chlorinated waters of the Quebec City area (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) were generated in bench-scale chlorination experiments using treated waters (prior to final chlorination) of the three major drinking water utilities of the Quebec City area. The purpose was to investigate the formation and occurrence of these chlorination by-products (CBPs) on a seasonal basis. Data for HAAs, THMs and other physico-chemical parameters were produced through

Jean-B Sérodes; Manuel J Rodriguez; Hanmei Li; Christian Bouchard

2003-01-01

220

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

221

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

222

The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to improve people's living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built squatter settlements. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia area before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extractions of the thermal-related information of the area, such as the land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between ISA and LST suggested a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), the digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the investigated area from 1986 to 2006. The results showed that after the launch of the reconstruction project of this squatter settlement-dominated area, the UHI effect in the area had been greatly mitigated in the past 20 years, since the URI value had been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006. This owes greatly to the significant decrease in high-density ISAs and the notable increase in vegetation covers. The reconstruction is of benefit to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia area.

Tang, Fei; Xu, Hanqiu

2010-09-01

223

Career Education: A Model for Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet for implementing career education is one of the products of the career education project at Sand Springs Public Schools, Oklahoma. Areas of concern are: selection of staff, orienting the community, planning inservice training, developing goals and objectives, organizing an advisory council, establishing a placement function, using…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

224

Eco-service enhancement in peri-urban area of coal mining city of Huaibei in East China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 50 years of coal mining, Huaibei Mine, located at 50km southeast of Xuzhou City in East China, has grown to a middle-size city of 600,000 people from a small village of 2000 farmers. The Zhahe Valley, with 400km2 of a built-up area and more than 100km2 of subsided peri-urban wetland at the city center, is surrounded by eight exhausted

Rusong Wang; Feng Li; Wenrui Yang; Xiaofei Zhang

2009-01-01

225

40 CFR 272.1851 - Oklahoma State-administered program: Final authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administrative Rules, Secretary of State, P.O. Box 53390, Oklahoma City, OK 73152-3390; Phone number: 405-521-4911; Web site: www.sos.state.ok.us/oar/oar_welcome.htm. The statutes are available from West...

2013-07-01

226

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lawton Quadrangle, Oklahoma and Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium resources of the Lawton Quadrangle, Oklahoma and Texas, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m using National Uranium Resource Evaluation critieria. Five areas of uranium favorability were delineated. Diagenetically altered, quartzose and sublithic, ...

Z. Al-Shaieb R. G. Thomas G. F. Stewart

1982-01-01

227

75 FR 15450 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The following areas of the State of Oklahoma have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Alfalfa, Caddo, Cleveland, Comanche, Cotton, Delaware, Dewey, Ellis, Grady, Greer, Harmon, Haskell, Hughes, Jackson, Kiowa,...

2010-03-29

228

An economic assessment of the application of superconductor technology to magnetic-levitation trains in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific objectives were to: (1) develop and refine a methodology that can be used to evaluate the feasibility of MAG-LEV trains; (2) apply this methodology to the state of Oklahoma. The methodology is based on an aggregate econometric demand model and mathematical programming. A city-pair network is constructed to evaluate alternative MAG-LEV routes between Oklahoma City and nine other cites

Sabbagh Kermani

1991-01-01

229

Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil--currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation--is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved. PMID:21590670

Santana, Karine de Souza O; Bavia, Maria Emília; Lima, Artur Dias; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina S; Soares, Enio Silva; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Mendonça, Jorge; Martin, Moara de Santana

2011-05-01

230

An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas  

SciTech Connect

As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of the City of North Las Vegas along with the gross-count-based exposure rate and man-made count contour maps and GIS shape files in electronic format on a compact disk.

Piotr Wasiolek

2008-06-01

231

Flow-System Analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota: Conceptual Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual model of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area synthesizes the physical geography, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow components of these important aquifers. The Madison hydrogeologic unit includes the karstic M...

A. J. Long L. D. Putnam

2002-01-01

232

Economic Impact of Interstate Highway 35 on Tonkawa, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report shows economic data gathered and analyzed, covering a 48 month period, involving the effects of the opening of Interstate 35 on Tonkawa, Oklahoma and compares these data with the control city of Woodward and the control county of Woodw...

1968-01-01

233

33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted...761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted...Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies...

2009-07-01

234

33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted...761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted...Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies...

2010-07-01

235

Ground-water-use trends in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1880-1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed ground-water-use information from 1880 to 1980 has been collected and analyzed for the Twin Cities metropolitan area. Interpretation of historic water-use data was required to help water-resource planners and managers assess future trends in water use. Methods were developed to collect, evaluate, store, and retrieve information from all local, State, and Federal agencies ' records and publications. A computerized water-use data base was constructed to facilitate generation of statistics on water-use trends and to store and retrieve data. Ground-water use was analyzed by use category and aquifer and several trends were observed. Eighty percent of ground water currently withdrawn is from wells in the Prairie due Chien-Jordan aquifer. Ground-water use increased from 1880 until the early 1970 's and then declined slightly in the late 1970's. Industrial use in particular declined during the 1970 's as a result of conservation that was prompted by increased sewage-treatment and energy costs. The intensity of pumping had decreased within the St. Paul and Minneapolis city limits and increased outside the city limits. The seasonal variability of ground-water use became more pronounced as the percentage of water used for irrigation and air conditioning increased. (USGS)

Horn, M. A.

1983-01-01

236

Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

2004-12-01

237

Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between ?18O and ?D, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (?D=8.2?18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of the Red river. Groundwater samples were also distributed along the LEL and there was no seasonal change. Thus, groundwater in these communities was mainly recharged by mixing of precipitation/the Red River and evaporated water bodies. Considering the land use in these communities, evaporated water bodies were considered to be not only ponds but also paddy fields. As for solute transport, concentration of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45?m) of the pond water (3 - 10 ?g/L) was slightly higher than the Red River (~ 3 ?g/L) and was much lower than that of groundwater (~ 60 ?g/L). On the other hand, concentration of dissolved Arsenic in the pore water of sediments (10 - 85 ?g/L) was close to groundwater. Also, other metal elements showed the same trend. Therefore, Arsenic and other metal elements recharged to these ponds were considered to be adsorbed by sediments (including organic matters). That is, pond sediments played an important role as a filter of metal elements. The results of this study strongly suggested that the surface water areas such as ponds and paddy fields are one of main groundwater sources. Also, ponds play important role for solute transport of metal elements. Therefore, management of these surface water areas is important to conserve groundwater environment.

Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

2012-12-01

238

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of Oklahoma nonfuel mineral production was nearly $252.6 million in 1992, a decrease of $22.9 million from that reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by State mineral producers in 1991. The value of the top three commodities produced, crushed sto...

J. E. Zelten R. H. Arndt

1994-01-01

239

Oklahoma's Quest for Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The passage of Bill 1706 by the Oklahoma State Legislature is a major step toward building professional schools of education and a true profession. Through the specifications of this law, the total process is to be strengthened, since changes in teacher education are severely limited if done in a piecemeal fashion. There are five major points…

Wisniewski, Richard

240

Fuel-based motor vehicle emission inventory for the metropolitan area of Mexico city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level and nature of air pollution varies substantially from city to city. Hence, the first requirement is the creation of an adequate knowledge base on local air quality on which to develop an air quality policy. Because the availability of data used in traditional on-road mobile source estimation methodologies is limited in Mexico, an alternative methodology was implemented to estimate motor vehicle emissions. In the year 2000, on-road gasoline powered vehicle emissions in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), were characterized using fuel sales as a measure of vehicle activity, and exhaust emissions factors from remote sensing measurements. In a similar way, remote sensing data obtained by researchers of the University of Denver back in 1991 and 1994 were used to estimate a fuel-based emission inventory for those years. Average emissions factors were estimated in 113.5±13, 13.1±1.9 and 9.84±2.3 g l -1 for CO, hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x), respectively, based on remote sensing measurements of 42,800 vehicles. For year 2000 light and medium gasoline vehicles exhaust emissions contributed with 2065, 238, and 179 metric ton day-1 of CO, HC and NO x, respectively. The inventory is 48% and 26% lower in CO and NO x, respectively, than official inventory estimates for the year 1998 using travel-based models. Calculated CO reduction from 1991 to 1994 is approximately 46% while the atmospheric CO measurements, as indicator of mobile activity, in the same period decrease 51%. For the period 1994-2000 the reductions were 36% and 31%, respectively. The calculations indicate a continually decreasing inventory over the study period, and represents and ideal alternative for locations such as Mexican cities lacking the resources to develop an emissions model.

Schifter, I.; Díaz, L.; Múgica, V.; López-Salinas, E.

241

Acoustic background and transport noise in urbanised areas: A note on the relative classification of the city soundscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the interaction between background noise and transport noise in urban space. A new classification of city soundscape is proposed. This relative classification is based on two principal sources of noise in urbanised areas: background and transport noise. Five types of urban soundscape are proposed: from very quiet area to very loud area.

Barbara Lebiedowska

2005-01-01

242

DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

Pontes, Zelia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araujo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

2013-01-01

243

33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are applicable to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area, Oklahoma and Texas. (c) Tenkiller...

2013-07-01

244

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty new heat flow values are incorporated, along with 40 previously published data, into a heat flow map of Oklahoma. The new heat flow data were estimated using previous temperature measurements in boreholes made by American Petroleum Institute researchers and 1,498 thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings. The mean of 20 average thermal gradients is 30.50sp°C/km. In general, thermal gradients increase from SW (14.11sp°C/km) to NE (42.24sp°C/km). The range of 1,498 in situ thermal conductivity measurements (after corrections for anisotropy, in situ temperature, and porosity) is 0.90-6.1 W/m-K; the average is 1.68 W/m-K. Estimated near-surface heat flow (±20%) at 20 new sites in Oklahoma varies between 22 ± 4 mW/msp2 and 86 ± 17 mW/msp2; the average is 50 mW/msp2. Twenty-seven new heat-generation estimates, along with 22 previously published data, are used to create a heat generation map of Oklahoma. The range of heat production estimates is 1.1-3.5 muW/msp3, with an average of 2.5 muW/msp3. The heat flow regime in Oklahoma is primarily conductive in nature, except for a zone in northeast. Transient effects due to sedimentary processes and metamorphic/igneous activity, as well as past climatic changes, do not significantly influence the thermal state of the Oklahoma crust. Heat flow near the margins of the Arkoma and Anadarko Basins may be depressed or elevated by 5-13 mW/msp2 by refraction of heat from sedimentary rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity (1-2 W/m-K) into crystalline basement rocks of relatively high thermal conductivity (˜3-4 W/m-K). The heat generation-heat flow relationship shows a modest correlation. The relatively high heat flow (˜70-80 mW/msp2) in part of northeastern Oklahoma suggests that the thermal regime there may be perturbed by regional groundwater flow originating in the fractured outcrops of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Arbuckle Mountains.

Cranganu, Constantin

245

Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in an urban area of Beijing city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in an urban area of Beijing city Huizhi Liu and Jianwu Feng LAPC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 Abstract Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance (EC) system were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in an urban environment of Beijing city. The EC measurements were made at the height of 47 m above the canopy on a 325 m tower. Stationarity test and cospectral analyses of the turbulence measurements met the requirement of EC assumptions. Analyses of the data revealed a clear annual cycle of CO2 fluxes with the maximum in the winter and the minimum in the summer. The positive fluxes of CO2 demonstrated that the urban surface was consistently a net source of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The mean daily CO2 fluxes were 0.48 ± 0.17 mg m-2 s-1 and 0.78 ± 0.28 mg m-2 s-1 (mean ± std) in the summer and the winter respectively, indicating that vehicle emissions and residential heating both contributed to the higher magnitude of CO2 fluxes in winter time. Diurnal pattern of CO2 fluxes were largely associated with traffic volumn. Two distinct peaks were observed in the morning and evening traffic peak hours, with the winter morning peak averaging up to 1.3 mg m-2 s-1. Minimum CO2 fluxes usually occurred before sunrise. The two peaks of CO2 fluxes in the weekend were a little lower than in the weekday all the year around. In summer time, the two peaks occurred about 2 hour later in the weekend compared to the weekday, but this phenomenon was not obvious in the winter. Restricted driving and other related measures to reduce CO2 emission during the time of Olympic Games (July 20 to September 20, 2008) had significant impact on the magnitude of CO2 fluxes, resulting in a mean daily value of 0.39 ± 0.13 mg m-2 s-1 (mean ± std). This research in Beijing city aims at furthering the understanding of the level and dynamics of CO2 fluxes in mega cities in China. Keywords: Carbon dioxide fluxes, eddy covariance, urban area, Beijing

Liu, H.; Feng, J.

2009-12-01

246

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

247

Oklahoma Digital Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A team of talented librarians at the Oklahoma State University Library have created this collection of 3,600 maps, a true find for those with an interest in Sooner history, geography, culture, and more. The cartographic resources are divided into four collections, including the WPA Collection and the USGS Collection. This first collection consists of almost 2,400 detailed county maps produced in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration and the Oklahoma Tax Commission to determine real estate values. Moving on, the USGS Collection is made up of 300 detailed maps generated from 1892 to the 1950s documenting topographical conditions throughout the state. Interested parties can view all of the maps here via a nice digital image tool and are also welcome to search across the entire collection by keyword.

248

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty new heat flow values are incorporated, along with 40 previously published data, into a heat flow map of Oklahoma. The new heat flow data were estimated using previous temperature measurements in boreholes made by American Petroleum Institute researchers and 1,498 thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings. The mean of 20 average thermal gradients is 30.50sp°C\\/km. In general, thermal gradients

Constantin Cranganu

1997-01-01

249

Characterization and Atmospheric Processing of Soot Aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition, particle size, and mixing state are critical in determining the effects of atmospheric aerosol on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot in a polluted urban environment, collections of particles 0.2-2.0 ? m were taken in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 campaign. Samples were collected using an automated Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector (TRAC) both onboard a mobile laboratory and at stationary sites within the city. Individual particles were analyzed with Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersed detection of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Our analysis shows that soot is a major component of aerosol in the MCMA, and freshly-emitted soot is rapidly processed, leading to the presence of inorganic species such as ammonium sulfate on the soot surface. While fresh, mixed-traffic tailpipe emissions are almost entirely carbonaceous (consisting of soot aggregate chains and lube-oil components), processed soot particles in the MCMA show evidence of heavy internal mixing. Our analysis also suggests that internal mixing may occur through several possible mechanisms, which require further investigation.

Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Laskin, A.; Cowin, J. P.; Iedema, M. J.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.

2004-12-01

250

Variation of oil composition in vicinity of Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen oils in an 8-county area in the vicinity of the Arbuckle Mountains were classified into 6 oil types: stable platform type, Mill Creek syncline type, Joiner City field type, Gloeocapsamorpha type, Hoover field A-type; and Fitts field type. The stable platform, Mill Creek syncline, and Joiner City field types have a common element (diminished C/sub 32/ hopane) and are thought to be derived from distinctly different facies of the Woodford Formation. The Viola Limestone oil is typical of oil generated from Ordovician rocks. The Hoover field A-type has an element of Ordovician composition and is thought to have been derived from an Arbuckle Group shale. The Fitts field oil has a unique composition and has not been assigned to a source. The variation of oil composition in the vicinity of the Arbuckle Mountains is attributed to (1) the large number of potential source rocks, (2) the variety of facies going from the stable platform into the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, and (3) biodegradation of oils in shallow reservoirs.

Zemmels, I.; Walters, C.C.

1987-08-01

251

Techniques for estimating flood discharges for Oklahoma streams; techniques for calculating magnitude and frequency of floods in Oklahoma from rural and urban areas under 2500 square miles, with compilations of flood data through 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statewide regression equations are defined for estimating peak discharges of floods having recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years. Contributing drainage area, main-channel slope and mean annual precipitation are the independent variables required for estimating flood discharges for rural streams. For urban streams the percentage of the basin that is impervious and served by storm sewers also is required. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds draining less than 2,500 square miles (6,500 square kilometers) that are not significantly affected by regulation. For the rural streams, the regression equations are presented in graphical form for easy application. Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey rainfall-runoff model and synthesis of long-term annual peak data for 60 small watersheds is discussed. Synthetic frequency curves, generated using six long-term rainfall stations, are combined into one frequency curve and weighted with the observed frequency curve at each site. Use of the rainfall-runoff model parameters to estimate flood discharges reduces the standard error for selected frequencies by 9-12 percent. However, collection of the necessary rainfall-runoff data to determine the model parameters is time consuming and expensive. Annual peak data, basin and climatic characteristics, log-Pearson Type III statistics, and the flood-frequency relations are presented for 188 gaging stations. (PHOTOSTATIC COPIES ONLY ARE AVAILABLE OF THIS REPORT)

Thomas, W. O.; Corley, R. K.

1977-01-01

252

Oklahoma seismic network. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States)]|[Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Energy Center

1993-07-01

253

Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual groundwater use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. Most groundwater is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual groundwater-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

Horn, M. A.

1984-01-01

254

Epidemiologic survey of multiple sclerosis in the Bucharest city and suburban area.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic survey over a restricted area of Romanian territory, i.e. the city of Bucharest with a population of 1,934,052 and a surface of 605 km2, established the following values for the MS parameters studied. On January 5, 1977 the prevalence rate for "probable" and "possible" cases was 46.4 per 100,000 inhabitants and for "probable" cases alone (with certain clinical diagnosis) 41.3 per 100,000. The specific 20- to 60-year age adjusted prevalence rate was 79.4 per 100,000. The incidence rate over the 1969--1976 period was 1.78 per 100,000. The prevalence and incidence rates in this survey are similar to those reported for two other large urban centers of Romania (population over 100,000 each), Romania being therefore situated in a geographical area of "high risk" for MS. The 0.61 per 100,000 nationwide and the 0.65 per 100,000 Bucharest mortality rates are lower than those reported in other geographical areas of "high risk" for MS. PMID:707038

Verde?, F; Petrescu, A; Cernescu, C

1978-08-01

255

Preliminary evaluation of the ground-water-flow system in the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary quasi-three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model of the seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan area was constructed and used to evaluate parameter sensitivity and adequacy of available data. Fourteen geologic units that underlie the study area were grouped into nine hydrogeologic units and were incorporated into a five-layer model. The layers in the simulation model include the Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, Prairie du Chien-Jordan, and St. Peter aquifers and the drift. Sensitivity analyses were made for 19 parameter and boundary-condition specifications. Model results are most sensitive to recharge and withdrawal rates and hydrogeologic variations related to drift-filled bedrock valleys. Analyses of available data and results of steady-state simulations indicate that critical data needs for improving the simulation model include (1) spatial and temporal variations in ground-water withdrawals and potentiometric levels, and (2) hydraulic properties of the drift that fills or partly fills bedrock valleys. Areal distribution of calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were analyzed to provide information on the hydrologic and geochemical relationships between aquifers. Ground water is generally of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Concentration of dissolved solids in the Jordan Sandstone and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer generally decreases from southwest to northeast across the study area. This decrease probably reflects differences in the quality of recharge water and geochemical processes within the aquifers such as ion-exchange. (USGS)

Guswa, John H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Gillies, Daniel C.

1982-01-01

256

Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota; a project plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A program for water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural, and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square mile and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled. Data collection is designed around the hydrologic conditions expected for each site. Sixteen of 17 sites are instrumented to define stream discharge and 12 sites have automatic water samplers and recording rain gages. In addition, six sites will have automatic wetfall/dryfall precipitation collectors. Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies , with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area. (USGS)

Ayers, M. A.; Payne, G. A.; Oberts, Gary L.

1980-01-01

257

Availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An evaluation made in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota, concluded that Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development of the three major aquifers investigated (the Inyan Kara, the Minnelusa, and the Madison). Ground-water availability and quality were evaluated on the basis of unit thickness and depth, potentiometric-surface altitudes and gradients, estimated recharge and discharge rates, estimated aquifer transmissivities and storage coefficients, reported yields of existing wells, and concentrations of ions in the water that may affect its use as a community supply. The Inyan Kara aquifer has the least potential for additional development because of reported small well yields , the proximity of the outcrop, and concentration of radium-226 exceeding 5 picocuries per liter. The Minnelusa aquifer is unsuitable for development in the eastern two-thirds of the study area because the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate commonly exceed the recommended maximum level for community water supplies. The Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development because it has the greatest recharge rate, has areas with significant fracture permeability, yields as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells, and has satisifactory water quality, though it is hard (hardness 120 to 180 milligrams per liter) to very hard (hardness greater than 180 milligrams per liter). (USGS)

Peter, K. D.

1985-01-01

258

Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 ?g m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 ?g m-3 (with maxima up to 11 ?g m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 ?g m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 ?g m-3 potassium, 1 ?g m-3 magnesium, 2 ?g m-3 sodium, and 3 ?g m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 ?g m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 ?g m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 ?g m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 ?g m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 ?g m-3, 3.6 ?g m-3, 2.1 ?g m-3, and 0.35 ?g m-3 respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 ?g m-3, 2.8 ?g m-3, 1.7 ?g m-3, and 0.25 ?g m-3. Additional improvements are possible by (i) using a day-dependent emission inventory, (ii) improving the performance of the model regarding the oxidant levels, and (iii) revising the emissions and the chemical composition of the fugitive dust. Sensitivity tests indicate that sulfate concentration in Tula decreases by up to 0.5 ?g m-3 after a 50 % reduction of SO2 emissions while it can increase by up to 0.3 ?g m-3 when NOx emissions are reduced by 50 %. Nitrate concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3 after the 50 % reduction of NOx or NH3 emissions. Ammonium concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3, 0.3 ?g m-3, and 0.1 ?g m-3 after the 50 % reduction of NH3, NOx, and SO2 emissions respectively.

Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

2011-08-01

259

Public Health Assessment for National Zinc Company, Bartlesville, Washington County, Oklahoma, Region 6. CERCLIS No. OKD000829440.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed National Zinc Company (NZC) National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in the City of Bartlesville in Washington and Osage Counties, Oklahoma. Based on the available information, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR...

1995-01-01

260

Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area  

SciTech Connect

The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH reactivity in the downwind plume. The model results generally showed good agreement with experimental results for the total VOC OH reactivity downwind and gave insight into the distributions of VOC chemical classes downwind. A box model with detailed gas phase chemistry (NCAR Master Mechanism), initialized with concentrations observed at one of the ground sites in the MCMA, was used to examine the expected evolution of specific VOCs over a 1-2 day period. The models clearly supported the experimental evidence for NMHC oxidation leading to the formation of OVOCs downwind, which then become the primary fuel for ozone production far away from the MCMA.

Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

2009-11-01

261

Processing of Soot in an Urban Environment: Case Study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their e ffects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmo- 5 spheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2–2.0 µm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 field campaign from various sites 10 within the city. Individual particle analysis by di fferent electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-tra ffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned 15 lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to a ffect heterogeneous chemistry on 20 the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

Johnson, Kirsten S.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Iedema, Martin J.; Cowin, James P.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Wang, Chong M.; Laskin, Alexander

2005-11-14

262

Runoff and chemical loading in small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow, rainfall, and water-quality data were collected during 1980 for 15 to 30 rainfall and snowmelt events on 6 rural and 11 urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Event or daily flow and load models (for seven constituents) were developed and used with runoff and rainfall data for 1963-80 to compute 2-year frequency annual and seasonal flows and loads for each watershed. In models of storm-sewered watersheds, total storm rainfall proved to be the most significant factor controlling runoff and loads. Depending on the watershed type, antecedent soil-moisture indices and rainfall intensity also were important factors in estimating runoff. Annual runoff from storm-sewered watersheds averaged about 27 percent of annual precipitation, ranging from 13 to 57 percent. Runoff in urban main-stem streams ranged from 13 to 20 percent and was related to the percent of urbanization in the watershed. Annual runoff in rural watersheds ranged from 6 to 20 percent of annual precipitation. Runoff responses were highest in the snowmelt season for all watersheds and declined through the rest of the year. Rural watersheds showed a considerable decrease in runoff response during late summer and fall. Urban-watershed response from season to season was more consistent than rural watersheds because of the impervious area and storm sewers in urban watersheds. (USGS)

Ayers, M. A.; Oberts, G. L.; Brown, R. G.

1985-01-01

263

Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 ?m) sulfate concentrations (over 25 ?g m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 ?g m-3 (with maxima up to 11 ?g m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 ?g m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 ?g m-3 potassium, 1 ?g m-3 magnesium, 2 ?g m-3 sodium, and 3 ?g m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 ?g m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 ?m) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 ?g m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 ?g m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 ?g m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 ?g m-3, 3.5 ?g m-3, 2.1 ?g m-3, and 0.36 ?g m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 ?g m-3, 2.7 ?g m-3, 1.7 ?g m-3, and 0.25 ?g m-3. High sulfate concentrations are associated with the transport of sulfate from the Tula vicinity, while in periods where southerly winds are dominant; the concentrations of sulfate are low. The underprediction of nitrate can be attributed to the underestimation of OH levels by the model during the early morning. Ammonium is sensitive to the predicted sulfate concentrations and the nitrate levels. The performance of the model is also evaluated against measurements taken from a suburban background site (T1) located north of Mexico City. The average predicted PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 ?m) sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are 3.3, 3.2, 1.4, 0.5, 0.3, 1.2, and 0.15 ?g m-3, respectively. The corresponding measured concentrations are 3.7, 2.9, 1.5, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.15 ?g m-3. The overprediction of calcium indicates a possible overestimation of its emissions and affects the partitioning of nitric acid to the aerosol phase resulting occasionally in an overprediction of nitrate. Additional improvements are possible by improving the performance of the model regarding the oxidant levels, and revising the emissions and the chemical composition of the fugitive dust. The hybrid approach in which the mass transfer to the fine aerosol is simulated using the bulk equilibrium assumption and to the remaining aerosol sections using a dynamic approach, is needed in order to accurately simulate the size distribution of the inorganic aerosols. The bulk equilibrium approach fails to reproduce the observed coarse nitrate and overpredicts the fine nitrate. Sensitivity tests indicate that sulfate concentration in Tula decreases by up to 0.5 ?g m-3 after a 50% reduction of SO2 emissions while it can increase by up to 0.3 ?g m-3 when NOx emissions are reduced by 50%. Nitrate concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3 after the 50% reduction of NOx or NH3 emissions. Ammonium concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3, 0.3 ?g m-3, and 0.1 ?g m-3 after the 50% reduction o

Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

2011-12-01

264

Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar Radiation Atlas. After identifying the shadow free area of the roof we recognize manufacturer dependent device sizes as well as lifetime of the building. While more and more CityGML data will be available in future or approach is a valuable contribution for decision makers and private households to estimate the return on invest of solar energy plants.

Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

2009-04-01

265

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

266

Local housing price index analysis in wind-disaster-prone areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of severe wind events on the mean and variance of housing price indices of six metropolitan\\u000a statistical areas (MSA) that are vulnerable to hurricanes and\\/or tornadoes. The research focuses on three areas that experienced\\u000a significant tornado activity (Fort Worth-Arlington, Nashville, and Oklahoma City) and three hurricane-prone areas (Corpus\\u000a Christi, Miami, and Wilmington, NC). An econometric

Bradley T. Ewing; Jamie B. Kruse; Yongsheng Wang

2007-01-01

267

Large Scale Groundwater Flow Model for Ho Chi Minh City and its Catchment Area, Southern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) has become a fast growing city in recent decades and is still growing at a high pace. The water demand for more than 7 million people has increased tremendously, too. Beside surface water, groundwater is used in big amounts to satisfy the need of water. By now, more than 200,000 wells have been developed with very little control. To investigate the sustainability of the water abstraction, a model had been built for the HCMC area and its surrounding. On the catchment scale (around 24,000km2); however, many questions have remained unsolved. In this study, we first gathered and complied geological and hydrogeological information as well as data on groundwater quality to get an idea on regional groundwater flow pattern and problems related to the temporal change of the groundwater situation. Two problems have been depicted by this study. One is the construction of a water reservoir upstream of the Saigon River. This construction has probably changed the water table of the unconfined aquifer, and hence, has significantly changed the properties of soils in some areas. The other problem is the distribution of salty groundwater. Despite the distance of more than 40km from the seashore, groundwater from some wells in and around HCMC shows high concentrations of chloride. Several wells started to produce non-potable water. The chloride concentrations show a complicated and patchy distribution below HCMC, suggesting the possibility of the remnant saltwater at the time of sediment deposition. On the other hand, seawater invades along the streams far beyond HCMC during the dry season and this might be one of the possible sources of salty groundwater by vertical infiltration. A large-scale geological model was constructed and transformed into a hydrogeological model to better understand and quantify the groundwater flow system and the origin of saltwater. Based on the constructed model and numerical calculation, we discuss the influence of reservoir construction on the groundwater situation at the upstream Saigon River, and possible factors for the existence of salty groundwater underneath HCMC.

Sigrist, M.; Tokunaga, T.; Takizawa, S.

2005-12-01

268

Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by the inundation profile. Applying the above-mentioned procedure, taking into account all available information on the inundation profiles for various zones within the basin, leads to a probability distribution for the TWI threshold value. In the next step, the urban residential hot spots to flooding are delineated in the GIS environment by overlaying the map of TWI and the UMT units classified as residential for various percentiles of the TWI threshold. Differences in exposure characteristics can be assessed for a range of different residential types, including for example between condominium/multi-storey, single storey stone/concrete and areas predominantly associated with mud/wood construction. For each percentile value considered, the delineated flood-prone residential areas and the number of people potentially affected to flooding are calculated. Moreover, the potential dependence of the estimated threshold percentiles on the flooding return period is investigated. As a demonstration, the urban residential hotspots to flooding are delineated for 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles of the TWI value for the cities of Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. References Qin C.Z., Zhu A.X., Pei T., Li B.L., Scholten T., Behrens T., Zhou C.H.. An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient. Precision Agric, 12:32-43, DOI 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y, 2011. Manfreda S., Di Leo M., Sole A. Detection of Flood-Prone Areas Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buc

De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

2013-04-01

269

Cities Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Economist, their Cities Guide offers practical information ranging from accommodations to insider tips on getting around various US and world cities. A very nice touch are areas like the City Briefing section (top news stories, history pieces, and other tidbits) and the Being There area (subtopics include how to kill an hour and gifts to take home). City Guide also contains sections on cultural events, shopping, history, facts, and much more. [REB].

2001-01-01

270

Environmental sustainability and scenarios of urbanization in arid area: a case study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwestern China, located in the hinterland of the Asia-European continent, is composed of arid and semi-arid areas, with a very vulnerable natural environment and a long history of oasis economy. Implementation of the new policy of development of Western China resulted in both economic progress and environmental crisis. This article, using Wuwei City as an example, evaluated the sustainability of

Suocheng Dong; Fei You; Xiaojun Zhang

2004-01-01

271

Low-Flow Characteristics of the Mississippi River Upstream from the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 1932-2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council, conducted a study to characterize regional low flows during 1932-2007 in the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities metropolitan area in Minnesota and to describe the low-f...

D. L. Lorenz E. Kessler

2010-01-01

272

Aerial radiological survey of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Spring City, Tennessee. Date of survey: April 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerial survey of terrestrial gamma radiation was performed during the period April 10 through April 20, 1982 over a 16-kilometer by 16-kilometer (10-mile by 10-mile) area approximately centered on the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant near Spring City, Tennessee. Gamma radiation spectral data were collected while flying a helicopter over a regular pattern of parallel lines spaced 150 meters (500

J. E. Jobst; R. A. Semmler

1982-01-01

273

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE\\/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical

Luisa T. Molina; Rainer Volkamer; Benjamin de Foy; Wenfang Lei; Miguel Zavala; Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

2008-01-01

274

Potential hazard characteristics of Tilia, Betula, and Acer trees removed in the Helsinki City Area during 2001-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study decay, and to improve the management and protection of old urban trees, a total of 256 felled urban trees were examined during 2001-2003: 95 Tilia spp., 74 Betula spp., and 87 Acer spp. Most of the trees (73%) were located in the main parks and along the main streets in the downtown area of Helsinki City.

Minna Terho

275

Potential hazard characteristics of Tilia, Betula, and Acer trees removed in the Helsinki City Area during 2001–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study decay, and to improve the management and protection of old urban trees, a total of 256 felled urban trees were examined during 2001–2003: 95 Tilia spp., 74 Betula spp., and 87 Acer spp. Most of the trees (73%) were located in the main parks and along the main streets in the downtown area of Helsinki City,

Minna Terho; Anna-Maija Hallaksela

2005-01-01

276

Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h?1 on motorways in a large city by

José M. Baldasano; María Gonçalves; Albert Soret; Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero

2010-01-01

277

Tight Oklahoma gas sands remain an attractive play  

SciTech Connect

The Cherokee tight gas sands of Oklahoma remain an attractive play because of improvements in drilling and completion practices and actions by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) that allow separate allowables for new wells. The expired federal tax credits for tight gas wells have not been the only reason for increased activity. Since decontrol of most regulated gas pricing and since 1986, the number of wells drilled and gas production per well have been increasing in the cherokee area while overall drilling in Oklahoma has decreased. These conclusions are based on wells as categorized by permit date and not by the spud, completion, or first production date. A few wells outside but adjacent to the Cherokee area may have been included, although, their impact on the conclusions is considered nominal. The paper discusses the tight gas credit, proration units, the concept of separate allowables, costs, completion efficiency, and the economic outlook for this area.

Cartwright, G.L. [Marathon Oil Co., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

1995-04-24

278

Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study was conducted to assess the uranium favorability of northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas, an area underlain by a stratigraphic sequence that ranges in age from Precambrian to Late Pennsylvanian. The major structural features are the Nemaha anticline, the Ozark uplift, and the Cherokee basin. Water samples analyzed by the Oklahoma State Department of Occupational and Radiological Health

L. D. Brogdon; R. C. Pilcher

1977-01-01

279

In situ Stress Analysis of Wellbore Breakouts from Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orientations of crustal stresses are inferred from stress-induced breakouts (wellbore enlargements) in the eastern part of the Anadarko basin in central Oklahoma, the Marietta basin in south-central Oklahoma, and the Bravo dome area of the central Texas P...

R. L. Dart

1990-01-01

280

Assessment of new vehicles emissions certification standards in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.  

PubMed

Light duty gasoline vehicles account for most of CO hydrocarbons and NOx emissions at the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). In order to ameliorate air pollution from the beginning of 2001, Tier 1 emission standards became mandatory for all new model year sold in the country. Car manufacturers in Mexico do not guarantee the performance of their exhaust emissions systems for a given mileage. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Tier 1 vehicles will stand the certification values for at least 162000 km with the regular fuel available at the MAMC. Mileage accumulation and deterioration show that certified carbon monoxide emissions will stand for the useful life of the vehicles but in the case of non-methane hydrocarbons will be shorter by 40%, and nitrogen oxides emissions above the standard will be reached at one third of the accumulated kilometers. The effect of gasoline sulfur content, on the current in use Tier 1 vehicles of the MAMC and the impact on the emissions inventory in year 2010 showed that 31000 extra tons of NOx could be added to the inventory caused by the failure of the vehicles to control this pollutant at the useful life of vehicles. PMID:16570219

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; López-Salinas, E

2006-03-01

281

Seroprevalence of antibodies against human herpesvirus 6 in the Quebec City area  

PubMed Central

Seroprevalence of antibodies against human herpesvirus 6 was determined in a sample of 303 randomly selected individuals from the Quebec City area. The influence of different variables on antibody litres was also evaluated. Human herpesvirus 6 was grown in the HSB-2 cell line, and antibody litres were measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Serum samples were collected from 177 females and 126 males ranging in age from two months to 88 years. Ninety-nine per cent (300 of 303) of this population had an antibody titre of at least 1:10, whereas 75% had a titre of at least 1:80. Women had a higher geometric mean litre than men (P=0.06). This difference between sexes varied according to age and became statistically significant in subjects older than 20 years of age (P=0.04). It was found that this difference was attributable to higher antibody litres in women in the 15 to 40 year age group who had previously had children.

Deschenes, Louise; Joly, Jean R; Couillard, Michel; Richer, Gilles

1992-01-01

282

Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the main drainage channels. In this area, in fact, one of the most serious problems for the Civil Protection authorities is the intense urbanization that dramatically increases not only the volcanic and seismic risks but also the level of geo-hydrological risk. The high degree of damage within the basin was also caused by incautious man-made modification of sectors of the drainage network and the use of culverts and even concrete-walled channel segments that in some cases were used as paved roads for local transportation. In all the three cases no warnings were issued to citizens because of the lack of early-warning systems but, fortunately, no fatalities or injuries were reported after the events. The analysis of these flash flood episodes showed an interesting case of interaction between hydrological processes and the geologic setting of a highly urbanized area such as the Campi Flegrei district, where the occurrence of heavy rain coupled with abundance of loose pyroclastic material on the steep volcanic hillslopes is likely to produce high levels of geo-hydrological hazard and risk.

Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

2014-05-01

283

Fuel-based motor vehicle emission inventory for the metropolitan area of Mexico city  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level and nature of air pollution varies substantially from city to city. Hence, the first requirement is the creation of an adequate knowledge base on local air quality on which to develop an air quality policy. Because the availability of data used in traditional on-road mobile source estimation methodologies is limited in Mexico, an alternative methodology was implemented to

I. Schifter; L. Díaz; V. Múgica; E. López-Salinas

2005-01-01

284

SEISMIC RISK ANALYSIS FOR CITY GAS NETWORK IN SOUTHERN KANTO AREA, JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a new procedure for quantitative seismic risk evaluation for a large-scale city gas system. To maximize the cost effectiveness of investments for earthquake disaster prevention, it is necessary to perform a quantitative and rational earthquake risk analysis. When there are several kinds of measures to reinforce or to replace city gas facilities, quantitative seismic risk analysis makes

H. Nakane; W. Nakayama; K. Nabana; A. Yamauchi; F. Yamazaki

2006-01-01

285

Map showing ground-water conditions in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, Coconino and Navajo counties, Arizona, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Kaibito and Tuba City areas include about 2,500 square miles in north-central Arizona. Ground water is obtained from the N aquifer and from alluvium. The N aquifer consists of Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Moenave Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone. The main source of ground water is the Navajo Sandstone. Ground-water development has been slight in the areas. In 1977 the estimated ground-water withdrawals were about 350 acre-feet in the Kaibito area and 650 acre-feet in the Tuba City area. Water levels ranged from flowing at the land surface to 1,360 feet below the land surface. The chemical quality of the water in the N aquifer does not vary greatly in the areas. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water range from 101 to 669 milligrams per liter but generally are less than 300 milligrams per liter. Along some of the valleys in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, the alluvium yields water to many shallow dug wells. The water levels generally are from 5 to 15 feet below the land surface. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the alluvium usually are less than 600 milligrams per liter. Information shown on the map (scale 1:125,000) includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, and specific conductance and fluoride concentrations. (Woodard-USGS)

Farrar, C. D.

1978-01-01

286

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Enid Quadrangle, Oklahoma and Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uranium resources of the Enid Quadrangle, Oklahoma and Kansas, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m using the available surface and subsurface geologic information, supplemented with an intensive geologic and geochemical reconnaissance of the quadrangle. Uranium occurrences reported in the literature were located, sampled, and described in detail. Areas of anomalous radioactivity and areas of known copper mineralization

R. L. Eutsler; S. Bloch; K. S. Johnson

1982-01-01

287

Small-Area Estimation of the Probability of Toxocariasis in New York City Based on Sociodemographic Neighborhood Composition  

PubMed Central

Toxocariasis is increasingly recognized as an important neglected infection of poverty (NIP) in developed countries, and may constitute the most important NIP in the United States (US) given its association with chronic sequelae such as asthma and poor cognitive development. Its potential public health burden notwithstanding, toxocariasis surveillance is minimal throughout the US and so the true burden of disease remains uncertain in many areas. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted a representative serologic survey of toxocariasis to estimate the prevalence of infection in diverse US subpopulations across different regions of the country. Using the NHANES III surveillance data, the current study applied the predicted probabilities of toxocariasis to the sociodemographic composition of New York census tracts to estimate the local probability of infection across the city. The predicted probability of toxocariasis ranged from 6% among US-born Latino women with a university education to 57% among immigrant men with less than a high school education. The predicted probability of toxocariasis exhibited marked spatial variation across the city, with particularly high infection probabilities in large sections of Queens, and smaller, more concentrated areas of Brooklyn and northern Manhattan. This investigation is the first attempt at small-area estimation of the probability surface of toxocariasis in a major US city. While this study does not define toxocariasis risk directly, it does provide a much needed tool to aid the development of toxocariasis surveillance in New York City.

Walsh, Michael G.; Haseeb, M. A.

2014-01-01

288

Promoting School Readiness in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the research, conducted on Oklahoma's universal Pre-kindergarten (Pre-k) program, on children of Tulsa Public Schools (TPS), the largest school district in the state to increase the school readiness are presented.

Gormley, William T., Jr.; Gayer, Ted

2005-01-01

289

Fast-growing plantation area extracting based on satellite images: a case of Leizhou City in Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast-growing plantation planting is especially prevalent in the late 10 years in Southeast China, going with the debate on its positive and negative influence. Mastering the status of non-natural fast-growing plantations is essential for both national and local government's decision-makers. This paper presents the methodology used to detect fast-growing plantation in the extent of Leizhou city in southeast China based on CCD/CBERS time-series images. This methodology is on the basis of the assumption that fast-growing plantation's rotation period is 5 years. NDVI differencing as a change detection method is selected to detect the bald land period, which will be considered to be fast-growing plantation. The result indicates that NDVI differencing method is feasible in extracting fast-growing plantation. The area of fast-growing plantation in Leizhou city is 225.54 square kilometers, distributed all over the city. Plantation scale in west coast and northern part connected with Suixi city is larger than southern part connected with Xuwen city. East coast has the least amount of distribution. The paper proposes that texture and shape analysis will help improving extraction precision.

Wen, Qingke; Zhang, Zengxiang; Xiao, Luxiang

2007-11-01

290

Ambient, indoor and personal exposure relationships of volatile organic compounds in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.  

PubMed

Air pollution standards and control strategies are based on ambient measurements. For many outdoor air pollutants, individuals are closer to their sources (especially traffic) and there are important indoor sources influencing the relationship between ambient and personal exposures. This paper examines the relationship between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at central site monitoring stations and personal exposures in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Over a 1-year period, personal exposures to 34 VOCs were measured for 90 volunteers from 30 families living close to one of five central monitoring stations. Simultaneous 24-h indoor, outdoor and central site measurements were also taken. Dual packed thermal desorption tubes and C(18) DNPH-coated cartridges were used for sampling VOCs and these were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, respectively. A factor analysis of the personal exposure data aided in grouping compounds by the most likely source type: vehicular (BTEX, styrene and 1,3-butadiene), secondary formed or photochemical (most aldehydes), building materials and consumer products (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde), cleaning solvents (tetrachloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane), volatilization from water (chloroform and trichloroethene) and deodorizers (1,4-dichlorobenzene). Mean ambient, indoor and personal concentrations were 7/7/14 microg/m(3) for benzene, 1/3/3 for 1,3-butadiene, 6/20/20 for formaldehyde and 3/9/50 for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Geometric mean (GM) ambient concentrations of trichloroethene and carbon tetrachloride were similar to GM personal exposures. While outdoor and indoor home GM concentrations for most vehicular related compounds (benzene, MTBE, xylenes and styrene) were comparable, the GM personal exposures were twice as high. Indoor concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, chloroform, formaldehyde, valeraldehyde, propionaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde were comparable to personal exposures. For certain compounds, such as chloroform, aldehydes, toluene, 1,3-butadiene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, GM personal exposures were more than two times greater than GM ambient measurements. PMID:15118753

Serrano-Trespalacios, Paulina I; Ryan, Louise; Spengler, John D

2004-01-01

291

Water conservation as a long-range strategy in municipal water supply planning: the case of Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with Oklahoma water managers' attitudes toward the adoption or rejection of long-term water conservation options in small and medium sized cities under 50,000 in population. In focusing upon Oklahoma water managers' attitudes, the following questions are addressed: (1) What factors influence Oklahoma water managers' attitudes toward the adoption or rejection of long-term water conservation measures. (2) What are the major incentives or disincentives that may encourage or discourage the adoption and implementing of long-term water conservation alternatives at the municipal level in Oklahoma. (3) What are the distinct geographical variations in attitudes toward adopting water conservation policies. To address these and related questions, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the water managers in the selected Oklahoma towns and cities. Results of the study indicated that local water managers considered local governments as the most appropriate body to deal with water management issues. Local water managers in Oklahoma also place heavy reliance upon traditional structural solutions. If these solutions prove to be inadequate, long-term water conservation alternatives become more appealing. However, Oklahoma water managers in the selected cities and towns expressed their profound concerns about the potential revenue loss if long-term water conservation measures were to be adopted and implemented.

Abdallah, A.L.

1985-01-01

292

Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2000 to September 30, 2000. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Since this is the first Quarterly report, much of the work done is of a preliminary nature. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The selection of the pilot test area has been completed. The drilling of the test well is waiting on rig availability. Phillips has begun sonic core testing of offset cores, waiting on the core from the well to be drilled. Design work is progressing for the tool, which will be built to fit the test well. Installation of monitoring equipment and the downhole vibration tool will occur after the well is drilled. Technical transfer efforts have begun with the submission of an abstract for a technical paper for the Oklahoma City Society of Petroleum Engineers meeting in March 2001.

J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

2000-09-30

293

Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)  

SciTech Connect

The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma�¢����s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the search for new phenomena at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider to theoretical modeling, computer simulation, detector development and testing, and physics analysis. OCHEP faculty members participating on the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron and on the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN LHC have made major impact on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson search, top quark studies, B physics studies, and measurements of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phenomena. The OCHEP Grid computing facility consists of a large computer cluster which is playing a major role in data analysis and Monte Carlo productions for both the D0 and ATLAS experiments. Theoretical efforts are devoted to new ideas in Higgs bosons physics, extra dimensions, neutrino masses and oscillations, Grand Unified Theories, supersymmetric models, dark matter, and nonperturbative quantum field theory. Theory members are making major contributions to the understanding of phenomena being explored at the Tevatron and the LHC. They have proposed new models for Higgs bosons, and have suggested new signals for extra dimensions, and for the search of supersymmetric particles. During the seven year period when OCHEP was partially funded through the DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, OCHEP members published over 500 refereed journal articles and made over 200 invited presentations at major conferences. The Center is also involved in education and outreach activities by offering summer research programs for high school teachers and college students, and organizing summer workshops for high school teachers, sometimes coordinating with the Quarknet programs at OSU and OU. The details of the Center can be found in http://ochep.phy.okstate.edu.

S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

2012-02-29

294

Environmental sustainability and scenarios of urbanization in arid area: a case study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northwestern China, located in the hinterland of the Asia-European continent, is composed of arid and semi-arid areas, with a very vulnerable natural environment and a long history of oasis economy. Implementation of the new policy of development of Western China resulted in both economic progress and environmental crisis. This article, using Wuwei City as an example, evaluated the sustainability of its environment and analyzed the scenarios of energy, pollution discharge, transportation, food, industry and urbanization. Polestar language, the model developed and used by the Global Scenario Group, was applied to simulate the development of the study area. The results revealed that Wuwei city would reach a severe eco-environmental crisis under the conventional development patterns in the next ten to twenty years. Therefore, a sustainable scenario was recommended in the urbanization of Wuwei, and appropriate suggestions were also put forward to the policy makers.

Dong, Suocheng; You, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojun

2004-11-01

295

Factors influencing the uptake of nutrients in streams within the New York City water-supply source areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of nutrients was measured in each of ten streams within the water supply source areas for New York City, once each year between 2000 and 2002. Uptake lengths were estimated from the conservative-tracer-corrected downstream attenuation of short-term (1-2 h) nutrient releases. Uptake lengths correlated with stream size and were converted to uptake velocities (Vf) for further analysis. Vf

D. Newbold; L. Kaplan; T. Bott; J. Jackson; A. Aufdenkampe; C. Dow

2005-01-01

296

Application of chemometric techniques in the assessment of groundwater pollution in a suburban area of Chennai city, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemometric techniques such as factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to the groundwater quality data in a tan- nery-polluted area of Chennai city, India. Groundwater samples were collected from 65 dug wells during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analysed for 25 para- meters. FA applied to the datasets pertaining to the pre- and post-monsoon

A. Ramesh Kumar; P. Riyazuddin

2008-01-01

297

MULTI-TEMPORAL LANDSAT IMAGE CLASSIFICATION AND CHANGE ANALYSIS OF LAND COVER IN THE TWIN CITIES (MINNESOTA) METROPOLITAN AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methods and results of classifications of multi-temporal Landsat TM\\/ETM+ data of the seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota for 1986, 1991 and 1998. The overall classification accuracies were 95% for the three years, and the change detection accuracy was 88-90%. The classifications showed that the amount of urban or developed land increased from 25.8% to

M. E. BAUER; F. YUAN; K. E. SAWAYA

2003-01-01

298

Assessment of Impacts Produced by Anthropogenic Sources in a Little City near an Important Industrial Area (Modugno, Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches.

de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

2013-01-01

299

University of Oklahoma: School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Oklahoma offers information on research in the areas of bioengineering, polymers science and engineering, environmental engineering, and energy studies. Examples include the Engineering Virtual Library and the Chemical Engineering Virtual Library, related government research labs, discipline-specific groupings of Chemical Engineering online resources, and selected corporate Web pages.

300

Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft³ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and

N. H. Suneson; J. A. Campbell

1989-01-01

301

University of Oklahoma: Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Oklahoma offers information on research in the areas of bioengineering, polymers science and engineering, environmental engineering, and energy studies. Examples include the Engineering Virtual Library and the Chemical Engineering Virtual Library, related government research labs, discipline-specific groupings of Chemical Engineering online resources, and selected corporate Web pages.

302

Bathymetric surveys and area/capacity tables of water-supply reservoirs for the city of Cameron, Missouri, July 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Years of sediment accumulation and dry conditions in recent years have led to the decline of water levels and capacities for many water-supply reservoirs in Missouri, and have caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/capacity tables for these reservoirs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, surveyed the bathymetry of the four water-supply reservoirs used by the city of Cameron, Missouri, in July 2013. The data were used to provide water managers with area/capacity tables and bathymetric maps of the reservoirs at the time of the surveys.

Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

303

Exploratory Investigation of Concentrations of Total Gaseous Mercury in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in ambient air at several locations within Mexico Valley Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, ZMVM, in Spanish) was measured during the Fall of 2002 and the first quarter of 2003. Among these locations were Tecamachalco (19°26'N; 99°13'W), San Agustín (19°31'N; 99°01'W), Xalostoc (19°31'N; 99°04'W) and Iztapalapa (19°21'N; 99°04'W). San Agustín and Xalostoc border the State of Mexico. Iztapalapa contains CENICA's monitoring station, and Mercury was one of the parameters measured here during the MCMA-2003 field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in ZMVM in April of 2003. This last site was used to monitor Mercury during three different seasons. The reported concentrations of Mercury vapor were measured continuously using cold vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Tekran 2537A analyzer), with a detection limit of 0.10 ng·m-3 and a monitoring frequency of five minutes. The average TGM concentrations reported were 13.42, 10.22, 8.46 and 34.2 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa in the months of September, October and November of 2002 and April of 2003 during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, respectively. For Tecamachalco, a concentration of 49.67 ng·m-3 was reported in January, 11.3 ng·m-3, for San Agustín in February and 31.99 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc in March of 2003.The daily maximums, 24 hourly average, for the same periods are 223.5, 78.2, 31.4 and 503.75 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa, 118.62 ng·m-3 for Tecamachalco, 83.4 ng·m-3 for San Agustín and 261.2 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc. According to Ontario's air quality standards, the threshold value for mercury vapor in ambient air is 2 mg·m-3 on a 30 day average (Mercury situation in Canada, Report # 2, Environment Canada, May 2002). According to these criteria, then, the data reported for Mexico City are within the allowed limits for ambient air, but still 22 times higher than those reported as background concentrations at pristine locations (de la Rosa D.A., Volke-Sepúlveda T., Solorzano G., Green C., Tordon R., and Beauchamp S., (2004), Survey of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Mexico, Atmospheric Environment 38, 4839-4846). These TGM concentrations, measured during the different seasons occurring in the ZMVM, that is, rainy, cold dry and warm dry seasons, will allow us to establish through the integration of time series, block diagrams and the application of basic descriptive statistics, the temporal profile of TGM concentrations at the Iztapalapa, CENICA station during a seasonal year. Likewise, data from the other sites will let us compare the concentration levels among different areas in the ZMVM.

Hernandez, S.; de La Rosa, D. A.; Márquez, C.; Solórzano, G.; Martínez, A.

2004-12-01

304

SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USGS SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Chromic and sulfuric acid wastes had discharged through a hole in the concrete floor of a chrome-plating shop located within a hangar at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, North Carolina and infiltrated the soils and groundwater beneath the shop. Following i...

305

Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for

Dieu TT Huynh; Michael J Dibley; David W Sibbritt; Hanh TM Tran

2008-01-01

306

Impacts of sea level rise in the New York City metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greater New York City region, with over 2400 km of shoreline, will be vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise (SLR) due to anticipated climate warming. Accelerated SLR would exacerbate historic trends of beach erosion and attrition of highly productive coastal salt marshes. Coastal populations in the region have swelled by around 17% (av.) and over 100% in some localities

Vivien Gornitz; Stephen Couch; Ellen K. Hartig

2002-01-01

307

DETERIORATION OF MARBLE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TOMBSTONE MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEW YORK CITY AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A data base of tombstone thickness and depth of emblem inscription at Veterans Administration cemeteries has been compiled by New York University. A subset of measurements for two cemeteries in the vicinity of New York City was selected for analysis in this study. For comparable ...

308

Oklahoma Higher Education: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major headline in recent years has been that cash-strapped state governments are cutting back support for many services, including public higher education. Oklahoma is no different. Indeed, in the most recent state budget crafted by Oklahoma policymakers, Oklahoma's public colleges and universities received a 5.8 percent cut in state…

Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher

2011-01-01

309

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...

2013-07-01

310

40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...

2013-07-01

311

40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.125 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125...

2013-07-01

312

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North...

2013-07-01

313

Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant ...

D. K. Olsen W. I. Johnson

1993-01-01

314

Preliminary Study of the Favorability for Uranium in Northeastern Oklahoma and Southeastern Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary study was conducted to assess the uranium favorability of northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas, an area underlain by a stratigraphic sequence that ranges in age from Precambrian to Late Pennsylvanian. The major structural features a...

L. D. Brogdon R. C. Pilcher

1977-01-01

315

Evaluation of Heavy-Oil Potential of Northeastern Craig and Northwestern Ottawa Counties, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was undertaken to evaluate the heavy-oil (oil less than 25 exp 0 API) potential of northeastern Oklahoma - specifically, northwestern Ottawa and northeastern Craig Counties, the area considered to have the best possibility for shallow, heavy-...

W. E. Harrison J. F. Roberts L. J. Heath

1979-01-01

316

Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS)/DOE Annual Workshop in Oklahoma City May 8,9 2001 has been submitted for publication to the OGS. A technical paper draft has been submitted for the ASME/ETCE conference (Feb 2002) Production Technology Symposium. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors. In addition, a proposed technical paper has been submitted for this meeting.

J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

2001-09-30

317

Estimation of diarrhoea incidence through flooding simulation in low-income community areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in waterborne illnesses related to floodings has been reported all over the world, especially in developing countries. In Dhaka City, floodings occur almost every year due to severe rainfall compounded by inadequate sewerage systems. Waterborne illnesses spread easily in an unhygienic environment. This study develops a method to estimate the incidences of diarrhoea associated with floodings using a flooding analysis. We performed a flooding analysis using a numerical flooding simulation model and investigated the relationship between floodwater depth and diarrhoea incidence. The incidence of diarrhoea was assessed through a mortality and morbidity survey conducted in 10 low-income communities in flood-prone areas of Dhaka City. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between floodwater depth and indices of diarrhoea incidence. This indicates that a flooding analysis method can be used to estimate diarrhoea incidence.

Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kondo, N.; Nishida, K.

2012-12-01

318

Genetic structure of Aedes aegypti in the city of Córdoba (Argentina), a recently reinfested area.  

PubMed

To understand the transmission of a vector-borne disease, knowledge of the magnitude of dispersal among vector populations is essential because of its influence on pathogen transfer. The principal vector of dengue, the most common arboviral disease in the world, is the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.). This tropical and subtropical species is native to Africa but has dispersed worldwide since the XV century. In Argentina, the species was declared eradicated in 1963, but has reinfested the country in recent years. In the present work, we used RAPD-PCR markers to assess the levels of genetic variability and differentiation among populations of Ae. aegypti (the vector of dengue and yellow fever) in Córdoba, the second largest city in Argentina. We detected similar levels of genetic variability (He between 0.351-0.404) across samples and significant genetic differentiation between most population pairs within the city (F ST between 0.0013-0.0253). Genetic distances indicate that there are three distinct groups, formed predominantly by populations that are connected by, or near, main roads. This suggests that, in addition to other factors such as availability of oviposition sites or step-by-step migration, passive transport plays an important role in gene flow within the city. PMID:19722088

Julio, Norma B; Chiappero, Marina B; Rossi, Hernán J; Rondan Dueñas, Juan C; Gardenal, Cristina N

2009-07-01

319

Simpson-Arbuckle contact revisited in Northwest Oklahoma County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joins Formation, the lowermost formation of the Simpson Group, is traditionally the least studied or understood of the Simpson formations. The Joins, not known to produce hydrocarbons in central Oklahoma, is frequently overlooked by those more interested in the productive Simpson formations above and the Arbuckle carbonates below. In a study of the lower Simpson to upper Arbuckle interval

M. D. Allison; R. W. Allen

1995-01-01

320

Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

1993-11-01

321

The Diurnal Wind Variation in the Lowest 1500 ft in Central Oklahoma: June 1966-May 1967.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One year of wind data from a television tower in northern Oklahoma City has been analyzed on a diurnal basis. The annual mean speeds below the third level at 296 ft are lowest at night and highest during the day, and conversely the speeds up to the sevent...

K. C. Crawford H. R. Hudson

1972-01-01

322

Hyrogeology and Leachate Plume Delineation at a Closed Municipal Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Norman operated a solid-waste municipal landfill at two sites in the Canadian River alluvium in Cleveland County, Oklahoma from 1970 to 1985. The sites, referred to as the west and east cells of the landfill, were originally excavations in the...

C. J. Becker

2002-01-01

323

33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies...

2009-07-01

324

33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies...

2010-07-01

325

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

Not Available

1994-02-01

326

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

Not Available

1994-02-01

327

Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and Multivariate Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish ef- 5 fective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter _2.5 µm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and 10 total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during 15 dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

Johnson, Kirsten S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Xie, YuLong; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.

2006-10-12

328

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ?2.5 ?m (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

Johnson, K. S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Xie, Y.; Laskin, A.; Shutthanandan, V.

2006-10-01

329

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ?2.5 ?m (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfate determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

Johnson, K. S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Xie, Y.; Laskin, A.; Shutthanandan, V.

2006-05-01

330

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Hardage/Criner, McClain County, Oklahoma, November 1986. First Remedial Action.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hardage/Criner site is located in McClain County, Oklahoma, approximately 15 miles southwest of Norman, Oklahoma. The area is agricultural with land on all sides of the site used for grazing cattle. From September 1972 to November 1980, the site was o...

1986-01-01

331

The reason God made Oklahoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot. Dusty. Shimmering north Texas noontime. Waves of heat flowing over my car, now making its fourth trip from Sarasota, Florida to Edmond, Oklahoma in the baking summer sun. Trunk of the car loaded with mountains of computer equipment for the Institute. Me praying it's cool enough in there for laser printer, monitor, modem, system case and accessories to survive

Anne M. Parker

1996-01-01

332

Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater-flow model, was used to simulate flow in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units with five layers. Layer 1 represented the fractured sandstone layers in the upper 250 ft of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, and layer 2 represented the lower part of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit. Layer 3 represented the upper 150 ft of the Madison hydrogeologic unit, and layer 4 represented the less permeable lower part. Layer 5 represented an approximation of the underlying Deadwood aquifer to simulate upward flow to the Madison hydrogeologic unit. The finite-difference grid, oriented 23 degrees counterclockwise, included 221 rows and 169 columns with a square cell size of 492.1 ft in the detailed study area that surrounded Rapid City. The northern and southern boundaries for layers 1-4 were represented as no-flow boundaries, and the boundary on the east was represented with head-dependent flow cells. Streamflow recharge was represented with specified-flow cells, and areal recharge to layers 1-4 was represented with a specified-flux boundary. Calibration of the model was accomplished by two simulations: (1) steady-state simulation of average conditions for water years 1988-97 and (2) transient simulations of water years 1988-97 divided into twenty 6-month stress periods. Flow-system components represented in the model include recharge, discharge, and hydraulic properties. The steady-state streamflow recharge rate was 42.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and transient streamflow recharge rates ranged from 14.1 to 102.2 ft3/s. The steady-state areal recharge rate was 20.9 ft3/s, and transient areal recharge rates ranged from 1.1 to 98.4 ft3/s. The upward flow rate from the Deadwood aquifer to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was 6.3 ft3/s. Discharge included springflow, water use, flow to overlying units, and regional outflow. The estimated steady-state springflow of 32.8 ft3/s from seven springs was similar to the simulated springflow of 31.6 ft3/s, which included 20.5 ft3

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

333

In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March, 2006. Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i) Urban site: PHg=187±300 pg m-3, RGM=62±64 pg m-3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m-3. ii) Rural site: GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m-3. Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM), and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg and RGM) were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

Rutter, A. P.; Snyder, D. C.; Stone, E. A.; Schauer, J. J.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Molina, L. T.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; de Foy, B.

2008-07-01

334

In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March 2006. Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i) urban site; PHg=187±300 pg m-3, RGM=62±64 pg m-3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m-3, and; ii) rural site; GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m-3. Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM), and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg+RGM) were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

Rutter, A. P.; Snyder, D. C.; Stone, E. A.; Schauer, J. J.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Molina, L. T.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; de Foy, B.

2009-01-01

335

Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Urban, Semi Urban and Rural Areas in and around Chennai City, India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. Methods A survey of 7510 individuals aged >?=?15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban), Ambattur (semi-urban) and Sriperumbudur (rural) taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. Results The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7%) compared to semi-urban (20.9%) and urban (19.4%) areas (P value <0.001) Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms) was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1) those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2) those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3) those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. Conclusions Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

Chockalingam, Kolappan; Vedhachalam, Chandrasekaran; Rangasamy, Subramani; Sekar, Gomathi; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Swaminathan, Soumya; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan

2013-01-01

336

Monitoring of Heavy Metals Content in Soil Collected from City Centre and Industrial Areas of Misurata, Libya  

PubMed Central

The present paper deals with the assessment of heavy metals in soil and roadside dust around Misurata City Centre and industrial areas/roads in the period of October 2011–May 2012. The levels of Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu in settled dust samples collected near small streets, playgrounds, gas stations and main streets in the Misurata Area have been determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Also, the levels of same heavy metals in industrial areas have been determined. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around different sites on each road/area. The overall mean concentration for main streets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for other small streets, where Misurata has been the centre of fierce fighting and is located in a frontline battle zone in the Libyan war; therefore most of metal concentrations in surface soil in the fighting area Tripoli Street and Benghazi Street were higher than those from the other sites (outside fighting area).

Elbagermi, M. A.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Alajtal, A. I.

2013-01-01

337

Monitoring of heavy metals content in soil collected from city centre and industrial areas of misurata, libya.  

PubMed

The present paper deals with the assessment of heavy metals in soil and roadside dust around Misurata City Centre and industrial areas/roads in the period of October 2011-May 2012. The levels of Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu in settled dust samples collected near small streets, playgrounds, gas stations and main streets in the Misurata Area have been determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Also, the levels of same heavy metals in industrial areas have been determined. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around different sites on each road/area. The overall mean concentration for main streets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for other small streets, where Misurata has been the centre of fierce fighting and is located in a frontline battle zone in the Libyan war; therefore most of metal concentrations in surface soil in the fighting area Tripoli Street and Benghazi Street were higher than those from the other sites (outside fighting area). PMID:23762061

Elbagermi, M A; Edwards, H G M; Alajtal, A I

2013-01-01

338

Composition and Sourcing of Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and Multivariate Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter <2.5 ? m in diameter (PM2.5) is a serious concern in megacity air pollution for its possible effects on human health and climate, and potential role in heterogeneous chemical processes. Determining the chemical composition of PM2.5 is essential in assessing their effects, and the various aerosol emission sources must be identified in order to develop effective pollution control strategies. Samples of PM2.5 were collected in a southeastern site in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 campaign between April 3 - May 4, 2003 with a 3-stage IMPROVED Cascade DRUM Impactor in size ranges 0.07 - 0.34 ? m (Stage C), 0.34 - 1.15 ? m (Stage B), and 1.15 - 2.5 ? m (Stage A). Analyses by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) were performed to provide 6-hr averaged concentrations of elements > Na, H, and total aerosol mass, respectively, for each size range. Multivariate analysis including Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to group elements by common factors to identify possible aerosol emission sources within each size range. Sudden increases in elements characteristic of industrial emissions and fuel oil suggest manufacturing sources to the north of the city whereas soil aerosols originate from more rural areas to the south. Sulfur contributes to a significant fraction of PM2.5, in agreement with complementary aerosol measurements taken during the campaign. Additional trends and diurnal profiles observed for Mexico City aerosol are presented.

Zuberi, B.; Johnson, K. S.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Disselkamp, R.; Jimenez, J.; Dzepina, K.; Salcedo, D.

2004-12-01

339

PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

2014-01-01

340

Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

2009-05-18

341

[Characteristics of delta18O in precipitation and water vapor sources in Lanzhou City and its surrounding area].  

PubMed

Based on the 243 daily precipitation samples and meteorological statistics at the four stations at Lanzhou city and its surrounding area (Yongdeng, Gaolan and Yuzhong) from April 2011 to March 2012, the characteristics of stable isotopes in precipitation, as well as the correlation between stable isotopes and meteorological records, were analyzed. The precipitation equation of Lanzhou city and its surrounding area were calculated through the regression analysis, and the water vapor source of the four sites was tracked by the HYSPLIT 4. 9 model, and water vapor transmission regime was established. Results showed that the precipitation equation of deltaD =7.48 delta18O + 8.13 indicated intense evaporation; delta18O value was low in winter but high in summer; The variations of observed d-excess was stable all over the year, but there was variation in different time periods; The spatial distribution showed that the weighted delta18O value decreased from the west to the east; The linear relationships between delta18O and temperature was positive correlation, but the linear relationships between delta18O and precipitation was negative correlation; The seasonal variations of delta18O indicated that westerly water vapor, local moisture and summer monsoon all had influence on this region in a large scale, but the westerly water vapor played a dominant role. However, the impact of monsoon moisture had a seasonal limitation, mainly during the period from June to early August. PMID:24364289

Chen, Fen-Li; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Ma, Qian; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Li, Fei

2013-10-01

342

Neighborhood Segregation in Single-Race and Multirace America: A Census 2000 Study of Cities and Metropolitan Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the first time, the Census 2000 questionnaire allowed persons to identify with more than one racial group. As a result, demographers had the opportunity to examine segregation indices between mixed raced groups and persons who identify with a single race. Written by William H. Frey of the University of Michigan and Dowell Myers of the University of Southern California, "Neighborhood Segregation in Single-Race and Multirace America: A Census 2000 Study of Cities and Metropolitan Areas" analyzes and compares residential segregation of persons who identify with two or more racial groups versus persons identifying with a single racial group. Available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, this 45-page report includes all individual cities with Census 2000 populations exceeding 25,000, as well as all US metropolitan areas. One of the findings of the report reveals that persons of mixed race are more likely to live in integrated neighborhoods rather than persons identifying with one race alone. This report, provided by the FannieMae Foundation, is accompanied by racial segregation indices designed by CensusScope (last mentioned in the May 24, 2002 Scout Report).

Frey, William H.; Myers, Dowell.

2002-01-01

343

Water quality, physical habitat, and fish community composition in streams in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1997-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality, physical habitat, and fish-community composition were characterized at 13 Twin Cities metropolitan area streams during low-flow conditions, September 1997. Fish communities were resampled during September 1998. Sites were selected based on a range of human population density. Nutrient concentrations were generally low, rarely exceeding concentrations found in agricultural streams or water-quality criteria. Seventeen pesticides and five pesticide metabolites were detected, with atrazine being the only pesticide detected at all 13 streams. Colony counts of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 54 to greater than 11,000 colonies per 100 mL. Instream fish habitat was sparse with little woody debris and few boulders, cobble, or other suitable fish habitat. Thirty?eight species and one hybrid from 10 families were collected. Fish communities were characterized by high percentages of omnivores and tolerant species with few intolerant species. Index of Biotic Integrity scores were low, with most streams rating fair to very poor. Percent impervious surface was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations and human population density, but was negatively correlated with fish species richness and diversity. Urban land use and human population density influence fish communities and water quality in Twin Cities metropolitan area streams. Other factors that may influence fish community composition include percent impervious cover, water chemistry, water temperature, geomorphology, substrate, instream habitat, and migration barriers.

Talmage, Philip J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Anderson, Jesse P.; Fallon, James D.

1999-01-01

344

Environmental Characteristics and Geographic Information System Applications for the Development of Nutrient Thresholds in Oklahoma Streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency has developed nutrient criteria using ecoregions to manage and protect rivers and streams in the United States. Individual states and tribes are encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to modify or improve upon the ecoregion approach. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board uses a dichotomous process that stratifies streams using environmental characteristics such as stream order and stream slope. This process is called the Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter15. The Use Support Assessment Protocols can be used to identify streams threatened by excessive amounts of nutrients, dependant upon a beneficial use designation for each stream. The Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter 15 uses nutrient and environmental characteristic thresholds developed from a study conducted in the Netherlands, but the Oklahoma Water Resources Board wants to modify the thresholds to reflect hydrologic and ecological conditions relevant to Oklahoma streams and rivers. Environmental characteristics thought to affect impairment from nutrient concentrations in Oklahoma streams and rivers were determined for 798 water-quality sites in Oklahoma. Nutrient, chlorophyll, water-properties, and location data were retrieved from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET database including data from the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, and Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Drainage-basin area, stream order, stream slope, and land-use proportions were determined for each site using a Geographic Information System. The methods, procedures, and data sets used to determine the environmental characteristics are described.

Masoner, Jason R.; Haggard, Brian E.; Rea, Alan

2002-01-01

345

STUDY ON THE SOIL LQUEFACTION AT HINODE AREA IN ITAKO CITY CAUSED BY THE 2011 TOUHOKU-PACIFIC OCEAN EARTHQUAKE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Touhoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake caused severe liquefaction in a wide area of Kanto district. Many timber houses, buried pipes, roads, river dikes and port facilities were severely damaged due to liquefaction. Of them, serious damage to houses and lifelines occurred at Hinode area in Itako City, where a hosing lot had been constructed by filling a river. Many houses severely settled and tilted due to liquefaction. Then the authors collected the data on soil condition and settlement and inclination of houses, and studied the mechanism of the damage. Results show that a loose sand layer is deposited and ground water table is shallow. Though many houses suffered damage, the houses with pile foundations did not settle. On more remarkable thing is that the houses constructed on the ground by banking soil with 1 m high did not settle though surrounding houses settled.

Hashimoto, Takao; Yasuda, Susumu

346

Bird use of linear areas of a tropical city: implications for park connector design and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Parks Board of Singapore has plans to link up all urban parks and native habitats through a park-connector network. Although this connector network has already been implemented, it will take about 30 years to complete. We surveyed birds in 10 linear areas in Singapore. Of these linear areas, two were already completed park connectors, six were parks, and

Navjot S. Sodhi; Clive Briffett; Lily Kong; Belinda Yuen

1999-01-01

347

[Spatiotemporal expansion of urban and rural built-up areas in Shenyang City: an analysis based on remote sensing and GIS technology].  

PubMed

By using 1985, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004 satellite images and GIS technology, three indices including built-up area density, expansion intensity index, and fractal dimension were chosen to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics, spatial differentiation, and morphological changes of urban and rural built-up areas in Shenyang City in 1985-2004, with the main driving factors discussed. In the study period, the high-density area of urban built-up area in the City increased year by year, and that of rural built-up area changed slightly before 1997 but increased gradually thereafter. The increased area, expansion speed, and expansion intensity of built-up area were evidently greater in urban than in rural area. An obvious spatial differentiation was observed in the expansion of built-up area between urban and rural areas, with the high-speed expansion mainly concentrated in urban area. The fractal dimension in urban area increased gradually, which meant that the integrated configuration of urban area became more and more complex, while that in rural area changed irregularly, because of the lack of reasonable planning and construction. Economic development, population growth, transportation, natural environment, policy-guiding, and urban planning were the main driving forces of the expansion of built-up areas in Shenyang City. PMID:20077703

Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-Hui; Hu, Yuan-Man; Xi, Feng-Ming; Shan, Tao; He, Hong-Shi; Liu, Miao; Wang, Jin-Nian

2009-10-01

348

Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

2000-01-01

349

Oklahoma v. FERC: the waning of cooperative federalism  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma v. FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) is an important decision in the development of constitutional interpretations of the tenth amendment after the Supreme Court decision in National League of Cities v. Usery. Even though the legislative provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act impinge upon state regulatory decision making to a greater degree than earlier environmental legislation, the federal interest in energy price regulation was held to justify the use of state administrative agencies to further federal goals. The extension of federal control over state regulatory machinery narrows the scope of state sovereignty as a limitation on the commerce power. 55 references.

Melton, T.M.

1983-01-01

350

Changes in flow in the upper North Canadian river basin of western Oklahoma, pre-development to 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels have declined in the southern part of the High Plains aquifer of the central USA since the mid-1960s in response to extensive irrigation development. The North Canadian River originates in western Oklahoma, and most of the basin is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. Average river flow in the headwaters near Guymon, Oklahoma, has decreased from about 0.9 m3/s before 1970 to near zero at present. Canton Lake, on the North Canadian River near Seiling, about 250 km downstream from Guymon, is a source of water supply for Oklahoma City. Precipitation data and streamflow data for gages upstream from Canton Lake were divided into an "early" period ending in 1971 and a "recent" period that begins in 1978. The early period represents conditions before ground-water levels had declined appreciably in the High Plains aquifer, and the recent period reflects the current condition, including the effects of storage reservoirs. Tests for trend and comparisons of flows between the early and recent periods show that the total annual volume of flow and the magnitudes of instantaneous annual peak discharges measured at most locations in the North Canadian River basin have decreased. Precipitation records for the area, however, show no corresponding changes. The decreases in average annual flow, expressed as a percentage of the average flows for the early period, ranged from 91 percent near Guymon to 37 percent near Canton Lake. A major contributing factor in the decreased flows appears to be the large declines in water levels in the High Plains aquifer.

Wahl, K. L.

2001-01-01

351

Characterization of airborne individual particles collected in an urban area, a satellite city and a clean air area in Beijing, 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collection campaigns for PM 10 and PM 2.5 have been conducted in a northwestern Beijing urban area in monthly periods over 2001, with 7 days collection per month. The samples were also collected simultaneously in a satellite city, Nankou, and a clean air area near the Ming Tombs Reservoir (MTR) over the domestic heating (March) and non-heating (July/August) periods in 2001 (both for one week). To assist the analysis, three types of 'source' particulate matter (PM) samples were taken. These consisted of coal combustion ash collected on top of a coke oven; dust storm particles collected during dust storm periods; and roadside PM 10 collected on a major road in Beijing. Monitoring results reveal that, in the urban area, particle mass levels were higher in winter than in other seasons. The 1-week/month average PM 10 mass levels were over 250 ?g m -3 in winter. The particle mass levels in the satellite city were slightly lower than those at the urban site, and the lowest mass levels occurred at the MTR site. The morphology and chemical composition of individual airborne particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis was employed to study the number-size distributions. The number-size distributions of mineral particles showed that those in the Asia-Dust storm (ADS) collections are mostly coarser than 1 ?m, while mineral particles of the non-ADS collections are predominately finer than 1 ?m. The particles in the respirable (<2.5 ?m) fraction accounted for 99% of the total particles in airborne PM samples. Soot aggregates were generally the most abundant components in airborne PM samples at all three sites. The fly ash (spherical) particles at the MTR site were significantly enriched over the heating period, indicating a domestic coal-burning source.

Shi, Zongbo; Shao, Longyi; Jones, T. P.; Whittaker, A. G.; Lu, Senlin; Bérubé, K. A.; He, Taoe; Richards, R. J.

352

Sources, distribution and variability of airborne trace metals in La Plata City area, Argentina.  

PubMed

Airborne particulate trace metals have been measured bimonthly during day and night hours in four permanent stations located in residential, industrial and commercial sectors of La Plata City region, to characterize the sources and variability of atmospheric inputs. Airborne trace metal regional averages (Pb 64 +/- 62, Cu 30 +/- 27, Mn 26 +/- 20, Zn 273 +/- 227, Fe 1183 +/- 838, Ca 5343 +/- 3614, Mg 1472 +/- 967, Cr 4.3 +/- 2.4, Ni 3.2 +/- 3.5 and Cd 0.41 +/- 0.42 ng/m3) are comparable to the values reported for not grossly polluted cities and below the general trend described for urban particulates. Two- and three-way analysis of variance and variance components tests (P < 0.05) were performed to assess the contribution of the diurnal (day vs. night), spatial (inter-station) and temporal (inter-month) components of variability. Trace metal concentrations followed the behavior of total suspended particles with higher concentrations during the day and at the Downtown station and lower at the Residential site. In general, spatial and temporal variations prevailed over diurnal differences. Spatial differences were clearly most significant for Pb, which presented higher values at the Downtown site reflecting the importance of motor exhaust inputs. In contrast, diurnal differences were more important for Mn due to increased dust resuspension during day hours. A seasonal trend with concentrations usually increasing during winter months and decreasing in spring-summer was also detected. Enrichment factors (EF) were calculated to evaluate anthropogenic versus natural element sources. High EF (21-376) were obtained for Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu reflecting the importance of anthropic inputs. The comparison with EF calculated for high-emitting vehicle particle emissions indicated that motor exhausts are the most important source of these elements in La Plata region. In contrast, the EF calculated for Mn, Cr, Ni, Ca and Mg were low (1.3-7.5) suggesting chiefly natural sources, i.e. soil-derived dusts. PMID:11202709

Bilos, C; Colombo, J C; Skorupka, C N; Rodriguez Presa, M J

2001-01-01

353

Regional debris flow susceptibility assessment using HRDEM: Example of the city area of Messina (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow landslide and debris flows are among the most dangerous natural hazards triggered by extreme meteorological events. These phenomena have recently caused catastrophic scenarios in Italy (e.g. in Sarno-Quindici and Giampilieri) and, according to expected changes in the climate pattern, an increasing frequency of these phenomena is expected. The aim of this research is to assess the debris flow susceptibility in the Giampilieri area (Sicily) using a spatially-distributed debris flow runout model based on topographic information. The application of the model starts with the identification of the source areas from which debris flows are propagated on the basis of frictional laws and flow direction algorithms. The area selected for this study is located in the Ionian sector of the Peloritanian area in Sicily, in the South part of Messina (Sicily) and includes the villages of Giampilieri, Briga Itala and Scaletta Zanclea. There, the 1stOctober 2009 thousands of debris and mud flows were activated by a cumulative rainfall of about 160 mm in 6 hours, which followed two previous rainfalls events occurred on16th September (76 mm in six hours) and 23rd - 24th September (190 mm in 10 hours). Among the catchments hit by the 2009 event, the Giampilieri basin (10 km2) has been chosen as sub area in order to set the algorithms for the spreading assessment and the friction parameters of the model. In this catchment, a complete inventory of the source areas and accumulation zone was created by photointerpretation of post event images. Moreover, volume and velocity estimations of the mobilized material have been carried out. The susceptibility was evaluated using the source areas of the 2009 event and its accuracy was estimated by the comparison of the results with the accumulation areas and the velocity and volume estimated. In a second step we performed the analysis at the medium scale on the whole area hit by the 2009 event using the parameters calibrated on the Giampilieri basin. The presented approach of debris ?ow susceptibility analysis demonstrates that a simple assessment of the debris ?ow spreading calculated using defined source areas and calibrated on past events, provided good results for consequent hazard and risk studies.

Cama, Mariaelena; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mathieu, Alexandre; Remaître, Alexandre; Rotigliano, Edoardo

2014-05-01

354

Assessment of nutritional status of pre-schoolers in slum areas of Udaipur City.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted in pre-schoolers (2-6 years) from ten different slums of Udaipur City in Rajasthan with the aim to their nutritional status. From the data collected and observations recorded was observed that majority of the subjects were from nuclear family with monthly family income of less than Rs.1500/-. Developmental pattern of these subjects indicated that the height with age of bothe male and female subjects increased, however, their body weight did not increase. More than 50% of these pre-schoolers showed symptoms of protein energy malnutrition and anaemia, while 22% had pigeon chest deformity due to vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Classification for degree of malnutrition as per IAP showed that majority of these subjects (66%) were under weight (Grade I and II). Waterlow's classification revealed that majority of these pre-schoolers were wasted (30%) or wasted and Stunted (42%). This malnutrition was either of PCM (past chronic) or CLM (current long duration) type as per Seoane and Latham's classification. PMID:17193758

Tripathi, M S; Sharma, V

2006-01-01

355

Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne offsite sanitation system was found to be a feasible option. The simplified sewerage system was found to deliver the same hydraulic benefits for collecting wastewater as the conventional but was 33% cheaper to construct and hence more affordable for the community. It was recommended that stringent environmental monitoring of the sanitation system be put in place to minimise any potential environmental impacts.

Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

356

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

357

The Residential Moves by the Elderly to U.S. Central Cities, Suburbs, and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of studies have examined the movement patterns of older people between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in the United States. Most of these studies, however, have not considered whether the relocation patterns of older persons differ systematically from those of younger populations. The 1975-1980 migration stream and net…

Golant, Stephen M.

358

Smart Café Cities: Testing Human Capital Externalities in the Boston Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies have explored either only one or two of the mechanisms that human capital externalities percolate at only macrogeographic levels. This paper, by using the 1990 Massachusetts census data, tests four mechanisms at the microgeographic levels in the Boston metropolitan area labor market. We propose that individual workers can learn from their occupational and industrial peers in the same

Shihe Fu

2005-01-01

359

Smart Café Cities: Testing human capital externalities in the Boston metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies have explored only one or, in some cases, two mechanisms by which human capital externalities percolate at the macrogeographic levels. This study, however, uses the 1990 Massachusetts census data to test four mechanisms at the microgeographic levels, in the Boston metropolitan area labor market. We propose that individual workers can learn from their occupational and industrial peers in

Shihe Fu

2007-01-01

360

The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

361

Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum flood scenario and a sunny-day dam-breach scenario, as well as for maximum flood-inundation elevations and flood-wave arrival times for selected bridge crossings. Some areas of concern near the city of Lawton, if a dam breach occurs at Lakes Ellsworth or Lawtonka, include water treatment plants, wastewater treatment plants, recreational areas, and community-services offices.

Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

2012-01-01

362

Effects of wetlands on quality of runoff entering lakes in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four wetlands were compared with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing suspended solids and nutrient concentrations in runoff to lakes immediately downstream from the wetlands. An artificial impoundment in one of the wetlands increased settling of suspended solids. A decrease of nutrients in this wetland was probably the result of high assimilation rates associated with a dense stand of cattails. Two of the other three wetlands consist of open water and land areas, both of which contain abundant vegetation. Drainage from land areas within the wetlands may have lowered the overall effectiveness of the wetlands in decreasing sediment and nutrient concentrations. The third wetland was a constructed wetland that was ineffective in decreasing sediment or nutrient concentrations because its storage capacity was too small to prevent frequent flushing of accumulated sediment. Sediment concentrations in discharge from this wetland were as much as 22 times greater than the already high sediment concentrations in the inflow. (Author 's abstract)

Brown, R. G.

1985-01-01

363

Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area  

SciTech Connect

This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

Not Available

1995-01-01

364

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction for infill drilling, White City Penn-South Carlsbad Field Areas, Eddy County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The White City field and the southern part of the South Carlsbad field are located on the Northwest shelf in central Eddy County, approximately 15 mi south of Carlsbad and 4 mi east of White City, New Mexico. The field is a structural-stratigraphic reservoir producing predominately from a thick section of Pennsylvanian (Morrow, Atoka, Strawn) clastics and carbonates that were deposited on a shallow shelf edge. The older Morrowan clastics comprise most of the production in this area. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction and petrographic analyses characterize the lower half of the Morrowan as an overall prograding fluvial-deltaic sequence of channels, point bars, and channel mouth bars sourced from the northwest. This sequence trends toward the southeast, normal to depositional strike. The uppermost sand units are capped by shoal-water carbonate biograinstones. These strandling deposits are eventually overlain by a thick interval of transgressive Morrowan limestones. Although the study area involves a significant structural overprint, important stratigraphic traps are created in the sandstones by variations in cementation and depositional patterns. Because of the variable nature of deltaic deposition, the Morrow clastics were sliced into several correlatable genetic sand packages, and the lateral variability within each package was mapped using electric log signatures and assigning the associated environmental interpretations. This process helped define the size, geometry, and orientation of sands at each interval, thus allowing the workers to establish reservoir limits and to understand the porosity and permeability behavior and facies changes within each slice. When these slices are vertically stacked, a three-dimensional attitude is realized for the entire reservoir, and detailed paleoenvironmental reconstruction is possible.

Casavant, R.R.

1986-03-01

365

Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the PM10 urban background with about 86%; relative contribution of urban background to regional background is about 37%; Relatively low inter-sites correlation coefficients and no significant geographic differences between sites, more or less uniform traffic pattern suggests local sources may play an important role; PM10average and median values systematically exceed the limit value of 50 ?g/m3 at traffic and industrial sites; at background sites the PM10 are below 50?g/m3 but are higher that values at similar sites in Europe; CO and SO2 do not put serious problems relative to their limits values as NOx does; NOx shows a temporal variation with higher values during the cold season; All gaseous pollutants contribute to the PM10 levels but a significant inter-annual variation of this contribution seems not to be observed; Pollution level in Bucharest seems to be higher than in other European cities for traffic, industrial and suburban background sites; regional background in the larger area of Bucharest seems to be similar with the suburban background sites in other European sites. Seven pollution episodes were identified, from which only one in the cold season has been attributed to the long-range transport. During this episode PM10 levels varied between 161-205 ?g/m3 for all sites, the dominant wind direction was NE (10.2%), with an average wind speed of 1.6 m/s. This shows that local pollution sources seem to have more impact on AQ than the long-range transport. Data presented here give an overview of the range of air pollution concentrations to expect under typical meteorological and seasonal conditions in the larger area of Bucharest. Acknowledgements: Dr. Ing. Danut Cociorva, Leader of the Air Quality Control Group-NIRD-ICIM Bucharest, is gratefully acknowledged for his permission to analyse the data. The air mass back trajectories were calculated using HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model: www.arl.noaa.gov/ ready.html. Financial support from ÖAD Austria, Programm WTZ, Project No: RO 02/2009 and from ANCS Romania, Programm PN II, Contract No: 304/27.04.2009

Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

2010-05-01

366

A comparison of the speech patterns and dialect attitudes of Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lexical dialect usage of Oklahoma has been well-studied in the past by the Survey of Oklahoma Dialects, but the acoustic speech production of the state has received little attention. Apart from two people from Tulsa and two people from Oklahoma City that were interviewed for the Atlas of North American English, no other acoustic work has been performed within the state. This dissertation begins to fill in these gaps by presenting twelve respondents interviewed by the Research on Dialects of English in Oklahoma (RODEO) project. For each speaker, a brief biography is given, including some of their regional and speech attitudes of Oklahoma. Then acoustic data from a wordlist and reading task are presented and compared. Analysis will consider plots of each speaker's vowel system as a whole, and will also examine many environments in isolation. These environments were chosen for their likely presence in Oklahoma, and include such dialect features as the Southern Shift, the pin/pen merger, the caught/cot merger, monophthongization of the PRICE vowel, and neutralization of tense vowels before /l./ After considering each respondent separately, some of their results will be pooled together to give a preliminary sense of the state of dialect within Oklahoma. Demographic variables such as age, gender, and urban/rural upbringing will be related to speakers' attitudes and acoustic production. This will serve two goals - first, to compare modern-day production to the findings of previous scholars, and second, to suggest a dialect trajectory for the state that could be studied further in additional research.

Bakos, Jon

367

33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted... § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

2013-07-01

368

Long-Term Subsidence Monitoring of City Areas at Nordic Latitudes using ERS SAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique may be a valuable tool for subsidence monitoring at different places of the Earth surface. Many results have been reported during the 1990 s where data from the ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR sensors were used. This paper will present the ongoing long-term subsidence project in Norway, AO-1104, that are making use of ERS SAR data. The test area is located in the Oslo region in Norway. During the 1990 s, this area has undergone a lot of tunnel construction work, but also some smaller earthquakes have been registered in the region. Subsidence effects of several centimeters are connected to these events and documented by land surveillance. The changing topography from sea level to 700 m above sea level, the dominating coniferous forests outside the built-up areas, and the seasonal variations with snow, rain and temperatures below freezing at several months of the year, makes this project a real challenge when it comes to masking out the non-subsidence factors and interpreting the interferometric SAR signal. For this AO-project, a total of 45 ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR raw data sets were obtained from ESA. The scenes are spanning a time interval from 1992 to 2000. Out of these scenes, 13 are from the winter, and 32 from the spring/summer/autumn period. The raw data sets are processed to single-look-complex SAR images using the phase preserving Extended Exact Transfer Function (EETF). Satellite orbit baselines are estimated using precise orbit data from ESA. Multiple differential interferograms are produced, as well as other products: coherence, lay-over and shadow masks and finally a simulated intensity map.

Lauknes, T. R.; Engen, G.; Høgda, K. A.; Lauknes, I.; Eltoft, T.; Weydahl, D. J.; Eldhuset, K.

2004-06-01

369

Geohelminth egg contamination of children's play areas in the city of Lodz (Poland).  

PubMed

The contamination of soil and sand with helminth eggs in children's play areas in Lodz (Poland) was assessed over two seasons using the flotation method with saturated sodium nitrate solution. A total of 88 samples were examined from 7 children's playgrounds from various public parks, 6 sandpits situated in school or kindergarten areas and 9 school sports fields. The differences in the number of positive samples from these sites were significant (?(2)=21.83, d.f.=2 and p<0.0001). The highest rate of contamination was found in the area around sports fields. (15.7%). There was a significant difference between the frequencies of positive samples from the surface and from the deeper layers of the examined sites (?(2)=11.41, d.f.=1, and p=0.0007). The average density of geohelminth eggs in 100g of soil or sand was 1.1 from sports fields, 0.4 from playgrounds and 0.07 from fenced sandpits. Throughout the study, 4 genera of nematode eggs (Toxocara, Uncinaria/Ancylostoma, Ascaris, Trichuris) and 1 genus (Cystoisospora spp.) of oocysts were detected. A total of 62 eggs were recovered, and 43.5% were fully developed to embryonated egg stages. The contamination rate was different in autumn 2010 and spring 2011, but there was no significant difference in the number of positive findings between these seasons. The helminth eggs were found in 10.9% and 7.6% of samples collected in the spring and in the autumn, respectively. The most frequently seen eggs were from Toxocara sp., which were the most prevalent in both seasons. PMID:23084538

Blaszkowska, Joanna; Wojcik, Anna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Szwabe, Katarzyna

2013-02-18

370

Red Fork sandstone of Oklahoma: depositional history and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of progradation across eastern Kansas and most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems) developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes, together with varying subsidence, were dominant factors controlling the general stratigraphic (correlative) characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the more active part of the basin during lower sea level stands and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. A map of Red Fork sand trends reveals an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northernmost part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope basinal-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock and log data. Logs need to be calibrated to cores in order to estimate depositional environments accurately and to make a reasonable assessment of diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, and a significant amount of oil is in channel sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. In some areas, secondary clay, in particular chloritic clay, has resulted in microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities in oil reserves.

Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C.

1989-03-01

371

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

372

[The epidemiology of Chagas' disease in a rural area of the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil].  

PubMed

In the rural areas of Teresina, 129 triatomines were captured distributed in (a) artificial ecotopes; a house with one Triatoma brasiliensis, one Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pictipes, and one Rhodnius prolixus and in a uninhabited chicken house (7 Rhodnius nasutus). (b) Natural ecotopes; Pahus Orbignya martiana (41 Rhodnius neglectus, 33 Rhodnius prolixus and 41 Rhodnius nasutus) and Copernicia cerifera (3 Rhodnius neglectus). The 22.6% of captured triatomines were infected by flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. Twenty-eight sylvatic mammals were captured and examined. Seven Didelphia albiventris, 2 Rattus rattus and a Tamandua tetradactyla were infected with flagellates. The flagellates found in both triatomines and mammals were morphologically indistinguishable from Trypanosoma cruzi. Serology by the indirect immunofluorescence test for Chagas disease revealed two positive seroreactions of positivity among 123 inhabitants examined. PMID:1308066

Bento, D N; Farias, L M; Godoy, M F; Araújo, J F

1992-01-01

373

MISR Scans the Texas-Oklahoma Border  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR images of Oklahoma and north Texas were acquired on March 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 1243. The three images on the left, from top to bottom, are from the 70-degree forward viewing camera, the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and the 70-degree aftward viewing camera. The higher brightness, bluer tinge, and reduced contrast of the oblique views result primarily from scattering of sunlight in the Earth's atmosphere, though some color and brightness variations are also due to differences in surface reflection at the different angles. The longer slant path through the atmosphere at the oblique angles also accentuates the appearance of thin, high-altitude cirrus clouds.

On the right, two areas from the nadir camera image are shown in more detail, along with notations highlighting major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered and grassy plains, rolling hills, and prairies, the Red River and the Canadian River are important resources for farming, ranching, public drinking water, hydroelectric power, and recreation. Both originate in New Mexico and flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River.

A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and east of Lake Eufaula is visible in the detailed nadir imagery. The plume is also very obvious at the 70-degree forward view angle, to the right of center and about one-fourth of the way down from the top of the image.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2000-01-01

374

Methamphetamine-related fatalities in forensic autopsy during 5 years in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas.  

PubMed

To outline the recent features of methamphetamine-related fatalities from the medico-legal point of view, a retrospective investigation of forensic autopsy cases involving methamphetamine during a 5-year period (1994-1998) in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas (about 1.57 million population) was undertaken. Among 646 autopsy cases, methamphetamine was detected in 15 victims (nine males, six females; 16-71 years of age; most frequently in males in their thirties). Primary scenes of fatal events were concentrated in the middle of the city. About half of them were transferred from emergency medical centers (survival time, up to 30 h). The cause and manner of death were: methamphetamine poisoning (n=4), homicide (n=4), accidental falls and aspiration from drug abuse (n=4), fire death (n=1), myocardial infarction (n=1), and cerebral hemorrhage (n=1) under drug influence. Usually injection scars and fresh puncture sites were found. Blood methamphetamine concentrations were 2.29-17.05 micromol/dl in the fatal poisoning, 0. 44-3.80 micromol/dl in deaths from other extrinsic causes (trauma), and 1.35-2.17 micromol/dl in cardio- and cerebrovascular strokes. Common complications were cardiomyopathy, cerebral perivasculitis and liver cirrhosis/interstitial hepatitis. Fatal and nonfatal methamphetamine poisonings are separately dealt with by the administrative medical examiner's office and in emergency medical centers. Tightly cooperative approaches of clinical and medico-legal experts are required for the effective social and medical management of drug abuse. PMID:10978660

Zhu, B L; Oritani, S; Shimotouge, K; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Fujita, M Q; Ogawa, M; Maeda, H

2000-09-11

375

CO 2 sources and sinks in urban and suburban areas of a northern mid-latitude city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban environments can modify the local climate and are net CO 2 emitters, both of which can affect the life of an increasing proportion of the world's population that lives in and around cities. Observational information on the seasonal and diurnal variations of CO 2 fluxes (F) as well as on the contribution from the different CO 2 sources and sinks is needed at fine spatial resolution to help develop and validate weather prediction and atmospheric dispersion models. This study reports on F measured using the eddy covariance technique for a two-year period over a suburban and an urban residential area as well as a reference agricultural site located in the Montreal region, which experiences cold winters and warm summers. The seasonal and diurnal variability of F and its response to incoming light and to air temperature was analysed. Typical weekday and weekend vehicular traffic CO 2 emissions (E VT) were estimated from inventory data for both residential sites. The urban site was a net source of CO 2 throughout the entire measurement period on the order of 200 t CO 2 ha -1 year -1. The suburban site was a winter source and a summer daytime sink of CO 2 resulting in a net source of 50 t CO 2 ha -1 y -1. Lower emissions at the suburban site are attributed to the large biological uptake in summer and to its low anthropogenic emissions. Higher emissions at the urban site are partly associated with its greater population and building density, promoting higher emissions from vehicular traffic and heating fuel combustion. The cold climate induced increased heating fuel combustion as compared to cities under a warmer climate.

Bergeron, Onil; Strachan, Ian B.

2011-03-01

376

Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 ?g m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

377

Urban Planetary Boundary Layer investigations in cold season and complex topography in IASI city area using ESYROLIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The up-gradable 2012 configuration of ESYROLIDAR system based on a multi -wavelengths (1064, 532 and 355 nm) powerful (200, 100 and 45 mJ/pulse) and relatively high variable repetition rate (up to 30 Hz) Nd: YAG pulsed laser, a large Newtonian telescope (40 cm diameter of collector mirror) and a new opto-mechanics detection module is used to evaluate the planetary boundary layer dynamics. The measurement site is located on the Science and Technology Park TehnopolIS (in a complex topography of Iasi city area situated in the north-eastern part of Romania - Moldavia region (47° 7'17.16"N, 27°34'15.35"E, ASL 60m). This paper will present both the advantages and performances of the 2012 lidar system configuration and the PBL related lidar profiles measured in cold season conditions. The correlation of PBL dynamics as observed by lidar with PM point monitor existing data in the area will be presented and interpreted. Finally the simulation of PBL height results at regional scale performed with the meteorological model MM5 included in the INOE2000 (National Institute for Research and Development for Opto-Electronics Magurele, Romania) Air Quality Forecast system will be compared with lidar data in daytime.

Tudose, O.-G.; Balanici, A.; Couach, O.; Balin, I.

2012-04-01

378

Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

2004-12-01

379

Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric inputs and runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric input), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31 , 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric input in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric input rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road de-icing salt are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June. The atmospheric contribution to nonpoint-source-runoff pollution of nitrogen, in the form of nitrite-plus-nitrate, and lead was extremely high, constituting as much as 84 percent of the runoff load. In contrast, phosphorus and chloride inputs were low, averaging 6 percent of the total runoff load. (USGS)

Brown, R. G.

1984-01-01

380

Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life. PMID:19590969

Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

2010-07-01

381

Awareness of heart attack symptoms and lifesaving actions among New York City area residents.  

PubMed

The American Heart Association has a national network of community-based programs designed to reduce response times to cardiac emergencies by improving access to automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) among laypersons. Success of these Operation Heartbeat programs depends in part on the public's knowledge of the warning signs of a myocardial infarction (MI) and appropriate response to cardiac arrest victims. In May 2000, a 7-minute telephone survey was administered to a random sample of adults residing within the American Heart Association affiliate territories of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut to determine the knowledge of MI symptoms, confidence in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) use, and the awareness of AEDs. Of the respondents, 60% were women (n=1,128), 83% were Caucasians (n=1,558), 15.2% were non-whites (African American, Asian, or Hispanic), and 38.5% had at least a college degree (n=724). Women were significantly more likely than men to know that sex differences exist in the warning signs for an MI (63% vs. 30.7%, respectively; P< .001). Whites had above-average confidence in MI recognition compared with non-whites (39.2% vs. 27.4%, respectively; P< .001) and were more cognizant of the public availability of AEDs (54.5% vs. 33.2%, respectively; P< .001). Our findings suggest that racial/ethnic and sex disparities exist in the awareness of AEDs and in the knowledge of atypical MI symptoms in women, respectively. Innovative CPR outreach programs might be needed in New York area communities to increase CPR training among all adults, to increase AED awareness in vulnerable populations, and to improve knowledge and confidence in the recognition of acute MI symptoms. PMID:15888639

Barnhart, Janice M; Cohen, Oshra; Kramer, Harvey M; Wilkins, Catherine M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

2005-06-01

382

Post-Subduction Pleistocene Volcanism in Tahoe City Area, Northern Sierra Nevada, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and isotopic analyses of Pleistocene volcanic rocks in the northwestern part of the Lake Tahoe basin are used to define sources and triggering mechanism(s) of post-subduction magmatism. From field and geochronologic data the volcanic rocks include an older (2.0 Ma to 2.3 Ma) set of trachybasalts and trachybasaltic andesites and a set of ~0.92 Ma trachyandesites. The 2.0-2.3 Ma set shows a range of wt% SiO2 from 48.7 to 55.5, high wt% K2O (1.3-2.3), and high Ni and Cr contents (31-207 ppm and 80-350 ppm respectively). The 0.92 Ma trachyandesites have 56.4-61.3 wt% SiO2; high Al2O3 (17.4-18.7 wt%), Na2O (4.2-4.7 wt%), Sr (907-1950 ppm), La (39.2-48.2 ppm) and other LREE; and low Y (10.6-16.9 ppm), and Yb (1.0-1.6 ppm). Both sets of volcanic rocks have high LILE/HFSE ratios, and higher (La/Yb)N and Sr/Y ratios than older, subduction related "calc-alkaline" volcanic rocks in this region. Chemical data preclude direct derivation of the 0.92 Ma trachyandesite from 2.0-2.3 Ma trachybasaltic andesites, and it is difficult to link the two sets of volcanic rocks to a common parental magma by fractional crystallization alone. Trace and rare earth element data for both sets of volcanic rocks indicate melting of the source in the presence of garnet and amphibole and in the absence of plagioclase. Compositionally similar volcanic rocks occur in other post-subduction continental margin settings, including Baja California, where "bajaites" overlap the compositions of older basaltic andesites and low-Si adakites. Bajaite is typically interpreted as the product of melting of asthenospheric mantle wedge metasomatized by high Sr/Y melts of underlying oceanic crust, prior to cessation of subduction. However, both sets of volcanic rocks discussed here have low ?Nd (+2 to -4.0), and samples with the highest Sr/Y have the lowest ?Nd(0) values. These data suggest that melt could not have been derived from recently subducted oceanic lithosphere. Instead, mafic and ultramafic source rocks may be part of the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada lithosphere. Migration of Basin and Range extension into the Tahoe area within the last 3 Ma, possibly combined with removal of deep Sierran lithosphere ("delamination"), may have triggered lithospheric thinning and melting within the deep lithosphere.

Kortemeier, W. T.; Farmer, G.; Schweickert, R. A.

2011-12-01

383

Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities  

SciTech Connect

Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

1980-07-01

384

Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

Peace, H.W. (Oryx Energy, Inc., Midland, TX (United States)); Forgotson, J.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

1991-08-01

385

Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the dominant vegetal cover adjacent to the urban gullies. The local climate is humid tropical, with average annual temperatures of 26°C, reaching higher values in October to December and lower from April to June. Rainfall distribution throughout the year is irregular, marked by two very distinct seasons (rainy and dry). The highly seasonal erosive rains incise a complex series of soil erosion landforms, mainly gullies in this area. The following procedures have been carried out: fieldwork with monitoring of gully head erosion; Environmental Education Program; handcraft workshop regarding the prodution of geotextiles from Buriti fiber. The rehabilitation of this degraded site, follows these stages: 1. Acquisition of equipment and materials; 2. Contracting workers; 3. Reshaping selected gully walls; 4. Adding organic palm materials to the topsoil and ~30 kg of grass seeds; 5. Application of geotextile anchored on the ground by using wooden stakes; 6. Maintenance work with photographic records; 7. Photo comparison to measure the vegetal cover percentage, with the aid of geoprocessing software. Some of the gully walls presented steep slopes, around 90 degrees, and therefore, it was necessary to reshape them for the application of soil bioengineering techniques. It was selected a sample area of 2.000 m2 to be rehabilitated. The knowledge of soil and geomorphological characteristics was essential to understand surface runoff, considering the direction of water flows. Due to the difficulties in diverting the flows, which would require more extensive engineering works, the channel was maintained, and the base of the slopes was strengthened to support the flows. In the upper part of this area, which had ~8° slope angle, contour lines were surveyed and barriers of wooden stakes were used to retard runoff velocity from adjacent vegetated slopes. Some slopes in this part had a 45° slope angle, due to the local topography. However, this angle is considered too steep for the application of palm-mats. In some parts of gully, work was completed to reshape the gullies and constru

Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

2009-04-01

386

Aerosol radiative effects on the meteorology and distribution of pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols scatter or absorb incoming solar radiation, perturb the temperature structure of the atmosphere, and impact meteorological fields and further the distribution of gas phase species and aerosols. In the present study, the aerosol radiative effects on the meteorology and photochemistry in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are investigated using the WRF-CHEM model during the period from March 24th to 29th associated with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Aerosols decrease incoming solar radiation by up to 20% and reduce the surface temperature by up to 0.5 °C due to scattering and absorbing the incoming solar radiation in Mexico City. The absorption of black carbon aerosols can also enhance slightly the temperature in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Generally, the change of the PBL height in the city is less than 200 m during daytime due to the aerosol-induced perturbation of temperature profile. Wind fields are also adjusted with the variation of temperatures, but all the aerosol-induced meteorological changes cannot significantly influence the distribution of pollutants in the city. In addition, when convective events occur in the city, the aerosol radiative effects reduce the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective precipitation is generally decreased. Further studies still need to be performed to evaluate the aerosol indirect effect on precipitation in Mexico City.

Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Molina, Luisa

2013-04-01

387

77 FR 15357 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 106 under Alternative Site Framework, Oklahoma...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order No. 1816] Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 106 under Alternative Site Framework, Oklahoma City, OK Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u),...

2012-03-15

388

Ground-water records for eastern Oklahoma, Part 2; water-quality records for wells, test-holes, and springs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey has collected data on Oklahoma's ground-water resources since 1934. Most of these data were collected as part of specific ground-water studies conducted in cooperation with various Federal, State, and local agencies. Data on construction, yield, water levels, and other physical well parameters are given in 'Ground-Water Records for Northeastern Oklahoma, Part 1 - Records of Wells, Test Holes, and Springs' and in 'Ground-Water Records for Southeastern Oklahoma, Part 1 - Records of Wells, Test Holes, and Springs.' These reports are available from the U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Rm. 621, 201 N.W. Third, Oklahoma City, OK 73102. Although some water-quality data for wells, test-holes, and springs have been published, they are scattered through a variety of reports and are not readily available on a regional basis. Furthermore, a considerable amount of data have never been published and can be obtained only from the files of the Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to make available both published and unpublished water-quality records for approximately 1,740 wells, test-holes, and springs in 23 counties in northeastern Oklahoma and 16 counties in southeastern Oklahoma. Acknowledgment is extended to the many hundreds of individuals who have provided the data compiled in this report.

Havens, John S.

1978-01-01

389

Community energy: a tale of four cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four communities have been selected to participate in a Sierra Club Community Energy Project designed to bring together diverse groups of citizens to assess current and future energy needs. Plans will be formulated which emphasize conservation and renewable energy resources. The four communities are Claremore, Oklahoma, Missoula, Montana; Iowa City, Iowa; and Hanover, New Hampshire. (JMT)

Laitner

1982-01-01

390

Multiple Tracksites with Parallel Trackways from the Cretaceous of the Yeosu City Area Korea: Implications for Gregarious Behavior in Ornithopod and Sauropod Dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least six sites with multiple parallel ornithopod trackways and one site with three parallel sauropod trackways have been mapped in the track-rich Cretaceous sequence on Sado and Chudo islands, Yeosu City area, South Korea. A preliminary study of the stratigraphic context of these tracks indicates that they were made by gregarious subadult or adult dinosaurs that frequented lake basin

Martin G. Lockley; Min Huh; Se-Geon Gwak; Koo Geun Hwang; In Sung Paik

2012-01-01

391

Public Health Assessment for Old Roosevelt Field Contaminated Groundwater Area Garden City, Naasau County, New York. EPA Facility ID: NYSFN0204234.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The former Roosevelt Air Field Hanger site, now occupied by a shopping mall and office buildings, is at the intersection of Old Country Road and Clinton Road in Garden City, Nassau County, New York. The Old Roosevelt Field Contaminated Groundwater Area (O...

2004-01-01

392

Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (?26000tonday?1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of

D. A. de la Rosa; A. Velasco; A. Rosas; T. Volke-Sepúlveda

2006-01-01

393

FINANCIAL INCLUSION, VULNERABILITY AND MENTAL MODELS: FROM PHYSICAL ACCESS TO EFFECTIVE USE OF FINANCIAL SERVICES IN A LOW-INCOME AREA OF MEXICO CITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis indicates that variation in use of regulated and unregulated financial services in a low-income area of Mexico City can only partially be attributed to differences in socio-economic variables including gender, employment, education and housing status. Qualitative evidence suggests cognitive resources (including financial knowledge, attitudes and values) and socialised experiential learning are also important to financial inclusion and its

Max M. Nino-Zarazua; James Copestake

2008-01-01

394

Source identification of different size fraction of PM10 using factor analysis at residential cum commercial area of Nagpur city.  

PubMed

Particulate size distribution of PM(10) and associated trace metal concentrations has been carried out in residential cum commercial area of Mahal at Nagpur city. Sampling for size fraction of particulate matter was performed during winter season using eight-stage cascade impactor with a pre-separator and toxic metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The average concentration of PM(10) and fine particulate matter (effective cut of aerodynamic diameter ?2.2 ?m) was found to be 300 and 136.7 ?g/m(3), respectively which was exceeding limit of Central Pollution Control Board. Maximum mass concentration of 41 ?g/m(3) in size range of 9.0-10.0 ?m and minimum mass concentration of 19 ?g/m(3) in size range 2.2-3.3 ?m was observed. Metals (Sr, Ni and Zn) were found to large proportions in below 0.7 ?m particle size and could therefore pass directly into the alveoli region of human respiratory system. Factor analysis results indicated combustion and vehicular emission as the dominant source in fine mode and resuspended dust was dominant in medium mode while crustal along with vehicular source was major in coarse mode of particulate matter. PMID:22033656

Pipalatkar, P P; Gajghate, D G; Khaparde, V V

2012-02-01

395

Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota; hydrologic data for 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of nonpoint-source runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area was conducted to define relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff. Six rural and four urban watersheds ranging in size from 1.22 to 82.9 square miles were studied. Discharge and water-quality data were collected at 19 sites during 1980. Recording instruments and automatic samplers provided continuous discharge records at 17 sites, continuous rainfall records and automatic collection of samples at 12 sites, and wetfall/dryfall precipitation samples at six sites. Sampling was intensified during periods of increased runoff resulting from snowmelt and rainstorms. Primary emphasis was placed on analysis of samples for suspended solids, nutrients, and chemical oxygen demand. Samples were also analyzed for chloride, metals, bacteria, and pesticides. The data are documented in tables containing basin characteristics and land use, daily and unit values for discharge and rainfall, rainfall characteristics, water-quality data for runoff and precipitation, results of laboratory settling test, results of quality assurance tests, daily loads, and storm loads. (USGS)

Payne, G. A.; Ayers, M. A.; Brown, R. G.

1982-01-01

396

[Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].  

PubMed

It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (<4 times in the week) and rarely (1 time a month), with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health. PMID:21180826

Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

2011-01-01

397

On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

2004-12-01

398

Factors influencing the uptake of nutrients in streams within the New York City water-supply source areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uptake of nutrients was measured in each of ten streams within the water supply source areas for New York City, once each year between 2000 and 2002. Uptake lengths were estimated from the conservative-tracer-corrected downstream attenuation of short-term (1-2 h) nutrient releases. Uptake lengths correlated with stream size and were converted to uptake velocities (Vf) for further analysis. Vf of phosphate, with a mean of 0.018 mm/s, fit Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics with a half-saturation of 7 ?g/L background phosphate. Vf of ammonium, with a mean of 0.58 mm/s, did not correlate with background ammonium concentration, but fit an uptake curve that used total dissolved nitrogen as the substrate, with a half-saturation of 1 mg/L. Vf of glucose and arabinose were not related to background concentrations. Vf for all four nutrients correlated with community respiration (CR) from diel oxygen variation. For phosphorus uptake, however, CR was collinear with background phosphorus. Vf for ammonium correlated with the macroinvertebrate-based Water Quality Score and Vf for both ammonium and phosphate correlated with some molecular tracers of anthropogenic sources. These results point to nutrient uptake as a sensitive integrator of water quality, ecosystem metabolism, and community structure.

Newbold, D.; Kaplan, L.; Bott, T.; Jackson, J.; Aufdenkampe, A.; Dow, C.

2005-05-01

399

Influence of coal mining on regional karst groundwater system: a case study in West Mountain area of Taiyuan City, northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karstic limestone formations in the West Mountain area are important water resources for Taiyuan City in Shanxi Province,\\u000a northern China, which is also known for its large-scale coal mining production. In this study area, groundwater is not only\\u000a exploited for water supply purposes but also drained because of coal mining. The process of coal mining changes both the quantity\\u000a of

Xiaojuan QiaoGuomin; Guomin Li; Ming Li; Jinlong Zhou; Jie Du; Chengyuan Du; Zhonghui Sun

400

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction for infill drilling, White City Penn-South Carlsbad Field Areas, Eddy County, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The White City field and the southern part of the South Carlsbad field are located on the Northwest shelf in central Eddy County, approximately 15 mi south of Carlsbad and 4 mi east of White City, New Mexico. The field is a structural-stratigraphic reservoir producing predominately from a thick section of Pennsylvanian (Morrow, Atoka, Strawn) clastics and carbonates that were

R. R. Casavant

1986-01-01

401

Movement of Blacks and Whites Between Central Cities and Suburbs in 11 Metropolitan Areas, 1955-1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on movement of blacks and whites between 11 large cities and their suburbs, from HUD's 1974 and 1975 Annual Housing Surveys, are compared with 1960 and 1970 census data. Recent studies have spotlighted white, middle - class returns to central cities....

K. P. Nelson

1978-01-01

402

Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

2002-01-01

403

Occurrence of natural Anopheles arabiensis swarms in an urban area of Bobo-Dioulasso City, Burkina Faso, West Africa.  

PubMed

The swarming behaviour of natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis was investigated by conducting transect surveys on 10 consecutive days, around dusk, from March to April and from September to October 2012 in Dioulassoba, a district of Bobo-Dioulasso city in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Swarms were observed outside, around identified larval breeding sites on the banks of the Houet River, as well as in the open-air courtyards found at the centre of many homes in the region. Swarms were found to occur in open sunlit spaces, mostly located above physical or visual cues somehow visually distinct from the surrounding area. Overall 67 and 78 swarms were observed, respectively, during the dry season (March-April) and the rainy season (September-October) of 2012, between 1.5m and 4.5m above the ground at their centre. 964 mosquitoes were collected and analysed from dry season swarms, of which most were male, and all were An. arabiensis, as were the few resting mosquitoes collected indoors. Larvae collected from breeding sites found on the banks of the Houet River mostly consisted of An. arabiensis and only a minority of Anopheles coluzzii (formerly identified as An. gambiae M form). Of 1694 mosquitoes analysed from 78 swarms in the rainy season collections, a few An. gambiae (formerly known as An. gambiae S form) males were identified, and the remainders were An. arabiensis. The majority of larvae collected during the wet season from the same breeding sites were identified as An. arabiensis followed by An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. The same pattern of species composition was observed in resting mosquitoes, though the proportion of An. arabiensis was less overwhelming. These data support the conclusion that An. arabiensis is the most prevalent species in this area, though the difference in species composition when using different population sampling techniques is noteworthy. Further studies are required for more detailed investigations of male dispersal, feeding behaviour and mating patterns in this urban setting. PMID:24373897

Dabiré, K R; Sawadogo, P S; Hien, D F; Bimbilé-Somda, N S; Soma, D D; Millogo, A; Baldet, T; Gouagna, L-C; Simard, F; Lefèvre, T; Diabaté, A; Lees, R S; Gilles, J R L

2014-04-01

404

Variable seismic response to fluid injection in central Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity in Oklahoma since 2009 has been concentrated in the central portion of the state, in the areas of Jones, Prague, and Luther. These three regions account for ~75% of earthquakes in the 2009-2013 Oklahoma Geological Survey catalog. A swarm in the Jones region began in late 2008, with a maximum magnitude of 4.0, and activity continuing to the present. After relocation, the initially diffuse earthquakes in the Jones swarm delineate multiple subparallel faults. The Wilzetta fault zone ruptured in the Prague region in 2010 and again in 2011, with magnitudes up to Mw5.7, and the Luther region experienced two earthquakes of M4.4 and M4.2, with related aftershocks, in 2013. The earthquakes near Prague have previously been linked to wastewater disposal; here we show that the earthquakes near Jones and Luther may also be induced by deep disposal based on the upsurge in seismicity in central Oklahoma coupled with local relationships to pumping and reservoir structure. The timing of each sequence with respect to injection and the distribution of seismic activity differs, highlighting the variability in seismic response to fluid injection related to local permeability structure.

Keranen, K. M.; Hogan, C.; Savage, H. M.; Abers, G. A.; van der Elst, N.

2013-12-01

405

Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water with acceptably low concentrations of dissolved Fe could be extracted than was injected. Scenarios with larger amounts of pyrite in aquifer sediments generally resulted in less goethite precipitation, increased acidity, and increased concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water. In these pyritic scenarios, the lower amounts of goethite precipitated and the lower pH during the extraction phase resulted in decreased sorption of Fe2+ and a decreased amount of extractable water with acceptably low concentrations of dissolved Fe (5.4??10-6M). A linear decrease in recovery efficiency with respect to dissolved Fe concentrations is caused by pyrite dissolution and the associated depletion of dissolved O2 (DO) and increase in acidity. Simulations with more than 0.0037M of pyrite, which is the maximum amount dissolved in the baseline scenario, had just over a 50% recovery efficiency. The precipitation of ferric hydroxide minerals (goethite) at the well screen, and a possible associated decrease in specific capacity of the ASR well, was not apparent during the extraction phase of ASR simulations, but the model does not incorporate the microbial effects and biofouling associated with ferric hydroxide precipitation.The host groundwater chemistry in calcite-poor Cretaceous aquifers of the NYC area consists of low alkalinity and moderate to low pH. The dissolution of goethite in scenarios with unbuffered injectate indicates that corrosion of the well could occur if the injectate is not buffered. Simulations with buffered injectate resulted in greater precipitation of goethite, and lower concentrations of dissolved Fe, in the extracted water. Dissolved Fe concentrations in extracted water were highest in simulations of aquifers (1) in which pyrite and siderite in the aquifer were in equilibrium, and (2) in coastal areas affected by saltwater intrusion, where high dissolved-cation concentrations provide a greater exchange of Fe2+ (FeX2). Results indicate that ASR in pyrite-beari

Brown, C. J.; Misut, P. E.

2010-01-01

406

A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.

Becker, Carol J.

2010-01-01

407

Feasibility of Adding TCE (Trichloroethylene) Still Area and Northeast Area Plumes to Ultraviolet Radiation, Ozone, Hydrogen Peroxide Groundwater Treatment Plant, Department of Energy Kansas City Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas City plant currently operates an Ultrox F-725 ozone/ultraviolet radiation/hydrogen peroxide plant for the treatment of groundwater that has been contaminated by halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treat...

G. R. Peyton

1989-01-01

408

Housing Market Profile: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. U.S. Housing Market Conditions, 3rd Quarter 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Housing Market Profiles are part of the U.S. Housing Market Conditions Report. These reports discuss economic activity, population changes, building activity, and sales and rental market conditions.

2012-01-01

409

The separation of the Hartland Formation and Ravenswood Granodiorite from the Fordham Gneiss at Cameron's Line in the New York City area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent study of the rocks in City Water Tunnel Number 3 between Roosevelt Island and beneath 34th Street and the 63rd Street subway-rail tunnels at 41st Avenue in Long Island City, as well as study of drill core from other sites in western Queens, establishes that this area of New York City is underlain by the Ravenswood Granodiorite and the Hartland Formation. The Fordham Gneiss does not appear east of the East River at these sites. Cameron's Line can be traced down the east side of the East River, as learned from observations in the tunnels, separating the Middle Proterozoic Fordham Gneiss to the west from the Cambrian and Ordovician Hartland Formation and related Ravenswood Granodiorite to the east. The older, adequately defined, Ravenswood Granodiorite, Hartland Formation, and the Fordham Gneiss, are the rock units that make up the poorly defined Brooklyn gneiss or Brooklyn Injection Gneiss and thus appropriately should supercede these later classifications. -from Authors

Baskerville, C. A.; Mose, D. G.

1989-01-01

410

Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

1982-01-01

411

Measurements Inside Oklahoma Thunderstorms during Project SESAME.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the state parameter and hydrometeor measurements obtained with the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) T-28 aircraft within Oklahoma convective clouds during the Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (SE...

A. J. Heymsfield M. R. Hjelmfelt

1984-01-01

412

77 FR 26598 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00059  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes and Hail. DATES: Effective April 26, 2012. Incident Period: April 13, 2012 through April 15, 2012. Physical Loan...

2012-05-04

413

76 FR 31670 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00048  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1970-DR), dated 05/06/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-06-01

414

75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1917-DR), dated 06/11/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-21

415

75 FR 30871 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1917-DR), dated 05/24/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-02

416

Testing a Mahalanobis distance model of black bear habitat use in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional wildlife-habitat models are commonly developed but rarely tested with truly independent data. We tested a published habitat model for black bears {Ursus americanus) with new data collected in a different site in the same ecological region (i.e., Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA). We used a Mahalanobis distance model developed from relocations of black bears in Arkansas to produce a map layer of Mahalanobis distances on a study area in neighboring Oklahoma. We tested this modeled map layer with relocations of black bears on the Oklahoma area. The distributions of relocations of female black bears were consistent with model predictions. We conclude that this modeling approach can be used to predict regional suitability for a species of interest.

Hellgren, E. C.; Bales, S. L.; Gregory, M. S.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.; Clark, J. D.

2007-01-01

417

Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

2014-05-01

418

Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 ?g C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 ?g C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

2003-04-01

419

Subsurface temperature anomalies as a key to petroleum-producing areas in the Cherokee and Forest City Basins, eastern Kansas?  

SciTech Connect

The relation of subsurface temperature to `plain-type fold` structure in the Midcontinent (USA) as an exploration tool has been speculated on for a long time. Structural highs, termed `plains-type folds,` are partly the result of differential compaction of sediments over rigid crystalline fault blocks in the Precambrian basement. In the Midcontinent, bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data, temperatures measured in drillstem tests (DSTs), and structural data are abundant. In the Cherokee and Forest City Basins, we analyzed BHT data by depth and stratigraphic unit (Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle carbonates; Mississippian carbonates; and Perm-Pennsylvanian clastics). By relating the BHTs to DSTs, it was noted that the thermal disturbance inherent in BHT by drilling is minor and comparable within a formation. Also, the signal-noise ratio of BHTs could be improved utilizing the large data set. Although the resulting BHT formation gradients show unexpected values from the thermal conductivity in the carbonates and from the evaluated temperature disturbance by the drilling process, analysis of the BHT spatial pattern shows a coincidence of structural highs and temperature anomalies both in the clastics and in the carbonates. These BHT anomalies are outlined by values higher than the regional temperature trend. We attribute the anomalies partly to the insulation effect of petroleum (which may include the self-generation of heat) and partly to the movement of fluids vertically through the fracture and fault system created in the sedimentary veneer. Numerous examples from the oil- and gas-producing areas in eastern Kansas show that the nature of origin of fluids contained in a porous medium can alter local geothermal conditions.

Merriam, D.F. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Foerster, A. [GeoForschungsZentrum Posdam (Germany)

1995-09-01

420

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria.

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

421

Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies the special measures needed to protect the rights and meet the needs of victims of a large-scale terrorist attack involving mass casualties. In particular, it demonstrates efforts required to ensure an effective response to victims' rights and their short- and long-term emotional and psychological needs as an integral part…

Dinsmore, Janet

422

Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, eval- uation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early

Sue Mallonee

423

75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services...Adrienne Y. Denysyk, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-03-19

424

75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-02-01

425

What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase III Action Steps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the Phase III report from the "What Works in Oklahoma Schools" study. As opposed to describing the findings from the study that was conducted, it provides a tool-kit that can be used by Oklahoma principals and teachers to determine the best courses of action for their schools and classrooms. The tools provided in this report…

Marzano Research Laboratory, 2011

2011-01-01

426

A Total Lightning Perspective of the 20 May 2013 Moore, Oklahoma Supercell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early afternoon of 20 May 2013, a storm initiated to the west-southwest of Newcastle, Oklahoma. This storm would rapidly intensify into the parent supercell of the tornado that struck the city of Moore, Oklahoma. This article describes what contributions total lightning observations from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array could provide to operational forecasters had these observations been available in real-time. This effort includes a focus on the GOES-R pseudo-geostationary lightning mapper demonstration product as well as the NASA SPoRT / Meteorological Development Laboratory's total lightning tracking tool. These observations and tools identified several contributions. Two distinct lightning jumps at 1908 and 1928 UTC provided a lead time of 19 minutes ahead of severe hail and 26 minutes ahead of the Moore, Oklahoma tornado's touchdown. These observations provide strong situational awareness to forecasters, as the lightning jumps are related to the rapid strengthening of the storm's updraft and mesocyclone and serve as a precursor to the stretching of the storm vortex ahead severe weather.

Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; MacGorman, Don R.; Calhoun, Kristin M.

2014-01-01

427

7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Missouri Counties and Cities The counties of Andrew, Atchison...of St. Louis. Nebraska Counties Adams, Antelope, Boone...Willow, Richardson, Saline, Sarpy, Saunders, Seward, Sherman...of Oklahoma. South Dakota Counties Aurora, Beadle, Bon...

2010-01-01

428

7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Missouri Counties and Cities The counties of Andrew, Atchison...of St. Louis. Nebraska Counties Adams, Antelope, Boone...Willow, Richardson, Saline, Sarpy, Saunders, Seward, Sherman...of Oklahoma. South Dakota Counties Aurora, Beadle, Bon...

2011-01-01

429

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

2008-10-31

430

Potential health impacts of heavy-metal exposure at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma.  

PubMed

The potential impact of exposure to heavy metals and health problems was evaluated at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, USA. Observed versus expected mortality was calculated for selected conditions in the County and exposed cities. Excess mortality was found for stroke and heart disease when comparing the exposed County to the state but not when comparing the exposed cities to the nonexposed rest of the County. However, sample sizes in the exposed area were small, population emigration has been ongoing, and geographic coding of mortality data was incomplete. In an exposed community, 62.5% of children under the age of 6 years had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dl. The relationships between heavy-metal exposure and children's health and chronic disease in adults are suggestive that a more thorough investigation might be warranted. A number of possible environmental and health studies are suggested, including those focusing on possible central nervous system impacts. Unfortunately, the exposed population is dispersing. One lesson learned at this site is that health studies need to be conducted as soon as possible after an environmental problem is identified to both study the impact of the most acute exposures and to maximize study sample size-including those exposed to higher doses-and minimize the loss of individuals to follow-up. PMID:18306045

Neuberger, John S; Hu, Stephen C; Drake, K David; Jim, Rebecca

2009-02-01

431

Synergistic use of multi-temporal ALOS\\/PALSAR with SPOT multispectral satellite imagery for land cover mapping in the Ho Chi Minh city area, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the synergistic use of multi-temporal ALOS\\/PALSAR and SPOT multi-spectral images for land cover classification in the Ho Chi Minh city area in Vietnam. Five PALSAR images and SPOT 2 multispectral image were used for classification. Integration of additional information such as interferometric coherence, textural data was also studied. Different combinations of multi-temporal SAR backscatter images, coherence data,