Sample records for oklahoma city area

  1. Observed winds, turbulence, and dispersion in built-up downtown areas of Oklahoma City and Manhattan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Hanna; John White; Ying Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Wind and tracer data from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) and the Manhattan Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05)\\u000a urban field experiments are being analyzed to aid in understanding air flow and dispersion near street-level in built-up downtown\\u000a areas. The mean winds are separately calculated for groups of anemometers having similar exposures such as “near street level”\\u000a and “on

  2. Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Patneaude, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

  3. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  4. Mass casualties in the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    Teague, David C

    2004-05-01

    The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was partially destroyed by a terrorist bomb on April 19, 1995. Injuries were sustained by 759 people, 168 of whom died. Fatalities occurred primarily among victims in the collapse zone of the federal building. Only 83 survivors required hospitalization. Twenty-two surviving victims sustained multiple fractures. Most victims arrived at local emergency departments by private vehicle within 2 hours. More severely injured survivors were transported by ambulance. The closer receiving hospitals used emergency department facilities and minor treatment areas. Few survivors were extricated from the bombing site more than 3 hours after the detonation. Mass casualty plans must provide for improved communications, diversion and retriage from facilities nearest the disaster site, and effective coordination of community and hospital resources. PMID:15187837

  5. Verification of a Mesoscale Data-Assimilation and Forecasting System for the Oklahoma City Area during the Joint Urban 2003 Field Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yubao; Chen, Fei; Warner, Thomas; Basara, Jeffrey

    2006-07-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command have developed a multiscale, rapid-cycling, real-time, four-dimensional data-assimilation and forecasting system that has been in operational use at five Army test ranges since 2001. This system was employed to provide operational modeling support for the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) Dispersion Experiment, conducted in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during July 2003. To better support this mission, modifications were made to the nonlocal boundary layer (BL) parameterization (known as the Medium Range Forecast scheme) of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University NCAR Mesoscale Model, in order to improve BL forecasts. The NCEP Oregon State University Air Force Hydrologic Research Laboratory land surface model was also improved to better represent urban forcing. Verification of the operational model runs and retrospectively simulated cases show 1) a significantly reduced low bias in the forecast surface wind speed and 2) more realistic daytime BL heights. During JU2003, the forecast urban heat island, urban dry bubble, and urban BL height agree reasonably well with observations and conceptual models. An analysis of three-dimensional atmospheric structures, based on model analyses for eight clear-sky days during the field program, reveals some interesting features of the Oklahoma City urban BL, including complex thermally induced circulations and associated convergence/divergence zones, a nocturnal thermal shadow downwind of the urban area, and the reduction of low-level jet wind speeds by more vigorous nocturnal mixing over the city.

  6. Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  7. Summary of sonic boom rise times observed during FAA community response studies over a 6-month period in the Oklahoma City area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-04-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  8. OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY VOLUME 32 SPRING 2007

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    . United States, 389 U.S. 347,350-51 (1967) (Fourth Amendment). 7. See Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, 153 (1973 inclusion of state constitutions. State courts have repeatedly held that state constitutions significantly.H. 2003). 87 #12;88 Oklahoma City University Law Review [Vol. 32 such as states banning assisted suicide

  9. Did the Oklahoma City Bombers Succeed?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan Steiker

    2001-01-01

    The worst case of domestic terrorism in our country's history, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, led to the enactment of a landmark antiterrorism statute. Not surprisingly, several of the statute's provisions strengthen federal power in extraordinary and unprecedented ways to counter the threat of terrorism. But other provisions radically restrict the ability of

  10. Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Holzer; Joe B. Fletcher; Gary S. Fuis; Trond Ryberg; Thomas M. Brocher; Christopher M. Dietel

    1996-01-01

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release

  11. Disaster nursing in the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R; Keylon, K; Odor, P S; Walker, G; Hunt, L

    1995-10-01

    The Oklahoma City Federal Building disaster quickly changed a routine day of eye surgical procedures into a chaotic trauma center for the victims with not only eye injuries, but multiple deep lacerations and other injuries. The devastating and disruptive effect of the bombing was stressful for the nursing staff who became disaster survivors of the emotional trauma involved. PMID:7594916

  12. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital-elevation models, field survey measurements, hydraulic data, and hydrologic data (U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations North Canadian River below Lake Overholser near Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241000], and North Canadian River at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241520]), were used as inputs for the one-dimensional dynamic (unsteady-flow) models using Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) software. The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum flood dam-breach scenario and a sunny-day dam-breach scenario, as well as for maximum flood-inundation elevations and flood-wave arrival times at selected bridge crossings. Points of interest such as community-services offices, recreational areas, water-treatment plants, and wastewater-treatment plants were identified on the flood-inundation maps.

  13. Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basara, Jeffrey B.; Hall, Peter K.; Schroeder, Amanda J.; Illston, Bradley G.; Nemunaitis, Kodi L.

    2008-10-01

    Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business district (CBD) both prior to and during the field experiment. Among the variables collected were high-resolution observations of air temperature from various instrument sources. Additional observations of air temperature were also collected at Oklahoma Mesonet stations in the rural areas surrounding Oklahoma City. Using an index value, the diurnal cycle of the urban heat island (UHI) for Oklahoma City, with respect to the surrounding rural terrain, was quantified. The results revealed a consistent mean nocturnal UHI greater than 1.5°C at both 2 and 9 m. However, observations at 2 m during JU2003 revealed a significant urban "cool" island during the convective portion of the day. The mean variability of temperature within the urban core of Oklahoma City increased significantly after sunrise, increased to a maximum near solar noon, and decreased following sunset. These results were inconsistent with the rural observations wherein the variability among sites was maximized during the nocturnal period. Finally, the vertical temperature gradient between 2 and 9 m demonstrated a clear and strong diurnal trend at the rural locations, whereas observations from the urban environment were nearly isothermal and consistent with near-neutral conditions throughout JU2003.

  14. Psychological response to the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    Krug, R S; Nixon, S J; Vincent, R

    1996-01-01

    The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City was the most devastating terrorist activity that has occurred in America. Prevention of revictimization of persons seriously affected by the bombing was central to the planned response to this tragedy. Coordination and collaboration among local, state, and national agencies promoted effective clinical services provision, research facilitation, and prevention of revictimization. Information gathered from this cooperative effort will contribute to the effort to minimize the potential for such tragedies in the future as well as help to develop prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the effects when the next such disaster occurs. PMID:8682905

  15. Impact of Configurations of Rapid Intermittent Assimilation of WSR-88D Radar Data for the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Thunderstorm Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Hu; Ming Xue

    2007-01-01

    Various configurations of the intermittent data assimilation procedure for Level-II Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler radar data are examined for the analysis and prediction of a tornadic thunderstorm that occurred on 8 May 2003 near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Several tornadoes were produced by this thunderstorm, causing extensive damages in the south Oklahoma City area. Within the rapidly cycled assimilation system, the

  16. Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Holzer

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a

  17. Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Fuis, Gary S.; Ryberg, Trond; Brocher, Thomas M.; Dietel, Christopher M.

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release of this record prompted speculation that each wave train was caused by a different energy source. On May 23, 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the demolition of the bomb-ravaged Federal Building with portable seismographs (Figure 1). Two wave trains were picked up again. The recordings indicate that the wave trains during both the bombing and demolition represent seismic waves traveling at different velocities. We conclude that the two wave trains recorded during the bombing are consistent with a single impulsive energy source.

  18. Never Again Would We Be the Same: The Oklahoma City Bombing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent Mathers

    1996-01-01

    A terrorist attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City showed the nation that no area of the country was free from the possibility of violence or terrorism. This author describes the day and the aftermath of the tragedy.

  19. Emergency Department Impact of the Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E Hogan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Daniel J Dire; Scott R Lillibridge

    1999-01-01

    Study objective: To collect descriptive epidemiologic injury data on patients who suffered acute injuries after the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing and to describe the effect on metropolitan emergency departments. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of victims seen for injury or illness related to the bombing at 1 of the 13 study hospitals from 9:02 AM

  20. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  1. Personal Touches Warm up Oklahoma City U.'s Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Oklahoma City University prides itself on treating its faculty and staff members like family. It is the kind of place where new employees are welcomed in the president's house, staff members kick in to raise money when a colleague faces hard times, and promising young workers are offered flexible work schedules and free tuition to help them…

  2. How a School Coped with the Oklahoma City Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, David N.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

    1996-01-01

    Following the Oklahoma City bombing, fifth graders at a nearby elementary school coped with ensuing uncertainty, pain, and loss. They wrote appreciative letters to fire and rescue workers; shared personal stories with classmates; compiled an anthology of poems, prayers, and stories; attended an assembly to honor parents participating in rescue…

  3. Final Report for the Joint Urban 2003 Atmospheric Dispersion Study in Oklahoma City: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was designed to collect meteorological and tracer data resolving atmospheric dispersion at scales-of-motion ranging from flows in and around a single city block, in and around several blocks in the downtown Central Business District (CBD), and into the suburban Oklahoma City area a few km from the CBD. Indoor tracer and flow measurements

  4. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-166-1835, US Post Office Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kominsky

    1987-01-01

    In response to a request from the U.S. Department of Justice on behalf of the U.S. Postal Service, a study was made of background concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Post Office Building located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of PCBs in a building similar in structure to the Page

  5. Oklahoma City's killer tornadoes: how local hospitals responded to yet another extreme disaster.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    On the evening of May 3rd, a group of high-powered tornadoes tore through Oklahoma--leaving more than 40 people dead and hundreds injured. The main twister formed about 45 miles south of Oklahoma City and was classified F5, the most severe type of tornado, with winds of more than 260 mph. It cut a path one mile wide; stayed on the ground for more than four hours; and, along with other twisters, demolished 60 miles of countryside. More than 7,000 homes were destroyed or damaged, and more than 5,000 families were left homeless. Oklahoma City was hit the hardest, with about 1,500 homes leveled in the storm. A total of 755 people were injured in Oklahoma City and the surrounding area, testing local hospital disaster plans to the maximum. The same hospitals had been called on in April 1995 to handle the over 500 persons injured in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a terrorist blast that killed 168. The hospitals' latest response to a disaster situation is recorded in this report. PMID:10621277

  6. The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    Maningas, P A; Robison, M; Mallonee, S

    1997-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the Emergency Medical Services response to a bombing of a United States Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 19 April 1995. The explosion emanated from a rented truck parked in the front of the building. The force of the explosion destroyed three of the four support columns in the front of the building and resulted in a pancaking effect of the upper floors onto the lower floors. There were three distinct phases of the medical response: 1) Immediately available local EMS ambulances and staff; 2) Additional ambulances staffed by recalled, off-duty personnel; and 3) mutual-aid ambulances and personnel from the surrounding communities. There were 361 persons in the building at the time of the explosion, 163 of these perished. Within the first hour of the explosion, 139 patients were transported to area hospitals. Of these, 32% were in critical condition. During the day of the explosion, 444 persons were treated for physical injuries: 410 of these were related to the explosion and 14, including one with fatal injuries, were sustained during search and rescue attempts. A total of 354 (80%) were treated and released from emergency departments, and 90 (20%) were admitted to hospitals. Six of the transported victims either were dead on arrival to the emergency department or died after admission to the hospital. Of those who died, 95% of the deaths were related to blunt trauma associated with the collapse of the structure. Only three persons were extricated alive after the first five hours following the explosion. The scene became flooded with volunteers who, although their intentions were to provide help and aid to those injured, created a substantial logistical problem for Incident Command. Several other lessons were learned: 1) Telephone lines and cells became overloaded, but the Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio system was operational only in three of the 15 hospitals; 2) Volunteer personnel should have responded to the hospitals and not to the scene; and 3) Training was an essential for the success of such a response. Thus, the success of this operation was a function of the intense training, practice, and coordination between multiple agencies. PMID:10187007

  7. After the bomb. Oklahoma City rescuers talk about their experiences.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M; Kernes, R; Lindsay, W; Webster, M

    1995-06-01

    Rather than trying to write a second-hand description of the response to the April 19 bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City, we thought we'd let some of the people who were there caring for patients and searching for victims share their experiences in their own words. Marion Angell Garza, JEMS editorial/news coordinator, spoke at length with six responders, including paramedics, the triage and treatment officer, a firefighter/EMT-1 and an emergency physician. The following excerpts are from those interviews. PMID:10143265

  8. Never Again Would We Be the Same: The Oklahoma City Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Kent

    1996-01-01

    A high school principal describes the day of the terrorist attack on the federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. After meeting with assistant principals and the school nurse to make plans for dealing with possible repercussions, he told students what had happened, monitored TV broadcasts, evacuated the building during bomb scares, and…

  9. Annotated bibliography of the Anadarko basin area; Kansas - Oklahoma - Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains 118 additional records related to the geology of the Anadarko basin area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; petrology; tectonics; and geochemistry. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area.

  10. Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.

    2002-05-01

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a government cover up. Preliminary statements by the scientific community also contributed to the uncertainty. A public science organization issued a press release that stated "the location and source of the second surface wave-recording is unknown. Detailed investigations at the building site may offer an explanation as to the cause and origin of the second event." A prominent professional newsletter reported that the "first event was caused by energy from the explosion and the second from the fall of the building." To understand the seismic phases in the April 19 seismograms, the USGS monitored the demolition of the damaged building on May 23, 1995, with a portable seismic array. The array recorded the same 2 wave trains during the demolition and indicated the wave trains were a propagation effect and not the result of multiple sources. Modeling of the waveforms indicated that the 2 wave trains probably resulted from propagation of seismic energy in a near-surface zone with a strong velocity gradient. The first phase appeared to be a packet of scattered body waves and the second was the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave. Timely resolution of the ambiguity of the seismogram and publication of results in a refereed publication, EOS, discouraged a conspiracy defense by the terrorists.

  11. Personal Profile Select Campus: Norman Oklahoma City Tulsa 1 Employee Information

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Personal Profile Select Campus: Norman Oklahoma City Tulsa 1 Employee Information: Last: First: Middle: Date: Current Driver's License State: Number: Home address: City: State: Zip: Phone #1: Phone #2 A Filing B I A B I A Authorization - The information contained on this form is complete and accurate

  12. BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.

    1984-01-01

    Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

  13. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

  14. Variability of wind power near Oklahoma City and implications for siting of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, E.; Eyster, R.

    1987-09-01

    Data from five sites near Oklahoma City were examined to assess wind power availability. Wind turbines of identical manufacture were operated at three of the sites, one of which was also equipped with anemometers on a 100-ft tower. Comprehensive anemometric data were available from the other two sites. The study indicates that the average wind speed varies substantially over Oklahoma's rolling plains, which have often been nominally regarded as flat for purposes of wind power generation. Average wind differences may be as much as 5 mph at 20 ft above ground level, and 7 mph at 100 ft above ground level for elevation differences of about 200 ft above mean sea level, even in the absence of substantial features of local terrain. Local altitude above mean sea level seems to be as influential as the shape of local terrain in determining the average wind speed. The wind turbine used at a meteorologically instrumented site in the study produced the power expected from it for the wind regime in which it was situated. The observed variations of local wind imply variations in annual kWh of as much as a factor of four between identical turbines located at similar heights above ground level in shallow valleys and on hilltops or elevated extended flat areas. 17 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, Oklahoma City Public Schools: A National Diffusion Network Approved Program, Family Intergenerational-Interaction Literacy Model 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma City Univ., OK.

    The Even Start Family Literacy Program, in its fourth year of operation, provides a literacy environment based on the Family Intergenerational-Interaction Literacy Model (FILM) in the southwest area of Oklahoma City. The FILM model is designed to provide a family literacy education program for parents, extended family, and their preschool children…

  16. Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report on the research activities at the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, were compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Ft. Collins, Colorado, February 13, 2008. Research presentations included barley breeding research, sorghum breeding research, wheat br...

  17. Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    modifications is the so-called urban heat island (UHI) effect, in which near-surface temperaturesImpact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU that urban heat islands (UHIs) frequently formed at night and the observed UHI intensity was variable (18­48C

  18. Deaths in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado from a Historical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold E. Brooks; Charles A. Doswell III

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado was the deadliest in the United States in over 20 years, with 36 direct fatalities. To understand how this event fits into the historical context, the record of tornado deaths in the United States has been examined. Almost 20 000 deaths have been reported associated with more,than 3600 tornadoes in the United

  19. Oklahoma City FILM Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Donna Castle; Shove, Joanie; Brickman, Sharon; Terrell, Sherry; Shields, Jane

    This report presents findings from the evaluation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools Even Start Program, also called the Family Intergenerational Literacy Model (FILM), now in its twelfth full year of operation. The evaluation focuses on the total population of adult students, preschoolers, adult graduates, and preschool graduates. The…

  20. Did fertility go up after the oklahoma city bombing? An analysis of births in metropolitan counties in Oklahoma, 1990–1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Lee Rodgers; Craig A. St. John; Ronnie Coleman

    2005-01-01

    Political and sociocultural events (e.g., Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and the German reunification in 1989) and natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Hugo in 1989) can affect fertility.\\u000a In our research, we addressed the question of whether the Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995, a man-made disaster, influenced\\u000a fertility patterns in Oklahoma. We defined three theoretical orientations—replacement theory, community

  1. Sadness, tragedy and mass disaster in Oklahoma City: providing critical incident stress debriefings to a community in crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Davis

    1996-01-01

    Shortly after 09:00 h on 19 April 1995, the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building, located in downtown Oklahoma City, was devastated with a bomb blast of such gigantic proportions that it was heard 60 miles away in neighbouring Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahomans routinely commuting to work on that sunny Wednesday morning went about their business as usual. A crude bomb chemically

  2. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic feet per second for the North Canadian River from Lake Overholser to a measuring station above Eufaula Lake. Estimated recharge rates to the alluvial and terrace aquifer in the basin range from 1.7 inches at the west edge of the study area to 7.0 inches at the east edge. Total permitted withdrawal from the aquifer, according to records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, ranged from 2,107 acre-feet per year in 1942 to about 21,415 acre-feet per year in 1982. Simulations of the alluvial and terrace aquifer from Lake Overholser to Eufaula Lake were made using a finite-difference model developed by McDonald and Harbaugh (1984). The area of the aquifers was subdivided into a finite-difference grid having 30 rows and 57 columns with cells measuring 1 mile in the north-south direction and 2 miles in the east-west direction. The model was calibrated in two steps: A steady-state calibration simulated head distribution prior to extensive pumping of the aquifer in 1942, and a transient calibration simulated head distribution after extensive pumpage. The final horizontal hydraulic conductivity used for the alluvial and terrace aquifer was 0.0036 feet per second (310 feet per day) at all locations. The recharge rate for the alluvial and terrace aquifer ranged from 1.7 inch per year in the west to 7.0 inches per year in the east, and averaged about 3.3 inches per year. A specific yield of 15 percent was used for the transient simulation. Permitted pumpage for 1942 through 1982 was used in the digital model to estimate the annual volume of water in storage in the alluvial and terrace aquifer for the years for this time period. The 1982 permitted pumpage rates were used for projections for 1983 to 2020. The estimated volume of water in storage was 1,940,000 acre-feet in 1982. Because the estimated recharge rate is equal to the allowed pumpage rate in 1982, the projected volume of water in storage in both 1993 and 2020 was 1,890,000 acre-feet.

  3. The Impact of High Wind Events on the Central Business District of Oklahoma City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Dustin; Basara, Jeffrey; Hall, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    It is critical to understand airflow through cities due to the possibilities of biological and chemical terrorist attacks, pollution, and accidental chemical spills. Currently very few studies have used field measurements of wind conditions within a city to study urban air flow. This paper investigates the airflow at specific locations within Oklahoma City during two synoptic high wind events and one convective high wind event using data collected at fifteen different sites within the central business district. For the synoptic cases, wind vector magnitudes and directions were averaged for each site before and after the frontal passage. For all cases, wind speed and direction comparisons were made between the individual PWID sites and some wind flow patterns within the city were deduced. Possible reasons for these wind flows based on building structure, PWID location, and street orientation is also discussed. It was found that air flow through Oklahoma City is extremely complex, though some small and large scale wind flow patterns appeared to emerge. This conclusion emphasizes the need for further study regarding wind flows through cities to better understand how pollutants and chemical/biological agents might flow through a city under a wide variety of weather conditions.

  4. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument. PMID:18974901

  5. Special report. The Oklahoma City bombing: mass casualties and the local hospital response.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    A morning blast at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, OK, on April 19, 1995, killed 168 persons and injured more than 500 in the worst terrorist attack in U.S. history. Hospital workers, physicians, and volunteers at nine hospitals there mobilized, put their disaster emergency plans into operation, and treated 466 persons in emergency rooms--many of them later being admitted as patients. To complicate matters, two of the hospitals received bomb threats called in after the disaster. This report will look at the security plans put into force by each of the nine hospitals; the handling of the great influx of persons, including victims, relatives, friends, concerned persons, volunteers, and the news media; and the lessons hospital officials learned from their experiences. PMID:10151262

  6. University of Oklahoma Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center, Service Area 4. Final Performance Report, 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Univ., Norman. Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center.

    This report describes and assesses the 1993-94 (October 1, 1993 through September 1994) activities of the federally-funded Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center based at the University of Oklahoma and serving a nine-state area (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee).…

  7. Posttraumatic stress two years after the Oklahoma City bombing in youths geographically distant from the explosion.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, B; Seale, T W; McDonald, N B; Brandt, E N; Rainwater, S M; Maynard, B T; Meierhoefer, B; Miller, P D

    2000-01-01

    This article describes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in 69 sixth-grade youths who resided within 100 miles of Oklahoma City at the time of the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. These youths neither had any direct physical exposure nor personally knew anyone killed or injured in the explosion. A survey conducted two years after the bombing assessed exposure, PTSD symptoms, and functioning. PTSD symptom frequency was measured with the Impact of Event Scale--Revised. Our BCD criteria for defining PTSD caseness was modeled after DSM-IV B, C, and D criteria requiring one reexperiencing, three avoidance/numbing, and two arousal symptoms for diagnosis. Those who met our BCD criteria had significantly higher PTSD symptom scores than those who did not. Both increased mean PTSD symptom score and meeting our caseness definition were associated with increased functioning difficulties. Media exposure and indirect interpersonal exposure (having a friend who knew someone killed or injured) were significant predictors of symptomatology. These findings suggest that children geographically distant from disaster who have not directly experienced an interpersonal loss report PTSD symptoms and functional impairment associated with increased media exposure and indirect loss. PMID:11218559

  8. Incident-related television viewing and psychiatric disorders in Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Houston, J Brian; Regens, James L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine terrorism media coverage and psychiatric outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. The study used (1) self-report questionnaires to retrospectively assess event-related media behaviors and reactions in a cross sectional design and (2) longitudinal structured diagnostic interviews to assess psychopathologic outcomes. The participants were 99 directly-exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors who were initially studied six months after the 1995 incident. Though a fear reaction to bombing-related television coverage and fear-driven discontinuation of bombing-related media contact were associated with diagnostic outcomes, the number of hours viewing bombing-related television coverage in the first week after the event was not associated with the prevalence of bombing-related posttraumatic stress disorder or post-bombing major depressive disorder during the seven years post event. The results raise doubt about the effects of quantified incident-related television viewing on clinically-significant emotional outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. PMID:23980489

  9. Geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.

  10. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  11. Tornado-Related Deaths and Injuries in Oklahoma due to the 3 May 1999 Tornadoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheryll Brown; Pam Archer; Elizabeth Kruger; Sue Mallonee

    2002-01-01

    During the evening hours of 3 May 1999, 58 tornadoes occurred in Oklahoma. One tornado reached F5 intensity and left a widespread path of death, injury, and destruction in and around the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. Other communities across the state were also affected. Data on persons who died or were injured were collected from medical examiner reports, hospital medical

  12. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the FourCorners Area and Eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma from August, 2009?August, 2011. Using data from a six site area network, a characterization of the magnitude and spatia...

  13. Numerical Prediction of 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Supercell and6 Embedded Tornado using ARPS with the Assimilation of WSR-88D Radar7

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    1 2 3 4 5 Numerical Prediction of 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Supercell and6 Embedded Tornado on the 100-m grid. The forecasts on48 both grids cover the entire period of observed tornado outbreak, and they successfully capture49 the development of tornadic vortices. A tornado on the 50-m grid reaches high-end F-3

  14. Numerical Prediction of the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Supercell and Embedded Tornado Using ARPS with the Assimilation of WSR-88D Data

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    Numerical Prediction of the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Supercell and Embedded Tornado Using of the observed tornado outbreak and successfully capture the development of tornadic vortices. The intensity of a tornado on the 50-m grid reaches the high end of category 3 on the Fujita scale (F3), while

  15. Analysis and Prediction of 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Thunderstorm and Embedded Tornado using ARPS with Assimilation of WSR-88D Radar Data

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    1 Analysis and Prediction of 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Thunderstorm and Embedded Tornado researchers in the past three decays to study the tornado and tornadogenesis. Trough 2-dimensional; Lewellen et al. 2000), the dynamics of the vortex flow near the tornado core were studied under

  16. Numerical Prediction of 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Supercell and Embedded Tornado using ARPS with the Assimilation of WSR-88D Radar

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Numerical Prediction of 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City Tornadic Supercell and Embedded Tornado using ARPS cover the entire period of observed tornado outbreak, and successfully capture the development of tornadic vortices. A tornado on the 50-m grid reaches high-end F-3 intensity while the corresponding

  17. Using Landsat thematic mapper data for structural analysis of Slick Hills area, southwest Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, S.J.; Morgan, K.M. (Center for Remote Sensing and Energy Research, Fort Worth, TX (USA))

    1987-02-01

    In this study, the authors used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to identify structural lineaments in the high deformed Slick Hills area of southwestern Oklahoma. These low-lying hills represent a sequence of Cambrian-Ordovician rocks (primarily carbonates) that were intensely folded and faulted during the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Their analysis of landsat TM computer-generated images (scale, 1:70,000) revealed two major lineament orientations from rose diagram plots. One set of lineaments trends N30{degree}-60{degree}W and is associated with left-lateral, thrust, and high-angle reverse faults. These faults, as well as fold axes and fracture patterns, dominate the study area and are well documented in the literature.

  18. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas...

  19. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas...

  20. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other underserved...

  1. Oklahoma Forestry Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS) is "to conserve, enhance and protect the forest resources of Oklahoma for present and future generations." As part of this mission the OFS website contains information about fire reports, tree and forest health, and water quality. First-time visitors should start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Oklahoma's Forests" section. Here they will find information about Oklahoma's major forest types, the ecoregions of Oklahoma, and several Trees of Oklahoma fact sheets. Back on the homepage, visitors can learn about upcoming workshops and events, read a list of forestry bulletins, and find out about the Forest Heritage Center Museum. Residents of Oklahoma may also wish to look through the "Home and Community Trees" area to learn more about planning their own trees and Arbor Day related activities.

  2. Hydrology of an abandoned coal-mining area near McCurtain, Haskell County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality was investigated from October 1980 to May 1983 in an area of abandoned coal mines in Haskell county, Oklahoma. Bedrock in the area is shale, siltstone, sandstone, and the McAlester (Stigler) and Hartshorne coals of the McAlester Formation and Hartshorne Sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. The two coal beds, upper and lower Hartshorne, associated with the Hartshorne Sandstone converge or are separated by a few feet or less of bony coal or shale in the McCurtain area. Many small faults cut the Hartshorne coal in all the McCurtain-area mines. The main avenues of water entry to and movement through the bedrock are the exposed bedding-plane openings between layers of sandstone, partings between laminae of shale, fractures and joints developed during folding and faulting laminae of shale, fractures and joints developed during folding and faulting of the brittle rocks, and openings caused by surface mining--the overburden being shattered and broken to form spoil. Water-table conditions exist in bedrock and spoil in the area. Mine pond water is in direct hydraulic connections with water in the spoil piles and the underlying Hartshorne Sandstone. Sulfate is the best indicator of the presence of coal-mine drainage in both surface and ground water in the Oklahoma coal field. Median sulfate concentrations for four sites on Mule Creek ranged from 26 to 260 milligrams per liter. Median sulfate concentrations increased with increased drainage from unreclaimed mined areas. The median sulfate concentration in Mule Creek where it drains the reclaimed area is less than one-third of that at the next site downstream where the stream begins to drain abandoned (unreclaimed) mine lands. Water from Mule Creek predominantly is a sodium sulfate type. Maximum and median values for specific conductance and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, chloride, dissolved solids, and alkalinity increase as Mule Creek flows downstream and drains increasing areas of abandoned (unreclaimed) mining lands. Constituent concentrations in Mule Creek, except those for dissolved solids, iron, manganese, and sulfate, generally do not exceed drinking-water limits. Reclamation likely would result in decreased concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and alkalinity in Mule Creek in the vicinity of the reclaimed area. Ground water in the area is moderately hard to very hard alkaline water with a median pH of 7.2 to 7.6. It predominately is a sodium sulfate type and, except for dissolved solids, iron manganese, and sulfate, constituent concentrations generally do not exceed drinking-water limits. Ground-water quality would likely be unchanged by reclamation. The quality of water in the two mine ponds is quite similar to that of the shallow ground water in the area. Constituents in water from both ponds generally do not exceed drinking-water limits and the water quality is unlikely to be changed by reclamation in the area.

  3. CITY/TOWN AREAS FOR ID, OR, AND WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Census place codes were dissolved & combined into state city or census Designated Place (CDP) areas. The total 1990 population was also calculated & attached to the Census place. Each state file may have multiple polygons and/or doughnut holes in an area for a city/CDP. A loca...

  4. Devitrification of the Carlton Rhyolite in the Blue Creek Canyon area, Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bigger, S.E. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology); Hanson, R.E. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    The Cambrian Carlton Rhyolite is a sequence of lava flows and ignimbrites extruded in association with rifting in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Rhyolite exposed in the Blue Creek Canyon area consists of a single, originally glassy, porphyritic lava flow > 300 m thick. Abundant flow banding is deformed by variably oriented flow folds present on both outcrop and thin-section scales. A variety of complex texture record the cooling, degassing, and devitrification history of the flow. Acicular Fe, Ti-oxide crystallites aligned in the flow banding document nucleation and limited crystal growth during flow. Spherical microvesicles and larger lithophysal cavities up to 10 cm long crosscut flow banding, showing that degassing continued after flow had ceased. Pseudomorphs of quartz after cristobalite and tridymite are present on cavity walls and are products of high-T vapor-phase crystallization. Devitrification textures overprint the flow banding and developed in two stages. Primary devitrification occurred during initial cooling and formed spherulitic intergrowths in distinct areas bound by sharp devitrification fronts. Spherulites nucleated on phenocrysts, vesicles, and flow bands and show evidence of multiple episodes of growth. Rhyolite outside of the devitrification fronts initially remained glassy but underwent later, low-T hydration to form perlitic texture, which was followed by prolonged secondary devitrification to form extremely fine-grained, equigranular quartzofeldspathic mosaics. Snowflake texture (micropoikilitic quartz surrounding randomly oriented alkali feldspar) developed during both primary and secondary devitrification. Spherical bodies up to 30 cm across are present in discrete horizons within the flow and weather out preferentially from the host rhyolite.

  5. New York City Metropolitan Area Retail Motor Gasoline Supply Report

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Final report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) emergency survey, which was started on Friday, November 2, 2012, to monitor the vehicle fuel supply conditions in the New York City metropolitan area on a temporary basis after Hurricane Sandy.

  6. Oklahoma Historical Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Oklahoma Historical Society is "to preserve and perpetuate the history of Oklahoma and its people by collecting, interpreting and disseminating knowledge of Oklahoma and the Southwest." The Society maintains over 20 museums and historic sites, and they are also responsible for maintaining this website. On the homepage, visitors can learn about the sites they maintain, including the Pawnee Bill Ranch and the Pioneer Woman Museum. In the "Publications" area, visitors can read back issues of "The Chronicles of Oklahoma" dating from 1921 to 1962, and they can also find the "Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". The Society's "Found in Collections" blog is a great way to learn about their current archival work, and visitors can read about textile preservation techniques and the Civil War. Also, the site includes podcasts created to profile various aspects of the state's history. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive email updates on new additions, programs, and exhibits.

  7. Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Spring (NASM2002)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2002-09-24

    Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Spring of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

  8. Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Fall (NASM2002)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2002-09-24

    Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Fall of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

  9. Salt Lake City, Utah Area Flyover during Summer (NASM2002)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2002-09-24

    Landsat 7 imagery is combined here with terrain elevation data to create a view of the Salt Lake City area. This image was taken in the Summer of 2001 and can be compared to identical animations using images taken at other times of the year. This visualization was created for the NASM2002 presentation and is based on a earlier visualizations created for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

  10. New York City area as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The recent heavy snowfalls help to accentuate the major transportation networks (railroads, highways and airports) throughout the New York City metropolitan area. This particular scene also highlights the land-water boundaries the lighter open spaces, such as parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. The snows have produced a white blanket effect on these areas. Even some of the snow-covered lakes can be discerned. The boroughs of Staten Island, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Manhattan are also recognizable on the photograph.

  11. Gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition measurements in the southwestern USA: a comparison between Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners area.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  12. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3?ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2?ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  13. No evidence of suicide increase following terrorist attacks in the United States: an interrupted time-series analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B

    2009-12-01

    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of September 11 and the Oklahoma City bombing on monthly suicide counts at the local, state, and national level. Unlike prior studies that provided conflicting evidence, rigorous time series techniques revealed no support for an increase or decrease in suicides following these events. We conclude that while terrorist attacks produce subsequent psychological morbidity and may affect self and collective efficacy well beyond their immediate impact, these effects are not strong enough to influence levels of suicide mortality. PMID:20121329

  14. Convective weather hazards in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Blumenfeld

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the frequency and intensity of severe convective storms, and their associated hazards, in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minnesota. Using public severe weather reports databases and high spatial density rain gauge data, annual frequencies and return-periods are calculated for tornadoes, damaging winds, large hail, and flood-inducing rainfall. The hypothesis that severe thunderstorms and tornadoes are less

  15. Records of ground-water levels and effects of pumping in the Ardmore well-field area, Carter County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to outline the results of work done by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Ardmore well-field area, near Newport, Carter County. The work, completed in two periods between April 1964 and June 1965, was done as part of the ground-water program carried out by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The study in the report area included: (1) a physical inventory of wells in the vicinity of the Ardmore well field (fig. 1); (2) information on depths, perforated intervals, ground-water levels, and water use (table 1); (3) records of water-level fluctuations in deep and shallow wells (table 2) to determine if there is a hydraulic connection between the deep zones tapped by Ardmore's wells and the shallow and intermediate zones tapped by domestic and stock wells in the surrounding area; and (4) general information on the geologic and hydrologic features that may be of use in evaluating the ground-water potential of the Wichita Formation, the principal aquifer in the area. (available as photostat copy only)

  16. Oklahoma Today

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Published since the 1950s, Oklahoma Today is a production of several state agencies, and it is designed to showcase various cultural, historical, and social aspects of Oklahoma. Over the past several years, Oklahoma State University has digitized back issues of the magazine, and visitors can now read all the way back to the first issue from 1956. Visitors can browse back issues by decade, and they can also perform key-word searches. First-time visitors should start by reading through the spring 1960 issue, which contains pieces on rattlesnakes, Oklahoma wildflowers, and the Washington Irving Trail. While the name Washington Irving may not be commonly associated with Oklahoma, the author spent part of 1832 wandering through the state with a Native American guide. More recent issues feature profiles of singer Vince Gill and Route 66.

  17. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers...Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and Sioux City...Sioux City, IA......... (712) 255-8073...

  18. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive...rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in...

  19. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive...rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in...

  20. Merguerian, Charles, 1981c, Tectonic History of New York City area. An examination of bedrock in the New York City area indicates the presence of

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Merguerian, Charles, 1981c, Tectonic History of New York City area. An examination of bedrock in the New York City area indicates the presence of lithologies that are not a part of the Cambro Connecticut and rocks mapped as the Manhattan B-C by Leo Hall in southeastern New York. Detailed mapping

  1. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas... § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  2. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas... § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  3. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area... § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  4. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas... § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  5. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area... § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  6. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas... § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  7. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area... § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  8. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area... § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  9. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas... § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  10. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area... § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  11. Water Quality Characteristics of Three Rain Gardens Located Within the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Elliott; Mary H. Meyer; Gary R. Sands; Brian Horgan

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at three locations in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota to assess the effect that bioretention areas, or rain gardens, have on water quality. The rain gardens are located at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA), City of Hugo, and City of Woodbury. These sites were chosen

  12. 78 FR 57838 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 15--Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Site Renumbering...totaling 13,301.64 acres in the Kansas City area. The current update does not...North Topping and 1226 Topping Drive in Kansas City; Site 2 (64.3 acres...

  13. Fire protection review, Western Area Power Administration, Miles City converter station, Miles City, Montana. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Earley, M.W.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes findings of a fire protection review conducted February 19, 1986 at the Western Area Power Administration's Miles City Converter Station. This facility would not be considered a Highly Protected Risk. Major physical deficiencies include lack of automatic sprinkler protection, an inadequate water supply, and an inadequate fire wall around the Valve Hall. Major human element deficiencies include delayed response to site alarms and the lack of monthly inspection programs. The loss potential is $23,000,000. This is made up of $15,000,000 property damage and $8,000,000 loss of income for an expected 18 month outrage.

  14. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake City,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake City,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake City,...

  17. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake City,...

  18. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD...of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake City,...

  19. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly tuffaceous sandstone, shale, mudstone and sandstone. Thick alluvium is overlain on Palryeongsan tuff (Samjung Engineering Co., 1999; Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co., 2000; Kim and Lee, 1964). The alluvium is composed of sand, sandy gravel and weathered zone from the surface (Table 1, Fig. 3). The aquifer is sandy gravel layer (Samjung Engineering Co., 1999). The gravel layer is thicker near the wells of PW1, PW2, PW3, and PW4 (13.5-17.5m), whereas is thinner near the wells of PW5, PW6, and PW7 (6.3-10.5m). The pumping data obtained were analyzed to determine hydraulic parameters (transmissivity and storativity) using various models of pumping test analysis. The appropriate models for the study area were found from several models. The selected model for observation well is Theis model using corrected drawdown and the selected model for pumped well is Papadopulos-Cooper model using corrected drawdown. As a result, alluvial aquifer in the study area behaviors as confined aquifer rather than phreatic aquifer. Thus, infiltration amount from the river to the aquifer in the study area is lower than that from river to phreatic aquifer for the same water level change. And also storativity of the aquifer is represented by elastic storativity rather than specific yield. Transmissivity obtained by the models ranges from 4.54x10-4 to 1.79x10-1 m2/s with arithmetic mean 2.92x10-2 m2/s. Storativity ranges from 2.59x10-4-5.54x10-1 with arithmetic mean 6.36x10-2. Frequency distribution of hydraulic parameters was determined from statistical analyses. The distribution of transmissivity values does not follow normal distribution showing skewness 2.36 and kurtosis 5.085. Aquifer heterogeneity was found by hydraulic parameters and subsurface geology data in the study area. Furthermore, hydraulic parameters obtained at a well that serves as both pumping well and observation well were compared, and the correlation equation was determined to evaluate hydraulic parameters considering aquifer loss. Transmissivity values obtained by the two cases do not show distinct correlati

  20. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than in more urbanized areas. Much of the water in the area is of good quality, though some parts of this area have water quality impaired by very hard surface water and groundwater; large chloride concentrations in some smaller streams; relatively large concentrations of nutrients and counts of fecal-indicator bacteria in the North Canadian River; and chloride, iron, manganese, and uranium concentrations that exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards in water samples collected from small numbers of wells. Substantial amounts of hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected in much of this area, but there are gaps in those data caused by relatively few streamflow-gaging stations, uneven distribution of surface-water quality sampling sites, lack of surface-water quality sampling at high-flow and low-flow conditions, and lack of a regularly measured and sampled groundwater network. This report summarizes existing water-use, climatic, geographic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and describes several means of filling gaps in hydrologic data for this area.

  1. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Chen (Inst. of Karst Geology, Guangxi (China))

    1988-08-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

  2. Constraints on recent earthquake source parameters, fault geometry and aftershock characteristics in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H.; Herrmann, R. B.; Bergman, E. A.; McMahon, N. D.; Aster, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    In late 2009, the seismicity of Oklahoma increased dramatically. The largest of these earthquakes was a series of three damaging events (Mw 4.8, 5.6, 4.8) that occurred over a span of four days in November 2011 near the town of Prague in central Oklahoma. Studies suggest that these earthquakes were induced by reactivation of the Wilzetta fault due to the disposal of waste water from hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") and other oil and gas activities. The Wilzetta fault is a northeast trending vertical strike-slip fault that is a well known structural trap for oil and gas. Since the November 2011 Prague sequence, thousands of small to moderate (M2-M4) earthquakes have occurred throughout central Oklahoma. The most active regions are located near the towns of Stillwater and Medford in north-central Oklahoma, and Guthrie, Langston and Jones near Oklahoma City. The USGS, in collaboration with the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the University of Oklahoma, has responded by deploying numerous temporary seismic stations in the region in order to record the vigorous aftershock sequences. In this study we use data from the temporary seismic stations to re-locate all Oklahoma earthquakes in the USGS National Earthquake Information Center catalog using a multiple-event approach known as hypo-centroidal decomposition that locates earthquakes with decreased uncertainty relative to one another. Modeling from this study allows us to constrain the detailed geometry of the reactivated faults, as well as source parameters (focal mechanisms, stress drop, rupture length) for the larger earthquakes. Preliminary results from the November 2011 Prague sequence suggest that subsurface rupture lengths of the largest earthquakes are anomalously long with very low stress drop. We also observe very high Q (~1000 at 1 Hz) that explains the large felt areas and we find relatively low b-value and a rapid decay of aftershocks.

  3. 78 FR 67333 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Application for Reorganization Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...B-93-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 15--Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Application for...Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board by the Greater Kansas City Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee...North Topping and 1226 Topping Drive in Kansas City; Site 2 (64.3 acres...

  4. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  5. Nutritional status of schoolchildren in an inner city area.

    PubMed

    Doyle, W; Jenkins, S; Crawford, M A; Puvandendran, K

    1994-05-01

    Data were collected on the seven day weighed food intakes of 65 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, living in an inner city, socially deprived area in east London. Blood samples were collected during the week and analysed for cholesterol, serum ferritin, vitamins A, E, B-12, beta carotene, and folic acid. Boys generally fared better than girls with almost a quarter of the girls having intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, and riboflavin less than the lower reference nutrient intake, an amount which, by definition, is enough for only the few people in a group who have low needs. Although the mean energy intake was close to the estimated average requirement for both boys and girls, 74% did not meet the recommended intake for fibre and a high proportion of children consumed more than 11% of their energy from saturated fat (85%) and added sugar (88%). Thirty seven per cent of the children ate no fresh fruit during the week they kept a diary and only 19% had vegetables (fresh or frozen), other than potatoes, on a daily basis. Their main sources of energy were chips, bread, and confectionery. No association was found between fat intakes and plasma cholesterol concentrations. Girls had significantly lower blood concentrations of folic acid, ferritin, and beta carotene. The findings of this study confirm the anxieties often expressed that many schoolchildren, particularly in less affluent areas, are eating diets which are unhealthy according to government recommendations. PMID:8017957

  6. A micrometeorological data base for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcido, A.; Celada-Murillo, A. T.; Villegas-Martínez, R.; Salas-Oviedo, H.; Sozzi, R.; Georgiadis, T.

    2003-05-01

    In order to overcome the lack of the surface micrometeorological data required for air quality studies in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), a long-term micrometeorological campaign was carried out in this area along the 2001-year. Three micrometeorological surface stations were installed at sites located at north, north-east, and south sectors of the MCMA. Each station was equipped with a 3D ultrasonic turbulence sensor and with conventional meteorological sensors for temperature, relative humidity, pressure, global radiation, net radiation, and rain. The sampling rates were 10 Hz for the ultrasonic sensor, and 1 Hz for the conventional sensors. One-hour averages were calculated for all the meteorological parameters and for the turbulence parameters such as friction velocity, scale temperature, Monin-Obukhov length, sensible heat flux and turbulent kinetic energy, among others. A simple micrometeorological database was prepared and mounted on a free access Internet page to furnish a specialized tool to the local Authorities to be utilized in health prevention and pollution regulation applications.

  7. The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Tang; Hanqiu Xu

    2010-01-01

    The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to

  8. Oklahoma Healthy Homes Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahad

    2011-01-01

    Compelling scientific evidence suggests that a strong association exists between housing-related hazards and the health and safety of their residents. Health, safety, and environmental hazards (such as asthma and allergy triggers), unintentional injury hazards, lead-based paint hazards, and poor indoor air quality are interrelated with substandard housing conditions. This article describes a Healthy Homes initiative to address these hazards in a coordinated fashion in the home, rather than taking a categorical approach, even in the presence of multiple hazards. It also provides an overview of Oklahoma's Healthy Homes initiative and its pilot project, the Tulsa Safe and Healthy Housing Project, which is currently administered in Tulsa in collaboration with Children First, Oklahoma's Nurse-Family Partnership program. This pilot project seeks to open new areas of research that can lead to a greater understanding of environmental health issues related to substandard housing in the United States, which will eventually make homes safer and healthier. PMID:21563709

  9. Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the land

  10. Virtual 3D City Model for Navigation in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Cappelle; Maan E. El Najjar; François Charpillet; Denis Pomorski

    In this paper, we propose to study the integration of a new source of a priori information, which is the virtual 3D city model.\\u000a We study this integration for two tasks: vehicles geo-localization and obstacles detection. A virtual 3D city model is a realistic\\u000a representation of the evolution environment of a vehicle. It is a database of geographical and textured

  11. Oklahoma 4-H Alumni Association Membership Form Name Maiden Name

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Oklahoma 4-H Alumni Association Membership Form Name Maiden Name Home County County Residing In Address City State Zip Code Email Home Phone Business/Cell Phone: Birthday Years in 4-H: From to 4-H Awards/Trips Your membership in the Oklahoma 4-H Alumni Association is an investment in the future

  12. Fraction of natural area as main predictor of net CO2 emissions from cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordbo, Annika; Järvi, Leena; Haapanala, Sami; Wood, Curtis R.; Vesala, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Cities account for most anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions, CO2 being most important. We evaluate the net urban contribution to CO2 emissions by performing a meta-analysis of all available 14 annual CO2 budget studies. The studies are based on direct flux measurements using the eddy-covariance technique which excludes all strong point sources. We show that the fraction of natural area is the strongest predictor of urban CO2 budgets, and this fraction can be used as a robust proxy for net urban CO2 emissions. Up-scaling, based on that proxy and satellite mapping of the fraction of natural area, identifies urban hotspots of CO2 emissions; and extraction of 56 individual cities corroborates their inventory-based estimates. Furthermore, cities are estimated as carbon-neutral when the natural fraction is about 80%. This fresh view on the importance of cities in climate change treats cities as urban ecosystems: incorporating natural areas like vegetation.

  13. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations...What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations...special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large...

  14. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 147 micrograms per liter. Both samples had alkaline pH values, 8.0 and 8.4, respectively. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 383 micrograms per liter with 5 of 20 samples exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter; the five wells with uranium concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and gross alpha-particle activity showed a positive relation to pH, with the highest concentrations and activity in samples having pH values of 8.0 or above. The groundwater samples contained dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of bicarbonate; these characteristics are also factors in increasing uranium solubility. Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 (combined) ranged from 0.03 to 1.7 picocuries per liter, with a median concentration of 0.45 picocuries per liter for all samples. Radon-222 concentrations ranged from 95 to 3,600 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 261 picocuries per liter. Eight samples having pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.7 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter for radon-222. Eight samples exceeded the 15 picocuries per liter Maximum Contaminant Level for gross alpha-particle activity at 72 hours (after sample collection) and at 30 days (after the initial count); those samples had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Gross beta-particle activity increased in 15 of 21 samples during the interval from 72 hours to 30 days. The increase in gross beta-particle activity over time probably was caused by the ingrowth and decay of uranium daughter products that emit beta particles. Water-quality data collected for this study indicate that pH values above 8.0 are associated with potentially high concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and high gross alpha-particle activity in the study area. High pH values also are associated with potentially high concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in groundwater when these elements oc

  15. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    E-print Network

    Lei, Wenfang

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO ...

  16. Biodiversity in tropical areas, from molecules to ecosystems Place: Do Son, Hai Phong city, VIETNAM.

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    Biodiversity in tropical areas, from molecules to ecosystems Place: Do Son, Hai Phong city, VIETNAM) Organizational unit : Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR) Tropical biodiversity: ecological and evolutionary approaches Tropical regions harbor a disproportionate share of Earth's biodiversity. Understanding

  17. Assimilation of Somali Refugees and Immigrants in the Kansas City Area

    E-print Network

    Shome, Shimantini

    2011-08-31

    This dissertation investigates the assimilation challenges of Somali refugees and immigrants in the Kansas City area. The process of immigrant assimilation has both economic and socio- cultural dimensions, and the purpose ...

  18. CITIZEN-SCIENCE MONITORING OF LANDBIRDS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TWIN CITIES IMPORTANT BIRD AREA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TANIA Z. HOMAYOUN; ROBERT B. BLAIR

    As urbanization alters undeveloped landscapes, conservation of remnant native habitats is increasingly important. Citizen science has emerged as a powerful tool in monitoring these devel- oped areas. The Mississippi River Twin Cities Important Bird Area (IBA) covers nearly 14 751 ha of bird habitat along the Mississippi River between Minneapolis and Hastings. While we know this area's value to waterbirds,

  19. Development of a data management system for assistance in conducting Area of Reviews (AORs) on Class II injection wells in Oklahoma. Quarterly report, July--September, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.W.

    1995-10-25

    Project objectives are to provide the resources and capabilities to permit the State of Oklahoma to conduct Area of Review (AOR) variance analysis on a statewide level including: (1) the analysis and identification of areas which may qualify for AOR variances; (2) the correlation of information from various databases and automation systems to conduct AORs in areas that do not qualify for variances; (3) the evaluation of the risk of pollution, during permitting and monitoring, using risk based data analysis; and (4) the ability to conduct spatial analysis of injection well data in conjunction with other geographically referenced information. The division successfully converted its mainframe computer surety system to the new client server network and implemented it on September 29, 1995. The division currently lacks sufficient storage space to bring the existing oil and gas spatially referenced data systems in-house and fully integrate the systems for use in the determination of AORs or AOR variances. The second installment of the awarded grant allows for the purchase of the developmental server that will provide the minimum computer storage space to convert the remainder of the mainframe computer systems.

  20. Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants. PMID:24618273

  1. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area...to revise the Class B airspace area at Salt Lake City, UT. The purpose of these meetings...Executive Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The...

  2. Four Possible Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Ada, Oklahoma

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of federal, state, and city initiatives on climate change are presented. Specific steps for the City of Ada, Oklahoma, are presented. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy....

  3. URBAN AIR TRANSECT STUDY TO INVESTIGATE URBAN AREAS AS SOURCES OF PCDDS AND PCDFS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An urban air transect study was undertaken in Oklahoma City, OK, to investigate whether urban areas represent sources of dioxin-like compounds to the rural environment. This study proposed the hypothesis that the collective human activities characteristic of cities cause urban a...

  4. Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association Pave the Way in the Oklahoma Memorial Union Courtyard. Now you can. The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association 900 Asp Ave an opportunity to add their names and graduation years to the stone plaza of the Oklahoma Memorial Union

  5. Assumptions and Limitations of the Census Bureau Methodology Ranking Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in Cities and Metro Areas

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Residential Segregation in Cities and Metro Areas by Lois M. Quinn, University of Wisconsin scale for metro areas with greatest segregation for whites. The ranking studies of racial/ethnic segregation in metro areas and cities duplicate the work of academics and others outside the Census Bureau

  6. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Estes, C. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is, entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program...

  7. A Development Program for Metropolitan Junior College, Kansas City. Volume Three: The Economy, Population, and Manpower Requirements of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The economy, population, and manpower requirements of the Kansas City metropolitan area are examined in this volume of a report for the planning and development of Metropolitan Junior College (MJC). Part I looks at the Kansas City economy, first from a historical perspective and then in terms of recent trends in economic growth; the comparative…

  8. Inserting renewable fuels and technologies for transport in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Manzini

    2006-01-01

    This article describes three future scenarios for the potential reduction of CO2 emissions and associated costs when biogenic ethanol blends and oxygenates are substituted for gasoline, and hybrid, flex fuel and fuel cell technologies are introduced in passenger automobiles (including pickups and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs)) in the densely populated Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), analyzed up to the year 2030.

  9. USGS Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center Area, New York City, after

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    USGS Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center Area, New York City, after September 11, 2001 Two days after the September 11, 2001, attack on World Trade Center (WTC), the U.S. Geological Sheet FS-050-02 U.S. Geological Survey October 2002 #12;Results Hot Spots Identified in the World Trade

  10. Biodiversity within urban areas: A case study on bryophytes of the city of Cologne (NRW, Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sabovljevi?; A. Sabovljevi?

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the urban bryophyte flora of the city of Cologne (W. Germany) was studied. A total of 143 bryophyte taxa (17 hepatics and 126 mosses) were recorded within the metropolitan area of Cologne. Three species were newly recorded for North Rhine?Westphalia: Hannediella heimii, Schistidium helveticum and Tortula schimperi. Thirteen species red?listed in NRW were recorded, among them hardly

  11. Photochemical air pollution: transport from the New York City area into Connecticut and Massachusetts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Cleveland; B. Kleiner; J. E. McRae; J. L. Warner

    1976-01-01

    Photochemical air pollution resulting from primary emissions in the New York City metropolitan area is transported by prevailing winds on a 300-kilometer northeast trajectory through Connecticut and as far as northeastern Massachusetts. As a result, southwestern Connecticut has the highest ozone concentrations in the region and there is a substantial increase in ozone concentrations in Massachusetts. The ozone concentrations of

  12. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USCG SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC: SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-02113 Paul*, C.J., Khan*, F.A., and Puls*, R.W. Site Characterization of a Chromium Source Area at the USCG Support Center, Elizabeth City, NC. 2002 Intl. Ground Water Symposium, IAHR, & IAHS, ASCE, and AGU., Berkeley, CA, 03/01/2002. 2002, 364-367. 12/16/2001 The...

  13. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USCG SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chrome source area is located beneath an old electroplating shop at the United States Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC . This electroplating shop was in use for approximately 30 years until 1984 and was the source of discharges of chromic and sulfuric...

  14. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lei; M. Zavala; B. de Foy; R. Volkamer; M. J. Molina; L. T. Molina

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO), which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO), lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to

  15. Oklahoma Structural Engineers Association Central Chapter Monthly Meeting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    The need for Special Inspections vary based on building code requirements, local building requirements, and the owner's specifications. The need for special inspections and how to communicate the results with all interested parties will be discussed during this meeting. The views of the City of Oklahoma City, a structural engineering firm, and a testing company will be offered followed by

  16. AN URBAN ECONOMIC MODEL OF ILEGAL SETTLEMENTS IN FLOOD PRONE AREAS IN PALANGKARAYA CITY, INDONESIA -A PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indrawan PERMANA; Yuzuru MIYATA

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study regarding occupations of flood prone areas by illegal settlements in urban area of Palangkaraya city, Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. Such unusual urban land use pattern has been observed in many urbanized cities particularly in developing countries. However, scientific explanations about the urban phenomena were not formulated yet as well as literatures on that topic

  17. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 [sup 0]C/km (average 31.2 [sup 0]C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  18. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 {sup 0}C/km (average 31.2 {sup 0}C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  19. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  20. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution. PMID:23233965

  1. Neglected or Delinquent Transition Services in Oklahoma 1982-83. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.

    This report describes a special, 1-year federally funded project of the Oklahoma State Department of Education and the Oklahoma City Public schools, which operated to facilitate the transition of neglected or delinquent youths from state operated institutions to locally operated educational programs. The problems specific to youths in transition…

  2. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Moeller; L. M. Malinowski; J. F. Hoffecker; D. A. Walitschek; L. Shogren; J. E. Mathews; B. T. Verhaaren

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in

  3. Obesity in adults: an emerging problem in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Q Cuong; M J Dibley; S Bowe; T T M Hanh; T T H Loan

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among Vietnamese adults living in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam.Design:This cross-sectional survey was conducted in the local health stations of 30 randomly selected wards, which represent all 13 urban districts of HCMC, over a period of 2 months from March to April 2004.Subjects:A total of 1488 participants

  4. Occurrence of THMs and HAAs in experimental chlorinated waters of the Quebec City area (Canada)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-B Sérodes; Manuel J Rodriguez; Hanmei Li; Christian Bouchard

    2003-01-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) were generated in bench-scale chlorination experiments using treated waters (prior to final chlorination) of the three major drinking water utilities of the Quebec City area. The purpose was to investigate the formation and occurrence of these chlorination by-products (CBPs) on a seasonal basis. Data for HAAs, THMs and other physico-chemical parameters were produced through

  5. Deterioration of marble. A retrospective analysis of tombstone measurements in the New York City area

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Patterson, D.E.; Baer, N.S.

    1985-03-01

    A data base of tombstone thickness and depth of emblem inscription at Veterans Administration cemeteries has been compiled by New York University. A subset of measurements for two cemeteries in the vicinity of New York City was selected for analysis in this study. For comparable meteorological conditions, different weathering rates of fine grain marble tombstones were observed for the two cemeteries. Tombstones in the Cypress Hills cemetery, which is located within an industrial area, were observed to have higher rates than similar stones in the semi-rural area of the Long Island cemetery. By using a retrospective air-quality model, which is described in another publication, to predict SO/sub 2/ concentrations in New York City from 1880 to 1980, concentration trends of SO/sub 2/ were estimated for both cemeteries. A linear relationship was found to exist between the weathering rates and estimated SO/sub 2/ concentrations. A value of 10 mm per century per ppm of SO/sub 2/ was derived as the best estimate for the weathering coefficient of fine grain marble for the New York City area.

  6. Applications of ERTS imagery to mappings sediments of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    ERTS images were compared to surficial geologic maps, prepared through traditional field studies. Lithologic boundaries, bedrock outcrops, bedrock structures, and geomorphologic features were examined. An area southeast of the Twin Cities, located chiefly in northern Dakota County was studied, as well as the New Brighton 15-minute quadrangle located in portions of Ramsey and Anoka Counties. Visual comparison of geologic maps and ERTS imagery demonstrated the limitations of this approach to geological investigations. Bedrock outcrops and bedrock structure in the metropolitan area do not appear on ERTS imagery. However, certain glacial sediments can be identified and are potentially mappable. Certain geomorphological features were also discernable.

  7. Contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions to acid precipitation formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Barrera, G.; Castellanos, L.; Moreno, D. [Direccion de la Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico, Centro Historico (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The emissions of precursor compounds that contribute significantly the formation of acid precipitation in urban areas are associated with the burning of fossils fuels from mobile, area and point sources. In Mexico City, these include services, institutions and residences aggregated as area sources, as well as industrial point sources, including smelting, refinement of petroleum and power generation. In addition, dusts from soil erosion and lack of vegetation in the urban landscape contribute to modification of natural rain water. It is common knowledge that acid precipitation characterizes a large variety of compounds, as much related to precursor emissions as to prevailing environmental factors. This study attempts to establish the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions during the rainy season by analysis of spatial and temporal distributions, as of different ions in solution with rain water, as well as the modeling of wind patterns, as represented by using the arc/info software. This study`s results also show the geographic areas impacted by the acid rain phenomenon and the acidification rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the past 3 years.

  8. A New York City Validity Study for the NTE Specialty Area Test in Early Childhood Education. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kippel, Gary M.; Shivakumar, K. R.

    Evidence of the validity of the National Teacher Examinations' (NTEs') Early Childhood Education Test (ECET) as it is used in the New York City School System is presented. The NTE Core Battery and Specialty Area Tests are used as part of the alternative process for teacher licensure in New York City. The ECET measures knowledge and skills required…

  9. The Economic Impact of Higher Education on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area 1988-1989. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education, MO.

    A study was formally requested by the Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education Institutional Research Directors' Group in the spring of 1990, to examine the economic impact of higher education on the Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, metropolitan area. An economic impact model was used which includes the four major components of direct…

  10. Gasoline distribution cycle and vapor emissions in Mexico City metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Secora, I.S.; Gallegos, J.R.M.; Grapain, V.M.G.; Villegas, F.M.R.; Flores, L.A.M. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Ozone in the main air pollutant in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). This kind of pollution is induced by the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. According to Official Statistics National Air Pollution Quality Standard is exceeded over 300 days a year. Volatile hydrocarbons are generated in the cycle of storage transport and distribution of fuel (Gasoline Distribution Cycle). Above 17 millions of liters are handled daily in MCMA. Evaporative emission control is a complex task involving: floating roof tanks and vapor recovery units installation at bulk terminals and implementation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 vapor recovery systems at service stations. Since 1990, IMP has been involved in researching vapor emissions associated to gasoline storage and distribution cycle. Besides, the authors evaluate several technologies for bulk terminals and service stations. In this job, the authors present the results of an evaluation according to Mexican Official Standard of 500 vehicles. The gasoline vapors are trapped during refueling of cars and they are conduced to an equipment that includes an activated charcoal canister in order to adsorb them. Another Activated charcoal canister adsorbs ambient air as a reference. Experimental results showed that refueling hydrocarbon emissions are between 0.4 and 1.2 grams per liter with averages of 0.79 and 0.88 grams per liter according with two different gasoline types. These results were applied to Mexico City Vehicular fleet for the gasoline distribution cycle in order to obtain a total volatile hydrocarbon emission in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  11. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of the City of North Las Vegas along with the gross-count-based exposure rate and man-made count contour maps and GIS shape files in electronic format on a compact disk.

  12. Platinum in PM2.5 of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Martínez-Trejo, Lida; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; García-Arreola, María Elena

    2014-10-01

    The increase in platinum (Pt) in the airborne particulate matter with size ?2.5 µm (PM2.5) in urban environments may be interpreted as result of the abrasion and deterioration of automobile catalyst. Nowadays, about four million vehicles in Mexico City use catalytic converters, which means that their impact should be considered. In order to evaluate the contribution of Pt to environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), airborne PM2.5 was collected at five different sites in the urban area (NW, NE, C, SW, SE) in 2011 during April (dry-warm season), August (rainy season) and December (dry-cold season). Analytical determinations were carried out using a ICP-MS with a collision cell and kinetic energy discrimination. The analytical and instrument performance was evaluated with standard road dust reference material (BCR-723). Median Pt concentration in the analyzed particulate was is 38.4 pg m(-3) (minimal value 1 pg m(-3) maximal value 79 pg m(-3)). Obtained Pt concentrations are higher than those reported for other urban areas. Spatial variation shows that SW had Pt concentration significantly higher than NW and C only. Seasonal variation shows that Pt median was higher in rainy season than in both dry seasons. A comparison of these results with previously reported data of PM10 from 1991 and 2003 in the same studied area shows a worrying increase in the concentration of Pt in the air environment of MAMC. PMID:24729077

  13. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 ?g/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 ?g/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of inhabitants in Mexico City.

  14. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Oklahoma edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

  15. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    E-print Network

    Rutter, A. P.

    In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban ...

  16. Is Oklahoma getting drier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul, Jr.; Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice)

    2013-06-01

    Land surface hydrology is important to regional climate, ecosystem, agriculture, and even human activities. Changes in soil moisture can produce considerable impacts on socioeconomics. Analysis of assimilation model results, especially those from the Community Land Model, shows that soil moisture over Oklahoma region is continuously reduced from 1980 to 2009. The potential drying trend in the Oklahoma region is evaluated by observations taken during last three decades in this study. Satellite data from Global Precipitation Climatology Project exhibit a clear precipitation decrease in the Oklahoma region during the last decade or so compared with those of two or three decades ago. Accompanying with the precipitation variation, land surface net radiation and temperature over the region are found increases by satellite and/or in-situ measurements. These changes in regional climate conditions also likely result in reduction of regional evaporation and enhancement of sensible heat transport from land surface into the atmosphere as indicated in assimilated data. These observed and modeled evidences of the changes in regional water and energy cycles lead us to conclude that the soil moisture over the Oklahoma region was reduced during the last decade. This soil moisture drop could increase a risk in water shortage for agriculture in the Oklahoma state if the dry period continues. Further investigations on the drying in the Oklahoma State or even entire Southern Great Plains are needed to mitigate potential droughts, reductions in vegetation products, and other socioeconomic impacts.

  17. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  18. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McCoy, J. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western`s net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western`s purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western`s net revenue is computed.

  19. Environmental implications on the oxygenation of gasoline with ethanol in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Vera, M; Díaz, L; Guzmán, E; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2001-05-15

    Motor vehicle emission tests were performed on 12 in-use light duty vehicles, made up of the most representative emission control technologies in Mexico City: no catalyst, oxidative catalyst, and three way catalyst. Exhaust regulated (CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons) and toxic (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene) emissions were evaluated for MTBE (5 vol %)- and ethanol (3, 6, and 10 vol %)-gasoline blends. The most significant overall emissions variations derived from the use of 6 vol % ethanol (relative to a 5% MTBE base gasoline) were 16% decrease in CO, 28% reduction in formaldehyde, and 80% increase in acetaldehyde emissions. A 26% reduction in CO emissions from the oldest fleet (< MY 1991, without catalytic converter), which represents about 44% of the in-use light duty vehicles in Mexico city, can be attained when using 6 vol% ethanol-gasoline, without significant variation in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions, when compared with a 5% vol MTBE-gasoline. On the basis of the emissions results, an estimation of the change in the motor vehicle emissions of the metropolitan area of Mexico city was calculated for the year 2010 if ethanol were to be used instead of MTBE, and the outcome was a considerable decrease in all regulated and toxic emissions, despite the growing motor vehicle population. PMID:11393966

  20. Self-esteem of adult women living in a peripheral area of São Paolo city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodolpho, Juliana Reale Caçapava; Silva, Talita Cristina Cardoso; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the level of self-esteem (SE) and its associations with women's sociodemographic characteristics and social status. Adult women (N = 120) living in a peripheral area of Sao Paulo City in Southeastern Brazil were randomly included in our study. We found significant associations between higher SE scores and higher schooling (p =.02), participation in religious meetings in the church (p =.022), and practice of leisure activities (p <.001). The inclusion of a broader range of activities should be provided in health care and educational settings aiming at the improvement of women's SE levels. PMID:24498879

  1. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program 

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    series of tuition free Industrial Energy Management Conferences (over 20 given to date involving many Oklahoma industries). 2. A free energy newsletter entitled "Energy Channel" mailed to all participating Oklahoma industries. 3. A series of Energy...

  2. Monitoring the carbon storage change in Tonghua City of Changbai mountain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lishuang; Huang, Fang

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems is vital for research on atmospheric greenhouse gases and global carbon cycle. Based on Landsat TM/ETM+ images, land use / cover changes in Tonghua City of Changbai Mountain area, China during 1986-2008 was analyzed in this study. The carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the study area was quantitatively estimated using InVEST model. CA-Marcov model was used to forecast land use / cover and carbon storage in the year of 2016. The results show that total carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of Tonghua in 1986 was about 7932.64×104tons. From 1986 to 1996, carbon storage reduced by 0.6%. However, it increased by 0.1% in 2000 and 4% in 2008, respectively. The forecasted carbon storage in 2016 would be 8296.56×104tons, increased by 4.6%. The total area of forest in Tonghua was 8.0×103km2 in 1986, taking up 54% of the land. In 1996, the percentage of forestland dropped to 53%, while it rose to 54% in 2000 and 59% in 2008. The predicted area of woodland in 2016 increased to 10338.7km2, which might be influenced by the implementation of returning farmland to forest project since 1998. With the area of forestland increased in Tonghua, the carbon storage tended to rise.

  3. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  4. Fueling the fire: Information technology and housing price appreciation in the San Francisco Bay area and the Twin Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Chappie; John V. Thomas; Dena Belzer; Gerald Autler

    2004-01-01

    Fueled by the information technology industry, many regions saw rapid economic growth in the late 1990s, accompanied by upward pressure on housing prices. Yet housing price appreciation varies significantly within metropolitan areas. This article uses the San Francisco Bay Area and the Twin Cities to examine the variation in appreciation in order to determine the role of intrametropolitan sectoral location

  5. On the intensification of precipitation over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña Rueda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Precipitation over the western part of Mexico during the twentieth century has shown a sustained trend towards more intense precipitation events. The number of intense storms over this part of the city has increased from less than ten per year at the beginning of the twentieth century to more than twenty in recent decades. This appears to be the case of precipitation over most of the urban area of the Mexico Valley. The change in the local hydrological cycle appears to be related to the rapid expansion of the urban area during the last century that has more than doubled in fifty years. The Heat Island effect has various effects that affect the atmospheric stability in the boundary layer, the capacity to contain more moisture. On the other hand, the summer moisture flux into the Mexico Valley has increased in recent decades. These various factors contribute to more intense storms forming at the northeastern part of the Valley. As they travel across the urban area, they intensify, particularly at the foothills of the western mountains of the Metropolitan area. Therefore, the dynamical analysis and prediction of these storms need more than just higher spatial resolution models.

  6. Hydrologists in the City: Re-envisioning How We Manage Water in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    As the footprint of our urban areas expands, so does our manipulation of the hydrology. For decades we have channeled runoff into storm sewers, wreaking havoc on downstream water bodies with pulses of polluted stormwater. Recently, there has been a push for 'green infrastructure' to replace this hard, grey infrastructure, where green infrastructure- from rain gardens to green roofs to restored riparian areas- would detain stormwater and promote pollutant removal, in addition to a plethora of other ecosystem services. Primarily, it has been landscape architects, engineers, and urban planners who have jumped on the green infrastructure bandwagon. I believe there is also a niche for hydrologists and biogeochemists in re-envisioning how we manage stormwater in urban areas. Developed areas may not be as enticing as a remote mountain field site and their hydrology may be a lot more complicated to model than that of a forest hillslope, but these areas are where the majority of people live and where we could have a great impact on informing better water management practices. In collaboration with more applied fields like landscape architecture and engineering, we can provide crucial insight on existing hydrology as well as how certain green infrastructure or other alternative considerations could support a more sustainable and resilient city, particularly in the face of climate change. Our knowledge on landscape hydrological processes and biogeochemical cycling- combined with the expertise of these other fields- can inform design of truly multi-functional green infrastructure that can effectively manage storm runoff in addition to providing wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, improved aesthetics, and even an opportunity to engage with citizens. While there are certainly some hydrologists that have recognized this opportunity, I hope to see many more pursuing research and seeking solutions for better management of water in urbanized areas.

  7. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual groundwater use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. Most groundwater is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual groundwater-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

  8. Measurement and evaluation of the environmental noise levels in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S

    2014-02-01

    The environmental noise level represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the noise levels and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high levels of noise pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term noise monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the noise levels at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of noise pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental noise level collected during the previous years. PMID:24197556

  9. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota; a project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program for water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural, and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square mile and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled. Data collection is designed around the hydrologic conditions expected for each site. Sixteen of 17 sites are instrumented to define stream discharge and 12 sites have automatic water samplers and recording rain gages. In addition, six sites will have automatic wetfall/dryfall precipitation collectors. Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies , with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area. (USGS)

  10. Analysis of Water Resource Utilization Potential for Jiangsu Coastal Area ' in Nantong City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Li; Liu, Jin-Tao; Ni, Jian-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Along with the advance of the growth of population and social economy, requirements for water quality and quantity in coastal areas is getting higher and higher, but due to the uneven distribution of rainfall years and water exploitation, use and management level, the influence of the shortage of water resources is increasingly prominent, seriously restricting the social and economic sustainable development in this region. Accordingly, water resource utilization potential in Jiangsu coastal region is vital for water security in the region. Taking Nantong City as the study area, the regional water resources development and utilization status were evaluated. In this paper, the meaning of water resources, water resources development and utilization, and water resources development and utilization of the three stages of concepts such as system were discussed. Then the development and utilization of regional water resource evaluation were carried out, and the significance of regional society, economy, resources and environment and its development status quo of water resources were exploited. According to conditions and area source, an evaluation index system for development and utilization of water resources of Nantong was built up. The index layer was composed of 16 indicators. In this study, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine of weights of indicators at all levels in the index system. Multistage fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was selected to evaluate the water resources development and utilization status of Nantong, and then water resource utilization potential of Nantong was analyzed.

  11. Strengthening Oklahoma Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Citizens' Commission on Education, Oklahoma City.

    Established by the state legislature in 1980, the Oklahoma Citizens' Commission on Education (OCCE) aimed to evaluate the state's schools and prescribe goals for its future educational system. This report presents OCCE's recommendations and background materials. The first section comprises OCCE's 42 recommendations and statements, with supporting…

  12. Sauroposeidon: Oklahoma's Native Giant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew J. Wedel; Richard L. Cifelli

    Sauroposeidon, the largest dinosaur ever discovered in Oklahoma, is one of the largest dinosaurs that ever lived. Sauroposeidon is represented by a series of neck vertebrae, which show that it is a sauropod dinosaur closely related to Brachiosaurus. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the vertebrae reveal a net- work of small internal chambers. In life, the chambers would have been

  13. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Texas-Oklahoma Border     ... important resources for farming, ranching, public drinking water, hydroelectric power, and recreation. Both originate in New Mexico and ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  14. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-08-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 ?g m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 ?g m-3 (with maxima up to 11 ?g m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 ?g m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 ?g m-3 potassium, 1 ?g m-3 magnesium, 2 ?g m-3 sodium, and 3 ?g m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 ?g m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 ?g m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 ?g m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 ?g m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 ?g m-3, 3.6 ?g m-3, 2.1 ?g m-3, and 0.35 ?g m-3 respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 ?g m-3, 2.8 ?g m-3, 1.7 ?g m-3, and 0.25 ?g m-3. Additional improvements are possible by (i) using a day-dependent emission inventory, (ii) improving the performance of the model regarding the oxidant levels, and (iii) revising the emissions and the chemical composition of the fugitive dust. Sensitivity tests indicate that sulfate concentration in Tula decreases by up to 0.5 ?g m-3 after a 50 % reduction of SO2 emissions while it can increase by up to 0.3 ?g m-3 when NOx emissions are reduced by 50 %. Nitrate concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3 after the 50 % reduction of NOx or NH3 emissions. Ammonium concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3, 0.3 ?g m-3, and 0.1 ?g m-3 after the 50 % reduction of NH3, NOx, and SO2 emissions respectively.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Change of Cultivated Land Pressure in Arid and Semi-arid Areas Based on Food Security - A Case of Jiuquan City, Gansu Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shibo Fu; Haihong Wang; Qiong Ma

    2009-01-01

    Taking the Jiuquan City, Guansu Provice, China as an example, according to the 1997-2007 Gansu Statistical Yearbook, Jiuquan Statistical Yearbook, the Second National Land Investigation in Jiuquan City and other relevant statistical data, models of minimum cultivated area per capita and pressure index of cultivated land are used based on food security. Cultivated land area, population, grain output, sowing area

  16. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  17. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  18. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  19. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  20. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan...83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a...

  1. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been undertaken with key institutions focusing on environmental, health and urban development issues. The survey was conducted in order to identify the local authorities' perception and needs on climate change information and the importance of climate services for the city and institution's activity. Generally, the results suggest that the selected institutions are poorly aware of the potential impacts of climate change and associated extremes in the area, but they showed a real interest for future climate estimations necessary to undertake reliable adaptation measures. At institutional level, do not exist specialized departments (job positions) to tackle or manage climate information and climate-related aspects, this not being a pressing or priority issue for the city. The climate services aspects are seen with interest mainly in supplying climate scenarios and models for a relatively short term (next 10 or 15 years), the climate information being in this way included in the local planning strategies.

  2. N3280RDCOTTONWOODRD PayneOklahoma 11

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    51 2 54 11 51 49 4 11 2 11 10 72 51 96 26 47 51 2651 26 76 76 26 4 32 11 26 3 11 26 10 72 51 31 26 51 11 2626 72 11 49 10 11 26 11 26 96 76 26 41 11 76 51 1011 74 31 51 11 SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY Soil Survey Area: Payne County, Oklahoma Spatial Version of Data: 2 Soil Map Compilation Scale: 1

  3. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 ?m) sulfate concentrations (over 25 ?g m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 ?g m-3 (with maxima up to 11 ?g m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 ?g m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 ?g m-3 potassium, 1 ?g m-3 magnesium, 2 ?g m-3 sodium, and 3 ?g m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 ?g m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 ?m) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 ?g m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 ?g m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 ?g m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 ?g m-3, 3.5 ?g m-3, 2.1 ?g m-3, and 0.36 ?g m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 ?g m-3, 2.7 ?g m-3, 1.7 ?g m-3, and 0.25 ?g m-3. High sulfate concentrations are associated with the transport of sulfate from the Tula vicinity, while in periods where southerly winds are dominant; the concentrations of sulfate are low. The underprediction of nitrate can be attributed to the underestimation of OH levels by the model during the early morning. Ammonium is sensitive to the predicted sulfate concentrations and the nitrate levels. The performance of the model is also evaluated against measurements taken from a suburban background site (T1) located north of Mexico City. The average predicted PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 ?m) sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are 3.3, 3.2, 1.4, 0.5, 0.3, 1.2, and 0.15 ?g m-3, respectively. The corresponding measured concentrations are 3.7, 2.9, 1.5, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.15 ?g m-3. The overprediction of calcium indicates a possible overestimation of its emissions and affects the partitioning of nitric acid to the aerosol phase resulting occasionally in an overprediction of nitrate. Additional improvements are possible by improving the performance of the model regarding the oxidant levels, and revising the emissions and the chemical composition of the fugitive dust. The hybrid approach in which the mass transfer to the fine aerosol is simulated using the bulk equilibrium assumption and to the remaining aerosol sections using a dynamic approach, is needed in order to accurately simulate the size distribution of the inorganic aerosols. The bulk equilibrium approach fails to reproduce the observed coarse nitrate and overpredicts the fine nitrate. Sensitivity tests indicate that sulfate concentration in Tula decreases by up to 0.5 ?g m-3 after a 50% reduction of SO2 emissions while it can increase by up to 0.3 ?g m-3 when NOx emissions are reduced by 50%. Nitrate concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3 after the 50% reduction of NOx or NH3 emissions. Ammonium concentration decreases by up to 1 ?g m-3, 0.3 ?g m-3, and 0.1 ?g m-3 after the 50% reduction o

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock. As each facility has different guidelines and

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock-581-3468 Garfield City of Enid Landfill 580-249-4917 Garvin Foster Waste Disposal Landfill 405-238-2012 Jackson City American Environmental Landfill 918-245-7786 Call ahead Pontotoc City of Ada Municipal Landfill 580

  5. Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao city, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Na Zheng; Qichao Wang; Xiuwu Zhang; Dongmei Zheng; Zhongsheng Zhang; Shaoqing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    For most people, diet is the main route of exposure to trace metals, so the assessment risks of these elements to human via dietary intake is important. The non-carcinogenic health risk of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu to the adults and children via dietary intake in the industrial area of Huludao city, northeast of China was estimated. The industrial

  6. Occurrence and toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants in Guangzhou College City and its adjacent areas: the relationship to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Quan; Wang, Fei; Li, Hui-Zhen; You, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Guangzhou College City in the southeast of Guangzhou, China, became a home to 10 universities in 2003 after a largely agricultural past. The city has since experienced rapid urbanization with limited development of adjacent areas. Twenty-one sediment samples were collected in the city and its adjacent areas to evaluate the influence of urbanization in different functional zones on sediment quality in local waterways. Sediment toxicity was assessed by 10-day toxicity tests using two benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. In addition, various organic contaminants-including current-use pesticides (pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-were analyzed, and a toxic unit (TU) approach was applied to identify possible toxicity contributors. In general, 38 and 4.8% of the sediments exhibited acute toxicity to C. dilutus and H. azteca, respectively, with 9.5% of the samples resulting in 100% mortality to C. dilutus. Distribution analysis showed that the rural industrial area, which is south of the city, had the greatest contaminant concentrations and greatest toxicity to both organisms compared with the other areas. Pyrethroids, especially cypermethrin, appeared to contribute the most to the observed toxicity, yet the lack of relationship between the toxicity and TU of pyrethroids may reflect toxicity associated with other contaminants. PMID:25362564

  7. Oklahoma Digital Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A team of talented librarians at the Oklahoma State University Library have created this collection of 3,600 maps, a true find for those with an interest in Sooner history, geography, culture, and more. The cartographic resources are divided into four collections, including the WPA Collection and the USGS Collection. This first collection consists of almost 2,400 detailed county maps produced in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration and the Oklahoma Tax Commission to determine real estate values. Moving on, the USGS Collection is made up of 300 detailed maps generated from 1892 to the 1950s documenting topographical conditions throughout the state. Interested parties can view all of the maps here via a nice digital image tool and are also welcome to search across the entire collection by keyword.

  8. Differing patterns of marriage between a city and villages in 18th century Korea: The case of Taegu Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-tae Kim

    2009-01-01

    While the urban area was increasingly filled with middle- and low-status residents, the rural area was dominated by high-status settlers whose number increased because of migration from the city and natural growth. Remarkable differences existed between urban and rural marriage features such as marriage age and rate of remarriage. The more sincere adoption of the high-status marriage culture in the

  9. Is Oklahoma getting drier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Fan, T.; Xi, B.

    2010-12-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models, especially the Community Land Model (CLM), show a continue reduction of soil moisture over Oklahoma region from 1980 to 2008. When the top 3.5 meter of surface is considered, the total water amounts estimated from models are within the ranges of 145-150, 140-145, 135-140, and 130-135 kg/m2 for the years of 1980-1986, 1987-1993, 1994-2000, and 2001-2008, respectively. A statistically significant decreasing trend of annual mean soil moisture is also found, indicating the region may experience a continuous drying period. Although the moisture change could be related to many factors, precipitation and evaporation potentially are the two dominant meteorological variables in determining the soil moisture variation. The rainfall amounts simulated by CLM are compared well with the satellite observations of Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Both exhibit significant decreases in the region from 1980 to 2008. The CLM rainfalls also agree well with the available in-situ rainfall measurements during 1997 to 2007 from the Oklahoma Mesonet, which consist of 120 stations over the Oklahoma. For evaporation, currently there are no reliable direct observations during the time period studied. Limited satellite observations from the Princeton land surface data set indicate likely increase of evaporation. The soil moisture and temperature from SGP has records starting 1997, which is not enough to show the trend because of large variability. But both SRB and ISCCP surface net radiative flux from 1983 to 2008 shows an increasing trend. This could support the idea of increase in evaporation. The general decreases in precipitation and possible enhancements in evaporation would reduce land surface water storage. The reduced soil moisture could have considerable impact on land surface vegetation. For the Oklahoma region, this change would have a great potential in influence of regional agriculture and society.

  10. Techniques for estimating flood discharges for Oklahoma streams; techniques for calculating magnitude and frequency of floods in Oklahoma from rural and urban areas under 2500 square miles, with compilations of flood data through 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, W.O.; Corley, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Statewide regression equations are defined for estimating peak discharges of floods having recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years. Contributing drainage area, main-channel slope and mean annual precipitation are the independent variables required for estimating flood discharges for rural streams. For urban streams the percentage of the basin that is impervious and served by storm sewers also is required. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds draining less than 2,500 square miles (6,500 square kilometers) that are not significantly affected by regulation. For the rural streams, the regression equations are presented in graphical form for easy application. Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey rainfall-runoff model and synthesis of long-term annual peak data for 60 small watersheds is discussed. Synthetic frequency curves, generated using six long-term rainfall stations, are combined into one frequency curve and weighted with the observed frequency curve at each site. Use of the rainfall-runoff model parameters to estimate flood discharges reduces the standard error for selected frequencies by 9-12 percent. However, collection of the necessary rainfall-runoff data to determine the model parameters is time consuming and expensive. Annual peak data, basin and climatic characteristics, log-Pearson Type III statistics, and the flood-frequency relations are presented for 188 gaging stations. (PHOTOSTATIC COPIES ONLY ARE AVAILABLE OF THIS REPORT)

  11. Cervical screening in an inner city area: response to a call system in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, K. J.; Corrigan, A. M.; Bosher, M.; Edmonds, M. P.; Sacks, D.; Coleman, D. V.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether a cervical screening call system based in general practice in a deprived inner city area would increase the numbers of women who came forward for cervical smears the response to letters of invitation for screening was monitored for one year in one general practice in the Paddington and North Kensington district of London. Women aged 20-64 were identified from the computerised age-sex register. Only 16% of these women had had a smear test. A total of 750 call letters was sent out. Initially the response was poor (57 women; 22%), and 85 (32%) letters were returned marked "address unknown." After the age-sex register was updated the response to call was 330 women (44%). The response of women aged over 35 was better than the response of women aged 35 and under (229 (53%) v 101 (32%)). In the year of the study the number of women aged 20-64 on the revised register who had been screened rose by 330 (14%). A general practice based call system can improve uptake of cervical screening even in a highly mobile, socially underprivileged population. PMID:3144375

  12. Evaluation of the vehicle inspection/maintenance program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Vera, M; Guzmán, E; Durán, J; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2003-01-01

    The Inspection/Maintenance Program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) mandates a test every 6 months for all gasoline motor vehicles as one of the strategies to decrease emissions of vehicular pollutants. FTP-75 and ASM procedures were performed in our facilities to a fleet of 108 in-use motor vehicles before and after the approval of the I/M mandatory test When our laboratory-simulated ASM data were compared with those of the official certificate, a large difference was observed between them. On the other hand, audits at the test-only centers indicate poor maintenance of the analytical instruments and dynamometers. On the basis of our FTP results, an estimation of the emissions change for the MAMC fleet shows a net 4% decrease in CO emissions, while total hydrocarbons and NOx increased 9 and 8%, respectively. Our results indicate that the I/M system in the MAMC lacks the technical capability and investment to ensure that software and hardware are properly maintained, calibrated, and upgraded. Sometimes limited attention is paid to ensure adequate training of inspectors, auditors, and quality control staff. PMID:12542311

  13. Assessment of new vehicles emissions certification standards in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; López-Salinas, E

    2006-03-01

    Light duty gasoline vehicles account for most of CO hydrocarbons and NOx emissions at the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). In order to ameliorate air pollution from the beginning of 2001, Tier 1 emission standards became mandatory for all new model year sold in the country. Car manufacturers in Mexico do not guarantee the performance of their exhaust emissions systems for a given mileage. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Tier 1 vehicles will stand the certification values for at least 162000 km with the regular fuel available at the MAMC. Mileage accumulation and deterioration show that certified carbon monoxide emissions will stand for the useful life of the vehicles but in the case of non-methane hydrocarbons will be shorter by 40%, and nitrogen oxides emissions above the standard will be reached at one third of the accumulated kilometers. The effect of gasoline sulfur content, on the current in use Tier 1 vehicles of the MAMC and the impact on the emissions inventory in year 2010 showed that 31000 extra tons of NOx could be added to the inventory caused by the failure of the vehicles to control this pollutant at the useful life of vehicles. PMID:16570219

  14. Small-Area Estimation of the Probability of Toxocariasis in New York City Based on Sociodemographic Neighborhood Composition

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael G.; Haseeb, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is increasingly recognized as an important neglected infection of poverty (NIP) in developed countries, and may constitute the most important NIP in the United States (US) given its association with chronic sequelae such as asthma and poor cognitive development. Its potential public health burden notwithstanding, toxocariasis surveillance is minimal throughout the US and so the true burden of disease remains uncertain in many areas. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted a representative serologic survey of toxocariasis to estimate the prevalence of infection in diverse US subpopulations across different regions of the country. Using the NHANES III surveillance data, the current study applied the predicted probabilities of toxocariasis to the sociodemographic composition of New York census tracts to estimate the local probability of infection across the city. The predicted probability of toxocariasis ranged from 6% among US-born Latino women with a university education to 57% among immigrant men with less than a high school education. The predicted probability of toxocariasis exhibited marked spatial variation across the city, with particularly high infection probabilities in large sections of Queens, and smaller, more concentrated areas of Brooklyn and northern Manhattan. This investigation is the first attempt at small-area estimation of the probability surface of toxocariasis in a major US city. While this study does not define toxocariasis risk directly, it does provide a much needed tool to aid the development of toxocariasis surveillance in New York City. PMID:24918785

  15. Small-area estimation of the probability of toxocariasis in New York City based on sociodemographic neighborhood composition.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is increasingly recognized as an important neglected infection of poverty (NIP) in developed countries, and may constitute the most important NIP in the United States (US) given its association with chronic sequelae such as asthma and poor cognitive development. Its potential public health burden notwithstanding, toxocariasis surveillance is minimal throughout the US and so the true burden of disease remains uncertain in many areas. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted a representative serologic survey of toxocariasis to estimate the prevalence of infection in diverse US subpopulations across different regions of the country. Using the NHANES III surveillance data, the current study applied the predicted probabilities of toxocariasis to the sociodemographic composition of New York census tracts to estimate the local probability of infection across the city. The predicted probability of toxocariasis ranged from 6% among US-born Latino women with a university education to 57% among immigrant men with less than a high school education. The predicted probability of toxocariasis exhibited marked spatial variation across the city, with particularly high infection probabilities in large sections of Queens, and smaller, more concentrated areas of Brooklyn and northern Manhattan. This investigation is the first attempt at small-area estimation of the probability surface of toxocariasis in a major US city. While this study does not define toxocariasis risk directly, it does provide a much needed tool to aid the development of toxocariasis surveillance in New York City. PMID:24918785

  16. Epithermal mineralization and intermediate volcanism in the Virginia City area, Nevada

    E-print Network

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Formation, as the Virginia City volcanics. The Davidson diorite was emplaced near the end of this pulse district, and the Davidson diorite may have been an extensive intrusion into the core of this stratovolcano) is approximately coeval with the Virginia City volcanics, which host it, and the David- son diorite, which cuts it

  17. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, ?., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of an efficient moving sectional approach for the solution of the atmospheric aerosol condensation/evaporation equations. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 3303-3316. Fahey, K. and Pandis, S. N., (2001). Optimizing model performance: variable size resolution in cloud chemistry modelling. Atmospheric Environment 35, 4471-4478. Koo, B., Pandis S. N., and Ansari, A. (2003a). Integrated approaches to modelling the organic and inorganic atmospheric aerosol components. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 4757-4768. Koo, B., Gaydos, T.M., Pandis, S.N., (2003b). Evaluation of the equilibrium, hybrid, and dynamic aerosol modeling approaches. Aerosol Science and Technology 37, 53-64 Molina, L.T., Kolb, C.E., de Foy, B., Lamb, B., Brune, W., Molina, M.J., (2007). Air Quality in North Americas Most Populous City Overview of MCMA-2003 Campaign. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7.

  18. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply. PMID:16151096

  19. Water conservation as a long-range strategy in municipal water supply planning: the case of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with Oklahoma water managers' attitudes toward the adoption or rejection of long-term water conservation options in small and medium sized cities under 50,000 in population. In focusing upon Oklahoma water managers' attitudes, the following questions are addressed: (1) What factors influence Oklahoma water managers' attitudes toward the adoption or rejection of long-term water conservation measures. (2) What are the major incentives or disincentives that may encourage or discourage the adoption and implementing of long-term water conservation alternatives at the municipal level in Oklahoma. (3) What are the distinct geographical variations in attitudes toward adopting water conservation policies. To address these and related questions, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the water managers in the selected Oklahoma towns and cities. Results of the study indicated that local water managers considered local governments as the most appropriate body to deal with water management issues. Local water managers in Oklahoma also place heavy reliance upon traditional structural solutions. If these solutions prove to be inadequate, long-term water conservation alternatives become more appealing. However, Oklahoma water managers in the selected cities and towns expressed their profound concerns about the potential revenue loss if long-term water conservation measures were to be adopted and implemented.

  20. Bathymetric surveys and area/capacity tables of water-supply reservoirs for the city of Cameron, Missouri, July 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Years of sediment accumulation and dry conditions in recent years have led to the decline of water levels and capacities for many water-supply reservoirs in Missouri, and have caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/capacity tables for these reservoirs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, surveyed the bathymetry of the four water-supply reservoirs used by the city of Cameron, Missouri, in July 2013. The data were used to provide water managers with area/capacity tables and bathymetric maps of the reservoirs at the time of the surveys.

  1. Assessment of Impacts Produced by Anthropogenic Sources in a Little City near an Important Industrial Area (Modugno, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches. PMID:23476120

  2. Assessment of impacts produced by anthropogenic sources in a little city near an important industrial area (Modugno, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Amodio, Martino; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches. PMID:23476120

  3. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ's understanding of the effects of sea level rise on coastal flooding at the airports and guiding decision-making in the selection of effective adaptation actions. Given the importance of these airports to transportation, this project is advancing security and continuity of national and international commerce well into the 21st century.

  4. Walkable area within which destinations matter: differences between Australian and Japanese cities.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Inoue, Shigeru; Cerin, Ester; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Owen, Neville

    2015-03-01

    Adults' walking for transport is important for health benefits and can be associated with availability of destinations such as shops and services within a walking distance of 10 to 15 minutes from home. However, relevant evidence is mostly from Western countries. This study examined associations of destinations with walking for transport in Australian and Japanese cities. Data were collected from Adelaide, Australia (n = 2508), and 4 Japanese cities (n = 1285). Logistic regressions examined associations of self-reported walking for transport with the number of destination types within walk-distance categories. Walking was significantly associated with the number of destination types within a 10-minute walk from home for Australia and with the number of destination types within a 6- to 20-minute walk for Japan. Further research is needed on why walking by residents of Japanese cities can be influenced by more distant local destinations than in Australia to inform physical activity-related environmental and policy initiatives. PMID:23188878

  5. [Multi-gradients of land surface temperature in mountainous cities with rapid urbanization: a case study in central area of Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Han, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Tao; Ye, Lin

    2012-06-01

    By using TM/ETM+ and MODIS images, the land surface temperature (LST) and relative heat island intensity (RHII) of the central area of Chongqing City were extracted to analyze the distribution patterns of the LST and RHII along the multi-gradients of topography, population, and gross domestic product (GDP) as well as the potential quantitative relationships. The LST and RHII manifested a non-monotonically decreasing trend along the gradients of elevation and relief degree, respectively, both with a significant quadratic polynomial relationship. The maximum RHII appeared at 200-350 m elevation section due to the massive urban construction activities, and had significant linear relationships with the population density and the GDP per square kilometer. The RHII rose about 0.10 degrees C when the population density increased 1000 people per square kilometer, and rose about 0.08 degrees C when the GDP per square kilometer increased 10 million RMB Yuan. PMID:22937657

  6. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  7. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    The Queens College GLOBE NY Metro Partnership was created to introduce GLOBE to more than 1.5 million students in southern NY State and provide continuing support for their teachers. In our first 18 months, we have trained 185 teachers from 82 schools and will triple these numbers this year. Teachers and administrators are attracted to GLOBE by its scientific rigor, the authentic research it offers students, and its fit with NYS standards. They are also eager to interact with our science faculty. Early difficulties included problems with the "standard" 5-day GLOBE training format and misconceptions that protocols are not suitable for urban settings and that preparing for the NYS Regents exams leaves no room for GLOBE. We held information meetings for school districts and for Queens high schools before our first workshop. These identified the most committed schools, energetic teachers, and potential implementation problems. Creative participants at these meetings countered the misconceptions and suggested solutions to the problems better than any outsider could, and generated an atmosphere leading to nearly 100% recruitment. The following stratagems have worked well: a close working relationship with the NYC Dept of Education, BOCES, and other environmental educators; affiliations with government agencies and community environmental groups; two bribes (giving a GLOBE instrument kit and GPS unit to each school that we train and awarding graduate or professional development credits for GLOBE training); a user-friendly training format (an initial 3-day workshop followed by two optional days for hydrology and land use); lending seldom-used items (e.g. soil auger) when needed; building a sense of GLOBE community with a graduation "ceremony", local website (www.qc.edu/qcglobe) and newsletter, phone and email helplines, and annual pedagogy and student research conferences. We also urge that three teachers be trained from each school in order to build local GLOBE support systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  8. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma�¢����s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the search for new phenomena at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider to theoretical modeling, computer simulation, detector development and testing, and physics analysis. OCHEP faculty members participating on the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron and on the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN LHC have made major impact on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson search, top quark studies, B physics studies, and measurements of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phenomena. The OCHEP Grid computing facility consists of a large computer cluster which is playing a major role in data analysis and Monte Carlo productions for both the D0 and ATLAS experiments. Theoretical efforts are devoted to new ideas in Higgs bosons physics, extra dimensions, neutrino masses and oscillations, Grand Unified Theories, supersymmetric models, dark matter, and nonperturbative quantum field theory. Theory members are making major contributions to the understanding of phenomena being explored at the Tevatron and the LHC. They have proposed new models for Higgs bosons, and have suggested new signals for extra dimensions, and for the search of supersymmetric particles. During the seven year period when OCHEP was partially funded through the DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, OCHEP members published over 500 refereed journal articles and made over 200 invited presentations at major conferences. The Center is also involved in education and outreach activities by offering summer research programs for high school teachers and college students, and organizing summer workshops for high school teachers, sometimes coordinating with the Quarknet programs at OSU and OU. The details of the Center can be found in http://ochep.phy.okstate.edu.

  9. Vulnerability of the New York City Metropolitan Area to Coastal Hazards,

    E-print Network

    of the world's major financial centers. Plans are underway for the redevelopment of the (flood prone) World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, and of the Brooklyn water- front, long home to the former Brooklyn and Cynthia Rosenzweig Introduction Many of the world's largest cities are situated at coasts and in estuaries

  10. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieu TT Huynh; Michael J Dibley; David W Sibbritt; Hanh TM Tran

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for

  11. DETERIORATION OF MARBLE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TOMBSTONE MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEW YORK CITY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A data base of tombstone thickness and depth of emblem inscription at Veterans Administration cemeteries has been compiled by New York University. A subset of measurements for two cemeteries in the vicinity of New York City was selected for analysis in this study. For comparable ...

  12. The IMADA-AVER Boundary Layer Experiment in the Mexico City Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Doran; X. Bian; S. F. J. de Wekker; S. Edgerton; J. D. Fast; J. M. Hubbe; W. J. Shaw; C. D. Whiteman; S. Abbott; C. King; J. Leach; M. Mulhearn; C. Russell; B. Templeman; D. Wolfe; J. Archuleta; S. Elliott; A. Fernandez; D. Langley; J. T. Lee; W. Porch; L. Tellier; J. Chow; J. G. Watson; R. L. Coulter; T. J. Martin; J. D. Shannon; R. White; D. Martinez; J. L. Martinez; V. Mora; G. Sosa; G. Mercado; J. L. Pena; R. Salas; R. Petty

    1998-01-01

    A boundary layer field experiment in the Mexico City basin during the period 24 February-22 March 1997 is described. A total of six sites were instrumented. At four of the sites, 915-MHz radar wind profilers were deployed and radiosondes were released five times per day. Two of these sites also had sodars collocated with the profilers. Radiosondes were released twice

  13. Inequalities in mortality in small areas of eleven Spanish cities (the multicenter MEDEA project)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carme Borrell; Marc Marí-Dell’Olmo; Gemma Serral; Miguel Martínez-Beneito; Mercè Gotsens

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify inequalities in mortality among census tracts of 11 Spanish cities in the period 1996–2003 and to analyse the relationship between these geographical inequalities and socioeconomic deprivation. It is a cross-sectional ecological study where the units of analysis are census tracts. We obtained an index of socioeconomic deprivation and estimated SMR by each

  14. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USGS SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromic and sulfuric acid wastes had discharged through a hole in the concrete floor of a chrome-plating shop located within a hangar at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, North Carolina and infiltrated the soils and groundwater beneath the shop. Following i...

  15. The Psychosocial Needs of Young Offenders and Adolescents from an Inner City Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Kenneth; Maughan, Barbara; Davis, Hilton; Davenport, Franscesca; Goddard, Nick

    2004-01-01

    To date, assessments of the prevalence of mental health problems in young offenders have largely focused on incarcerated samples. This paper describes a quantitative study of a sample of 47 male young offenders under the supervision of an inner city Youth Offending Team. A semi-structured interview, modified from previous studies, was used to…

  16. University of Oklahoma: Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Oklahoma offers information on research in the areas of bioengineering, polymers science and engineering, environmental engineering, and energy studies. Examples include the Engineering Virtual Library and the Chemical Engineering Virtual Library, related government research labs, discipline-specific groupings of Chemical Engineering online resources, and selected corporate Web pages.

  17. Robust Principal Component Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression: Urbanization in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to create an innovative approach to model urbanization. The RPCGWR results show significant spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between proportion of impervious surface and the explanatory factors in the TCMA. We link this heterogeneity to the “sprawling” nature of urban land use that has moved outward from the core Twin Cities through to their suburbs and exurbs. PMID:23814454

  18. University of Oklahoma: History of Science Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-21

    The University of Oklahoma Libraries have done a wonderful job with their history of science collections. Visitors to the site will find seven collections here to keep their minds busy. Their number includes "Copernicus's De revolutionibus" and "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts." Of course this first volume is nothing less than a classic, presenting Copernicus's evidence and arguments in support of heliocentric theory. This volume also contains extensive marginalia from a circle of astronomers located in Paris in the decade following the book's publication in 1543. Moving on, the "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts" area contains 16 wonderful items, including an ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablet and videos of historically significant refractometers.

  19. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  20. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2001-09-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS)/DOE Annual Workshop in Oklahoma City May 8,9 2001 has been submitted for publication to the OGS. A technical paper draft has been submitted for the ASME/ETCE conference (Feb 2002) Production Technology Symposium. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors. In addition, a proposed technical paper has been submitted for this meeting.

  1. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  2. Small area estimation of obesity prevalence and dietary patterns: a model applied to Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cataife, Guido

    2014-03-01

    We propose the use of previously developed small area estimation techniques to monitor obesity and dietary habits in developing countries and apply the model to Rio de Janeiro city. We estimate obesity prevalence rates at the Census Tract through a combinatorial optimization spatial microsimulation model that matches body mass index and socio-demographic data in Brazil's 2008-9 family expenditure survey with Census 2010 socio-demographic data. Obesity ranges from 8% to 25% in most areas and affects the poor almost as much as the rich. Male and female obesity rates are uncorrelated at the small area level. The model is an effective tool to understand the complexity of the problem and to aid in policy design. PMID:24368257

  3. Floods in Oklahoma : magnitude and frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, A.O.; Patterson, J.L.

    1964-01-01

    This report presents methods by which the magnitude and frequency of expected floods for most streams in Oklahoma can be determined. Flood data were used to define flood-frequency curves applicable to the State. Composite frequency curves were drawn showing the relation of mean annual floods to floods having recurrence intervals from 1.2 to 50 years. In some areas, it was found that the slope of the composite frequency curve varies with the drainage area. An adjustment curve was defined for use in conjunction with the composite curve for these areas. Other curves express the relation of the mean annual flood to drainage basin characteristics. By combining data from the composite and mean annual flood curves, flood-frequency curves can be drawn for streams in Oklahoma not materially affected by the works of man. Neither of the above two types of curves should be extrapolated beyond the range defined by base data. Frequency curves presented in this report were based on analysis of flood records collected at gaging stations having 5 or more years of record not materially affected by regulation or diversion. (available as photostat copy only)

  4. 77 FR 34890 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Oklahoma intends to revise its program to be no less effective than the Federal regulations and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Oklahoma program and this proposed amendment to that...

  5. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2011 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2011 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  6. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2010 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2010 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  7. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2008 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2008 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  8. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2009 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2009 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  9. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  10. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  11. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out?in four different disaster prevention disciplines, i.e. rescue services, risk managements, infrastructure, and life and education as follows; (1) Rescue Service, conducted by TDF (2) Risk Managements, conducted by Edogawa Ward of Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City, and MinamiAshigara City (3) Infrastructures, conducted by East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, and Obayashi Corporation. (4) Life and Education, conducted by Toyo University, University of Tokyo, TMRIEP, and CAMJ Each participant has different purposes. For example, the main objective of the social experiment at Edogawa ward is to provide easy-to-understand information of heavy rain to the local residents. Tokyo Fire Department set up the dedicated website and have been used as an early information collection tools during a localized heavy rain and inland flood dameges. East Japan Railway Company and Central Japan Railway Company have studied to be used as additional information for managing the safe operation of the railway. Obayashi Corporation have taken an advantage of the information to ensure the safety of the construction site and so on. In the paper, overview of TOMACS and some of social experiments results are presented and difficulties of social experiments will be discussed as well.

  12. Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater-flow model, was used to simulate flow in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units with five layers. Layer 1 represented the fractured sandstone layers in the upper 250 ft of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, and layer 2 represented the lower part of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit. Layer 3 represented the upper 150 ft of the Madison hydrogeologic unit, and layer 4 represented the less permeable lower part. Layer 5 represented an approximation of the underlying Deadwood aquifer to simulate upward flow to the Madison hydrogeologic unit. The finite-difference grid, oriented 23 degrees counterclockwise, included 221 rows and 169 columns with a square cell size of 492.1 ft in the detailed study area that surrounded Rapid City. The northern and southern boundaries for layers 1-4 were represented as no-flow boundaries, and the boundary on the east was represented with head-dependent flow cells. Streamflow recharge was represented with specified-flow cells, and areal recharge to layers 1-4 was represented with a specified-flux boundary. Calibration of the model was accomplished by two simulations: (1) steady-state simulation of average conditions for water years 1988-97 and (2) transient simulations of water years 1988-97 divided into twenty 6-month stress periods. Flow-system components represented in the model include recharge, discharge, and hydraulic properties. The steady-state streamflow recharge rate was 42.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and transient streamflow recharge rates ranged from 14.1 to 102.2 ft3/s. The steady-state areal recharge rate was 20.9 ft3/s, and transient areal recharge rates ranged from 1.1 to 98.4 ft3/s. The upward flow rate from the Deadwood aquifer to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was 6.3 ft3/s. Discharge included springflow, water use, flow to overlying units, and regional outflow. The estimated steady-state springflow of 32.8 ft3/s from seven springs was similar to the simulated springflow of 31.6 ft3/s, which included 20.5 ft3

  13. the university of oklahoma Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    the university of oklahoma ADVENTURE A Year Of Annual Report July 2005 ­ June 2006 #12;Board S S I O N Statement The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History at the University of Oklahoma Conducting and disseminating research to increase knowledge Teaching university students to develop critical

  14. 1Mohammed Atiquzzaman University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    Fairness in DiffServ Mohammed Atiquzzaman School of Computer Science University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK of Oklahoma DiffServ n Provides statistical guarantees to a few pre- defined per hop behavior Y Expedited University of Oklahoma Differentiated Service Network DiffServ Domain A DiffServ Domain B DiffServ Domain C

  15. City Mayors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drawing on the expertise of a team of editors who reside in Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico, France, and a number of other countries, the City Mayors organization is an "international network of professionals working to promote strong cities and good local government." Their website takes on all of the important urban issues of the day, including governance, affordable housing, sustainable development, transportation, and a number of other pressing issues. On their homepage, visitors will find links to recent news stories from cities around the world and direct links to thematic sections such as business, finance, environment, and development. One section that should not be missed is the "City Rankings" area, which includes helpful lists of the largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, along with a list of the most expensive cities in the world.

  16. Monitoring of Heavy Metals Content in Soil Collected from City Centre and Industrial Areas of Misurata, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Elbagermi, M. A.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Alajtal, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper deals with the assessment of heavy metals in soil and roadside dust around Misurata City Centre and industrial areas/roads in the period of October 2011–May 2012. The levels of Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu in settled dust samples collected near small streets, playgrounds, gas stations and main streets in the Misurata Area have been determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Also, the levels of same heavy metals in industrial areas have been determined. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around different sites on each road/area. The overall mean concentration for main streets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for other small streets, where Misurata has been the centre of fierce fighting and is located in a frontline battle zone in the Libyan war; therefore most of metal concentrations in surface soil in the fighting area Tripoli Street and Benghazi Street were higher than those from the other sites (outside fighting area). PMID:23762061

  17. [Characteristics of delta18O in precipitation and water vapor sources in Lanzhou City and its surrounding area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fen-Li; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Ma, Qian; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Li, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Based on the 243 daily precipitation samples and meteorological statistics at the four stations at Lanzhou city and its surrounding area (Yongdeng, Gaolan and Yuzhong) from April 2011 to March 2012, the characteristics of stable isotopes in precipitation, as well as the correlation between stable isotopes and meteorological records, were analyzed. The precipitation equation of Lanzhou city and its surrounding area were calculated through the regression analysis, and the water vapor source of the four sites was tracked by the HYSPLIT 4. 9 model, and water vapor transmission regime was established. Results showed that the precipitation equation of deltaD =7.48 delta18O + 8.13 indicated intense evaporation; delta18O value was low in winter but high in summer; The variations of observed d-excess was stable all over the year, but there was variation in different time periods; The spatial distribution showed that the weighted delta18O value decreased from the west to the east; The linear relationships between delta18O and temperature was positive correlation, but the linear relationships between delta18O and precipitation was negative correlation; The seasonal variations of delta18O indicated that westerly water vapor, local moisture and summer monsoon all had influence on this region in a large scale, but the westerly water vapor played a dominant role. However, the impact of monsoon moisture had a seasonal limitation, mainly during the period from June to early August. PMID:24364289

  18. Water quality, physical habitat, and fish community composition in streams in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talmage, Philip J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Anderson, Jesse P.; Fallon, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality, physical habitat, and fish-community composition were characterized at 13 Twin Cities metropolitan area streams during low-flow conditions, September 1997. Fish communities were resampled during September 1998. Sites were selected based on a range of human population density. Nutrient concentrations were generally low, rarely exceeding concentrations found in agricultural streams or water-quality criteria. Seventeen pesticides and five pesticide metabolites were detected, with atrazine being the only pesticide detected at all 13 streams. Colony counts of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 54 to greater than 11,000 colonies per 100 mL. Instream fish habitat was sparse with little woody debris and few boulders, cobble, or other suitable fish habitat. Thirty?eight species and one hybrid from 10 families were collected. Fish communities were characterized by high percentages of omnivores and tolerant species with few intolerant species. Index of Biotic Integrity scores were low, with most streams rating fair to very poor. Percent impervious surface was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations and human population density, but was negatively correlated with fish species richness and diversity. Urban land use and human population density influence fish communities and water quality in Twin Cities metropolitan area streams. Other factors that may influence fish community composition include percent impervious cover, water chemistry, water temperature, geomorphology, substrate, instream habitat, and migration barriers.

  19. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

  20. The Implicit Fan Cursor: A Velocity Dependent Area Cursor City University of Hong Kong

    E-print Network

    Lau, W. H. Nynson

    the Implicit Fan Cursor (IFC) ­ a novel target pointing technique using a cursor with a fan-shape activation area. The IFC couples the cursor's activation area with its ve- locity, i.e., the speed and direction or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided

  1. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  2. STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES CODE -1 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    of the University of Oklahoma is charged in the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma with governing the University of the United States and the State of Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma Student Association. Those. Student Rights Students of the University of Oklahoma are guaranteed certain rights by the Constitutions

  3. A landslide risk rating system for the Baguio City, Philippines area

    E-print Network

    Saldivar-Sali, Artessa Niccola D., 1980-

    2004-01-01

    This research formulates a LANDSLIDE RISK RATING SYSTEM for the Greater Baguio area in the Philippines. It is hoped that the tool will be made a part of the physical/urban planning process when used by engineers and planners ...

  4. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  5. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Persistent High Incidence Area of Gastric Carcinoma in Yangzhong City.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yangchun; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wu, Junbei; Su, Jing; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection in areas with high prevalence of gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China. Methods. A prospective epidemiologic survey of H. pylori infection was accomplished in a natural population of 5417 individuals in Yangzhong city. Questionnaires and 13C-urea breath test for H. pylori infection were performed. Results. Among 5417 subjects who completed questionnaires and 13C-urea breath test, 3435 (63.41%) were H. pylori positive. The prevalence reached a peak at the age of 30-39 years (90.82%). There was significant difference between sexes and women had a higher infection rate than men. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was also associated with eating kipper food and fried food. No association between H. pylori prevalence and smoking or drinking was found. Compared to healthy individuals, people with dyspeptic diseases (peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis) presented a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, age and history of peptic ulcer and gastroenteritis were the independent predictors for H. pylori infection. Conclusions. Yangzhong city had a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and was related to several risk factors. The underlying mechanisms are needed to be further investigated. PMID:24550981

  6. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2012-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum flood scenario and a sunny-day dam-breach scenario, as well as for maximum flood-inundation elevations and flood-wave arrival times for selected bridge crossings. Some areas of concern near the city of Lawton, if a dam breach occurs at Lakes Ellsworth or Lawtonka, include water treatment plants, wastewater treatment plants, recreational areas, and community-services offices.

  7. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    In Oklahoma, industry consumes about 35% of the total energy consumed. While it is true that much work has been done in the larger companies, most small to medium sized companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. Often...

  8. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    , and in a senior-level engineering course in energy management being taught at Oklahoma State University. The equipment used includes: 1. A solar collector connected to a coffee pot to produce hot water for instant coffee. 2. A solar photo VOltaic...

  9. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions. PMID:25282771

  10. Damage Assessment from Storm Surge to Coastal Cities: Lessons from the Miami Area

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Hurricane Andrew hit Dade County with Category 5 force, generating 17-foot (more than 5 meters) storm surges evolution of hurricane intensity and sea level rise. The area of Miami represents a clear hotspot of human sea level, considering different hurricane parameters (storm category and direction, wind speed

  11. Particulate air pollution, social confounders, and mortality in small areas of an industrial city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Jerrett; Michael Buzzelli; Richard T. Burnett; Patrick F. DeLuca

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and policymakers have shown growing interest in the health effects of chronic air pollution exposure. In this study, we use geostatistical techniques in combination with small-area data to address a central research question: “Does chronic exposure to particulate air pollution significantly associate with mortality when the effects of other social, demographic, and lifestyle confounders are taken into account?” Our

  12. Smart Café Cities: Testing human capital externalities in the Boston metropolitan area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shihe Fu

    2007-01-01

    Existing studies have explored only one or, in some cases, two mechanisms by which human capital externalities percolate at the macrogeographic levels. This study, however, uses the 1990 Massachusetts census data to test four mechanisms at the microgeographic levels, in the Boston metropolitan area labor market. We propose that individual workers can learn from their occupational and industrial peers in

  13. Smart Café Cities: Testing Human Capital Externalities in the Boston Metropolitan Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shihe Fu

    2005-01-01

    Existing studies have explored either only one or two of the mechanisms that human capital externalities percolate at only macrogeographic levels. This paper, by using the 1990 Massachusetts census data, tests four mechanisms at the microgeographic levels in the Boston metropolitan area labor market. We propose that individual workers can learn from their occupational and industrial peers in the same

  14. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particles from the metropolitan area of São Paulo City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Pérola C.; Zacarias, Davi; Pires, Maria A. F.; Pool, Cristina S.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from phenanthrene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene in airborne particles were measured in the winter of 2000 at three different sites within the metropolitan area of São Paulo City (MASP), Brazil. It is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and has an unconventional mixture of vehicle types, in which a variety of gasoline blends, including oxygenated ones, are used. In this study, occurrence of PAH, meteorological conditions and inter and intrasite comparisons are presented. Overall, the results revealed low PAH levels due to rainfall episodes during the sampling period. Samples collected in the urban site presented the highest PAH concentrations (av. 3.10 ng m -3) when compared to those collected in the urban site with dense vegetation (av. 2.73 ng m -3) and in the forest area (av. 1.92 ng m -3). PAH measurements in tunnels with different types of vehicles were performed in order to suggest possible tracers of the vehicular emissions in São Paulo. Pyrene followed by chrysene and fluoranthene were emitted mainly from gasohol vehicular motor exhausts, whereas chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene were emitted mainly from gasohol and diesel vehicular motor exhausts. Some characteristic ratios from the tunnel measurements were used to identify vehicular sources in the atmosphere of the MASP. Although it is known that losses can occur both by evaporation and sublimation during sampling, measurements of higher molecular weight PAH compounds were taken into consideration due to their high recovery efficiency.

  15. Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the PM10 urban background with about 86%; relative contribution of urban background to regional background is about 37%; Relatively low inter-sites correlation coefficients and no significant geographic differences between sites, more or less uniform traffic pattern suggests local sources may play an important role; PM10average and median values systematically exceed the limit value of 50 ?g/m3 at traffic and industrial sites; at background sites the PM10 are below 50?g/m3 but are higher that values at similar sites in Europe; CO and SO2 do not put serious problems relative to their limits values as NOx does; NOx shows a temporal variation with higher values during the cold season; All gaseous pollutants contribute to the PM10 levels but a significant inter-annual variation of this contribution seems not to be observed; Pollution level in Bucharest seems to be higher than in other European cities for traffic, industrial and suburban background sites; regional background in the larger area of Bucharest seems to be similar with the suburban background sites in other European sites. Seven pollution episodes were identified, from which only one in the cold season has been attributed to the long-range transport. During this episode PM10 levels varied between 161-205 ?g/m3 for all sites, the dominant wind direction was NE (10.2%), with an average wind speed of 1.6 m/s. This shows that local pollution sources seem to have more impact on AQ than the long-range transport. Data presented here give an overview of the range of air pollution concentrations to expect under typical meteorological and seasonal conditions in the larger area of Bucharest. Acknowledgements: Dr. Ing. Danut Cociorva, Leader of the Air Quality Control Group-NIRD-ICIM Bucharest, is gratefully acknowledged for his permission to analyse the data. The air mass back trajectories were calculated using HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model: www.arl.noaa.gov/ ready.html. Financial support from ÖAD Austria, Programm WTZ, Project No: RO 02/2009 and from ANCS Romania, Programm PN II, Contract No: 304/27.04.2009

  16. Average coherence image derived observations over an urban area: the case of Athens city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Parcharidis; M. Foumelis; P. Kourkouli

    2007-01-01

    In the present study coherence observations, in relation to the land-cover type, obtained using 20 C-band ERS SAR Single Look Complex (SLC) VV-polarization images acquired in descending mode over the metropolitan area of Athens covering the period 1992-1999 are presented. A straightforward approach using a single master SAR image on which the other images are mapped was adopted ensuring perfect

  17. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  18. Vehicle Detection in Very High Resolution Satellite Images of City Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Leitloff; Stefan Hinz; Uwe Stilla

    2010-01-01

    Current traffic research is mostly based on data from fixed-installed sensors like induction loops, bridge sensors, and cameras. Thereby, the traffic flow on main roads can partially be acquired, while data from the major part of the entire road network are not available. Today's optical sensor systems on satellites provide large-area images with 1-m resolution and better, which can deliver

  19. A breakfast survey of primary schools in low income inner city areas of Southampton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Val Box; Jackie Landman

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results of a survey of children's reported or perceived breakfast habits in seven primary schools serving low-income areas in Southampton during January-April 1993. Structured and semi- structured interviews were used. The two types of interview revealed a similar frequency of skipping breakfast, which was reported by 5.1 per cent in the entire sample of 935 children.

  20. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noureddine Yassaa; Brahim Youcef Meklati; Angelo Cecinato

    2001-01-01

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  1. Measuring the Pattern of High Temperature Areas in Urban Greenery of Nanjing City, China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Weizhong; Yang, Guishan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Yinbao

    2012-01-01

    Most studies are concerned with the cooling effect of urban greenery, but some have also revealed that some patches changed from normal temperature areas (NTAs) into high temperature areas (HTAs). Landsat TM images and ArcGIS software are used to analyze the HTA patterns in Nanjing, China. The HTAs’ lower limit temperature was defined as the 30.26 °C and the percentage of the HTAs in all greenery was 24.87%. The disturbance on the cooling effect existed but not evidently. The average impervious ratio (IR) and surface temperature (ST) of HTAs, respectively, were 3.76 times and higher 2.86 °C than those of NTAs. The structure of NTAs’ IR levels was extremely uneven but the HTAs’ were relatively even. However, the co-coefficient between the IR and ST in the whole greenery was small. Sampling analysis with the same ST and IR revealed that the complex environment in green buffer affected temperature differences; The adjacent HTAs, with its 89.78% in the study area, largely along the green patch, were far more than independent HTAs and presented a ring shape. Thus, the significantly heterogeneous urban environment inevitably resulted in diverse factors forming HTAs. PMID:23066406

  2. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted... § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  3. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted... § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  4. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted... § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  5. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted... § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  6. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted... § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted...Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  7. Long-Term Subsidence Monitoring of City Areas at Nordic Latitudes using ERS SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauknes, T. R.; Engen, G.; Høgda, K. A.; Lauknes, I.; Eltoft, T.; Weydahl, D. J.; Eldhuset, K.

    2004-06-01

    The interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique may be a valuable tool for subsidence monitoring at different places of the Earth surface. Many results have been reported during the 1990 s where data from the ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR sensors were used. This paper will present the ongoing long-term subsidence project in Norway, AO-1104, that are making use of ERS SAR data. The test area is located in the Oslo region in Norway. During the 1990 s, this area has undergone a lot of tunnel construction work, but also some smaller earthquakes have been registered in the region. Subsidence effects of several centimeters are connected to these events and documented by land surveillance. The changing topography from sea level to 700 m above sea level, the dominating coniferous forests outside the built-up areas, and the seasonal variations with snow, rain and temperatures below freezing at several months of the year, makes this project a real challenge when it comes to masking out the non-subsidence factors and interpreting the interferometric SAR signal. For this AO-project, a total of 45 ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR raw data sets were obtained from ESA. The scenes are spanning a time interval from 1992 to 2000. Out of these scenes, 13 are from the winter, and 32 from the spring/summer/autumn period. The raw data sets are processed to single-look-complex SAR images using the phase preserving Extended Exact Transfer Function (EETF). Satellite orbit baselines are estimated using precise orbit data from ESA. Multiple differential interferograms are produced, as well as other products: coherence, lay-over and shadow masks and finally a simulated intensity map.

  8. What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase II State Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano Research Laboratory, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Phase II provides a more detailed examination of classroom variables important to achievement in Oklahoma schools. Where Phase I addressed all nine of the Oklahoma essential elements using survey data, Phase II focuses on what occurs in Oklahoma classrooms primarily using data from principal interviews, classroom observations (on-site), and video…

  9. A comparison of the speech patterns and dialect attitudes of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Jon

    The lexical dialect usage of Oklahoma has been well-studied in the past by the Survey of Oklahoma Dialects, but the acoustic speech production of the state has received little attention. Apart from two people from Tulsa and two people from Oklahoma City that were interviewed for the Atlas of North American English, no other acoustic work has been performed within the state. This dissertation begins to fill in these gaps by presenting twelve respondents interviewed by the Research on Dialects of English in Oklahoma (RODEO) project. For each speaker, a brief biography is given, including some of their regional and speech attitudes of Oklahoma. Then acoustic data from a wordlist and reading task are presented and compared. Analysis will consider plots of each speaker's vowel system as a whole, and will also examine many environments in isolation. These environments were chosen for their likely presence in Oklahoma, and include such dialect features as the Southern Shift, the pin/pen merger, the caught/cot merger, monophthongization of the PRICE vowel, and neutralization of tense vowels before /l./ After considering each respondent separately, some of their results will be pooled together to give a preliminary sense of the state of dialect within Oklahoma. Demographic variables such as age, gender, and urban/rural upbringing will be related to speakers' attitudes and acoustic production. This will serve two goals - first, to compare modern-day production to the findings of previous scholars, and second, to suggest a dialect trajectory for the state that could be studied further in additional research.

  10. A test of the Garreau model for edge city development using GIS-based shift-share analysis: a case study for the Clear Lake-NASA Area, Texas

    E-print Network

    Crate, Frances Margaret

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the development of Clear Lake-NASA Area, Texas into an edge city and challenged the Garreau edge city model by addressing the question, Do all edge cities follow the Garreau model of development? Objectives of the study focused...

  11. A test of the Garreau model for edge city development using GIS-based shift-share analysis: a case study for the Clear Lake-NASA Area, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Crate, Frances Margaret

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the development of Clear Lake-NASA Area, Texas into an edge city and challenged the Garreau edge city model by addressing the question, Do all edge cities follow the Garreau model of development? Objectives of the study focused...

  12. Landscape characteristics impacts on water quality of urban lowland catchments: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liang; van der Vlugt, Corné; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Broers, Hans Peter; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuyfzand, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    In Dutch lowland polder systems, groundwater quality significantly contributes to surface water quality. This process is influenced by landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, and land use types. In this study, 23 variables were selected for 144 polder catchments, including groundwater and surface water solute concentrations (TN, TP, NH4+, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Cl-), seepage rate in mm per year, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil types (calcite, humus and lutum percentage). The spatial patters in groundwater and surface water quality can largely be explained by groundwater seepage rates in polders and partly by artificial redistribution of water via the regional surface water system. High correlations (R2 up to 0.66) between solutes in groundwater and surface water revealed their probable interaction. This was further supported by results from principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression. The PCA distinguished four factors that were related to a fresh groundwater factor, seepage rate factor, brackish groundwater factor and clay soil factor. Nutrients (TP, TN, NH4+ and NO3-) and SO42- in surface water bodies are mainly determined by groundwater quality combined with seepage rate, which is negatively related to surface water area percentage and elevation of the catchment. This pattern is more obvious in deep urban lowland catchments. Relatively high NO3- loads more tend to appear in catchments with high humus, but low calcite percentage soil type on top, which was attributed to clay soil type that was expressed by calcite percentage in our regression. Different from nitrogen contained solutes, TP is more closely related to fresh groundwater quality than to seepage rate. Surface water Cl- concentration has a high relation with brackish groundwater. Due to the artificial regulation of flow direction, brackish inlet water from upstream highly influences the chloride load in surface water bodies downstream, especially in infiltrated urban catchments. We conclude that, apart from artificial regulation, groundwater has significant impacts on surface water quality in the polders. Especially in low-lying urban catchments surface water solute concentrations like TP, TN, NH4+, HCO3-, SO42-, and Ca2+ can be predicted by groundwater characteristics. These results suggest that groundwater quality plays a crucial role in understanding and improving surface water quality in regulated lowland catchments.

  13. Identification of the prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, a Mekong Delta area in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Manh, Cuong Do

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is highly vulnerable to climate change and a dengue endemic area in Vietnam. This study aims to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence and to identify the best climate prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. We used three different regression models comprising: standard multiple regression model (SMR), seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA), and Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence over the period 2003-2010. We validated the models by forecasting dengue cases for the period of January-December, 2011 using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of a dengue outbreak. The results indicate that temperature and relative humidity are significantly associated with changes in dengue incidence consistently across the model methods used, but not cumulative rainfall. The Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) performs the best prediction of dengue incidence for a 6, 9, and 12-month period and diagnosis of an outbreak however the SARIMA model performs a better prediction of dengue incidence for a 3-month period. The simple or standard multiple regression performed highly imprecise prediction of dengue incidence. We recommend a follow-up study to validate the model on a larger scale in the Mekong Delta region and to analyze the possibility of incorporating a climate-based dengue early warning method into the national dengue surveillance system. PMID:25447266

  14. Fluoride enrichment in groundwater of semi-arid urban area: Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip (Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jabal, Mohamed Shaban; Abustan, Ismail; Rozaimy, Mohd Remy; Al-Najar, Hussam

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine fluoride enhancement in the groundwater of semi-arid urban area of Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip. Physicochemical data for a total of 200 groundwater samples were analyzed. The fluoride concentrations were varied from 0.3 to 6.45 mg/L with average value of 2.87 mg/L. Correlations between fluorides with other measured ions were relatively observed, negative correlation with calcium and the positive correlation with pH, bicarbonate and sodium increase the dissolution/solubility of fluoride bearing minerals, leading to fluoride leaching into the groundwater. Fluoride enrichment in the groundwater of the area is due to water hydrochemistry, mineral-water interaction (mainly calcite and fluorite), fluorite resulted from fluorapatite dissolution. The saturation indexes evaluation indicated that 42% of the samples are over saturated with respect to calcite and 35.5% under saturated with respect to fluorite, while 40.5% approached equilibrium with respect to both calcite and fluorite. At fluoride concentrations of less than 2.2 mg/L fluorite saturation indexes show under-saturation condition for fluorite and at higher fluoride concentrations show near saturation condition.

  15. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years of higher health risk for the population living under the plume. Additionally, time series analysis helps us to disregard any seasonal effect of certain pathologies and to derive a 12-year risk trend. For 2004-2010, our results are compared to SO2 gas emission rates and plume location data measured by using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopic (DOAS) sensors located around Nyiragongo volcano. Finally, the areas identified as more hazardous are highlighted through a geographical approach (using GIS tools), to generate maps and other relevant information that can be of direct use for risk assessment authorities. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the impact of SO2 emissions doesn't seem to be severe, being its most important effect an increase of ARI in the area surrounding the volcanoes (up to 50km). Our on-going study will help us to better determine the magnitude and geographical extent of the impact of volcanic plumes on the health of the population, as well as locate the areas that are most affected. This will contribute to provide the appropriate sanitation recommendations (water treatment, early warning system, etc.) and lead to a more effective volcanic impact reduction on human health.

  16. Red Fork sandstone of Oklahoma: depositional history and reservoir distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of progradation across eastern Kansas and most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems) developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes, together with varying subsidence, were dominant factors controlling the general stratigraphic (correlative) characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the more active part of the basin during lower sea level stands and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. A map of Red Fork sand trends reveals an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northernmost part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope basinal-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock and log data. Logs need to be calibrated to cores in order to estimate depositional environments accurately and to make a reasonable assessment of diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, and a significant amount of oil is in channel sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. In some areas, secondary clay, in particular chloritic clay, has resulted in microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities in oil reserves.

  17. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  18. Flow-system analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota--conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual model of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area synthesizes the physical geography, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow components of these important aquifers. The Madison hydrogeologic unit includes the karstic Madison aquifer, which is defined as the upper, more permeable 100 to 200 ft of the Madison Limestone, and the Madison confining unit, which consists of the lower, less permeable part of the Madison Limestone and the Englewood Formation. Overlying the Madison hydrogeologic unit is the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, which includes the Minnelusa aquifer in the upper, more permeable 200 to 300 ft and the Minnelusa confining unit in the lower, less permeable part. The Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units outcrop in the study area on the eastern flank of the Black Hills where recharge occurs from streamflow losses and areal recharge. The conceptual model describes streamflow recharge, areal recharge, ground-water flow, storage in aquifers and confining units, unsaturated areas, leakage between aquifers, discharge from artesian springs, and regional outflow. Effective transmissivities estimated for the Madison aquifer range from 500 to 20,000 ft2/d and for the Minnelusa aquifer from 500 to 10,000 ft2/d. Localized anisotropic transmissivity in the Madison aquifer has tensor ratios as high as 45:1. Vertical hydraulic conductivities for the Minnelusa confining unit determined from aquifer tests range from 1.3x10-3 to 3.0x10-1 ft/d. The confined storage coefficient of the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units was estimated as 3x10-4 ft/d. Specific yield was estimated as 0.09 for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers and 0.03 for the Madison and Minnelusa confining units. Potentiometric surfaces for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers have a general easterly gradient of about 70 ft/mi with local variations. Temporal change in hydraulic head in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers ranged from about 5 to 95 ft in water years 1988-97. The unconfined areas were estimated at about 53 and 36 mi2 for the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units, respectively, in contrast to an aquifer analysis area of 629 mi2. Dye-tracer tests, stable isotopes, and hydrogeologic features were analyzed conjunctively to estimate generalized ground-water flowpaths in the Madison aquifer and their influences on the Minnelusa aquifer. The western Rapid City area between Boxelder Creek and Spring Creek was characterized as having undergone extensive tectonic activity, greater brecciation in the Minnelusa Formation, large transmissivities, generally upward hydraulic gradients from the Madison aquifer to the Minnelusa aquifer, many karst springs, and converging flowpaths. Water-budget analysis included: (1) a dry-period budget for declining water levels; October 1, 1987, to March 31, 1993; (2) a wet-period budget for rising water levels, April 1, 1993, to September 30, 1997; and (3) a full 10-year period budget for water years 1988-97. By simultaneously balancing these water budgets, initial estimates of recharge, discharge, change in storage, and hydraulic properties were refined. Inflow rates for the 10-year budget included streamflow recharge of about 45 ft3/s or 61 percent of the total budget and areal recharge of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Streamflow recharge to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was about 86 percent of the total streamflow recharge. Outflow for the 10-year budget included springflow of 31 ft3/s or 42 percent of the total budget, water use of about 10 ft3/s or 14 percent, and regional outflow of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Ground-water storage increased 9 ft3/s during the 10-year period, and net ground-water movement from the Madison to Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit was about 8 ft3/s.

  19. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 ?g m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  20. University of Oklahoma Police Department

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    .Disposition: Date Reported: Location : Report #:04/09/14 - WED at 12:59 KUHLMAN COURT, ALL BLOCKS 14-0561 Address Court 04/09/14 - WED at 19:00 - 04/09/14 - WED at 21:00Date and Time Occurred From - Occurred To: CaseUniversity of Oklahoma Police Department Case Log Media Apr 09, 2014 Jun 09, 2014From to Date

  1. An Evaluation of the ESEA Title I Program to Strengthen Early Childhood Education in Poverty Area Schools, New York City Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justman, Joseph; Oxman Wendy

    The Program to Strengthen Early Childhood Education in Poverty Area Schools organized by the New York City Board of Education during the 1969-70 school year constituted a recycling of a similar program conducted during the previous year: both were funded under ESEA Title I programs. The two major objectives of the program were: (1) to improve the…

  2. Analysis and predictive models of stormwater runoff volumes, loads, and pollutant concentrations from watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick L Brezonik; Teresa H Stadelmann

    2002-01-01

    Urban nonpoint source pollution is a significant contributor to water quality degradation. Watershed planners need to be able to estimate nonpoint source loads to lakes and streams if they are to plan effective management strategies. To meet this need for the twin cities metropolitan area, a large database of urban and suburban runoff data was compiled. Stormwater runoff loads and

  3. Remote Sensing of Glyoxal as a New Atmospheric Tracer for VOC Chemistry and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Volkamer; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; T. Shirley; R. Lesher; W. Brune; K. Dzepina; J. Jimenez

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is intimately linked with the photochemical transformation of primary pollutants like VOC (volatile organic compounds) and NOx, which gives rise to the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and their associated adverse effects on human health. As part of the field campaign held in the

  4. Assessing cardiovascular risk in regional areas: the Healthy Hearts – Beyond City Limits program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more prevalent in regional and remote Australia compared to metropolitan areas. The aim of Healthy Hearts was to determine age and sex specific CVD risk factor levels and the potential value of national risk clinics. Methods Healthy Hearts was an observational research study conducted in four purposefully selected higher risk communities in regional Victoria, Australia. The main outcome measures were the proportion of participants with CVD risk factors with group comparisons to determine the adjusted likelihood of elevated risk factor levels. Trained personnel used a standardized protocol over four weeks per community to measure CVD risk factor levels, estimate absolute CVD risk and provide feedback and advice. Results A total of 2125 self-selected participants were assessed (mean age 58?±?15 years, 57% women). Overall, CVD risk factors were highly prevalent. More men than women had???2 modifiable CVD risk factors (76% vs. 68%, p?

  5. Observed and simulated sensitivities of summertime urban surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat in downtown areas of two Japanese Major Cities, Tokyo and Osaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Ai; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Ihara, Tomohiko; Shigeta, Yoshinori

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the sensitivities of surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat (AH) were investigated in downtowns of the two Japanese major cities, Tokyo and Osaka. First, meteorological measurements were made with the simultaneous monitoring of electricity demand in a contrastive couple of a downtown commercial area (C-area) and a residential area (R-area) within each city in summer 2007. From the measurements, the areal-mean surface air temperatures were obtained as and for each of the C-area and R-area, respectively. Using the actual electricity demand and the estimated motor fuels consumption, their areal total was evaluated as the energy-consumption-basis AH. The estimated C-areas' AH indicated greater values up to 220 W/m2 on weekdays and remarkable decrease about by half on weekends, whereas that in the R-areas showed less values of 10-20 W/m2 stably. Then, on calm and fine days were found to be systematically decreased from weekdays to weekends in both cities roughly indicating a proportional relationship with the reductions in the C-areas' AH on weekends. The result suggested a common afternoon sensitivity for both C-areas of around 1.0°C/100 W/m2, which indicated an intensity of the AH impact on surface air temperature there. Next, to simulate the observed AH impact, the authors' CM-BEM (a multilayer urban canopy model coupled with a building energy model) was newly implemented in the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WMF) model. This new system, WRF-CM-BEM, was applied to Tokyo and almost reasonably validated from the aspects of the reproducibility of urban surface air temperature and electricity demand in the observation areas. The simulations also suggested that WRF-CM-BEM underestimated the observed air temperature sensitivity to AH in the Tokyo C-area roughly by half but still in the same order of magnitude.

  6. Post-Subduction Pleistocene Volcanism in Tahoe City Area, Northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeier, W. T.; Farmer, G.; Schweickert, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical and isotopic analyses of Pleistocene volcanic rocks in the northwestern part of the Lake Tahoe basin are used to define sources and triggering mechanism(s) of post-subduction magmatism. From field and geochronologic data the volcanic rocks include an older (2.0 Ma to 2.3 Ma) set of trachybasalts and trachybasaltic andesites and a set of ~0.92 Ma trachyandesites. The 2.0-2.3 Ma set shows a range of wt% SiO2 from 48.7 to 55.5, high wt% K2O (1.3-2.3), and high Ni and Cr contents (31-207 ppm and 80-350 ppm respectively). The 0.92 Ma trachyandesites have 56.4-61.3 wt% SiO2; high Al2O3 (17.4-18.7 wt%), Na2O (4.2-4.7 wt%), Sr (907-1950 ppm), La (39.2-48.2 ppm) and other LREE; and low Y (10.6-16.9 ppm), and Yb (1.0-1.6 ppm). Both sets of volcanic rocks have high LILE/HFSE ratios, and higher (La/Yb)N and Sr/Y ratios than older, subduction related "calc-alkaline" volcanic rocks in this region. Chemical data preclude direct derivation of the 0.92 Ma trachyandesite from 2.0-2.3 Ma trachybasaltic andesites, and it is difficult to link the two sets of volcanic rocks to a common parental magma by fractional crystallization alone. Trace and rare earth element data for both sets of volcanic rocks indicate melting of the source in the presence of garnet and amphibole and in the absence of plagioclase. Compositionally similar volcanic rocks occur in other post-subduction continental margin settings, including Baja California, where "bajaites" overlap the compositions of older basaltic andesites and low-Si adakites. Bajaite is typically interpreted as the product of melting of asthenospheric mantle wedge metasomatized by high Sr/Y melts of underlying oceanic crust, prior to cessation of subduction. However, both sets of volcanic rocks discussed here have low ?Nd (+2 to -4.0), and samples with the highest Sr/Y have the lowest ?Nd(0) values. These data suggest that melt could not have been derived from recently subducted oceanic lithosphere. Instead, mafic and ultramafic source rocks may be part of the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada lithosphere. Migration of Basin and Range extension into the Tahoe area within the last 3 Ma, possibly combined with removal of deep Sierran lithosphere ("delamination"), may have triggered lithospheric thinning and melting within the deep lithosphere.

  7. Oklahoma blast forces unsettling design questions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The bomb that brought down a government building in Oklahoma City killed hundreds of people after it was detonated near the building`s key supports. The blast has reopened a long-simmering debate on safety by design. Structurally, it`s not practical to designing bomb-proof buildings. But it is possible to engineer a structure to deform rather than go through immediate progressive collapse. Delaying collapse gives occupants extra time to evacuate. And that could mean the difference between life and death. The construction material of choice really {open_quotes}depends on the height of the building and the lateral load resisting system,{close_quotes} says Charles H. Thornton of Thornton-Tomasetti/Engineers, New York City. But whether in steel or reinforced concrete, moment-resisting frames, which are inherently redundant, give horizontal components the ability to take reversals of stress common in explosions, he says. Simple frames do not. {open_quotes}They go down like a house of cards,{close_quotes} says Thornton. In reinforced concrete moment frames, beam reinforcing steel is continuous. In simple reinforced concrete frames, beam rebar only penetrates the column for a determined number of inches based on the length of the span. And it is absent from the mid-span of the beam. In a blast from below, the beam, its top usually in compression and bottom in tension, deflects up, throwing the beam top into tension. With no rebar, it loses structural integrity, and falls apart. With rebar, it has a chance of surviving. If a building is not designed for blasts, a steel frame might be better under a reasonably small bomb because steel has equal capacity in tension and compression, and concrete has capacity only in compression, says Thornton.

  8. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota; hydrologic data for 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, G.A.; Ayers, M.A.; Brown, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of nonpoint-source runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area was conducted to define relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff. Six rural and four urban watersheds ranging in size from 1.22 to 82.9 square miles were studied. Discharge and water-quality data were collected at 19 sites during 1980. Recording instruments and automatic samplers provided continuous discharge records at 17 sites, continuous rainfall records and automatic collection of samples at 12 sites, and wetfall/dryfall precipitation samples at six sites. Sampling was intensified during periods of increased runoff resulting from snowmelt and rainstorms. Primary emphasis was placed on analysis of samples for suspended solids, nutrients, and chemical oxygen demand. Samples were also analyzed for chloride, metals, bacteria, and pesticides. The data are documented in tables containing basin characteristics and land use, daily and unit values for discharge and rainfall, rainfall characteristics, water-quality data for runoff and precipitation, results of laboratory settling test, results of quality assurance tests, daily loads, and storm loads. (USGS)

  9. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (<4 times in the week) and rarely (1 time a month), with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health. PMID:21180826

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  11. Organic vegetable weed control research in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lane Agriculture Research Center is operated by Oklahoma State University and the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Located in southeastern Oklahoma, 13 resident scientists work cooperatively to develop production practices for organic vegetable production. On...

  12. Occurrence of natural Anopheles arabiensis swarms in an urban area of Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dabiré, K R; Sawadogo, P S; Hien, D F; Bimbilé-Somda, N S; Soma, D D; Millogo, A; Baldet, T; Gouagna, L-C; Simard, F; Lefèvre, T; Diabaté, A; Lees, R S; Gilles, J

    2013-10-01

    The swarming behaviour of natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis was investigated by conducting transect surveys on 10 consecutive days, around dusk, from March to April and from September to October 2012 in Dioulassoba, a district of Bobo-Dioulasso city in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Swarms were observed outside, around identified larval breeding sites on the banks of the Houet River, as well as in the open-air courtyards found at the centre of many homes in the region. Swarms were found to occur in open sunlit spaces, mostly located above physical or visual cues somehow visually distinct from the surrounding area. Overall 67 and 78 swarms were observed, respectively, during the dry season (March-April) and the rainy season (September-October) of 2012, between 1.5 and 4.5m above the ground at the centre. 964 mosquitoes were collected and analysed from dry season swarms, of which most were male, and all were An. arabiensis, as were the few resting mosquitoes collected indoors. Larvae collected from breeding sites found on the banks of the Houet River mostly consisted of An. arabiensis and only a minority of Anopheles coluzzii (formerly identified as An. gambiae M form). Of 1694 mosquitoes analysed from 78 swarms in the rainy season collections, a few An. gambiae (formerly known as An. gambiae S form) males were identified, and the remainders were An. arabiensis. The majority of larvae collected during the wet season from the same breeding sites were identified as An. arabiensis followed by An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. The same pattern of species composition was observed in resting mosquitoes, though the proportion of An. arabiensis was less overwhelming. These data support the conclusion that An. arabiensis is the most prevalent species in this area, though the difference in species composition when using different population sampling techniques is noteworthy. Further studies are required for more detailed investigations of male dispersal, feeding behaviour and mating patterns in this urban setting. PMID:24096115

  13. Occurrence of natural Anopheles arabiensis swarms in an urban area of Bobo-Dioulasso City, Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dabiré, K R; Sawadogo, P S; Hien, D F; Bimbilé-Somda, N S; Soma, D D; Millogo, A; Baldet, T; Gouagna, L-C; Simard, F; Lefèvre, T; Diabaté, A; Lees, R S; Gilles, J R L

    2014-04-01

    The swarming behaviour of natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis was investigated by conducting transect surveys on 10 consecutive days, around dusk, from March to April and from September to October 2012 in Dioulassoba, a district of Bobo-Dioulasso city in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Swarms were observed outside, around identified larval breeding sites on the banks of the Houet River, as well as in the open-air courtyards found at the centre of many homes in the region. Swarms were found to occur in open sunlit spaces, mostly located above physical or visual cues somehow visually distinct from the surrounding area. Overall 67 and 78 swarms were observed, respectively, during the dry season (March-April) and the rainy season (September-October) of 2012, between 1.5m and 4.5m above the ground at their centre. 964 mosquitoes were collected and analysed from dry season swarms, of which most were male, and all were An. arabiensis, as were the few resting mosquitoes collected indoors. Larvae collected from breeding sites found on the banks of the Houet River mostly consisted of An. arabiensis and only a minority of Anopheles coluzzii (formerly identified as An. gambiae M form). Of 1694 mosquitoes analysed from 78 swarms in the rainy season collections, a few An. gambiae (formerly known as An. gambiae S form) males were identified, and the remainders were An. arabiensis. The majority of larvae collected during the wet season from the same breeding sites were identified as An. arabiensis followed by An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. The same pattern of species composition was observed in resting mosquitoes, though the proportion of An. arabiensis was less overwhelming. These data support the conclusion that An. arabiensis is the most prevalent species in this area, though the difference in species composition when using different population sampling techniques is noteworthy. Further studies are required for more detailed investigations of male dispersal, feeding behaviour and mating patterns in this urban setting. PMID:24373897

  14. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  15. Variation in use of Buprenorphine and Methadone Treatment by Racial, Ethnic and Income Characteristics of Residential Social Areas in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Helena B.; Siegel, Carole E.; Case, Brady G.; Bertollo, David N.; DiRocco, Danae; Galanter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    National data indicate that patients treated with buprenorphine for opiate use disorders are more likely to be White, highly educated, and to have greater incomes than those receiving methadone, but patterns of buprenorphine dissemination across demographic areas have not been documented in major metropolitan areas where poverty, minority populations and injection heroin use are concentrated. Rates of buprenorphine and methadone treatment are compared among areas of New York City defined by their income and ethnic/racial composition. Residential social areas (hereinafter called social areas) were defined as aggregations of ZIP codes with similar race/ethnicity and income characteristics, and were formed based on clustering techniques. Treatment rates were obtained for each New York City ZIP code: buprenorphine treatment rates were based on the annual number of buprenorphine prescriptions written, and the methadone treatment rate on the number of methadone clinic visits for persons in each ZIP code. Treatment rates were correlated univariately with ethnicity and income characteristics of ZIP codes. Social area treatment rates were compared using individual ANOVA models for each rate. Buprenorphine and methadone treatment rates were significantly correlated with the ethnicity and income characteristics of ZIP codes, and treatment rates differed significantly across the social areas. Buprenorphine treatment rates were highest in the social area with the highest income and lowest percentage of Black and Hispanic residents. Conversely, the methadone treatment rate was highest in the social area with the highest percentage of low income and Hispanic residents. The uneven dissemination of 0pioid maintenance treatment in New York City may be reflective of the limited public health impact of buprenorphine in ethnic minority and low income areas. Specific policy and educational interventions to providers are needed to promote the use of buprenorphine for opiate use disorders in diverse populations. PMID:23702611

  16. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Oklahoma Water. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located within the ISE and is responsible for developing and coordinating water research funding to address the needs of Oklahoma. To guide it in meeting

  17. The separation of the Hartland Formation and Ravenswood Granodiorite from the Fordham Gneiss at Cameron's Line in the New York City area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskerville, C.A.; Mose, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Recent study of the rocks in City Water Tunnel Number 3 between Roosevelt Island and beneath 34th Street and the 63rd Street subway-rail tunnels at 41st Avenue in Long Island City, as well as study of drill core from other sites in western Queens, establishes that this area of New York City is underlain by the Ravenswood Granodiorite and the Hartland Formation. The Fordham Gneiss does not appear east of the East River at these sites. Cameron's Line can be traced down the east side of the East River, as learned from observations in the tunnels, separating the Middle Proterozoic Fordham Gneiss to the west from the Cambrian and Ordovician Hartland Formation and related Ravenswood Granodiorite to the east. The older, adequately defined, Ravenswood Granodiorite, Hartland Formation, and the Fordham Gneiss, are the rock units that make up the poorly defined Brooklyn gneiss or Brooklyn Injection Gneiss and thus appropriately should supercede these later classifications. -from Authors

  18. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water with acceptably low concentrations of dissolved Fe could be extracted than was injected. Scenarios with larger amounts of pyrite in aquifer sediments generally resulted in less goethite precipitation, increased acidity, and increased concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water. In these pyritic scenarios, the lower amounts of goethite precipitated and the lower pH during the extraction phase resulted in decreased sorption of Fe2+ and a decreased amount of extractable water with acceptably low concentrations of dissolved Fe (5.4??10-6M). A linear decrease in recovery efficiency with respect to dissolved Fe concentrations is caused by pyrite dissolution and the associated depletion of dissolved O2 (DO) and increase in acidity. Simulations with more than 0.0037M of pyrite, which is the maximum amount dissolved in the baseline scenario, had just over a 50% recovery efficiency. The precipitation of ferric hydroxide minerals (goethite) at the well screen, and a possible associated decrease in specific capacity of the ASR well, was not apparent during the extraction phase of ASR simulations, but the model does not incorporate the microbial effects and biofouling associated with ferric hydroxide precipitation.The host groundwater chemistry in calcite-poor Cretaceous aquifers of the NYC area consists of low alkalinity and moderate to low pH. The dissolution of goethite in scenarios with unbuffered injectate indicates that corrosion of the well could occur if the injectate is not buffered. Simulations with buffered injectate resulted in greater precipitation of goethite, and lower concentrations of dissolved Fe, in the extracted water. Dissolved Fe concentrations in extracted water were highest in simulations of aquifers (1) in which pyrite and siderite in the aquifer were in equilibrium, and (2) in coastal areas affected by saltwater intrusion, where high dissolved-cation concentrations provide a greater exchange of Fe2+ (FeX2). Results indicate that ASR in pyrite-beari

  19. Characterization of the NOx-Ox relationship in a mountain gap rural area of interchange of air masses southeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Garcia-Yee, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.; Barrera Huertas, H.; Torres-Jaramillo, A.; Ortinez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Varying levels of oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2) with respect to NOx were registered at three sites in a mountain southeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in February and March 2011. The Ox-NOx ratio was used to gain a better understanding of the photochemical and transport processes happening over this mountain pass. Relatively high concentrations of O3 (moving average concentrations of 8 hours) exceeded maximum levels of the World Health Organization, and the European Union. The cumulative exceedances above background level of O3 in the one month-long campaign also exceeded the three months accumulative UN-ECE AOT40 critical level for crop protection. It was observed that the level of Ox in the mountain gap sites consisted of two contributions: One, independent of NOx emissions, extremely dominant and considered equivalent to the regional background O3 concentration; the second and much smaller was dependent of NOx local concentrations. Evidence was found that the oxidation of NO provided the major contribution of NO2 to Ox, rather than direct NO2 emissions. The contribution of regional Ox dominated from midmorning to noon when the boundary layer height began to increase due to sunlight heating of the surface leading to the mixing of higher concentrations of O3 above the nighttime thermal inversion. After noon, when the ozone vertical distribution was uniform, the Ox and O3 concentrations reached their maximum; they were very similar with very low levels of NO2. The analysis of wind data collected at the monitoring sites showed that from mid-morning to early afternoon, a northerly weak flow was common. Afterwards stronger southerly winds became dominant bringing in O3 rich air parcels into the atmospheric basin where MCMA is located. The high regional ozone concentrations add evidence for the need of coordinated air quality management policies for the complete central part of Mexico. Keywords: mountain gap, oxidant, ground level ozone, Central Mexico

  20. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.

  1. Oklahoma Whistleblower Act The Oklahoma Whistleblower Act (74 O.S. 840 -2.5) protects employees who

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Oklahoma Whistleblower Act The Oklahoma Whistleblower Act (74 O.S. §840 -2.5) protects employees that he or she has been retaliated against in violation of the Oklahoma Whistleblower Act may file grievance alleging retaliation in violation of the Oklahoma Whistleblower Act must be filed within sixty (60

  2. PALS radar signatures of soil surfaces and vegetated sites in Oklahoma during SGP'99

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Yueh; E. G. Njoku; W. J. Wilson; F. K. Li; T. Jackson; V. Lakshmi

    2000-01-01

    The Passive\\/Active L-\\/S-band (PALS) microwave instrument has been developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to investigate the synergism of radiometer and radar measurements for soil moisture remote sensing. In July 1999, PALS was installed on the NCAR C-130 with six successful flights near the Oklahoma City during the Southern Great Plains 1999 (SGP99) Experiment. The data from these and

  3. Testing a Mahalanobis distance model of black bear habitat use in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellgren, E.C.; Bales, S.L.; Gregory, M.S.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Clark, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Regional wildlife-habitat models are commonly developed but rarely tested with truly independent data. We tested a published habitat model for black bears {Ursus americanus) with new data collected in a different site in the same ecological region (i.e., Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA). We used a Mahalanobis distance model developed from relocations of black bears in Arkansas to produce a map layer of Mahalanobis distances on a study area in neighboring Oklahoma. We tested this modeled map layer with relocations of black bears on the Oklahoma area. The distributions of relocations of female black bears were consistent with model predictions. We conclude that this modeling approach can be used to predict regional suitability for a species of interest.

  4. Characterizing Earthquake Clusters in Oklahoma Using Subspace Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, N. D.; Benz, H.; Aster, R. C.; McNamara, D. E.; Myers, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    Subspace detection is a powerful and adaptive tool for continuously detecting low signal to noise seismic signals. Subspace detectors improve upon simple cross-correlation/matched filtering techniques by moving beyond the use of a single waveform template to the use of multiple orthogonal waveform templates that effectively span the signals from all previously identified events within a data set. Subspace detectors are particularly useful in event scenarios where a spatially limited source distribution produces earthquakes with highly similar waveforms. In this context, the methodology has been successfully deployed to identify low-frequency earthquakes within non-volcanic tremor, to characterize earthquakes swarms above magma bodies, and for detailed characterization of aftershock sequences. Here we apply a subspace detection methodology to characterize recent earthquakes clusters in Oklahoma. Since 2009, the state has experienced an unprecedented increase in seismicity, which has been attributed by others to recent expansion in deep wastewater injection well activity. Within the last few years, 99% of increased Oklahoma earthquake activity has occurred within 15 km of a Class II injection well. We analyze areas of dense seismic activity in central Oklahoma and construct more complete catalogues for analysis. For a typical cluster, we are able to achieve catalog completeness to near or below magnitude 1 and to continuously document seismic activity for periods of 6 months or more. Our catalog can more completely characterize these clusters in time and space with event numbers, magnitudes, b-values, energy, locations, etc. This detailed examination of swarm events should lead to a better understanding of time varying earthquake processes and hazards in the state of Oklahoma.

  5. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  6. 77 FR 17408 - Foreign-Trade Zone 204-Tri-Cities Area, TN/VA; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...Med-Tech Parkway, Johnson City, Washington County, TN; Site 7 (103 acres, expires 6/30/15)--Linden/ Hairston Industrial Park, Linden Drive at Bonham Road, Bristol, Washington County, VA; Site 8 (2,100 acres, expires...

  7. 75 FR 12731 - Foreign-Trade Zone 204-Tri-Cities Area, Tennessee/Virginia; Application for Expansion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...Regional Med-Tech Center, Johnson City (Washington County), Tennessee; Site 7 (103 acres)--Linden/Hairston Industrial Park, Linden Drive at Bonham Rd., Bristol, Virginia; Site 8 (2,100 acres)--Holston Business and...

  8. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable limit of mercury in food. Spinach appeared to accumulate more mercury than the other four vegetables, in which the median and mean mercury content were both higher than 20 ?g x kg(-1). The mercury concentrations in rape, lettuce and allium tuberosum were lower than the standard. Moreover, test results indicated that the Hg content in leafy vegetables was mainly the gaseous mercury through leaf adsorption but not the Hg particulates. This study clearly manifested that there should be a great concern on the pollution risk of both air-and soil borne mercury when cultivating leafy vegetables in long-term wastewater-irrigated area. PMID:25639114

  9. Proposed shallow drilling at the interface between the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and Ouachita fold belt, Arbuckle Mountains region, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lidiak, E.G. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science); Denison, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two major tectonic elements in southern North America are the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Ouachita foldbelt. The Aulacogen is characterized by basement-cored high-angle fault blocks along which movement occurred throughout much of Paleozoic time. It is one of the most intensely deformed areas in the stable interior platform of the craton. The fold belt, in contrast, consists primarily of thin-skinned compressional structures that formed in Late Paleozoic time. These two prominent tectonic features strike at a high angle to one another and are juxtaposed in southeast Oklahoma where the contact is buried shallowly beneath Cretaceous rocks of the Gulf Coastal Plain. A drilling program comprised of a series of shallow holes drilled across the contact zone will establish the structural and stratigraphic relationships at this important tectonic interface. The results obtained should be critical in elucidating the effect that the transverse aulacogen structures had on the development of the Ouachita frontal zone. Proposed drilling sites are in northern Bryan and Choctaw counties, Oklahoma, along the Tishomingo--Belton anticlines southeast of the basement-cored eastern Arbuckle Mountains. Crystalline rocks in this region are massive middle Proterozoic granitoid rocks overlain by Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Farther southeast, rocks in the frontal zone consist mainly of Late Paleozoic flysch-type sedimentary rocks. Depths to Paleozoic and older rocks beneath the coastal plain deposits are about 300--500 meters so that targeted structures can easily be reached.

  10. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu—from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svein Ole Åstebøl; Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen; Øyvind Simonsen

    2004-01-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km2 was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive

  11. Characterization and treatment of water used for human consumption from six sources located in the Cameron\\/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Visnja Orescanin; Robert Kollar; Karlo Nad; Ivanka Lovrencic Mikelic; Iris Kollar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was the characterization and improvement of the quality of water used for human consumption of unregulated\\/regulated water sources located in the Cameron\\/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area (NE Arizona, western edge of the Navajo Nation). Samples were collected at six water sources which included regulated sources: Wind Mill (Tank 3T-538), Badger Springs and Paddock Well

  12. A Nutritional Intervention Promoting the Mediterranean Food Pattern Is Associated with a Decrease in Circulating Oxidized LDL Particles in Healthy Women from the Quebec City Metropolitan Area1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Lapointe; Julie Goulet; Charles Couillard; Benoit Lamarche; Simone Lemieux

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern under free-living conditions on circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) in a group of 71 healthy women from the Quebec City metropolitan area. The 12-wk nutritional intervention consisted of 2 courses on nutrition and 7 individual sessions with a dietitian. A score

  13. Human population growth and temperature increase along with the increase in urbanisation, motor vehicle numbers and green area amount in the sample of Erzurum city, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sevgi Yilmaz; Süleyman Toy; Nalan Demircioglu Yildiz; Hasan Yilmaz

    2009-01-01

    In the study, main purpose was to determine the effect of population growth along with the increase in urbanisation, motor\\u000a vehicle use and green area amount on the temperature values using a 55-year data set in Erzurum, which is hardly industrialised,\\u000a and one of the coldest cities with highest elevation in Turkey. Although the semi-decadal increases, means of which are

  14. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  15. Low-flow characteristics of the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 1932-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Erich; Lorenz, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council, conducted a study to characterize regional low flows during 1932?2007 in the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities metropolitan area in Minnesota and to describe the low-flow profile of the Mississippi River between the confluence of the Crow River and St. Anthony Falls. Probabilities of extremely low flow were estimated for the streamflow-gaging station (Mississippi River near Anoka) and the coincidence of low-flow periods, defined as the extended periods (at least 7 days) when all the daily flows were less than the 10th percentile of daily mean flows for the entire period of record, at four selected streamflow-gaging stations located upstream. The likelihood of extremely low flows was estimated by a superposition method for the Mississippi River near Anoka that created 5,776 synthetic hydrographs resulting in a minimum synthetic low flow of 398 cubic feet per second at a probability of occurrence of 0.0002 per year. Low-flow conditions at the Mississippi River above Anoka were associated with low-flow conditions at two or fewer of four upstream streamflow-gaging stations 42 percent of the time, indicating that sufficient water is available within the basin for many low flows and the occurrence of extremely low-flows is small. However, summer low-flow conditions at the Mississippi River above Anoka were almost always associated with low-stage elevations in three or more of the six upper basin reservoirs. A low-flow profile of the Mississippi River between the confluence of the Crow River and St. Anthony Falls was completed using a real-time kinematic global positioning system, and the water-surface profile was mapped during October 8?9, 2008, and annotated with local landmarks. This was done so that water-use planners could relate free-board elevations of selected water utility structures to the lowest flow conditions during 2008.

  16. The stable carbon isotope composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Veneroni, D.

    The sources and distribution of carbon in ambient suspended particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10) of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) air were traced using stable carbon isotopes ( 13C/ 12C). Tested potential sources included rural and agricultural soils, gasoline and diesel, liquefied-petroleum gas, volcanic ash, and street dust. The complete combustion of LP gas, diesel and gasoline yielded the lightest ?13C values (-27 to -29‰ vs. PDB), while street dust (PM 10) represented the isotopically heaviest endmember (-17‰). The ?13C values of rural soils from four geographically separated sites were similar (-20.7 ± 1.5‰). ?13C values of particles and soot from diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions and agricultural soils varied between -23 and -26‰. Ambient PM samples collected in November of 2000, and March and December of 2001 at three representative receptor sites of industrial, commercial and residential activities had a ?13C value centered around -25.1‰ in both fractions, resulting from common carbon sources. The predominant carbon sources to MCMA atmospheric particles were hydrocarbon combustion (diesel and/or gasoline) and particles of geological origin. The significantly depleted ?13C values from the industrial site reflect the input of diesel combustion by mobile and point source emissions. Based on stable carbon isotope mass balance, the carbon contribution of geological sources at the commercial and residential sites was approximately 73% for the PM 10 fraction and 54% for PM 2.5. Although not measured in this study, biomass-burning emissions from nearby forests are an important carbon source characterized by isotopically lighter values (-29‰), and can become a significant contributor (67%) of particulate carbon to MCMA air under the prevalence of southwesterly winds. Alternative sources of these 13C-depleted particles, such as cooking fires and municipal waste incineration, need to be assessed. Results show that stable carbon isotope measurements are useful for distinguishing between some carbon sources in suspended particles to MCMA air, and that wind direction has an impact on the distribution of carbon sources in this basin.

  17. Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. C.; Volkamer, R.; Kassianov, E. I.

    2008-11-01

    Data taken from the MCMA-2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns are used to examine the absorption of solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols. Using irradiance data from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and an actinic flux spectroradiometer (SR), we derive aerosol single scattering albedo, ϖ0, ?, as a function of wavelength, ?. We find that in the near-UV spectral range (250 to 400 nm) ϖ0, ? is much lower compared to ϖ0, ? at 500 nm indicating enhanced absorption in the near-UV range. Absorption by elemental carbon, dust, or gas cannot account for this enhanced absorption leaving the organic carbon component of the aerosol (OA) as the most likely absorber. We use data from a surface deployed Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) along with the inferred ϖ0, ? to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross section (MAC) for the organic aerosol. We find that the MAC is about 10.5 m2/g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; values that are roughly consistent with other estimates of organic aerosol MAC. These MAC values can be considered as "radiatively correct", because when used in radiative transfer calculations, the calculated irradiances/actinic fluxes match those measured at the wavelengths considered here. For an illustrative case study described here, we estimate that the light absorption by the "brown" (organic) carbonaceous aerosol can add about 40% to the light absorption of black carbon in Mexico City. This contribution will vary depending on the relative abundance of organic aerosol relative to black carbon. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that organic aerosol would slow down photochemistry by selectively scavenging the light reaching the ground at those wavelengths that drive photochemical reactions. Finally, satellite retrievals of trace gases that are used to infer emissions currently assume that the MAC of organic carbon is zero. For trace gases that are retrieved using wavelengths shorter then 420 nm (i.e. SO2, HCHO, halogenoxides, NO2), the assumption of non-zero MAC values will induce an upward correction to the inferred emissions. This assumption will be particularly relevant in polluted urban atmospheres and areas of biomass burning where organic aerosols are particularly abundant.

  18. 1441210_2.DOC UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    1441210_2.DOC UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA DEFINED CONTRIBUTION RETIREMENT PLAN (Amended and Restated the right to amend, modify or terminate the Plan at any time. #12;1441210_2.DOC i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

  19. 76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 12/07/2011. Incident: Earthquakes. Incident Period: 11/05/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 12/07/2011. Physical Loan Application...

  20. 76 FR 31670 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1970-DR), dated 05/06/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan...

  1. 75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1917-DR), dated 06/11/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

  2. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    E-print Network

    and encourages applications from candidates with diverse cultural backgrounds. #12;. Salary and other compensation are competitive with major research institutions. Oklahoma State University State University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity/E-Verify Employer committed to diversity

  3. Using robust kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation to delineate the copper- and lead-contaminated areas of a rapidly industrialized city in Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongcun; Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Biao; Sun, Weixia; Shao, Xuexin; Shi, Xuezheng; Ruan, Xinling

    2007-07-01

    A total of 540 topsoil samples (0-15 cm), 188 subsoil samples (20-40 cm), and four individual soil profiles were collected in this study for mapping the Cu- and Pb-contaminated areas in soils of Zhangjiagang city, an industrialized city in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. Robust geostatistical methods were applied for identifying possible spatial outliers of Cu and Pb data, and then a sequential Gaussian simulation was employed for delineating the potential areas where Cu or Pb concentration was affected by diffuse pollution. The results showed that the spatial outliers of Cu and Pb were strongly associated with various types of factories. The anthropogenic input of Cu to soils at local hotspots was closely related to emissions of printing and dyeing, metallurgical, and chemical factories, whereas a lead oxide factory and a chemical factory resulted in a considerable increase of Pb in the topsoil of the study area. Approximately 30% of the total land area of the study was at potential risk from the Cu or Pb diffuse pollution resulting from rapid industrialization of the area over the past 20 years.

  4. The Significance of Stratigraphy and Lithology in Landform Development in Washington County, Oklahoma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Katie, a 15 year old student from Oklahoma, takes a look at the development of Washington County, Oklahoma. Katie's essay has a field-journal focus and explains stratigraphy and lithology, two of the main factors controlling the shape of the land in her county. She provides an overview of the six different formations in the Skiatook Group and the five different formations that outcrop in the Bartlesville area. There are descriptions of the many rock samples she took for this study.

  5. Rock and soil discrimination by low altitude airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in Payne County, Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Schwarzer; J. A. S. Adams

    1973-01-01

    The ability to identify and discriminate rock and soil types from the ; air using gamma spectrometry was investigated in Payne County, Oklahoma. The ; data, which were reduced to concentration values for K, U, and Th, were obtained ; from a helicopter at an average altitude of 75 feet above the ground. The area ; investigated was underlain by

  6. Rule-based land use/land cover classification in coastal areas using seasonal remote sensing imagery: a case study from Lianyungang City, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longgao; Li, Yingkui; Xi, Wenjia; Chen, Longqian

    2015-07-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) inventory provides an important dataset in regional planning and environmental assessment. To efficiently obtain the LULC inventory, we compared the LULC classifications based on single satellite imagery with a rule-based classification based on multi-seasonal imagery in Lianyungang City, a coastal city in China, using CBERS-02 (the 2nd China-Brazil Environmental Resource Satellites) images. The overall accuracies of the classification based on single imagery are 78.9, 82.8, and 82.0 % in winter, early summer, and autumn, respectively. The rule-based classification improves the accuracy to 87.9 % (kappa 0.85), suggesting that combining multi-seasonal images can considerably improve the classification accuracy over any single image-based classification. This method could also be used to analyze seasonal changes of LULC types, especially for those associated with tidal changes in coastal areas. The distribution and inventory of LULC types with an overall accuracy of 87.9 % and a spatial resolution of 19.5 m can assist regional planning and environmental assessment efficiently in Lianyungang City. This rule-based classification provides a guidance to improve accuracy for coastal areas with distinct LULC temporal spectral features. PMID:26092241

  7. Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this grant was to increase the awareness of students of space sciences and commerce through experimentation. This objective was carried out through the award and administration, by OSIDA, the Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority, of eleven smaller grants to fund thirteen projects at schools determined by competitive application. Applications were graded on potential outreach, experimentation objectives and impact on students' awareness of space sciences. We chose projects from elementary, middle and high schools as well as colleges that would encourage students through research and experimentation to consider education and careers in related disciplines. Each organization did not receive an equal share of the grant; instead, OSIDA distributed the money to each project based on the organization's need. A copy of the dispersement record is enclosed with this final grant report. The projects covered topics such as: space colonization, space stations, constellations, model rocketry, and space commerce.

  8. TWO ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF OKLAHOMA AND NOTES ON XYRIS JUPICAI (XYRIDACEAE) IN OKLAHOMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Singhurst; Edwin L. Bridges; Walter C. Holmes

    Eleocharis flavescens and Rhynchospora scirpoides are reported as new to Oklahoma. Xyris jupicai, which has been mentioned as occurring in Oklahoma, is documented in the state by citation of voucher specimens. The overall distribution of these species in the West Gulf Coastal Plain is discussed.

  9. The Oklahoma State Study of Oklahoma's Public Higher Education Physical Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G., Ed.; And Others

    This project examines policies related to facilities at public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma in the context of a current legislative debate over a bond issue to fund facilities. The last bond issue for Oklahoma higher education was in 1968. Verification of a representative sample of 27 campus master plans validated an earlier…

  10. An archaeological survey of the Bryan East Side (Sam Rayburn) Park Area in the city of Bryan, Brazos County Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-03

    An archaeological survey was conducted at a 23.074 acre tract in the city limits of Bryan, Texas at the site of the Bryan East Side (Sam Rayburn) Park by Brazos Valley Research Associates. Fieldwork was carried out during the period of September 11...

  11. An archaeological survey of the Bryan East Side (Sam Rayburn) Park Area in the city of Bryan, Brazos County Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-03

    An archaeological survey was conducted at a 23.074 acre tract in the city limits of Bryan, Texas at the site of the Bryan East Side (Sam Rayburn) Park by Brazos Valley Research Associates. Fieldwork was carried out during the period of September 11...

  12. Hydrogeology and water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A growing user population within the Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma, has increased the need for drinking water. The North Canadian River alluvium is a reliable source of ground water for agriculture, industry, and cities in Canadian County and is the only ground-water source capable of meeting large demands. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze data to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium within the Concho Reserve. The alluvium forms a band about 2 miles long and 0.5 mile wide along the southern edge of the Concho Reserve. Thickness of the alluvium ranges from 19 to 75 feet thick and averages about 45 feet in the study area. Well cuttings and natural gamma-ray logs indicate the alluvium consists of interfingering lenses of clay, silt, and sand. The increase of coarse-grained sand and the decrease of clay and silt with depth suggests that the water-bearing properties of the aquifer within the study area improve with depth. A clay layer in the upper part of the aquifer may be partially responsible for surface water ponding in low areas after above normal precipitation and may delay the infiltration of potentially contaminated water from land surface. Specific conductance measurements indicate the ground-water quality improves in a northern direction towards the terrace. Water-quality properties, bacteria counts, major ion and nutrient concentrations, trace-element and radionuclide concentrations, and organic compound concentrations were measured in one ground-water sample at the southern edge of the Concho Reserve and comply with the primary drinking-water standards. Measured concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and total dissolved solids exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water. The ground water is a calcium sulfate bicarbonate type and is considered very hard, with a hardness of 570 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  13. Object-Based Image Analysis of WORLDVIEW-2 Satellite Data for the Classification of Mangrove Areas in the City of SÃO LUÍS, MARANHÃO State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kux, H. J. H.; Souza, U. D. V.

    2012-07-01

    Taking into account the importance of mangrove environments for the biodiversity of coastal areas, the objective of this paper is to classify the different types of irregular human occupation on the areas of mangrove vegetation in São Luis, capital of Maranhão State, Brazil, considering the OBIA (Object-based Image Analysis) approach with WorldView-2 satellite data and using InterIMAGE, a free image analysis software. A methodology for the study of the area covered by mangroves at the northern portion of the city was proposed to identify the main targets of this area, such as: marsh areas (known locally as Apicum), mangrove forests, tidal channels, blockhouses (irregular constructions), embankments, paved streets and different condominiums. Initially a databank including information on the main types of occupation and environments was established for the area under study. An image fusion (multispectral bands with panchromatic band) was done, to improve the information content of WorldView-2 data. Following an ortho-rectification was made with the dataset used, in order to compare with cartographical data from the municipality, using Ground Control Points (GCPs) collected during field survey. Using the data mining software GEODMA, a series of attributes which characterize the targets of interest was established. Afterwards the classes were structured, a knowledge model was created and the classification performed. The OBIA approach eased mapping of such sensitive areas, showing the irregular occupations and embankments of mangrove forests, reducing its area and damaging the marine biodiversity.

  14. Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Janet

    This report identifies the special measures needed to protect the rights and meet the needs of victims of a large-scale terrorist attack involving mass casualties. In particular, it demonstrates efforts required to ensure an effective response to victims' rights and their short- and long-term emotional and psychological needs as an integral part…

  15. Municipal energy planning: the Oklahoma experience. [Communities of Altus and Edmond

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, M.

    1980-01-01

    Leadership demonstrated in the Oklahoma communities of Altus and Edmond illustrates the importance of municipal planning for energy crises. A natural gas generating plant in Altus had been closed down because wholesale rates from the Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) were more attractive. Legal challenges to PSO's efforts to raise rates after 1973 led to a comprehensive management study aimed at reducing system costs without jeopardizing service. The city set a goal of reducing consumption by 30 percent and an action program which included load-scheduling changes, pricing signals to users, plans for a low-head hydroelectric facility to reduce peak loads, and management reorganization. Edmond's officials took the broad, community-wide approach of appointing a citizen advisory committee to make recommendations. The community problem-solving approach has spread to small municipal systems able to draw on local energy and personnel resources. A state-wide program involves utilities in an ad hoc planning committee. (DCK)

  16. Curious City

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chicago, what are you curious about? That might serve as the tagline for the WBEZ radio program "Curious City," as it's an inquisitive program that asks its listeners that exact question. The public submits queries about Chicago here on the show's site, visitors vote for the questions they like the best, and then the crack team at Curious City investigates and reports back, complete with help from locals who want to be part of the whole recursive process. On the site, visitors can look over the Up For Voting area, which includes questions that cover everything from Cook County Hospital to the design of Wrigley Field. For complete audio and written answers to questions that are wrapped up, click on over to the Answered & Investigating area. Here visitors can look over questions such as "Will the Pullman neighborhood ever be revitalized?" and "What is the origin of Chicago's distinctive wooden fire escapes?"

  17. OSU Tulsa Library Jack H. Stout University of Oklahoma Memorabilia

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    :9 University of Oklahoma Magazine. Vol. XVI, No. 3, 1928. 1:10 University of Oklahoma Magazine. Vol. 18, No. 3, 1930. The University of Oklahoma Magazine, the successor to the University Empire, was published four before the game. 1:13 Women's Student Government Association Handbook for Fresh

  18. Drought and grazing effects on Oklahoma phlox (Polemoniaceae, Phlox oklahomensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma phlox (Phlox oklahomensis Wherry) is endemic to Butler, Chautauqua, Comanche, Cowley, and Elk Counties of Kansas and Woods and Woodward Counties of Oklahoma. The species comprises populations of a few scattered individuals to several hundred in mixed-grass prairie sites in Oklahoma where co...

  19. STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES CODE -1 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    of the University of Oklahoma is charged in the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma with governing the University of the United States and the State of Oklahomaand the University of Oklahoma StudentAssociation. Those documents Rights Students of the University of Oklahomaare guaranteed certain rights by the Constitutions

  20. Why Norman?: Meteorology Comes to University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Why Norman?: Meteorology Comes to University of Oklahoma by John M. Lewis A presentation at the 50th Anniversary University of Oklahoma's School of Meteorology October 8, 2010 #12;2 Extended Abstract A review of the University of Oklahoma's (OU's) meteorology program/department over its first 15 years

  1. Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

  2. A Legal Analysis of Litigation against Oklahoma Educators and School Districts under the Oklahoma Governmental Tort Claims Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacefield, Kevin Lee

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 Section 151 et…

  3. Social and demographic determinants for breastfeeding in a rural, suburban and city area of South East China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Shi, Zumin; Spatz, Diane; Loh, Rebecca; Sun, Guiju; Grisso, Jeane

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a traditional practice in China, yet few studies have explored its current trend after socioeconomic reform. This study aims to characterize breastfeeding rates and possible associations with sociodemographic factors using a breastfeeding questionnaire administered to 1,385 mothers of 6-year-old children. Rates were lowest among city residents and negatively associated with parental and grandmother education levels as well as mothers’ professional occupational status. These findings highlight the impact of urbanization on maternal and child health and the effect of marketing tactics for breast milk substitutes (BMS). Public health education promoting breastfeeding should target urban families, particularly those educated. PMID:24299252

  4. Child and elderly victims in forensic autopsy during a recent 5 year period in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B L; Oritani, S; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Sakoda, S; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

    2000-09-11

    To outline the recent features of child and elderly victims from the medico-legal perspective with special reference to abuse and neglect, a retrospective investigation of forensic autopsy cases over a 5 year period (1994-1998) in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas (a population of 1.57 million) was undertaken. Among 646 autopsy cases, there were 53 child cases (under the age of 15 years, about 80% below 6) and 121 elderly cases (65 years old and above). Nearly half of the child deaths and more than half of the elderly deaths were described as accidental. Fire and traffic victims were much more frequent in the elderly. Child victims included those of neonaticide/infanticide (n=6), physical abuse (n=10), unintentional fatal infliction (n=2), neglect (n=2), mutual suicide (n=2), suicide (n=1) and murder (n=3). Child abuse and neglect were domestic maltreatment by the parents. In this series, there was a comparable number of fatalities due to maltreatment in the elderly (n=13) and in children, and non-domestic violence was more frequent in the elderly than domestic violence. Elderly females tended to be battered by their sons or grandsons in domestic violence cases, whereas males were predominantly attacked by younger males in non-domestic violence. The other elderly victims included those of self-neglect (n=2), murder (n=7) and suicide (n=9). Non-domestic homicide of the elderly occurred mainly in the center of the city, whereas domestic maltreatment of children and the elderly was sporadic, although somewhat more frequent in the peripheral zone of the city and the surrounding areas. The above profile of child and elderly abuse suggests a substantial influence of social and familial backgrounds. PMID:10978628

  5. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Oklahoma. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Zelten, J.E.; Arndt, R.H.

    1994-03-01

    The value of Oklahoma nonfuel mineral production was nearly $252.6 million in 1992, a decrease of $22.9 million from that reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by State mineral producers in 1991. The value of the top three commodities produced, crushed stone, portland cement, and construction sand and gravel, exceeded $168.8 million and comprised almost 67% of the State's total nonfuel mineral value. Although rebounding from the recessionary period, the growth curve for several minerals produced in the State was minimal, and for several others it moved downward. Oklahoma ranked 35th nationally in total nonfuel mineral value. The State ranked 26th nationally in the production of industrial minerals, contributing about 1.38% of the $20.7 billion revenues received. Oklahoma ranked first in the Nation in crude gypsum production, second in the production of tripoli, and was the only domestic source of iodine.

  6. Relationship of cliff swallows, ectoparasites, and an Alphavirus in west-central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Hopla, C E; Francy, D B; Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 250 isolates of a newly recognized virus, related to western equine encephalitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), were obtained from cimicid bugs, Oeciacus vicarius; Cliff Swallows, Hirundo pyrrhonata; and House Sparrows, Passer domesticus in a study area in west-central Oklahoma at Buggy Creek and Caddo Canyons. Antigenicity of the virus strains varied slightly from isolate to isolate. This paper summarizes the ecology of the area by describing in general the flora and fauna there. PMID:8381870

  7. Old Fragments of Forest Inside an Urban Area Are Able to Keep Orchid Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) Assemblages? The Case of a Brazilian Historical City.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R P; Martins, C; Dutra, M C; Mentone, C B; Antonini, Y

    2013-07-16

    Retention of habitat fragments within the urban matrix can provide critical resources for the maintenance of regional biodiversity while still providing socio-economic value. Euglossini bees are important components in a community as they are important pollinators for economically valuable plants as well as hundreds of orchid species. However, some species are very sensitive to environmental impacts like urbanization. This study presents the role of antique urban fragments in a historical city in Brazil and compares it with a conservation area on the aspects of orchid bee assemblage, such as richness, composition, and abundance. Four fragments inside the city of Ouro Preto and three inside Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEIT) were sampled for Euglossini bees. Sorensen similarity index was used to compare community composition. The Mantel test was applied to verify the hypothesis that an urban center is a barrier for the mobility of the individuals. Fourteen Euglossini species from the region were registered. Close to 75% of the sampled bees were collected from the PEIT sampling areas. The fragments presented differences in Euglossini richness and abundance. A majority of the sampled fragments were dominated by the Eulaema cingulata Fabricius, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, and Euglossa securigera Dressler species. We found differences on community composition between the fragments localized in PEIT and those located in the urban center. The data suggest that there is a possible flux of individuals between the sampled fragments. The various small forest fragments in Ouro Preto, primarily in backyards, may also serve as stepping stones between sampled fragments. PMID:23949981

  8. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles. PMID:15504511

  9. UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    of the ROTATE-98 project, and to the organizers of the VORTEX-94 and VORTEX-95 projects. Of course, I must thank on Cyclic Mesocyclogenesis and Tornadogenesis Sensitivity of Cyclic Mesocyclogenesis to Environmental Wind Variations in CAPE 3.5.4.1 Weisman and Klemp Sounding 3.5.4.2 Del City Sounding Quarter-Circle Simulations 3

  10. Factors Influencing the Large-Scale Distribution of Hg(0) in the Mexico City Area and Over the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R.; Mao, H.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J.; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; Vay, S.; Blake, D.; Huey, G.; Fuelberg, H.

    2007-12-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data was obtained during March-May 2006 and covered 0.15-12 km altitude. The vertical distribution in all three study regions showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant mixing ratio centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pollution plumes emanating from Mexico City revealed that mixing ratios of Hg° as large as 500 ppqv were correlated with combustion tracers such as CO, but not SO2 which is presumably released from coal burning, refineries, and volcanoes. Our analysis of Mexico City plumes indicated that widespread multi-source urban/industrial emissions may have a more important influence on Hg° than specific point sources. Over the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were diffuse overall, but recognizable on flights out of Anchorage and Honolulu. In distinct plumes originating from the Asian continent the Hg° - CO relationship was better defined and yielded an average value of ~0.0050 ng Hg° m-3/ppbv, in good agreement with previous findings. A prominent feature of the INTEX-B dataset was frequent total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere when stratospherically influenced air was encountered. When O3 mixing ratios exceeded 300 ppbv, Hg° was rarely detected. It appears that in the tropopause and stratosphere Hg° is oxidized on the order of days followed by heterogeneous transformation to particulate mercury. Our data confirm efficient chemical cycling of Hg° in the tropopause region and show that it is strongly anti-correlated with O3. These processes constitute an effective chemical sink for Hg° at the top of the troposphere, which may recycle mercury back to the gas phase as stratospheric aerosols are eventually dispersed into the troposphere. Ozone data obtained with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) showed that the stratospheric impact on the tropospheric column was a common and pervasive feature on all flights out of Honolulu and Anchorage. Mixing of stratospheric air, containing little or no Hg°, with tropospheric air should effectively reduce the mixing ratio of Hg° in the free troposphere. We propose that this is likely a major factor driving large-scale seasonality in Hg° mixing ratios, especially at mid-latitudes, and an important process that should be incorporated into global chemical transport models.

  11. Bridging the gap between traffic generated health stressors in urban areas: predicting xylene levels in EU cities.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Spyridi, D; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2013-09-01

    Many citizens live, work, commute, or visit traffic intensive spaces and are exposed to high levels of chemical health stressors. However, urban conurbations worldwide present monitoring "shortage" - due to economical and/or practical constraints - for toxic stressors such as xylene isomers, which can pose human health risks. This "shortage" may be covered by the establishment of associations between rarely monitored substances such as xylenes and more frequently monitored (i.e. benzene) or usually monitored (i.e. CO). Regression analysis is used and strong statistical relationships are detected. The adopted models are applied to EU cities and comparison between measurements and predictions depicts their representativeness. The analysis provides transferability insights in an effort to bridge the gap between traffic-related stressors. Strong associations between substances of the air pollution mixture may be influential to interpret the complexity of the causal chain, especially if a synergetic exposure assessment in traffic intensive spaces is considered. PMID:23792385

  12. Hydrogeologic Investigation, Water Chemistry Analysis, and Model Delineation of contributing Areas for City of Tallahassee Public-Supply Wells, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal; Katz, Brian G.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer is the sole source of water supply for Tallahassee, Florida, and the surrounding area. The City of Tallahassee (the City) currently operates 28 water-supply wells; 26 wells are distributed throughout the City and 2 are located in Woodville, Florida. Most of these wells yield an ample supply of potable water; however, water from several wells has low levels of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The City removes the PCE from the water by passing it through granular-activated carbon units before distribution. To ensure that water-supply wells presently free of contamination remain clean, it is necessary to understand the ground-water flow system in sufficient detail to protect the contributing areas. Ground-water samples collected from four public-supply wells were analyzed for tritium (3H), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Using data for the CFC compounds, apparent ground-water ages ranged from 7 to 31 years. For SF6, the apparent ages tended to be about 5 to 10 years younger than those from CFCs. Apparent ages based on the tritium/tritiogenic helium-3 (3H/3Hetrit) method ranged from 26 to 33 years. The three dating methods indicate that the apparent age of ground water generally decreases from northern to southern Leon County. This southward trend of decreasing ages is consistent with increasing amounts of recharge that occur as ground water moves from north to south. The ground-water age data derived by geochemical and tracer analyses were used in combination with the flow model and particle tracking to determine an effective porosity for the Hawthorn clays and Upper Floridan aquifer. The effective porosities for the Upper Floridan aquifer that resulted in best model matches were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 7 percent, and the effective porosities for the Hawthorn clays that resulted in a match were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 22 percent. Probabilistic contributing areas were determined for 26 City wells using MODFLOW and MODPATH. For each probabilistic contributing area delineated, the model was run 100 times and the results were analyzed statistically. For each of the 100 runs, a different hydraulic conductivity for each of the zones was assigned to the Upper Floridan aquifer. The hydraulic conductivities were generated randomly assuming a lognormal probability distribution; the mean of the distribution was equal to the hydraulic conductivity from the calibrated model. The 5-year time-dependent capture zones (TDCZs), assuming effective porosities of 0.1, 1, and 7 percent for four representative wells, were delineated. The higher probabilities of capture (greater than 40, 60, and 80 percent) were similar for all effective porosities, and the TDCZ delineated using a 7-percent porosity was slightly smaller; the lower probabilities of capture (greater than 10 and 20 percent) showed a large range of variability.

  13. Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

  14. Estimated Nutrient Concentrations and Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Northwestern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Esralew, Rachel A.; Allen, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw basin is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the City of Tulsa. The City of Tulsa has received complaints of taste and odor in the finished drinking water because of deteriorating water quality. The deterioration is largely because of algal growth from the input of nutrients from the Eucha-Spavinaw basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, implemented a continuous, real-time water-quality monitoring program in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin to better understand the source of the nutrient loading. This program included the manual collection of samples analyzed for nutrients and the collection of continuous, in-stream data from water-quality monitors. Continuous water-quality monitors were installed at two existing continuous streamflow-gaging stations - Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma, from October 2004 through September 2007. Total nitrogen concentrations for manually collected water samples ranged from 2.08 to 9.66 milligrams per liter for the water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and from 0.67 to 5.12 milligrams per liter for manually collected water samples from Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 1.5 milligrams per liter for the water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Colcord and from 0.028 to 1.0 milligram per liter for the water samples collected from Beaty Creek near Jay. Data from water samples and in-stream monitors at Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks (specific conductance and turbidity) were used to develop linear regression equations relating in-stream water properties to total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The equations developed for the Spavinaw and Beaty sites are site specific and only valid for the concentration ranges of the explanatory variables used in the analysis. The range in estimated and measured phosphorus is not representative for the range of historic streamflow at the Beaty site and that regression equation would benefit from more high flow and high turbidity samples. In addition, all three study years had below average annual precipitation for the area, and streamflow was especially low in Water Year 2006. Average nutrient concentrations from October 2004 through September 2007, which were drier than others, may not be a good indication of conditions in future wetter years. The equations for the Spavinaw and Beaty sites may be used to estimate instantaneous nutrient concentrations, which can be used to compute loads and yields in real time in order to better characterize the effect of land-management practices in these watersheds on the transport of nutrients to Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake. The methods used in this study show promise for monitoring future effectiveness of implemented best management practices, development and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, early detection of taste-and-odor occurrences, and to anticipate treatment needs for water suppliers.

  15. Dynamics of a recolonizing population of black bears in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, S.L.; Hellgren, E.C.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Hemphill, J., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how populations expand to recolonize former habitats is important to restoration efforts in wildlife management and conservation. Translocation of black bears (Ursus americanus) to Arkansas in the 1950s and 1960s has led to recolonization of former bear range in Oklahoma, with substantial increases in distribution and abundance of the species in Oklahoma over the last 15 years. We studied demographics of black bears in southeastern Oklahoma from May 2001 to November 2002 to provide insight into characteristics of recolonizing populations of large carnivores. We trapped 51 black bears (22 M, 29 F) 77 times and radiocollared 25 female bears. Sex ratios of adults and cubs were skewed toward females, and the age structure was younger than observed in other unharvested populations. Survival of adult females was estimated at 0.9??0.1, and fertility was estimated at 0.77 female young/female/year. Density on the study area was estimated at 0.21 bears/km2 and the current finite growth rate (??) of the study population was estimated to be 1.11/year. Demographic characteristics of the Oklahoma population of black bears were similar to those of other recolonizing populations of large carnivores.

  16. Geophysical logs for selected wells in the Picher Field, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.; Thomas, Tom B.; Overton, Myles D.; Goemaat, Robert L.; Havens, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. The Roubidoux aquifer may be subject to contamination from abandoned lead and zinc mines of the Picher field. Water in flooded underground mines contains large concentrations of iron, zinc, cadmium, and lead. The contaminated water may migrate from the mines to the Roubidoux aquifer through abandoned water wells in the Picher field. In late 1984, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board began to locate abandoned wells that might be serving as conduits for the migration of contaminants from the abandoned mines. These wells were cleared of debris and plugged. A total of 66 wells had been located, cleared, and plugged by July 1985. In cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey took advantage of the opportunity to obtain geophysical data in the study area and provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board with data that might be useful during the well-plugging operation. Geophysical logs obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey are presented in this report. The geophysical logs include hole diameter, normal, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs. Depths logged range from 145 to 1,344 feet.

  17. Health assessment for Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area, Cresent City, Del Norte County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD000626176. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-18

    The Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area is located northwest of Cresent City, California. The site soils and ground water were contaminated with a myriad of pesticides and herbicides. The data also indicated an elevated concentration of chromium was present on-site and off-site; however, it does not appear to be related to the activities involving the use of the site as a pesticide storage area. The site was included on the National Priorities List in 1983. The storage area operated from 1970 until 1981, accepting containers from local agricultural and forestry-related industries. The intended use of the site was as an interim or emergency storage area for pesticide containers which had been triple rinsed and punctured prior to coming to the site. There were 9 private wells monitored within 0.50 miles of the site and the results indicated these wells were not contaminated by site contaminants. This site is of public health concern because of the potential for exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and chromium at concentrations of health concern.

  18. Oklahoma Handbook: Child Nutrition Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…

  19. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma

  20. Oklahoma Curriculum Guide for Teaching Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission, Oklahoma City.

    Developed by classroom teachers, university professors, and personnel from the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this guide is an effort to assist teachers in locating and utilizing safety materials as well as to assist them in developing well-balanced safety programs for the children and young people in the state. The preschool and…

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN OKLAHOMA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a data report presenting the species and abundance of phytoplankton in the 15 lakes sampled by the National Eutrophication Survey in the State of Oklahoma. Results from the calculation of several water quality indices are also included (Nygaard's Trophic State Index, Palm...

  2. Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators Journal 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Malinda Hendricks, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators 2009 Journal includes the following four peer reviewed articles: (1) The Changing Role of Grandparents (Fred D. Hammond, III, Terry E. Spigner, Charolette Myles-Nixon, and Pauline Holloway); (2) Pedagogical Agent Instructional Design Challenges (Jon Martens); (3) Differences in Relatedness across…

  3. House Damage from 2011 Oklahoma Earthquake

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    House damage in central Oklahoma from the magnitude 5.6 earthquake on Nov. 6, 2011. Research conducted by USGS geophysicist Elizabeth Cochran and her university-based colleagues suggests that this earthquake was induced by injection into deep disposal wells in the Wilzetta North field....

  4. Public Library Service to Children in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentroth, Mary Ann

    Because of the low density of its population and subsequent low property tax support, library service in Oklahoma is based on the multicounty library operating as a single unit. With the help of federal funds, such units now cover one-third of the state and 60 percent of its population utilizing branch libraries and bookmobile service. Service to…

  5. OKLAHOMA STATE Report of Independent Accountants' Application

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    University 107 Whitehurst Hall Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-1015 We have audited the financial statements report thereon dated October 11, 2007. Additionally, we have audited the financial statements report thereon dated October 11, 2007. We have also audited the financial statements comprising

  6. University of Oklahoma School of Meteorology

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    University of Oklahoma School of Meteorology Rapid-response Graduate Degree Application Form This application form is used by the School of Meteorology to provide a rapid, no-cost response to the applicant on prospects to be admitted to the School of Meteorology for pursuit of a graduate degree. The applicant should

  7. 1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA.

    E-print Network

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    protocol suite ! Original TCP performed poorly in satellite networks " errors " long propagation delay. ! Many schemes for enhancing TCP for satellite networks. ! IETF developing Stream Control Transmission ­ multiple IP addresses per host #12;6Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation

  8. 75 FR 42173 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 07/13/2010. Incident: Tornadoes, Severe Storms, Straight Line Winds and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/13/2010 through 06/15/2010. DATES:...

  9. Oklahoma: A View of the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ruthe Blalock; Depriest, Maria; Fowler, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a dialogue on twentieth-century Oklahoma artists and writers given at a conference titled "Working from Community: American Indian Art and Literature in a Historical and Cultural Context" and held in the summer of 2003 at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. Twenty-five educators converged for six weeks of…

  10. Virtual Epidemic in a Virtual City: Simulating the Spread of Influenza in a United States Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bedford, Virginia L.; Roberts, Mark S.; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of biological, physiological, social, economic and geographic factors may affect the transmission, spread, and impact of influenza. Recent concerns about an impending influenza epidemic have generated a need for predictive computer simulation models to forecast the spread of influenza and the effectiveness of prevention and control strategies. We designed an agent-based computer simulation of a theoretical influenza epidemic in Norfolk (Virginia) that included extensive city-level details and computer representations of every Norfolk citizen, including their expected behavior and social interactions. The simulation introduced 200 people infected cases on November 27, 2002 (Day 87) and tracked the progress of the epidemic. On average, the prevalence peaked on Day 178 (12.2% of the population). Our model showed a cyclical variation in influenza cases by day of the week with fewer people being exposed on weekends, differences in emergency room and clinic visits by day of the week, an earlier peak in influenza cases and persistent high prevalence among people age 65 or older, and the daily prevalence of infection among health care workers. The level of detail included in our simulation model made these findings possible. Compared to other existing models, our model has a very extensive and detailed social network, which may be important since individuals with more social interactions and extensive social networks may be more likely to spread influenza. Our simulation may serve as a virtual laboratory to better understand the way different factors and interventions affect the spread of influenza. PMID:18514138

  11. Potentiometric surface in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer, Oklahoma, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Magers, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A study of the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was started in 2008 to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) hydrogeologic data and a groundwater flow model that can be used as a tool to help manage the aquifer. The 1973 Oklahoma water law requires the OWRB to do hydrologic investigations of Oklahoma's aquifers (termed 'groundwater basins') and to determine amounts of water that may be withdrawn by permitted water users. 'Maximum annual yield' is a term used by OWRB to describe the total amount of water that can be withdrawn from a specific aquifer in any year while allowing a minimum 20-year life of the basin (Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 2010). Currently (2010), the maximum annual yield has not been determined for the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Until the maximum annual yield determination is made, water users are issued a temporary permit by the OWRB for 2 acre-feet/acre per year. The objective of the study, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, was to study the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer to provide information that will enable the OWRB to determine the maximum annual yield of the aquifer based on different proposed management plans. Groundwater flow models are typically used by the OWRB as a tool to help determine the maximum annual yield. This report presents the potentiometric surface of the Central Oklahoma aquifer based on water-level data collected in 2009 as part of the current (2010) hydrologic study. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-724 by Christenson and others (1992) presents the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. This 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map was made as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer that examined the geochemical and hydrogeological processes operating in the aquifer. An attempt was made to obtain water-level measurements for the 2009 potentiometric-surface map from the wells used for the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. Well symbols with circles on the 2009 potentiometric-surface map (fig. 1) indicate wells that were used for the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map.

  12. Comparison of environmental effects and resource consumption for different wastewater and organic waste management systems in a new city area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Daniel; Baky, Andras; Jeppsson, Ulf; Jönsson, Håkan; Kärrman, Erik

    2008-08-01

    An analysis of the environmental effects and resource consumption by four systems for management of wastewater and organic household waste in a new city area have been performed, as follows: (1) conventional system complemented with advanced sludge treatment for phosphorus recovery, (2) blackwater system with urine diversion and food waste disposers, (3) blackwater system with food waste disposers and reverse osmosis, and (4) local wastewater treatment plant with nutrient recovery by using reverse osmosis. Substance-flow analysis and energy/exergy calculations were performed by using the software tool URWARE/ORWARE. Emissions were calculated and classified based on the impact categories global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication, according to ISO 14042 (2000). The analysis also included nutrient recovery (i.e., the potential to use nutrients as a fertilizer). Depending on which aspects are prioritized, different systems can be considered to be the most advantageous. PMID:18751535

  13. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. PMID:22445920

  14. Application of a Genetic Algorithm as the Selection Technique for Optimal Measures against Road Traffic Noise in City Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Anai; Kazutoshi Fujimoto

    Since the control of noise pollution is implemented as a public work in Japan, it is important to enforce the control measures with the greatest eect and at a minimum investment. The areas aected by noise pollution are numerous, and the countermeasures to be taken against noise are various. It is most important, therefore, to decide which measures should be

  15. Dental status and dental treatment demands in preschoolers from urban and underprivileged urban areas in Mendoza city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Claudia N; Squassi, Aldo; Bordoni, Noemí

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the association between dental status and demand for dental care in preschoolers at urban and underprivileged urban schools in the city of Mendoza. Dental status was diagnosed in a purposive sample of preschoolers at urban schools (Group U: n = 148) and underprivileged urban schools (Group UnU: n = 155) in Greater Mendoza city, by determining the following indicators: (a) caries-free children (%), and (b) dmft/DMFT and its discriminated components, including active non-cavitated enamel caries. The characteristics of demand for care were determined using an ad hoc structured questionnaire. The following were determined: frequency distributions and confidence intervals for categorical variables, measures of central tendency and dispersion, tests for differences in means (Student's t test), association (chi squared) and correlation among variables (Pearson's r), at a significance level p<0.05. Comparison of dental status variables between groups showed significantly higher values in group UnU for: d+D tooth (? = 5.4} 3.8; t = 2.887; p = 0.004); dmft+DMFT (? = 5.7}4.1; t = 0.466; p = 0.020); d+D surface (? = 7.62} 6.2; t = 0.956; p = 0.014); f+F surface (? = 0.12}4.5; t = 2.71; p = 0.007) and percentage of caries-free children (x2= 25.377; p= 0.018). The following trends were found in this group: higher demand on the government subsystem, fewer visits to the dentist (x2 = 7.02, p = 0.008) and greater difficulty in getting appointments (x2 = 19.91, p?0.001). Frequency of visits was associated to the severity of dental status (x2 = 19.412; p?0.001), but no correlation was found between frequency of visits during the past year and dmft+DMFT (Pearson's r coefficient = 0.091; p = 0.0426) Group U showed preferential demand for the private or "obra social" (trade union managed health insurance) systems (x2 = 78.85 p = 0.00) and there was no statistically significant association between visits to the dentist and dmft+DMFT categories (x2 = 2.781; p = 0.427), although there was direct correlation between frequency of visits during the past year and dmft+DMFT (Pearson's r coefficient = 0.486, p = 0.000). Preschoolers at UnU schools had higher caries indicators than preschoolers at U schools. For UnU the demand for care was related to the severity of dental status and situations of urgency, while U preschoolers demanded dental care in both health and disease, with a tendency to greater adherence to treatment. Actions to promote oral health in preschoolers should take into account both internal and external barriers to access to and use of oral health services. PMID:25950158

  16. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

  17. Soil As contamination and its risk assessment in areas near the industrial districts of Chenzhou City, Southern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yong Liao; Tong-Bin Chen; Hua Xie; Ying-Ru Liu

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess soil As contamination and potential risk for human, soil, paddy rice, vegetable and human hair samples from the areas near the industrial districts in Chenzhou, southern China were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that the anthropogenic industrial activities have caused in local agricultural soils to be contaminated with As in a range of 11.0–1217 mg\\/kg.

  18. Contributing recharge areas, groundwater travel time, and groundwater water quality of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the City of Independence, Missouri, well field, 1997-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Independence, Missouri, operates a well field in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Contributing recharge areas (CRA) were last determined for the well field in 1996. Since that time, eight supply wells have been installed in the area north of the Missouri River and well pumpage has changed for the older supply wells. The change in pumping has altered groundwater flow and substantially changed the character of the CRA and groundwater travel times to the supply wells. The U.S Geological Survey, in a cooperative study with the City of Independence, Missouri, simulated steady-state groundwater flow for 2007 well pumpage, average annual river stage, and average annual recharge. Particle-tracking analysis was used to determine the CRA for supply wells and monitoring wells, and the travel time from recharge areas to supply wells, recharge areas to monitoring wells, and monitoring wells to supply wells. The simulated CRA for the well field is elongated in the upstream direction and extends to both sides of the Missouri River. Groundwater flow paths and recharge areas estimated for monitoring wells indicate the origin of water to each monitoring well, the travel time of that water from the recharge area, the flow path from the vicinity of each monitoring well to a supply well, and the travel time from the monitoring well to the supply well. Monitoring wells 14a and 14b have the shortest groundwater travel time from their contributing recharge area of 0.30 years and monitoring well 29a has the longest maximum groundwater travel time from its contributing recharge area of 1,701 years. Monitoring well 22a has the shortest groundwater travel time of 0.5 day to supply well 44 and monitoring well 3b has the longest maximum travel time of 31.91 years to supply well 10. Water-quality samples from the Independence groundwater monitoring well network were collected from 1997 to 2008 by USGS personnel during ongoing annual sampling within the 10-year contributing recharge area (CRA) of the Independence well field. Statistical summaries and the spatial and temporal variability of water quality in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the Independence well field were characterized from analyses of 598 water samples. Water-quality constituent groups include dissolved oxygen and physical properties, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, wastewater indicator compounds, fuel compounds, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), alachlor, and atrazine. The Missouri Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) for iron was exceeded in almost all monitoring wells. The Missouri Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic was exceeded 32 times in samples from monitoring wells. The MCL for barium was exceeded five times in samples from one monitoring well. The SMCL for manganese was exceeded 160 times in samples from all monitoring wells and the combined well-field sample. The most frequently detected wastewater indicator compounds were N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), phenol, caffeine, and metolachlor. The most frequently detected fuel compounds were toluene and benzene. Alachlor was detected in 22 samples and atrazine was detected in 37 samples and the combined well-field sample. The MCL for atrazine was exceeded in one sample from one monitoring well. Samples from monitoring wells with median concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen larger than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L) are located near agricultural land and may indicate that agricultural land practices are the source of nitrogen to groundwater. Largest median values of specific conductance; total inorganic nitrogen; dissolved calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, arsenic, manganese, bicarbonate, and sulfate and detections of wastewater indicator compounds generally were in water samples from monitoring wells with CRAs that intersect the south bank of the Missouri River. Zones of higher specific conductance were located just upstream from the Independen

  19. Forensic bird-strike identification techniques used in an accident investigation at Wiley Post Airport, Oklahoma, 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma R

    On March 4, 2008, a Cessna Citation 1 (Model 500) crashed in a wooded area near Wiley Post Airport, Oklahoma, killing all 5 people on board. This paper describes the detailed forensic methods and expertise used by the Smithsonian Institution's Feather Identification Lab to identify the bird that caused this bird-strike incident. We used standard methods of whole-feather analysis, microscopic

  20. Electric and kinematic structure of the Oklahoma mesoscale convective system of 7 June 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steven M.; Schur, Terry J.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    Balloon soundings of electric field in Oklahoma mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were obtained by the National Severe Storms Laboratory in the spring of 1989. This study focuses on a sounding made in the rearward edge of an MCS stratiform rain area on 7 June 1989. Data from Doppler radars, a lightning ground-strike location system, satellite, and other sources is used to relate the mesoscale attributes of the MCS to the observed electric-field profile.

  1. Drought adaptation in rural eastern Oklahoma in the 1930s: lessons for climate change adaptation research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert McLeman; Dick Mayo; Earl Strebeck; Barry Smit

    2008-01-01

    In the mid-1930s, eastern Oklahoma, USA, suffered an unusually harsh mixture of droughts and extreme rainfall events that\\u000a led to widespread crop failure over several years. These climatic conditions coincided with low commodity prices, agricultural\\u000a restructuring and general economic collapse, creating tremendous hardship in rural and agriculturally dependent areas. Using\\u000a a previously developed typology of agricultural adaptation, this paper reports

  2. A digital geologic map database for the state of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heran, William D.; Green, Gregory N.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2003-01-01

    This dataset is a composite of part or all of the 12 1:250,000 scale quadrangles that make up Oklahoma. The result looks like a geologic map of the State of Oklahoma. But it is only an Oklahoma shaped map clipped from the 1:250,000 geologic maps. This is not a new geologic map. No new mapping took place. The geologic information from each quadrangle is available within the composite dataset.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a dog from Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Fox, J C; Ewing, S A; Buckner, R G; Whitenack, D; Manley, J H

    1986-12-15

    A dog with signs of weakness, labored breathing, and generalized edema was examined. It was heavily infested with fleas and had wounds resulting from a recent fight. Hematologic findings were not remarkable, except for parasites in the blood. The dog was treated for fleas and given antibiotics, but was euthanatized when it failed to respond. Blood and tissue specimens were found to contain Trypanosoma cruzi, and the serum contained antibodies to the organism. We believe this is the first confirmed case of T cruzi infection in dogs from Oklahoma. The public health implications of this finding are underscored by a report on the detection of T cruzi in raccoons in the same season and geographic area. PMID:3098711

  4. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma] [University of Oklahoma

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest distances, or at the very highest energies. The outcomes of the group's combined experimental and theoretical research will be an improved understanding of nature, at the highest energies reachable, from which applications to technological innovation will surely result, as they always have from such studies in the past.

  5. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    in shallow streams, on the water conservation and irrigation habits of Oklahomans, and the development. · Water conservation in Oklahoma urban and suburban watersheds through modification of irrigation

  6. Largest Dinosaur Ever Discovered Found in Oklahoma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    Originally discovered in a remote corner of Oklahoma in 1994, the fossil of what may have been the largest creature to ever walk the earth has been excavated by a research team from the University of Oklahoma. Dubbed Sauroposeidon proteles, or "thunder lizard," the dinosaur was almost 100 feet long, with a 39 foot neck and weighing over 50 tons, so big that it would have created minor seismic activity just by walking, according to scientists. The new find is about 110 million years old and consists of neck vertebrae, some almost five feet in length, together with neck ribs nearly twelve feet long. The find is also significant because it may shed light on the last of the North American sauropods, who died out about 100 million years ago. A paper on this new find is scheduled to appear in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. The sites listed provide information and background material about this momentous discovery.

  7. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Y.; Houjin, H.; Xun, M.; Kebin, L.; Xuesong, Y.; Jie, X.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (?18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM2.5 was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM2.5 in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV1, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV1, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM2.5 exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke. PMID:25296361

  8. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States and includes eight primary hydrogeologic units, including the well-known Ogallala Formation. The High Plains aquifer is an important resource, providing water for 27 percent of the Nation?s irrigated agricultural lands in an otherwise dry landscape. Since the 1980?s there has been concern over the sustainability of the aquifer due to water-level declines caused by substantial pumping. Water quality of the aquifer is a more recent concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, historical water-quality data have been gathered for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area into a retrospective data base, which can be used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of water-quality constituents of concern.Data from the retrospective data base verify that nitrate, pesticides, and dissolved solids (salinity) are important water-quality concerns in the High Plains study area. Sixteen percent of all measured nitrate concentrations were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. In about 70 percent of the counties within the High Plains study area, nitrate concentrations for 1980-98 were significantly larger than for 1930-69. While nitrate concentrations are largest where depth to water is shallow, concentrations also have increased in the Ogallala Formation where depth to water is large. Pesticide data primarily are available only in the northern half of the study area. About 50 pesticides were detected in the High Plains study area, but only four pesticides (atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and simazine) had concentrations exceeding a drinking-water standard. The occasional detection of pesticides in deeper parts of the Ogallala Formation indicates that contamination pathways exist. Dissolved solids, which are a direct measure of salinity, had 29 percent of measured concentrations in excess of the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter. Comparison of dissolved-solids concentrations prior to 1980 to concentrations after 1980 indicates dissolved-solids concentrations have increased in the alluvial valleys of the Platte, the Republican, and the Arkansas Rivers, as well as in the Ogallala Formation?South hydrogeologic unit.Water-quality results indicate that human activities are affecting the water of the High Plains aquifer. Because there is a potential for water quality to become impaired relative to the historical uses of the aquifer, water quality needs to be considered when evaluating the sustainability of the High Plains aquifer. Data collected as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study will help to fill in gaps in water-quality information and provide additional information for understanding the factors that govern ambient water quality.

  9. Methods to Assess the Site Effects Based on in situ Measurements in large urban Areas. Application in Bucharest City, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, A.; Aldea, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Hannich, D.

    2009-04-01

    In seismic microzonation we want to display the variation in seismic response of the subsurface and subsequently determine where the soil is being amplified to a level that may damage existing buildings. Although is not always adequate, frequently peak ground acceleration (PGA)is used to determine the maximum horizontal forces that can be expected. Considering the earthquake of 27.10.2004 (Mw = 6), the PGA map of the horizontal component EW shows variation in the PGA from 16 to 60 cm/s*s in the Bucharest area of 20 km diameter. Most of this variation is due to the package of the Quaternary sedimentary layers which amplify the original strong motion arrived from the earthquake. The largest amplification of the soil will occur at the lowest natural frequency or its fundamental frequency. In situ measurements of shear wave velocity in the soil and the soil thickness, provide a direct measure of the characteristic site period. But the sedimentary layers will also amplify the original frequency content of the earthquake signal arriving at the bedrock during a moderate or strong earthquake. Thus borehole recordings of acceleration during an earthquake is also an important issue. Extensively seismic noise measurements is a much accessible method and computed H/V spectral ratio can also provide a good indication on the fundamental frequency of the site. Within the NATO-funded Science for Peace Project 981882 "Site-effect analyses for the earthquake-endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania" the drilling and the Vp and Vs (seismic longitudinal and shear-wave velocities) measurements in ten boreholes were done in the years 2006-2007 (Bala et al., 2007). Rock samples were taken from each borehole at different depths for laboratory tests to determine the geotechnical parameters of each sedimentary rock type at the sites. Thus a valuable data base is assembled which contains: Vp and Vs values for each sedimentary layer, density and geologic characteristics of each layer, which are the basic data for equivalent linear modelling of the site; other geotechnical parameters measured in the laboratory on the rock samples will permit the nonlinear modelling of the site. Average shear wave velocity in the first 30 m depth (VS-30) as defined in EUROCODE 8 is a useful indicator in seismic microzonation, showing zones with low values of average seismic velocities in Bucharest, Romania. Using the program SHAKE2000 and EERA we compute spectral acceleration functions at specific depths and transfer functions for the 1D models obtained from the in situ measurements. The acceleration response spectra correspond to the wave amplifications due to the package of sedimentary layers from 50 m depth (maximum depth) up to the surface, that are expected for a moderate real earthquake motion incident at the bottom of each 1D model. Because of the lack of outcropping bedrock in the Bucharest area, a seismic signal recorded in a borehole (PRI station, 50 m depth) at a moderate earthquake (Mw= 6), is used as input for the entire study area. 1D models obtained were tested in order to strengthen the importance of various input parameters in the obtained results.

  10. Water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City metropolitan area, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998 to October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Norman, Richard D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from sites in the Blue River Basin from July 1998 to October. Sites upstream from wastewater-treatment plants or the combined sewer system area had lower concentrations of total nitrogen, phosphorus, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceuticals, and more diverse aquatic communities. Sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants had the largest concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceuticals. Approximately 60 percent of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in Blue River originated from the Indian Creek, smaller amounts from the upper Blue River (from 28 to 16 percent), and less than 5 percent from Brush Creek. Nutrient yields from the Indian Creek and the middle Blue River were significantly greater than yields from the upper Blue River, lower Brush Creek, the outside control site, and other U.S. urban sites. Large concentrations of nutrients led to eutrophication of impounded Brush Creek reaches. Bottom sediment samples collected from impoundments generally had concentrations of organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds equivalent to or greater than, concentrations observed in streambed sediments downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. Bacteria in streams largely was the result of nonpoint-source contributions during storms. Based on genetic source-tracking, average contributions of in-stream Esherichia coli bacteria in the basin from dogs ranged from 26-32 percent of the total concentration, and human sources ranged from 28-42 percent. Macro invertebrate diversity was highest at sites with the largest percentage of upstream land use devoted to forests and grasslands. Declines in macro invertebrate community metrics were correlated strongly with increases in several, inter-related urbanization factors.

  11. Estimating Regional Groundwater Variability in Oklahoma from a Combination of in situ and Remotely Sensed Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, S. C.; Basara, J.; Wahr, J.; Famiglietti, J.

    2006-12-01

    Monthly gravity fields provided by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can be used to estimate changes in the vertically integrated water content for large regions. Using a recently developed filtering technique, we have shown good agreement between total water storage estimates obtained from GRACE and from in situ measurements in Illinois, demonstrating that GRACE can resolve the seasonal cycle of total water storage for areas as small as 200,000 km2. Another location having soil moisture measurements comparable to the spatial resolution of GRACE is the Oklahoma Mesonet, an automated observing network that provides realtime hydrometeorological observations at more than 100 stations in Oklahoma, spanning an area of roughly 180,000 km2. Beginning in the mid-1990's, soil moisture sensors at depths of 5 to 75 cm were installed at many of these sites. In this study, we use these measurements to estimate changes in storage in the unsaturated zone. By removing these soil moisture estimates from remotely sensed estimates of changes in total water storage obtained from GRACE, we can estimate changes in regional groundwater storage at the monthly to seasonal timescale. Here we present our estimates of the seasonal cycle of groundwater for Oklahoma, and discuss possible sources of disagreement.

  12. Twenty-Fifth Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Overton

    The Indian Education Program in Oklahoma is financed and operated under the provision of a contract between the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Oklahoma Department of Education and is supervised by the State Department of Education as authorized by the Johnson O'Malley Act (JOM) of 1936. The narrative section of this 1972 annual report…

  13. Twenty Sixth Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Overton

    The 26th annual report (1973) of American Indian education programs in Oklahoma is presented. The Oklahoma education program is financed and operated under a contract between the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior, and the State Department of Education. The supervision of the program is carried out entirely by the State…

  14. Twentieth Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laney, L. J.

    Financed and operated under the provisions of a contract between the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Education, and the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this document describes the Indian Education Program in Oklahoma, authorized by the Johnson-O'Malley Act and supervised by the State Department of Education. This 1967 annual…

  15. DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;#12;DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2 DAM SAFETY MODIFICATION3 &4 Environmental Assessment Pine Creek Dam, Oklahoma Dam Safety Modification & Interim Risk Reduction Measure and risk reduction measures necessary to correct structural and maintenance deficiencies of Pine Creek Dam

  16. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    on the water cycle in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. 2. We co-hosted the 7th annual Water Research Symposium. Chris Zou was awarded a 104G grant entitled Eastern Redcedar Encroachment and Water Cycle in TallgrassOklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Oklahoma Water

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF NEW ARSENIC STANDARDS ON OKLAHOMA WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new national standard for arsenic in drinking water supplies, slated to take effect in 2006, is having an unexpected impact on a number of Oklahoma communities. Currently, several municipalities in north central Oklahoma are in compliance with existing arsenic standards (50 ...

  18. Parasitism of aphids in canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter canola, Brassica napus L., production in Oklahoma has increased from essentially 0 ha in 2001 to 40,500 ha in 2011, and acreage is expected to continue to increase. Three aphid species typically infest canola fields in central Oklahoma, the turnip aphid Lypaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), the cab...

  19. Fiscal Equity of Teacher Salaries and Compensation in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Jeffrey; Evans, Nancy O.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the degree to which financial resources supporting teachers was equitably distributed in Oklahoma. Teachers are an important resource and their importance is being increasingly emphasized as educators attempt to increase student achievement. Every student educated in Oklahoma should have an equal right to…

  20. Oklahoma geology, the challenge in a changing environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Miller; B. L. Tillman

    1993-01-01

    A diversity of geology and programs exists in Oklahoma which requires the SCS geologist to use a wide range of experience in order to contribute to the many existing programs. The US Soil Conservation Service geologist work force consists of Bob L. Tillman, Sedimentation Geologist, Chickasha, and Glen B. Miller, Engineering Geologist, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Their poster display illustrates channel erosion

  1. Literacy and Education among Adult Indians in Oklahoma. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Paul R.; And Others

    The U.S. Office of Education funded the Adult Indian Education Project (AIEP) for 15 months to identify literacy levels and educational needs of adult American Indians in Oklahoma. Using Native American field interviewers, the AIEP surveyed a 1.8% random sample of adults from 19 tribal groups representing 70% of the Indian population of Oklahoma.…

  2. Feasibility of heavy oil recovery in the U.S. midcontinent (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Midcontinent of the United States (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma) has three heavy oil resource areas: the carbonates of central and western Kansas, the Pennsylvanian Age consolidated sandstone reservoirs of the Tristate Heavy Oil Belt (southeastern Kansas, western Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma), and the unconsolidated or easily friable sand- stone reservoirs of south-central Oklahoma. The heavy oil resource volume of the carbonates is unknown and relatively untested because of the difficulty in producing viscous oil from low-permeability carbonates. Since the 1960s, the Tristate Heavy Oil Belt has been the site of numerous pilots and operations that tested many different techniques for oil production. The region was a proving ground for many thermal enhanced oil recovery projects (steam, cyclic steam, in situ combustion, hot solvent injection, etc.). Most of the projects produced more oil than primary production, but the geology of the formations limited significant economic oil production. The best opportunity for significant, economic heavy oil production is from the steeply dipping, unconsolidated or easily friable sandstone reservoirs of south-central Oklahoma. Several of these reservoirs are thicker, more continuous, have high permeability and can be exploited by using gravity drainage and steam to reduce oil viscosity. The Midcontinent is not anticipated to become a significant heavy oil producer even if oil prices were significantly higher than $151 barrel because of the nature of the resource and the limited refining capability in the area. Local refineries were designed to process light sweet crude and have little heavy ends processing capability to accommodate additional heavy oil.

  3. Oklahoma 4-H Enrollment Form Today's Date: ___________________

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    __________________________________________ Allergies/Health Concerns: __________________________________________________________________ (Include food: _____________________________ Year first enrolled in 4-H: ____________ School: __________________________________ Military Family allergies.) Address: _______________________________________________________ City

  4. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    ://osufacts.okstate.edu Ecology and Management of Sericea Lespedeza D. Chad Cummings Sr. Agriculturist Rangeland Ecology Ecology and Management John R. Weir Research Associate Rangeland Ecology and Management Sericea lespedeza, and biological diversity. Sericea lespedeza has been found growing in all parts of Oklahoma except the Panhandle

  5. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  6. Investigating a damaging buried sinkhole cluster in an urban area (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) integrating multiple techniques: Geomorphological surveys, DInSAR, DEMs, GPR, ERT, and trenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonel, Domingo; Rodríguez-Tribaldos, Verónica; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; McCalpin, James P.; Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This contribution analyses a complex sinkhole cluster buried by urban elements in the mantled evaporite karst of Zaragoza city, NE Spain, where active subsidence has caused significant economic losses (~ 0.3 million Euro). The investigation, conducted after the development of the area, has involved the application of multiple surface and subsurface techniques. A detailed map of modern surface deformation indicates two active coalescing sinkholes, whereas the interpretation of old aerial photographs reveals the presence of two additional dormant sinkholes beneath human structures that might reactivate in the near future. DInSAR (Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar) displacement data have limited spatial coverage mainly due to high subsidence rates and surface changes (re-pavement), and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and trenching investigations were severely restricted by the presence of urban elements. Nonetheless, the three techniques consistently indicate that the area affected by subsidence is larger than that defined by surface deformation features. The performance of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique was adversely affected by the presence of highly conductive and massive anthropogenic deposits, but some profiles reveal that subsidence in the central sector of one of the sinkholes is mainly accommodated by sagging. The stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench dug across the topographic margin of one of the sinkholes may be alternatively interpreted by three collapse events of around 0.6 m that occurred after 290 yr BP, or by progressive fault displacement combined with episodic anthropogenic excavation and fill. Average subsidence rates of > 6.6 mm/yr and 40 mm/yr have been calculated using stratigraphic markers dated by the radiocarbon method and historical information, respectively. This case study illustrates the need of conducting thorough investigations in sinkhole areas during the pre-planning stage including a geomorphic approach. A sound geomorphic model is essential for the proper design of the site investigation, the interpretation of the data and application of effective mitigation measures. Once sinkhole areas are developed, urban elements largely restrict the applicability and performance of multiple techniques, substantially decreasing the feasibility and benefit/effort ratio of the investigations.

  7. How To Save Our Shrinking Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybcznski, Witold; Linneman, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores solutions to the problem of shrinking cities, population declines in urban areas. Consolidation and de-annexation are not desirable alternatives, but for many shrinking cities no other workable alternative can be seen. The reality is that many cities will continue to shrink. Radical redesign can make cities better and smaller. (SLD)

  8. Climate-change impacts and the role of ecosystem services in mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: a case study from an aridland city (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Grimm

    2009-01-01

    While research has appropriately begun to focus on the potential impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems and set-aside lands, the fact that over 80% of the US population and over half of humanity lives in cities and towns argues for accelerated attention to these coupled social-ecological systems. In the Urban Century cities will continue to play important roles as

  9. Biological assessment of environmental flows for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, William L.; Seilheimer, Titus S.; Taylor, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale patterns in fish assemblage structure and functional groups are influenced by alterations in streamflow regime. In this study, we defined an objective threshold for alteration for Oklahoma streams using a combination of the expected range of 27 flow indices and a discriminant analysis to predict flow regime group. We found that fish functional groups in reference flow conditions had species that were more intolerant to flow alterations and preferences for stream habitat and faster flowing water. In contrast, altered sites had more tolerant species that preferred lentic habitat and slower water velocity. Ordination graphs of the presence and functional groups of species revealed an underlying geographical pattern roughly conforming to ecoregions, although there was separation between reference and altered sites within the larger geographical framework. Additionally, we found that reservoir construction and operation significantly altered fish assemblages in two different systems, Bird Creek in central Oklahoma and the Kiamichi River in southeastern Oklahoma. The Bird Creek flow regime shifted from a historically intermittent stream to one with stable perennial flows, and changes in fish assemblage structure covaried with changes in all five components of the flow regime. In contrast, the Kiamichi River flow regime did not change significantly for most flow components despite shifts in fish assemblage structure; however, most of the species associated with shifts in assemblage structure in the Kiamichi River system were characteristic of lentic environments and were likely related more to proximity of reservoirs in the drainage system than changes in flow. The spatial patterns in fish assemblage response to flow alteration, combined with different temporal responses of hydrology and fish assemblage structure at sites downstream of reservoirs, indicate that interactions between flow regime and aquatic biota vary depending on ecological setting. This supports the notion that regional variation in natural flow regimes could affect the development of flow recommendations.

  10. Tensile city

    E-print Network

    Chakkour, Mario Henri

    1987-01-01

    Tensile City is a story that provides the answer to the following question: II If we were to leap forward in time and visit a city of the future, what would learn about our contemporary city ? II The story unfolds when ...

  11. The City College of New York SPECIAL FIELD STUDIES SUMMER 2013

    E-print Network

    Brinkmann, Peter

    The City College of New York SPECIAL FIELD STUDIES SUMMER 2013 AMERICAN INDIAN STUDIES Ethnographic: Ethnographic Filmmaking An ethnographic study of American Indians in Oklahoma through the lens of a video experience through screenings and presentations. The Field Work: From 1830-1890 over 60 American Indian

  12. Molecular characterization, ecology, and epidemiology of a novel Tymovirus in Asclepias viridis from Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Feldman, Tracy S; Ali, Akhtar; Wiley, Graham; Muthukumar, Vijay; Roe, Bruce A; Roossinck, Marilyn; Melcher, Ulrich; Palmer, Michael W; Nelson, Richard S

    2012-02-01

    Native virus-plant interactions require more understanding and their study will provide a basis from which to identify potential sources of emerging destructive viruses in crops. A novel tymovirus sequence was detected in Asclepias viridis (green milkweed), a perennial growing in a natural setting in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TGPP) of Oklahoma. It was abundant within and frequent among A. viridis plants and, to varying extents, within other dicotyledonous and one grass (Panicum virgatum) species obtained from the TGPP. Extracts from A. viridis containing the sequence were infectious to a limited number of species. The virus genome was cloned and determined to be closely related to Kennedya yellow mosaic virus. The persistence of the virus within the Oklahoma A. viridis population was monitored for five successive years. Virus was present in a high percentage of plants within representative areas of the TGPP in all years and was spreading to additional plants. Virus was present in regions adjacent to the TGPP but not in plants sampled from central and south-central Oklahoma. Virus was present in the underground caudex of the plant during the winter, suggesting overwintering in this tissue. The RNA sequence encoding the virus coat protein varied considerably between individual plants (?3%), likely due to drift rather than selection. An infectious clone was constructed and the virus was named Asclepias asymptomatic virus (AsAV) due to the absence of obvious symptoms on A. viridis. PMID:22026416

  13. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p < .0001). The presence of houseflies in the kitchen during cooking is correlated with the incidence of childhood diarrhea (r = .36, p < .0001). Inadequate solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p < .0001) and children (r = .22, p < .05). Poor handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra. PMID:16334095

  14. Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Hydrochemical Properties of Typical Plain River-net Area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China: A Case Study in Suzhou City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Ruan, X.; Sun, H.; Pan, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, tidal river water retention and other geological factors, groundwater quality in plain river-net area is vulnerable to pollution. Detailed chemical analysis results of 49 groundwater samples were carried out to identify groundwater pollution characteristics, hydrochemical properties and to assess groundwater quality and usability in Suzhou City, a typical plain area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China. In order to protect, utilize and manage groundwater resources effectively, it is necessary to recognize the dominant processes responsible for hydrogeochemistry, groundwater pollution threats in study area. The results revealed ammonia concentration in confined and shallow groundwater ranges from 0.02 to 6.78 mg/L, 0.04 to 3.17 mg/L, respectively. Nitrite concentrations range from 0.004 to 1.01 mg/L, 0.004 to 3.66 mg/L, respectively. Iron concentrations range from 0.006 to 16.9 mg/L, 0.02 to 7.88 mg/L, respectively. Manganese concentrations range from 0.003 to 1.04 mg/L, 0.06 to 0.58 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of analytical results and water quality standards, majority of groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking, domestic as well as for industrial uses directly. Toxic metals and high levels ions should be removed if groundwater is supplied for different purposes. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and sodium percentage values revealed that most of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes except only a few. The salinity hazard of study area is regarded as low to medium, and special management for salinity control is required in scattered regions. Results of suitability for industrial purposes according to calculated Langeliar saturation index and Larson Ratio showed that majority of samples are calcium carbonate depositing, whereas a few are calcium carbonate dissolving in nature. Results show that sodium, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions of groundwater. Na-HCO3, mixed Na-Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, and Na-Cl type are the four major hydrochemical facies. Correlation matrix and Factor analysis suggest that natural weathering processes along with anthropogenic activities are responsible for pollution characteristics and hydro-geochemistry of groundwater. It was observed that the value of ammonia and nitrite was above permissible limit as prescribed by WHO and Ministry of Health of P.R.C at most of places in study area. High ammonia and nitrite with low nitrate concentrations in most samples is the probable result of considerable amounts of natural nitrogenous organic and inorganic compounds produced by anthropogenic activities, it is also controlled by redox-controlled environment in alluviums or aquifers.

  15. Attracted by the beautiful bay area, Olivier moved in Fall 2003 immediately after completing a bachelor degree in Engineering Physics at Laval University, Quebec City, Canada. He just

    E-print Network

    Pouliot, Jean

    , and 5Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Que´bec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing

  16. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P <0.001), height (P <0.001) and weight (P<0.005) were significantly associated with the haemoglobin status of the Pod women. Haemoglobin level of both ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (P<0.05) of the Munda adult women, possibly due to better buying capacity. However, negative effect of food expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (P<0.05), which may be due to disparity in food sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake of iron and heavy workload may be the reasons for this high percentage of anaemia. Moreover, hookworm infections need to be analyzed, as its prevalence is very high in India and South Asia. One hundred percent anaemia among Munda women is also very alarming. The results suggest that government policies should be intensified further at problem specific areas for the more vulnerable populations and literacy and antenatal care (especially iron supplementation) at various growing periods among the women should be intensified to eradicate anaemia. PMID:14672870

  17. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically. PMID:25233912

  18. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan Kansas City area, USA: Part I. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and pesticide-related compounds.

    PubMed

    Tao, J; Huggins, D; Welker, G; Dias, J R; Ingersoll, C G; Murowchick, J B

    2010-10-01

    This is the first part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint-source contaminants on the sediment quality of five streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Surficial sediment was collected in 2003 from 29 sites along five streams with watersheds that extend from the core of the metropolitan area to its development fringe. Sediment was analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 common polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors), and 25 pesticiderelated compounds of eight chemical classes. Multiple PAHs were detected at more than 50% of the sites, and concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 290 to 82,150 microg/kg (dry weight). The concentration and frequency of detection of PAHs increased with increasing urbanization of the residential watersheds. Four- and five-ring PAH compounds predominated the PAH composition (73-100%), especially fluoranthene and pyrene. The PAH composition profiles along with the diagnostic isomer ratios [e.g., anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene), 0.16 +/- 0.03; fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene), 0.55 +/- 0.01)] indicate that pyrogenic sources (i.e., coal-tar-related operations or materials and traffic-related particles) may be common PAH contributors to these residential streams. Historicaluse organochlorine insecticides and their degradates dominated the occurrences of pesticide-related compounds, with chlordane and dieldrin detected in over or nearly 50% of the samples. The occurrence of these historical organic compounds was associated with past urban applications, which may continue to be nonpoint sources replenishing local streams. Concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW; two or three rings) and high molecular weight (HMW; four to six rings) PAHs covaried along individual streams but showed dissimilar distribution patterns between the streams, while the historical pesticide-related compounds generally increased in concentration downstream. Correlations were noted between LMW and HMW PAHs for most of the streams and between historical-use organochlorine compounds and total organic carbon and clay content of sediments for one of the streams (Brush Creek). Stormwater runoff transport modes are proposed to describe how the two groups of contaminants migrated and distributed in the streambed. PMID:20390412

  19. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation...ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of determining commercial...

  20. Contamination of Lake Wewoka and fresh-water sands by disposal of oil-well brines near Wewoka, Seminole County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, Stuart L.; Dott, Robert H.; Lalicker, Cecil Gordon

    1941-01-01

    This reports deals with ground-water conditions in an area about 5 miles wide from east to west and 8 miles long from north to south, in Tps. 8 and 9 N., Rs. 7 and 8 E., in Seminole County, Oklahoma, including the town of Wewoka and Lake Wewoka. The possible contamination of the lake waters from oil-well brines disposed through a well 3.75 miles north of the lake, and other effects of brine disposal, are considered. The investigation was made at the request of Frank Raab, member of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, and Don McBride, Chief Engineer of the Division of Water Resources who has the responsibility of preventing contamination of water supplies in Oklahoma. Field work was done July 5 and 6, 1941, by Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma Geological Survey; C.G. Lalicker, Department of Geology, University of Oklahoma; and S.L. Schoff, Assistant Geologist in the Ground Water Division, Water Resources Branch, of the U.S. Geological Survey. Lalicker spent both days studying the rocks exposed in the vicinity and measuring their thickness. A copy of the composite section measured by him is attached. Dott and Schoff spent one day collecting the well information summarized in Table 1, and one day with Lalicker on the stratigraphy. (available as photostat copy only)

  1. Sister Cities International

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    People from around the world have sought to establish links with other individuals from different nations, and since 1956, cities have sought to also establish meaningful relationships with other urban areas through the Sister Cities International organization. Currently, the organization represents more than 2,500 communities in 126 countries. Visitors to the site can learn which cities are currently seeking partnerships with other cities, read about the organization's annual conference, and also read about the programs they administer. Also, its calendar of events is quite full with programs designed for the general public, such as those dealing with relationships with countries in the Middle East and the question of local government. Finally, the material on the site is available in a number of different languages, including French, German, Spanish, and Japanese.

  2. Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Ford, Trenton W.

    2013-03-06

    , but not well understood climate factor. This study examines soil moisture-vegetation health interactions using both in situ observations and land surface model simulations. For the observational study, soil moisture is taken from 20 in situ Oklahoma Mesonet...

  3. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  4. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  5. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  6. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  7. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  8. 76 FR 9040 - Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  9. 75 FR 6404 - Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket...Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  10. 76 FR 37166 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA--1989--DR), dated 06/06/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 05/22/2011 through 05/25/2011. EFFECTIVE DATES:...

  11. 76 FR 50535 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1989-DR), dated 06/21/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 05/22/2011 through 05/25/2011. Effective Date:...

  12. Methods for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2010-01-01

    Flow statistics can be used to provide decision makers with surface-water information needed for activities such as water-supply permitting, flow regulation, and other water rights issues. Flow statistics could be needed at any location along a stream. Most often, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no flow data are available to compute the statistics. Methods are presented in this report for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma. Flow statistics included the (1) annual (period of record), (2) seasonal (summer-autumn and winter-spring), and (3) 12 monthly duration statistics, including the 20th, 50th, 80th, 90th, and 95th percentile flow exceedances, and the annual mean-flow (mean of daily flows for the period of record). Flow statistics were calculated from daily streamflow information collected from 235 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Oklahoma and areas in adjacent states. A drainage-area ratio method is the preferred method for estimating flow statistics at an ungaged location that is on a stream near a gage. The method generally is reliable only if the drainage-area ratio of the two sites is between 0.5 and 1.5. Regression equations that relate flow statistics to drainage-basin characteristics were developed for the purpose of estimating selected flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams that are not near gaging stations on the same stream. Regression equations were developed from flow statistics and drainage-basin characteristics for 113 unregulated gaging stations. Separate regression equations were developed by using U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in regions with similar drainage-basin characteristics. These equations can increase the accuracy of regression equations used for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics at ungaged stream locations in Oklahoma. Streamflow-gaging stations were grouped by selected drainage-basin characteristics by using a k-means cluster analysis. Three regions were identified for Oklahoma on the basis of the clustering of gaging stations and a manual delineation of distinguishable hydrologic and geologic boundaries: Region 1 (western Oklahoma excluding the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles), Region 2 (north- and south-central Oklahoma), and Region 3 (eastern and central Oklahoma). A total of 228 regression equations (225 flow-duration regressions and three annual mean-flow regressions) were developed using ordinary least-squares and left-censored (Tobit) multiple-regression techniques. These equations can be used to estimate 75 flow-duration statistics and annual mean-flow for ungaged streams in the three regions. Drainage-basin characteristics that were statistically significant independent variables in the regression analyses were (1) contributing drainage area; (2) station elevation; (3) mean drainage-basin elevation; (4) channel slope; (5) percentage of forested canopy; (6) mean drainage-basin hillslope; (7) soil permeability; and (8) mean annual, seasonal, and monthly precipitation. The accuracy of flow-duration regression equations generally decreased from high-flow exceedance (low-exceedance probability) to low-flow exceedance (high-exceedance probability) . This decrease may have happened because a greater uncertainty exists for low-flow estimates and low-flow is largely affected by localized geology that was not quantified by the drainage-basin characteristics selected. The standard errors of estimate of regression equations for Region 1 (western Oklahoma) were substantially larger than those standard errors for other regions, especially for low-flow exceedances. These errors may be a result of greater variability in low flow because of increased irrigation activities in this region. Regression equations may not be reliable for sites where the drainage-basin characteristics are outside the range of values of independent vari

  13. Geomorphic evidence for Late Cenozoic deformation, Wichita Moutains, Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Snell, Charles Burton

    1989-01-01

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Geology GEOMORPHIC EVIDENCE FOR LATE CENOZOIC DEFORMATION' WICHITA MOUNTAINS, OKLAHOMA A Thesis by CHARLES BURTON SNELL Approved as to style and content by Norman R. Til d (Chair of Com ttee) Christ... her C. Mathewson (Member) Kenneth L. White (Member) Jo . S ng (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT Geomorphic Evidence for Late Cenozoic Deformation, Wichita Mountains~~ Oklahoma. (December 1989) Charles B. Snell, B. S. , University...

  14. Large cities are less green

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent ? = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias. PMID:24577263

  15. Large cities are less green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-02-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent ? = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  16. Antiretroviral treatment outcome in HIV-1-infected patients routinely followed up in capital cities and remote areas of Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry

    PubMed Central

    Diouara, Abou Abdallah Malick; Ndiaye, Halimatou Diop; Guindo, Ibrehima; Bangoura, Nestor; Cissé, Mohamed; Edmond, Tchiakpe; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Mboup, Souleymame; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Kane, Ndèye Coumba Touré

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) becomes more and more effective in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, this global effort would be even more profitable if the access to laboratory services especially in decentralized settings was strengthened. We report the virological outcome and HIV-1 drug resistance in three West African countries using dried blood spots (DBS) samples. Methods We included HIV-1-infected adults on ART ?6 months and followed up in capital cities and decentralized sites in Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry. Patients were consecutively enrolled and DBS were collected in field conditions and kept at ambient temperature before transfer to the reference laboratory. Viral load (VL) was quantified using the NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v1.2. Genotyping of HIV-1 pol gene was performed using in-house protocol. Results Of the 407 participants, 119, 152 and 136 were from Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry, respectively. The median treatment duration was 36 months [IQR: 6–136]. Virological failure (VF) (VL?3log10 copies/mL) was observed in 26% (95% confidence interval (CI), 18–35; n=31), 11% (95% CI, 6–17; n=16) and 24% (95% CI, 17–32; n=33) of patients in Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry, respectively (p=0.001). Of samples presenting VL?3log10 copies/mL (n=80), 70 were successfully genotyped. At least one drug resistance mutation (DRM) was detected in the following proportions: 70% (95% CI, 50–86; n=19), 93% (95% CI, 68–100; n=14) and 68% (95% CI, 48–84; n=19) in Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry, respectively (p=0.22). Twenty-six per cent (26%; 95% CI, 16–38; n=18) of patients in VF harboured wild-type viruses, which is likely indicative of weak adherence. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of CRF02_AG subtype (73%; 95% CI, 61–83; n=51). Conclusions We describe the ART outcome in capital and rural settings of Senegal, Mali and Guinea-Conakry. Our results in all of the three countries highlight the need to reinforce the ART adherence in order to minimize the occurrence of drug resistance. In addition, these findings provide additional evidence that the use of DBS as a sampling support could assist virological monitoring of patients on ART in remote areas. PMID:25527333

  17. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of these organic compounds, are important to identify the causes of toxicity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. C.; Volkamer, R.; Kassianov, E. I.

    2008-05-01

    Data taken from the MCMA-2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns are used to examine the absorption of solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols. Using irradiance data from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and an actinic flux spectroradiometer (SR), we derive aerosol single scattering albedo, ?0,?, as a function of wavelength, ?. We find that in the near-UV spectral range (250 to 400 nm) ?0,? is much lower compared to ?0,? at 500 nm indicating enhanced absorption in the near-UV range. Absorption by elemental carbon, dust, or gas cannot account for this enhanced absorption leaving the organic part of the aerosol as the only possible absorber. We use data from a surface deployed Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) along with the inferred ?0,? to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross section (MAC) for the organic carbon. We find that the MAC is about 10.5 m2/g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; values that are roughly consistent with other estimates of organic carbon MAC. These MAC values can be considered as "radiatively correct" because when used in radiative transfer calculations the calculated irradiances/actinic fluxes match those measured at the wavelengths considered here. For an illustrative case study described here, we estimate that the light absorption by the "brown" (organic) carbonaceous aerosol can add about 40% to the light absorption of black carbon in Mexico City. This contribution will vary depending on the relative abundance of organic carbon relative to black carbon. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that organic aerosol would slow down photochemistry by selectively scavenging the light reaching the ground at those wavelengths that drive photochemical reactions. Finally, satellite retrievals of trace gases that are used to infer emissions currently assume that the MAC of organic carbon is zero. For trace gases that are retrieved using wavelengths shorter then 420 nm (i.e. SO2, HCHO, halogenoxides, NO2), the assumption of non-zero MAC values will induce an upward correction to the inferred emissions. This will be particularly relevant in polluted urban atmospheres and areas of biomass burning where organic aerosols are particularly abundant.

  19. Talking Points for Oklahoma 4-H --March 2008 The 4-H program's mission is to empower youth to reach their full potential, working and

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Talking Points for Oklahoma 4-H -- March 2008 · The 4-H program's mission is to empower youth to reach their full potential, working and learning in partnership with caring adults. · 4-H has 3 primary program areas: 1) science, technology, engineering, and math; 2) healthy living; and 3) citizenship. · 4-H

  20. Oklahoma State Mini-Plan for the Adminstration of Vocational Education Under the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968. '74-'75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    A summary presentation of the Oklahoma State plan for vocational education is offered in the document. The following areas related to administrative provisions and the annual and long-range program plans are briefly described with supporting data: (1) definitions for people, programs, and vocational technical education facilities; (2) goals and…

  1. Seasonal to interannual variations of soil moisture measured in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illston, Bradley G.; Basara, Jeffrey B.; Crawford, Kenneth C.

    2004-12-01

    Agriculture is a $2 billion component of the state economy in Oklahoma. As a result, meteorological, climatological, and agricultural communities should benefit from an improved understanding of soil moisture conditions and how those conditions vary spatially and temporally. The Oklahoma Mesonet is an automated observing network that provides real-time hydrometeorological observations at 115 stations across Oklahoma. In 1996, sensors were installed at 60 Mesonet sites to provide near-real-time observations of soil moisture.This study focuses on 6 years of soil moisture data collected between 1997 and 2002 to analyse the annual cycle and temporal characteristics of soil moisture across Oklahoma. The statewide analysis of the annual cycle of soil moisture revealed four distinct soil moisture phases. In addition, the four statewide phases were also observed in each of the nine climate divisions across Oklahoma, although the temporal characteristics of each phase were unique for each division. Further analysis demonstrated that, at shallow soil depths (5 and 25 cm), the spatial variability of soil moisture across Oklahoma was most homogeneous during the winter and spring periods and most heterogeneous during the summer and autumn periods. Conversely, at greater depths (60 and 75 cm), soil moisture was most heterogeneous during the winter period and the most homogeneous during the late spring.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose, The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Oklahoma.

  3. Oklahoma Climatological Survey: Outreach and Educational Materials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Oklahoma Climatological Survey (OCS) provides outreach programs and educational materials to public safety agencies, agricultural interests, educators, and the general public. These include OK-FIRST, which provides weather data and training to public safety agencies; EarthStorm, a program for educators that integrates learning modules with real-time weather data; and Agweather, a website that provides information to help agricultural producers with weather-related decisions. The site also features a glossary of weather terminology, a set of lesson plans, and reference materials intended for use as refresher information by teachers. Other resources include information on tornado safety, case studies on the use of OCS training materials, and a set of maps and graphs with climatological data and information on severe weather phenomena.

  4. A study of dispersed photovoltaic generation on the PSO (Public Service Company of Oklahoma) system

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.T. (Center for Energy Studies, Wichita State Univ., Wichita, KS (US)); Ramakumar, R. (School of Elec and Computer Engg., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (US)); Hill, S.R. (Public Service Co. of Oklahoma, P.O. Box 201, Tulsa, OK (US))

    1988-09-01

    The power generated by utility-interactive solar photovoltaic (PV) generators dispersed throughout a utility service area changes with insolation on a minute-by-minute, diurnal, and seasonal basis. The utility must follow these changes with its own generation, just as it now follows normal customer load fluctuations. This paper presents the results of a study of the Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) system with simulated dispersed PV generation. It was found that, with high penetrations of PV, as insolation changes, significant variations in power flows occurred on transmission and subtransmission lines that may require changes in system protection and voltage control practices.

  5. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in ischemic heart disease mortality in small areas of nine Spanish cities from 1996 to 2007 using smoothed ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Marí-Dell'olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Palència, Laia; Pérez, Glòria; Cirera, Lluís; Daponte, Antonio; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Esnaola, Santiago; Gandarillas, Ana; Lorenzo, Pedro; Martos, Carmen; Nolasco, Andreu; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD) in the census tracts of nine Spanish cities between the periods 1996-2001 and 2002-2007. Among women, there are socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality in the first period which tended to remain stable or even increase in the second period in most of the cities. Among men, in general, no socioeconomic inequalities have been detected for this cause in either of the periods. These results highlight the importance of intra-urban inequalities in mortality due to IHD and their evolution over time. PMID:23564269

  6. Skewed Visions' The City Itself

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branislav Jakovljevic

    2005-01-01

    Among proto-situationist visual works, Ansger Jorn and Guy Debord’s Fin de Copenhague (????) is distinguished by its radical approach to cartography. While in The Naked City (????) Debord takes fragments of a city map and conjoins them with arrows that indicate jumps from one area to another, in Fin de Copenhague the map almost disappears in the labyrinth of visual

  7. Variability of No x and No 2 concentrations observed at pedestrian level in the city centre of a medium sized urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Coppalle; V Delmas; M Bobbia

    2001-01-01

    NOx and NO2 concentrations were measured at different locations in a city centre of an urban zone (Population 450000) in order to study the variation of the outdoor exposure at pedestrian level. These measurements were carried out to understand the influence of traffic emissions at each measured site. The observations were done during four weeks in winter, including several days

  8. PM 2.5 exposure assessment of the population in Lower Manhattan area of New York City after the World Trade Center disaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Ng; C. Dimitroulopoulou; A. Grossinho; L. C. Chen; M. Kendall

    2005-01-01

    On 11 September 2001, the explosion and the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) Twin Towers in New York City (NYC), USA, generated a massive release of dust and inhalable toxic substances to the atmosphere as a result of the pulverization of various building materials, furniture, and computers. Many concerns were raised as Particulate Matter (PM) levels in Lower

  9. Johnson City 1° x 2° NTMS area, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fay

    1980-01-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Johnson City 1° x 2° quadrangle are presented. Surface sediment samples were collected at 959 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 1099 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements

  10. GIS-Based Simulation of Accessibility to Enhance Hedonic Modeling and Property Value Appraisal: an Application to the Quebec City Metropolitain Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Theriault; F. Des Rosiers; M.-H. Vandermissen

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation procedure that uses GIS technology for integrating accessibility to services and working places in order to improve modeling of houses values. Most real estate models use simple functions of distance to CBD in order to evaluate access to services and centrality. However, cities are complex systems. Secondary business centers appear. Shopping malls are disseminated. And,

  11. GIS-Based Simulation of Accessibility to Enhance Hedonic Modeling and Property Value Appraisal: An Application to Quebec City Metropolitan Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Theriault; F. Des Rosier; M. H. Vandersmissen

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation procedure that uses GIS technology for integrating accessibility to services and working places in order to improve modeling of houses values. Most real estate models use simple functions of distance to CBD in order to evaluate access to services and centrality. However, cities are complex systems. Secondary business centers appear. Shopping malls are disseminated. And,

  12. Training Teachers in a Large Urban Area to Administer and Interpret a New Literacy Assessment: Lessons Learned from New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Evelyn A.; Steuerwalt, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    A nine-item survey was administered to 47 New York City public school kindergarten through third-grade teachers to determine their experiences during training in the administration and interpretation of the Early Childhood Literacy Assessment System (ECLAS-2). Results show that most teachers found that their ECLAS-2 training was insufficient to…

  13. The New City Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1975-01-01

    Cities throughout the country are sponsoring family projects that convert vacant lots and rooftops to productive neighborhood gardens. It is hoped that utilization of these otherwide wasted areas will provide extra food for low income families, as well as promote community spirit and organization. (MA)

  14. Potential ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats in Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Elisha K; Baum, Kristen A; Pape?, Monica; Cohn, Leah A; Cowell, Annette K; Reichard, Mason V

    2013-02-18

    The ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis, an often-fatal tick-borne apicomplexan that infects domestic cats, has not been evaluated or identified despite its continued emergence. Infection of C. felis is characterized by lethargy, icterus, fever, anorexia, anemia, and death. The natural vertebrate reservoir of C. felis is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). To determine the possible distribution of C. felis in three states where infection is common (Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas), two separate approaches to ecological niche modeling were implemented. First, a model relating several different climatic layers to geographic locations where cases of C. felis infection were confirmed in domestic cats was developed to predict the possible distribution of the parasite. The second model incorporated occurrences of bobcats with environmental layers and land cover suitable for tick vectors to identify areas of overlap where C. felis transmission was likely. Results of both models indicated a high probability of C. felis from central Oklahoma to south-central Missouri. However, other predicted areas of C. felis occurrence varied between the two modeling approaches. Modeling the vertebrate reservoir and the tick vector predicted a broader possible distribution compared to modeling cases of C. felis infection in domestic cats. Our results suggest that C. felis is likely to extend beyond areas predicted by case modeling due to the presence of both the vector and reservoir. PMID:23131576

  15. City/Place Population Estimates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The US Census Bureau has released updated population estimates for cities, places, and minor civil divisions in the US. Seven major sections list cities over 100,000 and 10,000 by rank and percent growth, as well as cities, places, and minor civil divisions. The latter three sections contain figures from 1990-1996; these are arranged by state and they are also available as aggregated .zip files. Documentation and file layout are available. This City/Place information is part of a larger Census population site that covers national, state, and metropolitan area estimates (discussed in the April 25, 1997 Scout Report).

  16. Flood Frequency Estimates and Documented and Potential Extreme Peak Discharges in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; McCabe, Lan P.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of floods is required for the safe and economical design of highway bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures on or near streams; and for flood plain management programs. Flood frequency estimates for gaged streamflow sites were updated, documented extreme peak discharges for gaged and miscellaneous measurement sites were tabulated, and potential extreme peak discharges for Oklahoma streamflow sites were estimated. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum peak discharge that could be expected at a stream site. Potential extreme peak discharge is useful in conjunction with flood frequency analysis to give the best evaluation of flood risk at a site. Peak discharge and flood frequency for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years were estimated for 352 gaged streamflow sites. Data through 1999 water year were used from streamflow-gaging stations with at least 8 years of record within Oklahoma or about 25 kilometers into the bordering states of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, and Texas. These sites were in unregulated basins, and basins affected by regulation, urbanization, and irrigation. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were compiled for 514 sites in and near Oklahoma, 352 with streamflow-gaging stations and 162 at miscellaneous measurements sites or streamflow-gaging stations with short record, with a total of 671 measurements.The sites are fairly well distributed statewide, however many streams, large and small, have never been monitored. Potential extreme peak-discharge curves were developed for streamflow sites in hydrologic regions of the state based on documented extreme peak discharges and the contributing drainage areas. Two hydrologic regions, east and west, were defined using 98 degrees 15 minutes longitude as the dividing line.

  17. POSITION AVAILABLE Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    POSITION AVAILABLE Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Oklahoma Overview The Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC) at the University of Oklahoma (OU) is looking to hire a post-doctoral

  18. Weed Control Research in Guar in Texas and Oklahoma: 1961-72.

    E-print Network

    Smith, D. T.; Wiese, A. F.; Santelmann, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    ................................................. Lubbock, Texas 6 Preemergence Treatments ....................................... 6 Perking, Oklahoma ............................................. 6 Lu hhock, Texa s ................................................. 6 Bro~~mfield, Texas... ............................................. 6 xtemergencc Trert tmen t~ ..................................... 6 P. esults and Discussion ................................................. 7 Preplant Trentmentu ............................................... 7 Perkin\\, Oklahoma...

  19. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  20. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  1. 40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.125 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125 Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern...

  2. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  3. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  4. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  5. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  6. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  7. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  8. 40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.125 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125 Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern...

  9. 3 CFR - Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure Projects Presidential...March 22, 2012 Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma,...

  10. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  11. The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    06/15/2012 Employee Address City, State, Zip Employee 06/01/2012 Creator's Name/Title Phone Number the form to your immediate supervisor or department head. Name Employee ID Number Department Date leave

  12. [Cities in peril, Mahgreb].

    PubMed

    Naciri, M

    1994-10-01

    The urban population has surpassed 50% in the Maghreb: first in Tunisia, followed by Algeria and Morocco. This phenomenon has greatly affected the distribution of power and the forms of its exercise in the political, social, and economic domain. The old city social strata are becoming extinct while city management is falling more and more under the control of cadres originally from rural areas. Urbanization is occurring at a slower pace than in other developing countries, however. In Morocco, the small- and medium-sized towns are growing at a faster rate than the cities. Their lack of infrastructure and services, like those that exist in the periphery of large cities, preoccupies the small- and medium-sized towns. The urban explosion is much more contained than its management is adapting. Legal and illegal housing will dominate the Moroccan city in the future. In the last decade, Moroccan authorities have tried to establish mechanisms to integrate populations in slums and illegal housing with the urban space. The Tunisians are also working on this. In Algeria, the rigid, urban formal management leaves no room to develop any type of housing. The problem of housing is even more grave here than the other 2 countries. Structural adjustment policies promote selling rather than renting houses. The government is not involved in social and health services. Algeria has a 2-tier society: a minority involved in the private sector and the majority who depends on the collapsing public sector which cannot meet the great needs of the poor. Persons with college degrees are unemployed in Algeria. One no longer knows how to build towns with the traditional medinas. The transportation system is falling apart in cities. Cities dump liquid and solid wastes directly into the sea or the wadis. The major risk of maghrebian cities lies in socioeconomic inequalities. PMID:12179396

  13. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. The discussions in this paper form the building blocks for a much-needed research agenda that aims to deliver a strategy to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas.

  14. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol chemical transport model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2594-2611. Carter, W.P.L., 2000. Programs and Files Implementing the SAPRC-99 Mechanism and its Associates Emissions Processing Procedures for Models-3 and Other Regional Models. January 31, 2000. http://pah.cert.ucr.edu/~carter/SAPRC99.htm. Environ, 2006. User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 4.30. Report prepared by ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, CA. Lane, T.E.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N. 2007. Simulating Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation using the Votality Basis-Set Approach in a Chemical Transport Model, in preperation. CAM (Comision Ambiental Metropolitana) 2006: Inventario de Emisiones 2004 de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico, Mexico. Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262.

  15. The North West Oklahoma In-Service Cooperative: A Model for Rural Cooperative Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwink, Timothy A.; Hensley, Stephen R.

    The North West Oklahoma In-Service Cooperative (NWOIC), established in 1980, encourages, promotes, and channels faculty development and needs in the rural northwestern quadrant of Oklahoma. Its objectives are: (1) to aid northwestern Oklahoma school districts in the structure and administration of local faculty development plans; (2) to develop…

  16. Oklahoma Library Technology Network (OLTN) Electronic Resources for Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol, Comp.

    This document describes Oklahoma Library Technology Network electronic resources for elementary age children. The first section provides a history of Oklahoma statewide shared databases. Oklahoma statewide information database contacts are listed in the second section. The third section presents information on InfoTrac Kid's Edition Online…

  17. Assessment of climatic suitability for the expansion of Solenopsis invicta Buren in Oklahoma using three general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F.; Frost, E. E.

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed the climatic suitability for the expansion of Solenopsis invicta Buren (red imported fire ant) in Oklahoma under the present climate and with a doubling of atmospheric CO2 using three general circulation models (GCMs) (GFDL R30, OSU, UKMO). Oklahoma was chosen as the geographical focus because it has a dense network of meteorological stations and lies on the edge of the current biogeographic range of S. invicta. Meteorological data were spatially referenced with model data in GIS to produce a series of images of selected suitability indicators: (1) mean annual precipitation >510 mm; (2) less than seven consecutive days with mean air temperature <1.1 C; and (3) mean winter air temperature >9.4 C. These indicator images were combined to produce suitability maps for the potential range of S. invicta. Under current climatic conditions, roughly three-quarters of Oklahoma is suitable for potential invasion by S. invicta. The GFDL R30, OSU, and UKMO show that the area suitable for colonization increases by approximately 26, 26, and 36%, respectively. In terms of actual land area, the increase with a warmer, wetter climate ranges from 35,300 km2 to 47,600 km2. The destructiveness of S. invicta on human livelihood necessitates a better understanding of the future expansion of the species for an uncertain future climate.

  18. State of the Cities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The report finds that while "the booming national economy and the growth of high-tech jobs have helped reverse decades of decline in America's cities," the "digital divide" continues to make itself felt as the number of high-tech jobs is growing 30 percent faster in the suburbs than urban areas. In addition, housing prices have risen at twice the rate of inflation, worsening an affordable housing shortage. See also the New Data section in this report for a review of the State of the Cities Data System, 2000.

  19. Measurements of ambient ammonia using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer: Characteristics of ambient ammonia emissions in an urban area of New York City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongquan Li; James J. Schwab; Kenneth L. Demerjian

    2006-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) was deployed during the PMTACS-NY Supersite winter 2004 intensive field campaign at Queens College in New York City to measure the ambient gaseous ammonia. For the characterization of ammonia emissions from the mobile sources, a LI-7000 CO2\\/H2O analyzer was also collocated with the TDLAS to measure ambient CO2 and H2O vapor. The field

  20. Influence of small scale topography on early spring activity in martian polar areas. An example study based on DEM of Inca City region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, G.; Pommerol, A.; Aye, K.-M.; Thomas, N.; Mattson, S.; Hansen, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    By using the newly generated HiRISE DEM of Inca City region with 1-meter spatial resolution we are able to estimate the solar energy distribution over the surface on the scale of topographical irregularities, such as the sides of araneiforms channels. In the present study this DEM serves as a model terrain to test the previously proposed hypothesis of early initialisation of CO2 activity by solar illumination of topography on the meter-scale [1].

  1. Virtual City

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1994-01-01

    In conjunction with Rice Design Alliance's Virtual City lecture series held earlier this year, home pages have been put up for two of the speakers, Howard Rheingold and Bruce Sterling, with access to online writings included.

  2. Recycle City

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

  3. Water-quality and biologic data for the Blue River basin, Kansas City metropolitan area, Missouri and Kansas, October 2000 to October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Brown, Rebecca E.; Poulton, Barry C.; Cahill, Jeffrey D.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents water-quality and biologic data collected in the Blue River Basin, metropolitan Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, from October 2000 to October 2004. Data were collected in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, Water Services Department as part of an ongoing study designed to characterize long-term water-quality trends in the basin and to provide data to support a strategy for combined sewer overflow control. These data include values of physical properties, fecal indicator bacteria densities, suspended sediment, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds in base-flow and stormflow stream samples and bottom sediments. Six surface-water sites in the basin were sampled 13 times during base-flow conditions and during a minimum of 7 storms. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities are described at 10 sites in the basin and 1 site outside the basin. Water-column and bottom-sediment data from impounded reaches of Brush Creek are provided. Continuous specific conductance, pH, water-quality temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen data are provided for two streams-the Blue River and Brush Creek. Sampling, analytical, and quality assurance methods used in data collection during the study also are described in the report.

  4. Modeling urban heat islands in heterogeneous land surface and its correlation with impervious surface area by using night-time ASTER satellite data in highly urbanizing city, Delhi-India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Javed; Rahman, Atiqur; Singh, Chander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an assessment and identification of urban heat island (UHI) in the environment of one of the fastest urbanizing city of India, Delhi Metropolis, employing satellite image of ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the thermal infrared region 3-14 ?m. Temporal (2001 and 2005) ASTER datasets were used to analyze the spatial structure of the thermal urban environment subsequently urban heat island (UHI) in relation to the urban surface characteristics and land use/land cover (LULC). The study involves derivation of parameters governing the surface heat fluxes, constructing statistics of ASTER thermal infrared images along with validation through intensive in situ measurements. The average images reveal spatial and temporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) of night-time and distinct microclimatic patterns. Central Business District (CBD) of Delhi, (Connaught Place, a high density built up area), and commercial/industrial areas display heat islands condition with a temperature greater than 4 °C compared to the suburbs. The small increase in surface temperature at city level is mainly attributed to cumulative impact of human activities, changes in LULC pattern and vegetation density. In this study the methodology takes into account spatially-relative surface temperatures and impervious surface fraction value to measure surface UHI intensity between the urban land cover and rural surroundings. Both the spatial and temporal variation in surface temperature associated with impervious surface area (ISA) has been evaluated to assess the effect of urbanization on the local climate.

  5. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days, and the development of water-based recreation at Fort Sill, a high percentage of the total known aquatic insect fauna of Oklahoma can be found in a small geographic area. ?? 2006 Kansas Entomological Society.

  6. A proposed streamflow data program for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohn, J.D.; Hoffman, G.L.

    1970-01-01

    An evaluation of the streamflow data available in Oklahoma has been made to provide guidelines for planning future data-collection programs. The basic steps in the evaluation procedure were (1) definition of the long-terms goals of the streamflow-data program in quantitative form, (2) examination and analysis of streamflow data to determine which goals have been met, and (3) consideration of alternate programs and techniques to meet the remaining goals. The study defines the individual relation between certain statistical streamflow characteristics and selected basin parameters. This relation is a multiple regression equation that could be used on a statewide basis to compute a selected natural-flow characteristic at any site on a stream. The study shows that several streamflow characteristics can be estimated within an accuracy equivalent to 10 years of record by use of a regression related to at least three climatic or basin parameters for any basin of 50 square miles or more. The study indicates that significant changes in the scope and character of the data-collection program would enhance the possibility of attaining the remaining goals. A streamflow-data program based on the guidelines developed in this study is proposed for the future.

  7. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in first, second, and third order streams with streams slopes greater than 17 feet per mile. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total nitrogen criteria determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Ozark Highland ecoregion were less than the 25th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland ecoregion calculated for this report. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total nitrogen criteria developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion were similar to the 25th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total nitrogen concentrations in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion calculated for this report. Nitrate as nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations currently (2002) used in the Use Support Assessment Protocols for Oklahoma were greater than the 75th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations calculated for this report.

  8. A comparison of perceived health, attitudes to work, leisure time, and social welfare systems among people in a rural area in the north of Sweden and among people in the city of Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Selander, John; Akerström, Bengt; Asplund, Ragnar; Dahl, Annika

    2007-01-01

    A problem attracting considerable attention in Sweden today is the substantial regional differences in sickness absence. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare how people, from a random sample of the population in both a rural area in the north of Sweden and the Swedish capital Stockholm, perceive their health, and what their attitudes are to work, leisure time and social welfare systems. Results showed that a larger proportion of those answering in Stockholm considered their health status to be "very good", compared with those in the rural area (p<0.0001). A majority in the rural area compared to the city of Stockholm reported a high or very high level of aches/pain (p<0.0001) and that work causes them physical problems p<0.0001). The population in both Stockholm and the rural area is of the opinion that the increase in sickness absence is mainly due to deterioration in the work environment. Almost half of the individuals in both the rural area and in Stockholm are of the opinion that many of those sick-listed are not actually ill. It may be that in the rural area in north Sweden people are more inclined to put their opinions to practice than those in Stockholm are. PMID:17312347

  9. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently indicate that the Cardin, Commerce 1, Commerce 3, Picher 2, Picher 3, Picher 4, and Quapaw 2 wells are contaminated.

  10. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent threat of subsidence. As subsidence is spatially different and can be caused by multi processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues), where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  11. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidwell, J.R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics found in caves and surface-water sites included brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides (chlordane and nonachlor), and polychlorinated biphenyls. The placement of samplers in the caves (near the cave mouth compared to farther in the system) might have influenced the number of halogenated organics detected due to possible aerial transport of residues. Guano from cave-dwelling bats also might have been a source of some of these chlorinated organics. Seven-day survival and growth bioassays with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to samples of cave water indicated initial toxicity in water from two of the caves, but these effects were transient, with no toxicity observed in follow-up tests. ??Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  12. Alternative Export - Wheat Distribution Systems for the Texas - Oklahoma Panhandle.

    E-print Network

    Fuller, Stephen W.; Shanmugham C.V.

    1980-01-01

    in the would annually generate marketing-systemsavings Texas-Oklahoma Panhandle and Texas Gulf ports. of $2.49 million or 12.2 cents per bushel. The 50-, 80- Costs of the current system are estimated and then car system was the second-most efficient system... the development of several system components. Conse- - Unit bai&rarraportation economicdgrain hansporta- quent'r , this would be the most difficult alternative tionlgnin exports. to imp ement. 2 Alternative Export-Wheat Distribution Systems for the Texas-Oklahoma...

  13. Reconnaissance of Surface-Water Quality and Possible Sources of Nutrients and Bacteria in the Turkey Creek Watershed, Northwest Oklahoma, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency investigated the distribution of surface-water quality and possible sources of nutrients and Escherichia coli bacteria to surface water in Turkey Creek, which flows about 70 miles through mostly rural agricultural areas in northwest Oklahoma. Results show that discharge on the main stem of Turkey Creek increased during low-flow conditions from an average of 5.4 cubic feet per second at the upper most site to 39 cubic feet per second at the lower most site in the watershed, indicating that Turkey Creek gains water from ground-water discharge. A portion of the increase in stream discharge may be from discharges of treated effluent from city sewage lagoons. However, the volume and frequency of discharges are unknown. Surface-water-quality samples show that specific conductance ranged from 1,180 to 1,740 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius during low-flow conditions and in general, decreased downstream with site 1 or site 2 having the largest measurement and site 5 having the lowest. The pH values were slightly alkaline and ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 with a median of 8.2. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 9.3 to 15.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of November, February, and March and ranged from 5.3 to 13.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of June, July, and August. Surface-water-quality samples show that the median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (1.16 milligrams per liter) and total phosphorus (0.275 milligram per liter) are larger than the average median concentrations of 0.35 and 0.083 milligram per liter, respectively, calculated from water-quality sites in Oklahoma and part of Arkansas (excluding sites in the Ozark Highland and the Ouachita Mountains ecoregions) having similar stream orders and stream slopes. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen increased slightly in the winter months and decreased in the summer months, whereas, concentrations of total phosphorus and orthophosphate as phosphorus tended to increase during the summer months and decrease in the winter months. During high-flow conditions total phosphorus increased 7.7 times above the average concentration of 0.261 milligram per liter in low-flow samples. Orthophosphate concentrations increased 3.5 to 4 times during high-flow conditions. Almost all low-flow samples showed 15N values between 4 and 10 parts per thousand, above the range for atmospheric nitrogen and synthetic fertilizer and below the range for animal waste. These samples may represent a mixture of nitrate from these two sources and other sources enriched with 15N, such as soils and plants. Results of the bacterial source tracking indicated that the two source groups having the greatest number of ribopattern matches with surface-water isolates were the cattle group, 53 isolates or 23.5 percent, and the human group, 41 isolates or 18.2 percent. Fewer surface-water isolates matched the deer and horse groups, 8.0 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively. About 43 percent or 96 surface-water isolates were not matched to any source group.

  14. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal responsibility. The most frequently identified curriculum need across all aviation disciplines was that of communication skills.

  15. Techniques for estimating peak-streamflow frequency for unregulated streams and streams regulated by small floodwater retarding structures in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Statewide regression equations for Oklahoma were determined for estimating peak discharge and flood frequency for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years for ungaged sites on natural unregulated streams. The most significant independent variables required to estimate peak-streamflow frequency for natural unregulated streams in Oklahoma are contributing drainage area, main-channel slope, and mean-annual precipitation. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds with drainage areas less than 2,510 square miles that are not affected by regulation from manmade works. Limitations on the use of the regression relations and the reliability of regression estimates for natural unregulated streams are discussed. Log-Pearson Type III analysis information, basin and climatic characteristics, and the peak-stream-flow frequency estimates for 251 gaging stations in Oklahoma and adjacent states are listed. Techniques are presented to make a peak-streamflow frequency estimate for gaged sites on natural unregulated streams and to use this result to estimate a nearby ungaged site on the same stream. For ungaged sites on urban streams, an adjustment of the statewide regression equations for natural unregulated streams can be used to estimate peak-streamflow frequency. For ungaged sites on streams regulated by small floodwater retarding structures, an adjustment of the statewide regression equations for natural unregulated streams can be used to estimate peak-streamflow frequency. The statewide regression equations are adjusted by substituting the drainage area below the floodwater retarding structures, or drainage area that represents the percentage of the unregulated basin, in the contributing drainage area parameter to obtain peak-streamflow frequency estimates.

  16. Techniques for estimating flood peak discharges for unregulated streams and streams regulated by small floodwater retarding structures in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, R.L.; Bergman, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Statewide regression relations for Oklahoma were determined for estimating peak discharge of floods for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years. The independent variables required for estimating flood discharge for rural streams are contributing drainage area and mean annual precipitation. Main-channel slope, a variable used in previous reports, was found to contribute very little to the accuracy of the relations and was not used. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds with drainage areas less than 2,500 square miles that are not significantly affected by regulation from manmade works. These relations are presented in graphical form for easy application. Limitations on the use of the regression relations and the reliability of regression estimates for rural unregulated streams are discussed. Basin and climatic characteristics, log-Pearson Type III statistics and the flood-frequency relations for 226 gaging stations in Oklahoma and adjacent states are presented. Regression relations are investigated for estimating flood magnitude and frequency for watersheds affected by regulation from small FRS (floodwater retarding structures) built by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service in their watershed protection and flood prevention program. Gaging-station data from nine FRS regulated sites in Oklahoma and one FRS regulated site in Kansas are used. For sites regulated by FRS, an adjustment of the statewide rural regression relations can be used to estimate flood magnitude and frequency. The statewide regression equations are used by substituting the drainage area below the FRS, or drainage area that represents the percent of the basin unregulated, in the contributing drainage area parameter to obtain flood-frequency estimates. Flood-frequency curves and flow-duration curves are presented for five gaged sites to illustrate the effects of FRS regulation on peak discharge.

  17. City of Chicago Landmarks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The city of Chicago has many hundreds of wonderful architectural landmarks and this helpful website is a great resource for anyone with an interest in such matters. On the site, visitors can start by checking out the Landmarks Tours to get started. There over a dozen tours here, including Mansions Tour, Art Deco Tour, and Pre-Fire Chicago Tour. Moving on, visitors may also wish to look over the Architects area. Here they will encounter some of the usual suspects (Frank Lloyd Wright, Louis Sullivan, etc.) and learn about some lesser-known architects, such as Solon S. Beman and William W. Boyington, who designed the wonderful entrance to Rosehill Cemetery. The Style Guide offers a great primer for those who'd like to know more about two dozen architectural styles, including Craftsman, International, and Tudor Revival. Finally, the site also includes a Listings area, complete with information about all of the buildings on the city's official landmarks list.

  18. City 2.0

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    TED's City 2.0 is "a gathering place for urban citizens to share innovations and inspire actions." The focus of this rather wonderful series of events was to work on envisioning the cities of the future. Visitors to the site will find archived videos from the devoted day of urban inspiration in 2012 and 2013 and they can click through the Videos area to get started. There are over two dozen talks here, including The Art of Data, Globalizing Home and Emerging from the Ecotone. Moving on to the People section, visitors can look over the stories shared from around the globe via the clickable map of the world. Visitors with a specific interest in a certain type of urban success story might want to use the Themes area to look over talks on art, housing, public space, or other matters.

  19. Hydrogeologic data for the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Fabian, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected for an areal ground-water investigation of the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. The study area includes parts of Greer, Harmon, and Jackson counties in Oklahoma and parts of Childress, Collingsworth, Hall, Hardeman, and Wilbarger counties in Texas. The Blaine aquifer consists of cavernous gypsum and dolomite beds. Water from the Blaine aquifer supports a local agriculture based mainly on irrigated cotton and wheat. The purpose of the study was to determine the availability, quantity, and quality of ground water from the Blaine aquifer and associated units. This report provides a reference for some of the data that was used as input into a computer ground-water flow model that simulates ground-water flow in the Blaine aquifer. The data in this report consists of: (1) Monthly or periodic water-level measurements in 134 wells; (2) daily mean water-level measurements for 11 wells equipped with water-level recorders; (3) daily total precipitation measurements from five precipitation gages; (4) low-flow stream-discharge measurements for 89 stream sites; (5) miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements at seven stream sites; (6) chemical analyses of surface water from 78 stream sites during low-flow periods; (7) chemical analyses of ground water from 41 wells; and (8) chemical analyses of runoff water collected at five sites.

  20. Association between high temperature and mortality in metropolitan areas of four cities in various climatic zones in China: a time-series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have reported on the associations between ambient temperatures and mortality. However, few multi-city studies have been conducted in developing countries including China. This study aimed to examine the association between high temperature and mortality outcomes in four cities with different climatic characteristics in China to identify the most vulnerable population, detect the threshold temperatures, and provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementations to respond to challenges from extreme heat. Methods A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature over the threshold on mortality after controlling for covariates including time trends, day of the week (DOW), humidity, daily temperature range, and outdoor air pollution. Results The temperature thresholds for all-cause mortality were 29°C, 35°C, 33°C and 34°C for Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders including air pollution, strong associations between daily maximum temperature and daily mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic outcomes, and particularly diabetes, were observed in different geographical cities, with increases of 3.2-5.5%, 4.6-7.5% and 12.5-31.9% (with 14.7-29.2% in diabetes), respectively, with each 1°C increment in the daily maximum temperature over the threshold. A stronger temperature-associated mortality was detected in females compared to males. Additionally, both the population over 55 years and younger adults aged 30 to 54 years reported significant heat-mortality associations. Conclusions Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to public health and human welfare due to the strong temperature-mortality associations in China. Climate change with increasing temperatures may make the situation worse. Relevant public health strategies and an early extreme weather and health warning system should be developed and improved at an early stage to prevent and reduce the health risks due to extreme weather and climate change in China, given its huge population, diverse geographic distribution and unbalanced socioeconomic status with various climatic characteristics. PMID:25103276